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applications

Trigonometry comes from the Greek words trigon (triangle) and metron

(measurement). Trigonometry has many applications in mathematics; however,

in this chapter we will investigate its use in triangles. In simple terms

trigonometry involves finding unknown side lengths or unknown angles. We

can apply trigonometry of triangles in many areas of real life. Surveyors use

trigonometry to calculate fence lines of a house. Ship captains use

trigonometry to get a safe passage out of a harbour or navigate around the

world. Engineers use trigonometry to determine how high a bridge can be

built. The applications for trigonometry go on and on. In the past you would

have investigated the trigonometry of right-angled triangles. Lets revisit this

theory and also investigate trigonometry of non right-angled triangles.

10.1

Right-angled triangles

We first need to identify names or references for the side lengths and angles of a right-angled

triangle. Call one of the angles, other than the right angle, (theta).

A

Side adjacent

to

Hypotenuse

H

OR

H

A

O

Side opposite

The diagrams show how to name the sides of a right-angled triangle, relative to the angle .

.

The trigonometric ratios linking the three sides and the angle are known as sine, cosine and

tangent. They are abbreviated to sin, cos and tan, and they are defined as shown.

All the ratios involve three parts,

namely two sides and the angle .

It depends on the question(s) posed

which one of the three ratios you will

need to use. This is the first decision

that needs to be made. You are

probably familiar with the mnemonic

SOH-CAH-TOA, to help with

remembering the rules for each ratio.

Opposite side

sin = ------------------------------------Hypotenuse

O

sin = ----H

(SOH)

Adjacent side

cos = --------------------------------------Hypotenuse

A

cos = ---H

(CAH)

Opposite side

tan = ------------------------------------Adjacent Side

O

tan = ----A

(TOA)

Angles are usually expressed in one of two ways: in decimal degree form (e.g. 21.25), or in

degrees and minutes form (e.g. 2115), where there are 60 minutes (60) in one degree.

(In some applications there is a further division into seconds, where there are 60 seconds

(60) in one minute.)

It is possible to convert from one form to another.

374

chapter

10

10.1

Exa mple 1

a Convert 35.13 into degrees and minutes.

b Convert 2714 into decimal form,

correct to two decimal places.

S o lu tio n

GC 1.6

CAS 1.6

0.13 represents 0.13 60 = 7.8.

To the nearest minute, this is 8.

So 35.13 = 358

14

b 14 represents ------ of one degree.

60

14

------ = 0.2333

60

So 2714 = 27.23 to two decimal places.

tip

You can use your graphics calculator to

automate this process. For example 1a,

use the DMS (degrees, minutes, seconds)

command from the ANGLE menu. For

example 1b, just enter the angle.

more, round up to give the nearest

minute. So for part a, the angle is 358.

Exa mple 2

Find the value of the following, correct to three decimal places, using a graphics calculator.

a sin 33

b cos 76.87

c tan 1255

S o lu tio n

First make sure your calculator is set in degree mode. The screenshots show the results.

a

b

GC 1.6

CAS 1.6

So sin 33 = 0.545

55

c As there are 60 in one degree, 55 represents -----60

of a degree. You can then use your calculator in two

different ways as shown in the screenshot.

tip

When set in DEGREE mode, you

do not have to type the degree

symbol. Thus, SIN(33) and

SIN(33) will both give the same

answer. However, if the angle

is expressed in degrees and

minutes, you need to change

to degrees or identify the number

of degrees and minutes as in

example 2c.

375

exercise 10.1

1

Use your graphics calculator to find the value of the following to 3 decimal places.

a

sin 43

cos 5

tan 77

cos 56

sin 59

tan 12

sin 23.55

tan 1615

cos 88.95

cos 573

sin 0.99

tan 1111

a

23.55

16.99

253.9

56.087

150.5

1.75

33.555

12.25

Convert the following angles into decimals (to two decimal places).

a

3225

5436

11355

6659

4501

22

2230

7245

i

ii

choose which trigonometric ratio could be used to find the pronumeral (but dont solve).

a

33

3m

xm

56 mm

x mm

57

x cm

3.45 cm

575 mm

47

x

335 mm

12 m

13.66 cm

x

20 m

21.80 cm

25.73 cm

x

376

chapter

10

Finding a side

10.1

Exa mple 3

Find the value of x, correct to three decimal places.

S o lu tio n

The required side is opposite the known angle,

and we are also given the hypotenuse, so we

use the sine ratio.

O

sin = ----H

x

sin 35 = --5

x = 5 sin 35

= 2.868

x cm

5 cm

35

calculation looks like this:

GC 1.6

CAS 1.6

Exa mple 4

Find the value of x, correct to three decimal

places.

S o lu tio n

The required side is facing the right angle

(the hypotenuse), and we are given the

adjacent side, so we use the cosine ratio.

A

cos = ---H

11.3

cos 56 = ----------x

x = 11.3 cos 56

11.3

= ------------------cos 56

= 20.208

x mm

56 11.3 mm

calculation looks like this:

Finding an angle

Exa mple 5

Find the angle in this right-angled triangle,

giving the answer in degrees and minutes.

24 m

17 m

377

S o lu tio n

GC 1.5, 1.6

CAS 1.5, 1.6

Identifying the information given we have the opposite and the adjacent side lengths.

So we use the tangent ratio.

O

tan = ----A

17

= -----24

To find , use the inverse of tan on your calculator,

shown as Tan1 on the TI-83/84.

Warning

= 35.31

In many problems involving

On a graphics calculator the calculation looks like this.

trigonometric ratios, errors

are made when the incorrect

trigonometric ratio is used

to find an unknown, or when

the trigonometric ratio used

is not correctly transposed

when finding the unknown.

So in degrees and minutes the angle is 3519.

Exa mple 6

Find the values of x and y in the given composite

shape, correct to two decimal places.

11 cm

19 cm

x cm

80

70

y cm

S o lu tio n

First we need to identify the shapes that make

up the composite shape.

These are two right-angled triangles and a rectangle

as shown.

We can use the left triangle to find the height,

h cm, of the composite shape.

Since this is opposite the known angle, and we

are given the hypotenuse, we use the sine ratio.

sin =

sin 70 =

h=

=

378

O

----H

h

-----19

19 sin 70

17.854

19 cm

70

h cm

19 cm

h cm

x cm

70

tip

80

required, work to at least three decimal

places and correct at the end.

Alternatively, store intermediate values

in your graphics calculator to work with

later. For example, the answer for h

could be stored in location H and

retrieved for further calculation.

chapter

10

Using this height we can determine the value of x in the right triangle.

sin =

sin 80 =

x=

=

=

O

----H

17.854

-----------------x

17.854 sin 80

17.854

-----------------sin 80

18.129

10.1

x cm

17.854

80

To find the value of y we need to find the lengths of the adjacent sides in the two triangles,

labelled as a cm and b cm below.

19 cm

18.129 cm

70

a cm

b cm

80

A

A

cos = ---cos = ---H

H

a

b

cos 70 = -----cos 80 = -----------------19

18.129

a = 19 cos 70

b = 18.129 cos 80

= 6.498

= 3.148

So y = a + 11 + b

= 6.498 + 11 + 3.148

= 20.646

Thus, correct to two decimal places, x = 18.13 and y = 20.65.

exercise 10.1

continued

5 Using trigonometric ratios find the value of x in each of the following. (Give answers to

three decimal places in each case.)

a

b

xm

6.25 m

12 m

43

33

xm

379

d

11.5 mm

634

xm

x mm

1323

23.5 m

xm

115

42

67.35

101.1 m

6 Find the value of the pronumerals in each of the following, giving answers to three

decimal places.

a

13

c

xm

x cm

21

50

10 cm

75

y

e

52

18

40

y

x

68

20

b

16

7 Find the value of in degrees and minutes correct to the nearest minute.

115

a sin = 0.236

b cos = --------c tan = 2.667

237

11

d cos = 0.183

e sin = 0.977

f tan = -----35

380

6m

y cm

40

chapter

10

a

21 m

116 m

11 m

235 m

87.2

73.66 mm

43.6

10.1

4.04 cm

21.57 mm

5.05 cm

9 Find the value of , giving answers in degrees and minutes correct to the nearest minute.

a

67.3

17.89 mm

12.06 mm

117.9

77.89 cm

23.55 cm

97.1 m

61.2

56.7

117.8 m

167.83 m

15.22 m

10 Find the values of x and y, giving answers in degrees correct to two decimal places.

a

3.5

x

y

4.5

4.8

3.3

y

x

6.67

381

Two-dimensional applications

Exa mple 7

A stunt woman wants to make a

double-sided motorcycle ramp so

that it is set at an incline of 2710,

as shown in the diagram. How long

correct to the nearest cm is each

side of the ramp?

S o lu tio n

2710

2710

The width of the ramp is 11.7 m, so PS is half that distance

which is 5.85 m.

2710'

P

In the right-angled triangle PQS, we have an angle at P,

5.85 m

the length of the adjacent side, and we want to find PQ,

the hypotenuse. So we use cosine.

We know the side adjacent to the hypotenuse.

Substitute in the given information.

A

cos = ---H

5.85

cos 2710 = ----------PQ

PQ cos 2710 = 5.85

5.85

PQ = --------------------------cos 2810

= 6.5754

Since we require the answer correct to the nearest centimetre, i.e. to the nearest

one hundredth of a metre, round to two decimal places.

Hence each side of the motorcycle ramp has length 6.58 m.

exercise 10.1

11.7 m

Q

continued

11 A 7.4 metre-long ladder rests against a vertical wall and makes an angle of 35 with the

horizontal ground.

a

If the wall is 5 m high, what angle must the ladder make with the horizontal for the

ladder to just reach the top of the wall?

12 A wheelchair ramp needs to be at an angle of 513 with the ground. If a step 75 cm high

is to have a wheelchair ramp fitted onto it for wheelchair access, how long, to the nearest

cm, should the wheelchair ramp be?

382

chapter

10

13 Michael is playing golf; he is about to take a shot using a golf club 1.05 m long. While he

is holding his club his arms add 56 cm to the length of the club and his feet are 90 cm

from the ball. If Michael stands at a right angle to the ground when taking the shot, what

angle does the golf club make with the ground?

10.1

has a guide rope of length 125 m and the

maximum height the kite can reach is 33.5 m

above the ground. If the girl is holding the end

of the guide rope 1 m above the ground, find

the angle made by the guide rope with the

horizontal, to the nearest minute, if the kite is

at its maximum height.

The base of the wedge is a rectangle.

115 cm

y cm

23

x cm

16 A camping tent is 1.25 m tall when fully erected. For stability the tent needs four cables

attached to the ground so they each make an angle of 3325 with the horizontal. What is

the minimum amount of cable required?

1.25 m

3325

Seventeen is important in the Islamic tradition. The great Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn

Hayyan believed that 17 was the basis for the material world, which consisted of the series 1,

3, 5 and 8. The cycles of prayer movements in the 5 daily prayer amounts to

17 and 17 is the number of words in the call to prayer.

17

383

10 . 2

Applications of

trigonometry

Angles of elevation and depression involve the use of trigonometry to once again find a side

length or an angle. For example, angles of elevation and depression are commonly used in

navigation or construction. They are used when we either have to look up to something from

the ground or look down at something from a mountain or top of a building.

igh

fs

eo

lin

horizontal and the line of sight when an object is higher

than the observer. In this diagram it is the angle between

the horizontal and the line of sight from the boat to the

lighthouse.

angle of elevation

observation point

angle of depression

igh

fs

eo

lin

and the line of sight when an object is below the level of the

observer. In this diagram it is the angle between the horizontal

and the line of sight from the lighthouse to the boat.

observation

point

and depression are always measured from the horizontal.

The angles of elevation and depression are equal because

they are alternate angles.

angle of depression

angle of elevation

Warning

Label or perish!

When you are solving problems using angles of elevation and depression it is important

to draw clear diagrams labelling all sides with the relevant information. In particular,

think about whether the angle at the observation point ( ) marks the angle down from

the horizontal (for depression) or marks the angle up from the horizontal (for elevation).

384

chapter

10

Exa mple 1

10.2

A boat is 240 m from the base of a cliff 150 m high. Find the angle of elevation from the

boat to the top of the cliff to the nearest degree.

S o lu tio n

150

tan = ---------240

= 0.625

= 32.005

The angle of elevation from the boat to

the top of the cliff is 32, correct to the

nearest degree.

150 m

Cliff

Using SOHCAHTOA, the opposite and adjacent sides are given so we use tan.

240 m

Exa mple 2

The angle of depression of a cyclist from the top of a building 200 m away is 50.

Calculate the height of the building to the nearest metre.

S o lu tio n

Draw a diagram and clearly label with the relevant

information.

Let x metres be the height of the building.

A = 50 (alternate angles)

Using SOHCAHTOA, the opposite and adjacent

sides are involved so we use tan.

x

A

tan 50 = ---------200

x = 200 tan 50

= 238.35

The height of the building is 238 metres, correct to the nearest metre.

B

50

xm

200 m

exercise 10.2

1 The angle of elevation of a kite, K, from a point A on the

ground is 35. If the kite is 75 m above the ground,

what is the line-of-sight distance, to the nearest metre,

from point A to the kite?

75 m

35

385

x

used the equation tan 55 = ------ .

80

a Why did the engineer use tan 55?

b

55

80 m

3 The angle of depression from the top of a lifesaving tower 100 m high to a buoy at sea

is 2318. Find the horizontal distance from the lifesaving tower to the buoy correct to

2 decimal places.

4 A yacht is 2.4 km away from the base of a lighthouse. The lighthouse is 300 m in height.

Calculate the angle of depression to the nearest degree, from the top of the lighthouse to

the yacht.

5 The angle of elevation from a boat to the top of a cliff is 1524. The boat is 50 m from the

base of the cliff. How high is the cliff to the nearest metre?

6 Charlotte standing on the ground observes a bird on top of a tree which is 100 m away.

Find the angle of elevation to the nearest degree given Charlotte is 1.6 m tall and the tree

has a height of 15 m.

7 A helicopter pilot spots two distressed fishermen whose

boat has capsized. The helicopter is 200 m above

sea level. The angles of depression of the two fishermen

are 3727 and 5824 respectively. The fishermen and

the helicopter lie in the same vertical plane.

and hence find the distance between the two fishermen,

correct to the nearest metre.

F2

8 A wheel chair access ramp rises 30 cm for every 1 m of the ramp. Find the angle of

elevation of the ramp in degrees and minutes.

9 Paradise Hotel and The Venetian are two vertical hotels 68 m and 115 m high respectively.

They stand directly opposite each other with a lake separating them. The angle of

elevation from the top of the Paradise Hotel to the top of The Venetian is 31.

Draw a clearly labelled diagram representing the situation, and hence find the width of the

lake? Give your answer to two decimal places.

10 Use the information provided in the diagram

to calculate the height of a communications

tower correct to the nearest metre. Note that

the tower is located at the top of a hill.

xm

3318

35

320 m

386

Bearings

chapter

10

10.2

the direction of one object from

120

340

another. There are two different

W

E

W

ways bearings are expressed.

The first is as a true bearing.

True bearings are measured in a

clockwise direction beginning

S

S

from north, which is 0T. True

bearings are generally expressed using 3 digits, for example 050T or 120T or 340T. In

practice where there is no possibility of confusion, the T is omitted as in these diagrams.

Bearings are also expressed as compass or conventional bearings. These bearings are

measured first from north or south, then in the direction of east or west. For example, N75E

and S25W are shown below.

N

tip

When solving questions involving

directions and bearings it is

important to always draw

compass points N, S, E, W

and clearly label diagrams.

Remember that all bearings are

in a horizontal plane. Due north

is directly north, due south is

directly south, etc.

75

W

25

S

N75E

S

S25W

It is possible to convert from one type of bearing to the other. For example N75E is the

same as 075, S25W is the same as 205(180 + 25) and 335 (360 25) is equivalent to

N25W.

Exa mple 3

A hiker walks 3.2 km in a direction N34E to base camp B. How far north is she from her

starting point O, correct to two decimal places?

S o lu tio n

Draw a clearly labelled diagram.

N

34 3.2 km

W

B

x km

3.2 km

34

E

O

387

Using SOHCAHTOA, the hypotenuse and adjacent sides are involved so use cos.

x

cos 34 = -------3.2

x = 3.2 cos 34

= 2.65

The hiker is 2.65 km north of her starting point O.

Exa mple 4

A ferry travels 4.5 km from a point A on a bearing of 150 to a point B.

a How far south has the ferry travelled, correct to one decimal place?

b From this point if the ferry turns and travels on a bearing of 100 for 7.1 km to a point C,

how far south is the ferry from point A, correct to one decimal place?

S o lu tio n

a Draw a clearly labelled diagram.

A

30

4.5 km

x km

150

E

B

4.5 km

S

Using SOHCAHTOA, the hypotenuse and adjacent sides are involved so we use cos.

x

cos 30 = -------4.5

x = 4.5 cos 30

= 3.897

The ferry has travelled 3.9 km south.

b Draw a clearly labelled diagram

representing the new information.

B

y km

80

7.1 km

C

150

N

4.5

km

100

B

7.1 km

C

388

chapter

10

Using SOHCAHTOA, the hypotenuse and adjacent sides are involved so we use cos.

y

cos 80 = -------7.1

y = 7.1 cos 80

= 1.233

To find how far south the ferry is from point A, simply add x and y.

10.2

x + y = 3.987 + 1.233

= 5.130

So the ferry is 5.1 km south of point A.

exercise 10.2

CD10.1

Sailing

TAI

bearings in the left-hand list

to the true and compass

bearings in the right-hand list.

continued

N23W

340

S12E

N80E

269

S45W

N3W

025

100

S15E

080

225

357

337

S80E

N20W

168

N25E

165

S89W

12 A car travels due south for 200 m and then turns due east and travels a further 300 m.

What is the bearing of the car from its starting point (to the nearest degree)?

13 X is on a bearing of 050 from Y. What is the bearing of Y from X?

14 A plane travels on a bearing of S12E for 2 km. How far south is the plane from its

starting point now?

15 A speedboat travels 1900 metres on a bearing of N18E. How far east has the boat

travelled from its starting point to the nearest metre?

16 A helicopter flies due north for 260 km and then turns due west and flies a further

distance of 410 km. Calculate the bearing, to the nearest degree, of the helicopter from its

starting point.

17 A hiker on an expedition walks 5 km on a bearing of N60E to a point A. She then turns

and walks due south to a marker M. Her final leg is from M, due east of her starting

point O, back to O. Find the total length of the expedition to the nearest km.

18 A boat travels 3.3 km from a point A on a bearing of 080 to a point B.

a

How far north of the starting point has the boat travelled, correct to one decimal place?

From this point the boat turns and travels on a bearing of 045 for 5.2 km to a point

C. How far north is the boat from point A, correct to one decimal place?

389

19 From a point P at sea one yacht sailed 5 km on a bearing of 040 and a second yacht

sailed 8 km on a bearing of 130.

a

Draw a diagram of the situation, and hence find how far apart the two yachts are at

this time.

What is the bearing of the first yacht from the second yacht?

20 A cruiser starting from a point P travels on a bearing of 205 for 22 km. It then changes

course and travels to a point Q on a bearing of 240 for 30 km. Calculate:

a

how far south the cruiser is from its original starting point.

how far west the cruiser is from its original starting point.

analysis task 1

baywatch rescue

CD10.2

SAC

Baywatch rescue

SAC analysis task

A lifeguard observes a rescue boat due north of his position on the beach. The lifeguard

also observes a swimmer in distress on a bearing of N52E at a distance of 470 m. The

swimmer is due east of the rescue boat.

a Draw a diagram representing the above situation.

b i

Calculate the distance between the lifeguard and the rescue boat.

ii Calculate the distance between the rescue boat and the swimmer.

The rescue boat is experiencing difficulties and is unable to reach the swimmer. The

lifeguard looks a further 25 to the right of the swimmer in distress and spots a shark

900 m away.

c Add the shark to the original diagram.

d What is the bearing of the shark from the lifeguard?

e How far north is the shark from the lifeguard?

f How far east is the shark from the lifeguard?

g What is the distance between the swimmer and the shark? Who is closer to the swimmer:

the lifeguard or the shark?

In order for the lifeguard to rescue the distressed swimmer the shark needs to be caught.

A second rescue boat on the beach due east of the lifeguard is equipped to catch sharks.

The second rescue boat is in a direct line with the shark and the swimmer.

h Add the second rescue boat to the diagram.

i Calculate how far the boat must travel and on what bearing to catch the shark, given

that the shark has not begun to approach the swimmer yet.

390

10 . 3

chapter

10

the three vertices with uppercase letters for example A, B

and C, and then label the sides opposite these vertices with

the corresponding lowercase letters, a, b and c. Using this

notation, A also represents the angle BAC and a represents

the length of the side opposite angle A.

10.3

Sine rule

For a triangle ABC, the sine rule states that the ratios of each side to the sine of its opposite

angle are equal:

a

b

c

------------ = ------------ = -----------sin B

sin C

sin A

Note that a is opposite A, b is opposite B and c is opposite C.

The sine rule is used when we know either:

.

Exa mple 1

For ABC find the remaining side lengths, correct to two decimal places, given that B = 33,

C = 75 and AB = 7.9 mm.

S o lu tio n

First draw a sketch of the triangle and label it appropriately.

Since we know c, B and C, we can find b by substituting the

given information into the appropriate formula:

b

7.9

------------------ = ----------------sin 33

sin 75

7.9

b = ----------------- sin 33

sin 75

= 4.45

The angles in a triangle sum up to 180, so if B = 33 and

C = 75, then A = 72.

Now we can solve for a:

B

33

a mm

7.9 mm

75

A

b mm

a

7.9

----------------- = ----------------sin 72

sin 75

7.9

a = ----------------- sin 72

sin 75

= 7.78

Hence AC = 4.45 mm and BC = 7.78 mm.

391

GC 1.6

CAS 1.6

find b and a.

Exa mple 2

For this triangle, find the remaining angles and remaining

side lengths.

S o lu tio n

Identify the information:

c = 15.9

a = 23.6

A = 112

We can use these values to solve for C:

23.6 mm

15.9 mm

112

A

tip

b mm

23.6

15.9

-------------------- = -----------You can use your calculator to find C as

sin C

sin 112

shown in the following screenshot.

sin 112

sin C

-------------------- = -----------23.6

15.9

sin 112

-------------------- 15.9 = sin C

23.6

sin C = 0.6247

C = 38.66

Now we can find B, since A + B + C = 180.

B = 180 150.66

= 29.34

We can now find b using these values:

a = 23.6

A = 112

B = 29.34

Substitute into the appropriate formula to solve for b:

23.6

b

-------------------- = ------------------------sin 112

sin 29.34

23.6

-------------------- sin 29.34 = b

sin 112

b = 12.47

In summary, AC = 12.47 cm, B = 29.34 and C = 38.66.

392

chapter

10

exercise 10.3

1

2

3

4

10.3

b In ABC, c = 13.75, a = 28.62 and A = 11037. Find C, B and b.

c In ABC, a = 5.5, A = 25 and B = 80. Find C, b and c.

d In ABC, c = 2.73, C = 52.5 and A = 102.4. Find B, a and b.

In ABC, a = 7, b = 5 and A = 72. Find the perimeter of the triangle.

Find the shortest side of ABC, where A = 3356, B = 35 and AB = 80 mm.

Find the value of the pronumeral in the following, correct to two decimal places.

a

x cm

7.5 cm

47

42

23 mm

50

33

x mm

65 mm

58

103

x

5

6

3.67 cm

140 mm

5.23 cm

Find all the unknown sides and angles of a triangle, where the smallest side is 21 cm in

length, the smallest angle is 29 in size, and another angle is 50 in size.

Find the value of x correct to three decimal places.

52

x

7.6

61

9.2

If we are given two sides of a triangle and an angle opposite one of these sides, it is

sometimes possible to create two different triangles with the same information.

For example, consider ABC with A = 40, BC = 5 cm and AC = 7 cm. If we try to construct

a triangle from this information, two triangles are possible.

Two possible s

7 cm

5 cm

A

40

B

C

7 cm

5 cm

40

7 cm

5 cm

5 cm

A

40

Since A is the only defined angle, the ambiguous case arises at angle B which can be acute

(as in the first triangle) or obtuse (as in the second triangle).

393

Exa mple 3

In ABC, A = 30, BC = 25 cm and AC = 35 cm. Find the two possible values for

angles B and C.

S o lu tio n

Drawing the two possible triangles from this information we find the following.

C

35 cm

35 cm

25 cm

25 cm

B A

35 cm

25 cm

25 cm

30

A

30

30

B

a

b

------------ = -----------sin B

sin A

25

35

----------------- = -----------sin 30

sin B

sin B

sin 30

----------------- = -----------25

35

sin 30

----------------- 35 = sin B

25

C

0.7 = sin B

B = 44.43

35 cm

From the diagram, we can see that the

25 cm

25 cm

second solution corresponds to:

30 135.57

44.43

B = 180 44.43

44.43

B

A

B

= 135.57

So we find an acute answer and an obtuse answer for B depending on the orientation of the

triangle. The two angles are supplementary.

Now if angle B has two answers, so will angle C:

A = 30, B = 44.43: then C = 180 (30 + 44.43) = 105.57

or

A = 30, B = 135.57: then C = 180 (30 + 135.57) = 14.43

14.43 C

C

105.57

35 cm

35 cm

25 cm

25 cm

30

A

394

44.43

B

30 135.57

B

exercise 10.3

chapter

10

10.3

continued

7 In ABC, a = 12, b = 8 and B = 40. Find two possible sets of values for A, C and c.

8 In ABC, c = 16, a = 26 and C = 33.

a Draw two possible triangles that suit this information.

b For each triangle, find all unknown values.

9 In this diagram, find the values of x and y.

7 cm

x cm

70

55

y cm

10 In ABC, AC = 16, AB = 22 and B = 36. Find two possible values for the perimeter of the

triangle.

11 In PQR, P = 25, PQ = 27 and QR = 19.

Show that the information given for PQR leads to two possible triangles, and hence, for

each triangle, find all unknown values.

Cosine rule

For a triangle ABC, the cosine rule is given by:

a2 = b2 + c 2 2bc cos A

The cosine rule is used when we know either:

.

b

A

tip

If the labels are given, we can write

the formula in two other ways:

b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ac cos B

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C

Exa mple 4

Find the value of x.

83 m

67

47 m

A

c

83 m

xm

S o lu tio n

b

47 m

Using the cosine rule:

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A

67

xm

a

C

395

GC 1.6

CAS 1.6

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A

x 2 = 472 + 832 2 47 83 cos 67

x = 47 2 + 83 2 2 47 83 cos 67

= 77.78

The calculation is shown in the TI-83/84 screenshot.

Exa mple 5

Stephen the farmer has to use two horses to pull his plough. He has two ropes that he

attaches to each horse and the plough. The ropes are 5.2 m and 5.3 m long. The horses are

kept at a distance of 1.8 m apart. At what angle do the two ropes meet with each other?

S o lu tio n

Firstly, we need to draw a labelled diagram

that correctly describes Stephens situation.

So we now have the following information:

a = 1.8

b = 5.2

c = 5.3

Substitute the information into the formula

that involves A:

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A

1.82 = 5.22 + 5.32 2 5.2 5.3 cos A

2

2

1.8 (5.2 + 5.32) = 2 5.2 5.3 cos A

51.89 = 55.12 cos A

51.89

cos A = ----------------- 55.12

A = 19.72

a = 1.8

C

b = 5.2

c = 5.3

A

Exa mple 6

A snack food company is designing a new triangular corn chip. If the corn chip has two sides

of length 25 mm and 31 mm with an included angle of 62, what is the length of the third

side and the size of the two other angles? Give answers correct to two decimal places.

S o lu tio n

Construct a triangle from the given information and label

the sides appropriately. With these labels we now have the

following information:

b = 31

c = 25

A = 62

Substitute the information into the cosine rule to find a:

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A

= 252 + 312 2 25 31 cos 62

a = 25 2 + 31 2 2 25 31 cos 62

= 29.297

396

A

62

25 mm

B

31 mm

chapter

10

b 2 = a 2 + c2 2ac cos B

312 = 29.2972 + 252 2 29.297 25 cos B

Transpose and solve for B.

522.314 = 1464.85 cos B

522.314

cos B = --------------------1464.25

= 0.3566

B = 69.11

To find C we use the angle sum of a triangle:

A + B + C = 180, so:

C = 180 (62 + 69.1)

= 48.89

Hence correct to two decimal places, the third side has length 29.30 mm and the remaining

angles are 69.11 and 48.89.

exercise 10.3

10.3

continued

13 Find all the angles in ABC, whose side lengths are 7 cm, 9 cm and 12 cm.

14 Find the largest angle of the triangle shown.

186 mm

113 mm

216 mm

16 Find all the missing side lengths and angles in this triangle.

10

58

23

18 Find the value of x in the following.

a

x mm

8m

7.2 mm

32

9m

5m

14.1 mm

9.6 mm

43

6m

397

19 Johnny Black is playing in his under 17s football grand final. The siren has gone and

Johnny is lining up to kick the winning goal. He is 37 m from one of the goal posts and

63 m from the other goal post. The goal posts are 28.5 m apart. Within what angle must

Johnny kick the winning goal?

20 A plane flies in a direction of N77E for 67 km. Then it flies on a bearing of S25W for

193 km. How far is the starting point of the plane from its current position?

21 The back of a picture frame is shown. The painting

is hung and the wires holding it up are shown. What

is the distance between the two nails?

15.4 cm

hook

14.2 cm

150

nail

nail

22 A yacht race comprises three legs. The first leg is in a direction of 019 for 39 km, the

second leg is a distance of 55 km at a bearing of 159. If the race is completed when a

competing yacht returns to the start, what is the bearing and distance of the third leg?

23 Mary is bushwalking through a wildlife sanctuary. As she walks she can see a falcon

hovering in the air in front of her. The angle of elevation Mary sees the falcon at is 50.

Mary walks 20 m and can still see the falcon, which has not moved position, hovering in

the air in front of her. The angle of elevation this time is 64. How far above Mary is the

falcon hovering?

24 A bunny rabbit hops out of her hole at 8 km/h and travels at this speed for 45 min on a

bearing of 145. Then she suddenly changes direction and hops at a new constant speed

for 80 min on a bearing of 053 until she is due east of her starting point.

a

How far did the bunny rabbit hop after she changed direction?

How fast did the bunny rabbit hop after she changed direction?

How far does the bunny rabbit need to go to get back to her hole?

course is illustrated. (The

18th hole has a par 3; that

means the hole should be

completed in three strokes.)

130 m

100 m

Greg, are having a playoff

C

A

A

to see who will be the next

champion. Norman knows

he can make the 18th hole in

two strokes. If Norman tees up at a bearing of 032 and hits at a distance of 130 m he will

make it to point B. Then at a bearing of 100 hitting a distance 100 m, he can get to the

hole C, shooting one under par (i.e. one less than par 3).

Greg needs to beat Norman, so he has to get a hole in one. What bearing and distance

must Greg take his shot to beat Norman?

398

chapter

10

26 A plane takes off from an airport and flies at a bearing of S25W for 145 km, then changes

direction and flies for 215 km and lands at another airport. The bearing from the second

airport to the original airport is N60W. How far are the two airports from each other?

27 A construction company is constructing a

five-storey building. They are currently working

on the 3rd floor. To bring the required material

up to the work site the workmen use a rope to

pull their equipment up the side of the building.

To stop any damage to the building as the

materials and equipment are pulled up they

have attached a ramp that keeps the rope and

materials off the side of the building (illustrated).

10.3

3rd floor

winch

50

25 m

25

slopes outward at an angle of depression of 50, then

cuts back at an angle of 25 to the vertical meeting

the ground directly below the ramp. A winch is

attached to the floor 2 m from the edge so as to pull up the equipment and materials.

How much rope will need to be fitted to the winch to pull up the required materials?

SAC

analysis task 2

which way should I go?

CD10.3

Which way should I go?

SAC analysis task

been constructed. One of the corners in

this race track is in the shape of a quarter

circle of a circular annulus, so that as a

race car drives through this corner the

width of the track does not change. While

the race car is in the corner, it can leave

the track as long as part of the racing car

is on the track (this is called cutting the

corner). The race car being used is able to

take very sharp turns.

On the race cars first run of the track

the driver decides to stay in the outside

lane as he approaches the turn; the

on-board computer in the race car has

calculated for the driver that there are

two possible driving lines through the

corner. They are illustrated in figure 1.

wm

15 m

Figure 1

399

a The length of the longest driving line in the corner is 33.6 m and the shortest driving

line in the corner is 28.5 m, with a turning angle between these lines of 108. If this

driving line places the racing car in the centre of the outside or inside lanes when

leaving the corner, as shown in figure 1, what is the width, w m, of the track?

On the second series of testing, the

driver approaches the corner while

in the centre of the track, as

illustrated in figure 2.

wm

line, and the angle of the turn

between these two driving lines?

c Will the racing car cut the corner

during this second series of

testing?

15 m

Figure 2

driver wants to push the racing car to

the extreme through the corner. He

approaches the corner centred in the

inside lane, as illustrated in figure 3.

wm

line, and the angle of the turn

between these two driving lines?

15 m

Figure 3

400

10 . 4

chapter

10

Area of a triangle

10.4

1

Recall that the area of a triangle is given by --- b h , where the height, h, is the

2

perpendicular height. If h is unknown, but c and A are known, then

h

B

sin A = --tip

c

If labels are given, we can

h = c sin A

a

c

write this formula in two

1

h

Area = --- b ( c sin A )

other ways:

2

1

Area = --- ac sin B

A

That is,

2

1

Area = --- ab sin C

2

1

Area = --- bc sin A

2

Exa mple 1

Find the area of the triangle correct to one decimal place.

A

11 cm

B

110

4 cm

C

S o lu tio n

Substitute the given information into the area formula.

1

Area = --- bc sin A

2

1

= --- 4 11 sin 110

2

= 20.673

So the area of the triangle is 20.7 cm2 correct to one decimal place.

Exa mple 2

A triangle has dimensions as shown in the diagram.

Calculate the area to the nearest mm2.

A

68

S o lu tio n

It is evident that the area rule cannot be

applied because we do not have the angle

between the two side lengths given.

In this case we can use the sine rule to find B

and then find angle C.

40.3 mm

B

70.8 mm

401

a

b

------------ = -----------sin A

sin B

70.8

40.3

----------------- = -----------sin 68

sin B

sin 68

sin B

----------------- = -----------70.8

40.3

40.3 sin 68

sin B = ----------------------------------70.8

= 0.5278

B = 31.85

If B = 31.85 and A = 68 then

C = 180 (31.85 + 68).

= 80.15

Write down the appropriate rule for the area and substitute:

1

Area = --- ab sin C

2

1

= --- 70.8 40.3 sin 80.15

2

= 1405.6

So the area of the triangle is 1406 mm2, correct to the nearest mm2.

Herons formula

Heron, a Greek mathematician from Alexandria, is credited with a formula for the area of a

triangle given its three side lengths. This formula is called Herons formula.

B

Area of =

1

s ( s a ) ( s b ) ( s c ) where s = --- ( a + b + c )

2

triangle, that is, half the perimeter.

402

chapter

10

Exa mple 3

10.4

Find the area of the triangle with side lengths 6.8 cm, 5.2 cm and 9 cm.

S o lu tio n

We have three given side lengths so we can use Herons formula.

Calculate the value for s by substituting values for

a, b and c.

tip

1

s = --- ( a + b + c )

2

CD10.4

1

= --- ( 6.8 + 5.2 + 9 )

2

= 10.5

Write down Herons formula, substitute values for

a, b, c and s and solve.

MENSURAT

GC program

MENSURAT can

be used to check your

answer.

Area = s ( s a ) ( s b ) ( s c )

= 10.5 ( 10.5 6.8 ) ( 10.5 5.2 ) ( 10.5 9 )

= 17.57

So the area of the triangle is 17.57 cm2.

exercise 10.4

1 Calculate the area of each of the following triangles to the nearest squared unit.

b

a A

c D

12.3 cm

1523

67 mm

5.4 cm

15 cm

E

A

B

8 cm

33

89 mm

3 Find the area of ABC, given A = 48, b = 5.6 and c = 7.2.

4 Calculate the area of the triangle with side lengths 3.4 mm, 6.5 mm and 7.3 mm.

5 Find the area of the triangle shown to the nearest

square centimetre.

112

12 cm

19 cm

a

403

7 The area of triangle DEF is 64.4 cm2. If DF = 12 cm and DE = 21.4 cm, calculate angle D

to the nearest degree, assuming it is acute.

8 In the triangle pictured:

a

the area of the triangle in a simpler way.

7

24

10 In triangle ABD, the point C lies on BD so

that AC = AB. AK is perpendicular to BD.

a

i

triangle ABC.

ii

triangle ACD.

A

18

31 cm

35 cm

11 A triangle has an area of 60 cm2. Two of its side lengths are 16 cm and 14 cm. Calculate

the magnitude of the angle between the two sides, assuming it is acute.

12 Find the magnitude of the smallest angle in ABC if the side lengths are 16 cm, 11 cm and

8 cm, and hence find the area of the triangle. Check your answer by using Herons

formula.

13 A triangular picture frame has two side lengths, 8 cm and 10 cm and a base length 12 cm.

Find, correct to one decimal place:

a

shown in the diagram.

5 cm

35 m

30 m

15 m

25 m

them. Calculate the area of the parallelogram.

404

10 . 5

chapter

10

Circle mensuration

10.5

Throughout the chapter, we have measured angles in degrees. This unit of angle measurement

is commonly used in navigation and surveying. However, there are other units of angle

measurement and one of these is the radian. Radian measure is often used when measuring

lengths and areas associated with circles.

This diagram shows a unit circle (it has radius 1 unit).

Imagine a piece of string of length 1 unit. We wrap the string

around the circumference of the circle from Q to P so that the arc

PQ has length 1 as shown. Then the angle subtended at the centre

of the circle, that is POQ, is called one radian and is written as

1c (or often just 1 when it is clear that we mean radian measure).

y

P

1

O

1c

1

The circumference of a circle is given by C = 2 r, so for a unit circle, C = 2. This means that

there are 2 radians in a full circle. We also know that there are 360 in a full circle. It follows

that 2 c = 360, so c = 180.

As mentioned earlier, it is common to omit the symbol for radians so that c is just denoted

by . If there is no symbol present, assume that the angle measure is radians.

To convert between degrees and radians, we use the fact that 180 = . First we consider

some special angles.

180

30 = ------------ , so 30 = --6

6

180

45 = ------------ , so 45 = --4

4

180

60 = ------------ , so 60 = --3

3

For these special angles and multiples of them, it is common to express radians in terms of

as shown. For more general angles, it is usual to give the radian measure as a decimal.

Exa mple 1

Convert the following angles to radian measure, expressing answers in terms of .

a 90

b 210

c 135

S o lu tio n

180

a 90 = ------------ , so 90 = --2

2

405

b Use the fact that 210 is a multiple of 30, which is one of the special angles.

210 = 7 30

= 7 --6

7

= -----6

c Use the fact that 135 is a multiple of 45, which is one of the special angles.

135 = 3 45

= 3 --4

3

= -----4

For other conversions, note that as 180 = , dividing by 180 gives 1 = --------- .

180

Exa mple 2

Convert the following angles to radian measure, giving answers correct to three decimal

places.

a 70

b 5623

S o lu tio n

180

both sides by 70.

70 = 70 ---------180

= 1.222

23

b As 23 = ------ = 0.3833, 5623 = 56.3833.

60

180

= 0.984

tip

GC 1.5

CAS 1.5

to do with a graphics calculator. On the TI-83/84, make sure

that you are in Radian mode. Enter the angle, with a degree

symbol at the end (found in the ANGLE menu) and press

ENTER. The calculator automatically does the conversion, so

you do not need to explicitly multiply by and divide by 180

(see the first screenshot).

However, when the angle is expressed in degrees and

minutes, you must add the degree symbol at the end;

if you do not, the calculator simply converts the minutes

part to a decimal as shown in the second screenshot.

180

To convert radians into degrees, note that as c = 180, dividing by gives 1c = ------------ or,

180

dropping the radian symbol, 1 = ------------ .

406

chapter

10

Exa mple 3

10.5

3

a -----b 1.9

4

tip

S o lu tio n

GC 1.5

CAS 1.5

3

180

a Using 1 = ------------ , multiply both sides by ------ .

4

3 180

3

------ = ------ -----------4

4

3 180

= ---------------------4

= 135

180

b Using 1 = ------------ , multiply both sides by 1.9.

180

1.9 = 1.9 -----------

= 108.86 (correct to 2 dp)

following screenshot. If the answer is

required in degrees and minutes, the DMS

command in the ANGLE menu can be used.

correct to the nearest minute, is 10852.

exercise 10.5

1

a

30

90

45

120

300

225

330

180

450

Convert the following angles to radian measure, giving answers correct to three decimal

places.

a

14

78

124

256

302

359

3226

13014

20746

3

a --b -----c --3

2

4

7

f -----d --e 4

6

6

3

9

11

--------g -----h -----i

4

4

6

Convert the following angles in radian measure to degree measure, giving answers correct

to two decimal places.

a

1.5

3.75

2.49

3.26

5.32

0.89

6.87

4.55

407

Arc length

Consider a circle with centre O. Points P and Q on

the circumference of the circle divide it into two arcs

as shown, a major arc and a minor arc. The length

of an arc is therefore a part of the circumference of a

circle and is proportional to the angle subtended at the

centre. For example, an angle of 270 gives an arc length

which is three-quarters of the circumference of the circle.

major arc

P

r

minor arc

O

Q

The circumference of a circle is given by C = 2 r and we have seen that there are 2 radians

in a full circle.

Let arc PQ have length l units and let POQ = radians. As the length of the arc is

proportional to the angle it subtends at the centre, it follows that

l

--- = -----P

C

2

Warning

l

l

2r

2

O

angle measure at the centre in radians.

r

l = ------ 2 r

Always convert any angle given in

Q

2

degree format to radians before using

= r

mensuration formulae.

So the length of the arc is given by l = r .

Exa mple 4

A circle has radius 8 cm. An arc of the circle subtends an angle of 60 at the centre of the

circle. Calculate the length of the arc correct to two decimal places.

S o lu tio n

To use l = r , we need to express the angle in radians. We should recognise 60 as a special

angle; in radians, it is --- . (Alternatively, use the conversion method of example 2.)

3

l = r

= 8 --3

8

= -----3

= 8.38 (correct to 2 dp)

The length of the arc is 8.38 cm.

Exa mple 5

Find the angle subtended at the centre of a circle of radius 7 cm by an arc of length 18 cm,

expressing the answer in degrees correct to two decimal places.

S o lu tio n

Substitute the given values into l = r .

l = r

18 = 7

18

= -----7

408

chapter

10

18

180

Using 1 = ------------ , multiply both sides by ------ .

7

18

18 180

------ = ------ -----------7

7

= 147.33 (correct to 2 dp)

So the angle subtended by the arc is 147.33.

10.5

exercise 10.5

continued

5 Find the length of an arc that subtends an angle of 70 at the centre of a circle of radius

10 cm, giving the answer correct to two decimal places.

6 A goat is tethered to a post by a rope 18 m long. If the goat moves so that it always keeps

the rope taut, calculate correct to the nearest cm how far it travels when the rope sweeps

through an angle of 80.

7 An arc of a circle of radius 98 mm subtends an angle of 55 at the centre of the circle. Find:

a

the length of the corresponding major arc, correct to two decimal places.

8 The length of an arc of a circle is 8.5 cm and it subtends an angle of 65 at the circles

centre. Calculate the circles radius, correct to two decimal places.

9 The minute hand of a clock is 30 cm long. How far does its tip travel in 25 minutes?

10 Find the angle subtended at the centre of a circle of radius 6 cm by an arc of length 14 cm,

expressing the answer in degrees correct to two decimal places.

Consider a circle with centre O and points P and Q on its circumference.

Two sectors are formed: the shaded area is the minor sector POQ and

the unshaded area is the major sector POQ. The area of either sector

is proportional to the angle it subtends at the centre of the circle.

Let A be the area of the minor sector POQ and let POQ = radians.

Recall that the area of a circle is r 2. As the area of the sector is

proportional to the angle it subtends at the centre, it follows that

A

-------2- = -----2

r

A = ------ r 2

2

1

= --- r 2

2

1

So the area of the sector is given by A = --- r 2 .

2

major sector

r

Q

minor sector

409

Exa mple 6

Find the area of a sector which subtends an angle of 45 at the centre of a circle of radius

10 cm. Give the answer correct to two decimal places.

S o lu tio n

1

To use A = --- r 2 , we need to express the angle in radians. We should recognise 45 as a

2

special angle; in radians, it is --- . (Alternatively, use the conversion method of example 2.)

4

1

A = --- r 2

2

1

= --- 10 2 --4

2

= 39.27 (correct to 2 dp)

So the area of the sector is 39.27 cm2.

Exa mple 7

Using the information on the diagram, calculate the radius of the

circle, correct to one decimal place.

S o lu tio n

GC 1.5

CAS 1.5

110

1

To use A = --- r 2 , we need to express the angle in radians.

2

Use the method of example 2, or just use a graphics calculator

in Radian mode as shown in the earlier tip (see screenshot).

1

A = --- r 2

2

1

120 = --- r 2 1.91986

2

120 2

2

r = --------------------1.91986

= 125.00897

r = 125.00897

= 11.2 (correct to 1 dp)

So the radius is 11.2 cm correct to one decimal place.

Consider a circle with centre O and points P and Q

on its circumference. The first diagram shows that

two segments are formed: the shaded area is the

minor segment cut off by the chord PQ and the

unshaded area is the major segment cut off by the

chord PQ. From the second diagram, we see that

the area of the minor segment can be found by

subtracting the area of triangle POQ from the area

of the sector POQ.

410

major segment

O

r

P

Q

minor segment

r

Q

chapter

10

Let A be the area of the minor segment and let POQ = radians. Recall that the area of a

1

1

triangle is --- ab sin . In this case, a = b = r, so the area of triangle POQ is --- r 2 sin .

2

2

A = area of minor sector POQ area of POQ

1

1

= --- r 2 --- r 2 sin

2

2

1

= --- r 2 ( sin )

2

1

So the area of the segment is given by A = --- r 2 ( sin )

2

10.5

Exa mple 8

A chord subtends an angle of 50 at the centre of a circle of radius 8 cm. Calculate the area

of the minor segment cut off by the chord.

S o lu tio n

GC 1.5, 1.6

CAS 1.5, 1.6

1

To use A = --- r 2 ( sin ) , we need to express the angle

2

in radians. Use the method of example 2, or just use

a graphics calculator in Radian mode as shown in the

earlier tip (see screenshot at right).

1

A = --- r 2 ( sin )

2

1

= --- 8 2 ( 0.87266 sin 0.87266 )

2

= 3.41 (correct to 2 dp)

So the area of the sector is 3.41 cm2.

tip

You can express the angle

in degrees for the sine part

of the calculation if you wish.

This screenshot shows the

calculation of A in example 8

in two ways.

Although the calculator is in

Radian mode, adding the

degree sign overrides the mode and the calculator correctly finds sin 50. The answers are

slightly different since .87266 has rounding error, whereas 50 is exact.

Exa mple 9

An arc AB of length 22 cm is drawn on a circle of radius 12 cm. Find:

a the angle subtended at the centre of the circle by the arc AB, giving the answer in:

i radians.

ii degrees.

b the area of the minor segment cut off by the chord AB, correct to 2 decimal places.

411

S o lu tio n

a Substitute the given values into l = r where is in radians.

l = r

22 = 12

11

= -----6

This is the angle in radians.

11

180

To convert it to degrees, use 1 = ------------ and multiply both sides by ------ .

6

11

11 180

------ = ------ -----------

6

6

= 105.04 (correct to 2 dp)

CD10.4

MENSURAT

GC program

11

11 c

i ------ radians (or -------- ); or

6

6

ii 105.04

b Use the formula for area of a segment:

1

A = --- r 2 ( sin )

2

1

11

11

= --- 12 2 ------ sin ------

6

2

6

= 62.47 (correct to 2 dp)

So the area of the minor segment is 62.47 cm2.

tip

The MENSURAT program can be

used to check these answers.

exercise 10.5

continued

11 Find the area of a sector which subtends an angle of 36 at the centre of a circle of radius

11 cm. Give the answer correct to two decimal places.

12 An arc of length 125 mm is drawn on a circle of radius 80 mm. Find the area of the

corresponding sector.

13 A sector of a circle has an area of 205 cm2 and makes an angle of 64 at the centre of a

circle. Calculate the radius of the circle correct to two decimal places.

14 The hour hand of a clock is 6 cm long. Find the total area it sweeps out in 3 hours, correct

to two decimal places.

15 A slice of pizza is in the shape of a sector of a circle,

whose radius is 8 cm.

If there are 8 equal slices cut from a whole pizza, find:

a

16 A sector of a circle has an area of 185 cm2 and the circle has a radius of 9 cm.

Find the angle made at the centre of the circle, in degrees and minutes.

412

chapter

10

17 In a circle of radius 305 mm, calculate the area of the minor segment whose arc subtends

an angle of 88 at the centre of the circle. Give your answer correct to one decimal place.

10.5

18 Calculate the area of the segment of a circle of radius 4 cm that has an arc length of 16 cm.

18

If there are 18 or more people at a party, then there must be either a group of

4 people who all know each other or a group of 4 complete strangers.

SAC

analysis task 3

location, location, location

CD10.5

This analysis task involves the use of measurements collected by a geographical surveyor.

A surveyors job uses many of the methods of geometry and trigonometry.

SAC analysis task

Surveying land can be a very difficult task. An error in calculations can cost someone

their property. With this in mind the techniques and methods a surveyor uses to measure

land need to be as accurate as possible.

There are two main techniques a surveyor uses to measure a section of land. They are:

.

traverse surveying

radial surveying.

Traverse surveying

The technique of traverse surveying involves a

measured line that stretches from one side of

the block of land being measured to the other.

This is called the traverse line. Then the

distance of all corners or major features of the

block of land at a 90 angle to the traverse line

are measured. It is assumed that the boundaries

of the land are all straight edges.

An example of a surveyors sketch for a

traverse survey is shown.

A

5

15

12

10

30

15

50

65

A

5m 17m

13

10 m

2

12 m

70

B

15 m

10 m

scale diagram as shown.

As we can see in the diagram the traverse

line is AB.

The length of the traverse line in the surveyors

sketch is 70 m.

20 m

15 m

5

traverse line is 70 m. The block of land comprises 7 shapes:

3 to the left and 4 to the right. There are 4 triangles and 3 trapeziums.

15 m

13 m

5m 4

B

413

Part 1

A surveyor has taken measurements of a block of land for a farmer in country Victoria.

He has used the technique of traverse survey. His sketch is shown

(all measurements are in metres).

a Draw a scale diagram on A4 paper for the surveyors sketch using the

scale 1 : 500 (1 cm = 5 m).

b Look at the shape of the block of land that has been drawn.

How many shapes make up this block of land? Number and

name them, as in the example above.

c Find the area of each shape, and hence the total area of the

farmers block of land to the nearest m2.

d Find the perimeter of the farmers block using the shapes identified

in question b, correct to the nearest m.

A

7

16

29

21

17

38

37

62

70

19

95

11

110

e Complete a table of your results from question d using the following headings.

Shape number

1

2

.

.

Total perimeter of block

f Using your scale diagram, measure the lengths of each boundary edge with a ruler and

convert the measured lengths in cm to the actual lengths in m.

Add these measurements to the previous table in a new column and use them to give

an estimate for the total perimeter of the block

Shape number

(calculated)

(measured)

1

2

.

.

Total perimeter of block

g Compare and comment on any differences or similarities between the calculated and

measured values that lead to the perimeter. Give reasons for your observations.

Radial surveying

The technique of radial surveying involves a chosen central point in the block of land.

A surveyor then measures the distance and the bearing of each corner or feature of the

section of land.

414

chapter

10

10.5

An example of the surveyors sketch for a radial survey is illustrated below left. From this

a scale diagram can be drawn (below right). Using the gathered information it would look

like this. Note that this method divides the block into triangular shapes.

N

A

N

E

45 m

303

37 m

047

E

104

D

50 m

255

57 47

48

D

52 m

C 202

53

42 m B

122

75

O

80

B

Part 2

The farmer in country Victoria needs the

surveyors services once more. The surveyor

uses the technique of radial surveying on

another block of land. His sketch is shown

opposite.

F

80 m

346

E

93 m

293

N

A

76 m

035

B

112 m

082

surveyors sketch using the scale 1 : 1000

(1 cm = 10 m).

D

i Look at the shape of the block of land that

40 m

C

195

has been drawn. How many triangles make

84 m

up this block of land? Number them.

168

j Find the area of each triangle, and hence the total area of the farmers block of land to

the nearest m2.

k Find the perimeter of the farmers block using the triangles identified in question i,

correct to the nearest m.

l Complete a table of your results from question k using the following headings.

Triangle number

1

2

.

.

Total perimeter of block

415

m Using your scale diagram, measure the lengths of each boundary edge with a ruler and

convert the measured lengths in cm to the actual lengths in m.

Add these measurements to the previous table in a new column and use them to give

an estimate for the total perimeter of the block.

Triangle number

(calculated)

(measured)

1

2

.

.

Total perimeter of block

n Compare and comment on any differences or similarities between the calculated and

measured values that lead to the perimeter. Give reasons for your observations.

modelling task

dam it

CD10.6

SAC

Dam it

SAC modelling task

In a dry country such as Australia, farm dams are part of the rural lifeblood of rural.

Knowing the volume of water in a dam at any given time is important for such things as

planning the numbers and distribution of livestock, and estimating when the supply is likely

to run out if there are drought conditions. In general, dams do not have depth markers so

a method is needed that can use physically observable signs. One readily available piece

of data is the distance the water level has receded from its position when the dam is full

a distance obtained simply by measuring the steps taken to walk from the top of the dam

directly to the current water level. The challenge then is to estimate the volume of water

in a dam from this information, and the known overall dimensions of a dam.

In addition to feeding stock, or providing water for irrigation, dams lose water through

evaporation, and although the evaporation rate varies throughout the year with changes in

climatic conditions, rough daily rates can be calculated by dividing annual rates by 365.

Published annual evaporation rates (cm/year) vary from less than 80 cm in western

Tasmania to more than 340 cm in the desert regions of Western Australia and Northern

Territory. Values in Victoria vary from about 140 cm in the south to 180 cm in the north.

This problem investigates ways of estimating the volume of water remaining in a dam of

which the design enables the use of basic mensuration formulae. By specifying a

geographical location for the dam (e.g. northern Victoria) the evaporation rate can be

included to modify the calculations. Implications then follow if the dam is to serve a

specified herd, for example under drought conditions.

416

Chapter review

chapter

10

Summary

Trigonometric ratios of right-angled triangles

.

O

A

O

For any right-angled triangle sin = ---- , cos = ---- , tan = ---H

H

A

.

Angles are usually expressed in decimal degree form or in degrees and minutes, where

there are 60 in one degree.

Applications of trigonometry

Angles of elevation and depression

.

the horizontal.

they are alternate angles.

Bearings

angle of depression

angle of elevation

Bearings are a measure used to represent the direction of one object from another.

Bearings can be expressed as true bearings measured in a clockwise direction from north,

or as compass/conventional bearings measured first from north or south, then in the

direction of east or west.

When answering questions involving bearings it is very important to always draw the

compass points N, S, E, W together with clearly labelled diagrams.

.

B

vertices with uppercase letters, A, B and C and then label the

sides opposite these with the corresponding lowercase letters,

a

a, b and c.

c

For a triangle ABC, the sine rule is given by

a

b

c

------------- = ------------ = -----------sin A

sin B

sin C

A

C

b

It is used to find unknown lengths and angles when given:

a two angles and one side length

a two side lengths and an angle opposite one of the sides.

For a triangle ABC, the cosine rule is given by a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A. It is used to find

unknown lengths and angles when given:

a

a

two side lengths and the included angle.

b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos B, or c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C

417

Area of a triangle

.

If two sides of a triangle and the included angle are given then we can use the following

rule to find the area.

1

1

1

Area = --- bc sin A = --- ac sin B = --- ab sin C

2

2

2

If all three side lengths of the triangle are known then Herons formula can be used to find

the area of the triangle.

1

Area of = s ( s a ) ( s b ) ( s c ) where s = --- ( a + b + c )

2

Circle mensuration

Radian measure of an angle

.

A radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a unit circle by an arc of length one unit.

360 = 2 c; 180 = c. The symbol c is used to indicate radian measure, but is often

omitted when the meaning is clear.

1 = --------180

180

1c = -----------

Arc length

.

the minor and major arc.

major arc

circle and is the angle measure at the centre in radians.

P

r

O

minor arc

Q

Area of a sector

.

Two radii divide the circle into two sectors, the minor sector and

the major sector.

1

The area of the minor sector is given by A = --- r 2 , where r is the

2

radius of the circle and is the angle measure at the centre in radians.

major sector

O

r

minor sector

Area of a segment

.

418

A chord divides the area of a circle into two parts, the minor and

major segment.

1

The area of a segment is given by A = --- r 2 ( sin ) , where r is

2

the radius of the circle and is the angle measure at the centre

in radians.

major segment

O

P

Q

minor segment

chapter

10

Revision questions

Short answer

1 Lim walks 4 km due north, then 5 km due east. Find:

a his bearing, to the nearest degree, from his starting point.

b the length of the last leg of the journey if Lim decides to head straight back to his

starting point.

2 A ladder 5 m long rests against a vertical wall, with the foot of the ladder 1.8 m from the

base of the wall. Calculate the angle the ladder makes with the wall correct to two decimal

places.

7.5 cm

correct to one decimal place.

52

37

x cm

4 In a triangle ABC, a = 8, A = 110 and B = 35. Find the unknown angle and lengths in

this triangle.

5 From the top of a lighthouse 85 m high, Frank observes a boat at an angle of depression

of 3322. If the foot of the lighthouse is at sea level, how far is the boat from the base of

the lighthouse, correct to the nearest metre?

6 In ABC, b = 5, c = 7 and A = 5842. Find the value of a.

7 Calculate the angle subtended by an arc 9 cm long on a circle of radius 3 cm in:

a radians.

b degrees.

8 A triangular flowerbed has side lengths of 4 m, 5 m and 6 m. Find the area of this

flowerbed.

9 Three towns, Diamond, Ruby and Emerald, are famous for each of their stones. Ruby is

20 km from Diamond on a bearing of 050. Emerald is 28 km from Ruby on a bearing of

260. A jeweller is making his monthly trip to buy stones to make his jewellery. Calculate

the total distance covered by the jeweller if he visits all three towns, starting and ending

at Diamond.

10 Two vertical goal posts of heights 5 m and 7 m stand apart on horizontal ground. If the

angle of elevation from the top of the shorter goal post to the top of the taller goal post is

26, find the distance between the two goal posts correct to the nearest metre.

11 In triangle ABC, B = 55, b = 15, c = 18. Calculate the two possible values for a.

12 Calculate the area of the shaded region

shown in the diagram to the nearest

square centimetre.

35 cm

120

P

419

13 The arc of a circle with radius 5.2 cm subtends an angle of 82 at the centre. Find:

a the length of the arc.

b the area of the sector formed by the arc and two radii.

14 The area of a sector of a circle is 50 cm2 and its bounding arc subtends an angle of 65 at

the centre. Calculate the perimeter of the sector correct to two decimal places.

Extended response

1 A yacht travels 3 km from a point A on a bearing of 110 to a point B and then travels for

4 km on a bearing of 168 to a point C.

a Draw a clearly labelled diagram representing the situation.

b How far south is the yacht from point A?

c How far east is the yacht from point A?

d What is the direct distance between A and C?

e Calculate the bearing of A from C.

f If the yacht travels back to point A from point C, find the area that is enclosed by the

yachts course.

2 Examine the diagram. Using the information provided find:

a the circumference of the circle.

b the angle in:

O

20 cm

i degrees

ii radians.

15 cm

P

c the length of the minor arc PQ and of the major arc PQ.

d the area of the minor sector OPQ.

e the area of the shaded section.

3 A spy plane is flying above the ocean at an altitude of 3000 m. The sensors of the spy plane

detect an enemy submarine travelling on the waters surface directly in front of the spy

plane at an angle of depression of 27.

a Draw a diagram to represent the situation.

b If the plane is travelling at 500 m/min, how long before the plane is directly above the

enemy submarine?

c Three minutes after the spy plane passes over the enemy submarine, the enemy

submarine detects the spy plane. At what angle of elevation is the spy plane from the

enemy submarine at that instant?

CD

10.710.9

A trio of tests

Chapter tests

420

The spy plane has signalled a friendly submarine to intercept the enemy submarine it

originally detected. The friendly submarine is behind the enemy submarine at a depth of

1750 m and is a direct distance of 3850 m from the enemy submarine.

d Draw a diagram to represent the situation.

e At what angle of elevation should the second submarine rise to come up just behind the

enemy submarine?

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