Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Conference Record of the 2002 IEEE Intemational Symposium on Electrical Insulation, Boston, MA USA, April 7-10,2002

Comparison of Off-Line and On-Line Partial Discharge for Large Motors


Hee Dong Kim and Young Ho Ju
Korea Electric Power Research Institute
106-16 Munji-Dong, Yusung-Gu
Taejon, 305-380, Korea
hdkim@kepri.re.kr
Absfruct : Partial discharge(PD) tests were used to evaluate the
insulation condition of seven large motors. These tests were
conducted using a conventional partial discharge detector (PDD),
turbine generator analyzer (TGA) and partial discharge analyzer
(PDA). Off-line PD measurements were performed using the
PDD. Off-line PD pulse from one 80 pF (or 500 pF) epoxy-mica
coupler was measured with the PDA instrument at 3.81 kV, 4.76
kV and 6.6 kV. On-line PD pulses from the sensors were
measured with the TGA and PDA instruments during normal
operation. The PDD, TGA and PDA test results showed that
internal discharge was detected from voids in the groundwall
insulation. it was confirmed that the PDD, TGA and PDA
measurements can be directly correlated with the pattern and
magnitude of PD. The results of off-line and on-line PD
measurements were judged to be indicative of stator insulator in
good condition for the seven large motors.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
The nondestructive tests included measurements of AC
capacitive current, dissipation factor and partial discharge. The
AC current and dissipation factor were measured with
capacitance bridge (Tettex Instruments Type 2818), control
unit and AC 12kV high voltage supply (Type 5283). During
the off-line PD measurements, the stator windings of the 6.6
kV motors were energized with the AC high voltage supply.
The magnitude and pattern of PD were determined for the
large motors using the commercial PDD (Tettex Instruments,
TE-571). The PDD has a frequency bandwidth of 40 to 400
kHZ.

INTRODUCTION
Most motor stator winding failures are a result of insulation
deterioration that is the result of thermal, electrical,
mechanical and environmental stresses during normal
operation. As the severity of these stresses increases, the epoxy
or polyester resin loses its bonding properties and voids will
be created in the insulation. When these voids are exposed to a
sufficiently high voltage, partial discharge (PD) will occur in
the insulation. PD testing can be done either off-line or online. During off-line tests, PD measurements can detect
insulation problems throughout the stator winding. On-line PD
test will only detect problems in the coils connected to each
phase terminal. For off-line measurements the evaluation of
insulation condition is initially based on the values of
measured PD magnitude in terms of apparent charge[l]. To
facilitate on-line PD measurements, 80 pF epoxy-mica
couplers are permanently attached in the terminal boxes of
large motors[2]. TGA and PDA instruments are used to
measure on-line PD activity of high voltage stator windings
[3]. This paper presents the results of PD measurements
performed on seven large motors during both off-line and online tests. Off-line measurements were conducted using a
conventional partial discharge detector (PDD). On-line PD
results were measured with the turbine generator analyzer
(TGA) and partial discharge analyzer (PDA) test instruments
during normal operation of large 6.6 kV motors. The results of
off-line and on-line PD measurement were judged to be
indicative of stator insulation in good condition for the seven
large motors.

0-7803-7337-5/02/$17.0002002IEEE.

27

Off-line and on-line PD measurements were made using the by


TGA (IRIS Power Engineering Inc.) and PDA (FES
Intemational Ltd.). During the off-line tests, the PDA was used
to measure all three phases of the stator windings of a large
motor, in which one 80 pF (or 500 pF) epoxy-mica coupler
was installed. Off-line PD pulses from the sensor (80 pF or
500 pF) were measured with the PDA instruments at 3.81 kV,
4.76 kV and 6.6 kV. Motor C was energized at the normal 6.6
kV and high levels of PD were observed. In addition, during
normal operation the results of TGA and PDA measurements
were obtained using 80 pF epoxy-mica couplers that are
permanently connected in the terminal boxes of seven large
motors.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


1. Off-line tests
Figure 1 shows the AC capacitive current-voltage
characteristics of seven large motors. AC current for these
motors rapidly increased at 4.76 kV. As the voltage was raised
from 0.95 kV to 6.6 kV, AC current increased with the rate of
voltage. The increase rate of AC current (AI) was in the range
from 1.88% to 8.87% at 6.6 kV. It is evident that AI of Motor
A was very high (8.87%). Figure 2 shows tan6-voltage
characteristics of the seven large motors. The dissipation
factor increased as the applied voltage increased. Table 1
shows AI and Atan6 magnitudes of the large motors. The
increase of dissipation factor (Atan6) was in the range from
1.61% to 6.42% at 6.6 kV. Atan6 of motor A is also very high

(6.42%). According to the results of AI and AtanG, Motor A


and Motor D have a problem involving the stator insulation.
These motors may have experienced contamination or
deterioration. The greater the tip-up, the greater the PD
activity, and the worse the condition of the winding. The tip-up
test is therefore an indirect measure of the PD activity [4].

- ' 20 5 0
(

for the seven motors. The off-line PD magnitude was in the


range of 700 pC to 3100 pC at the normal line-to-ground
voltage (3.81 kV). It is apparent that the PD magnitude for
motor A is also very high (3100 pC). The DIV of Motor A is
also very low (2.0 kv). Out of the seven large motors, AI,
AtanG and PD results from off-line test indicated the highest
magnitudes for Motor A. This was partly the result of
contamination and deterioration.

Table 2 DIV and PD magnitude of large motors


Motors I Noise[pC] I DIV[kV]
PDmagnitude[pC]
MotorA I
800
I 2.0 I
3ioo
Motor B I
900
4.0
I - 980
Motor C I
450
I 2.9 I
1700
920
4.1
970
.
Motor D I
It MotorE I
900
I
4.9
I
900
II
.
.
I Motor F I
970
I
4.7
I
970
I
I MotorG
100
I 5.4 - I
700

m i 5 0

V o l t a g e

A C

[ k V ]

Figure 1-- AC current-voltage characteristics of large motors


1 0

9 8 -

\o

. , . , . , . , . , . , . , . ,

M o t o r
-m-A,
4 - 6 .
-Ac 1D

Figure 3 shows the off-line PD pattem for intemal discharge.


The result was measured with the commercial PDD
1 instrument. All PD pattems for seven large motors were
indicative of intemal PD. The PD activities had almost the
same magnitude of negative and positive polarity pulses.

7 -

6 -

re
E

4 -

3 -

2 1 -

0 4
0

. , .
1

. , . , . , . , . , . ,

A C

V o l t a g e

[ k V ]

Figure 2 - Tan&-voltagecharacteristics of large motors

Fig

Table 1 AI and Atanti of large motors

Motors
MotorA
Motor B
Motor C
Motor D
Motor E
Motor F
Motor G

I
I

AI@]
8.87
3.57
2.74
7.56
1.88
2.96
4.42

Additionally, the results of off-line PDA measurements on


Motor C are listed in Table 3. The test results were obtained
simultaneously from the 80 pF and 500 pF couplers. The total
PD activity (NQN) from the 500 pF couplerwas much higher
than from the 80 pF coupler. NQN increased with increase of
AC voltage from 3.81 kV to 6.6 kV. It is evident that
increasing the capacitance of the coupler increases the peak
and total PD activities [SI.

AtanG[ %]

I
I

6.42
2.87
2.29
6.25
1.61
2.22
4.44

The PD measurement is a nondestructive test method used for


verifymg the quality of an insulation system. Table 2 shows
the PD magnitude and the discharge inception voltage (DIV)

28

Table 3 Results of PDA measurement on Motor C

Voltage[kV]

Couplers[pF]

3.81
4.76

80
500
80
500
500

NQN
Pos.
Neg.
98
95
132
133
116- 1
179
I 216
207
422

-m-

POS

495

2. On-line tests

i ] .

, 4 , . ,

5~

ion

iso

am

. ,

PD Magnitude

On-line PD measurements were made with the TGA and PDA


instruments. Off-line PD in apparent charge (PC), the
maximum PD magnitude (Qm) and normalized quantity
number (NQN) increased with increase of AC voltage. NQN is
a measure of the total PD activity in the stator winding
insulation. NQN and Qm are calculated for both the positive
and negative PD pulses.

90

3 ~ 1

I . ,
mo (so

. ,
9p1

bv

(a) TGA

-2

The TGA and PDA test results showed that intemal discharge
was occurring in voids in the groundwall. The twodimensional plots are shown Figure 4. These illustrate
moderate PD activity occurring on B phase of Motor E. The
range is between 39-44 mV. The PD activities have almost the
same magnitude of positive and negative polarity pulses. This
is indicative of voids within the groundwall insulation. The
higher the number of pulses per second and PD pulse
magnitudes, the more severe is the deterioration in the stator
winding. The ratio of positive to negative PD indicates that the
PD pattem is intemal discharge. Voids that occurred during
manufacture or as a result of service deterioration are scattered
throughout the insulation. Internal discharge was caused by
these insulation defects. Internal PD usually takes many years
to result in failure. The PD activity is the negative pulses at
45' and the positive pulses at 225'with reference to the
50/60Hz phase-to-ground voltage. The PD activity is
associated with each of these deterioration mechanisms[6].

-8-

POS

1000

a
9
0

P 0 Magnitude [ m v

(b) PDA
Figure 4 - Results of TGA & PDA Measurements for Motor E
Qm and NQN are two critical parameters used to assess stator
winding condition. The results of the PDD, TGA and PDA
measurements can be directly correlated by means of the
pattern and magnitude of PD. Frequent PD measurements were
one way of determining the insulation aging condition of the
stator windings of the large motors. In particular, the PD
magnitudes were examined for trends over time. PD is
measured with the TGA and PDA instruments once every six
months. If the PD doubles (or more) in magnitude every six
months, the winding is rapidly deteriorating[6]. Since the test
can be done on-line, it is cost-effective to do frequent testing.

Table 4 shows the results of on-line TGA and PDA


measurements at the normal line-to-ground voltage during
normal operation. The data analysis obtained using the TGA
instrument indicated that Motor G had very low PD
magnitudes (18 mV or less), but Motor C shows extensive PD
activities with high magnitudes of up to 3 19 mV. According to
Tables 3 and 4, NQN detected by off-line PDA instrument was
much lower than that by on-line PDA instrument for motor C
with the installed 80 pF coupler. PD magnitude greater than
500 mV, for epoxy-mica insulation is considered high, and
thus close monitoring is required. The total PD activity (NQN)
-NQN = 44 ) for
levels of motor G were low (+NQN = 33,
B phase. But the total PD activity levels of motor D are very
high (+NQN = 452, -NQN = 418) for B phase.

29

Table 4 - TGA & PDA results on large motors

Instruments
Motors I Phase
A
Motor

REFERENCES

I TGAQm I TGANQN I PDANQN


I Pos I Neg I Pos I Neg I Pos I Neg
1 49 I 43 I 75 I 76 I 415 I 387 1

1. J. P. Zondervan, E. Gulski, J. J Smit and M. G. Krieg,


"Comparison of On-line and Off-line PD Analysis on
Stator Insulation of Turbogenerators", IEEE International
Symposium on Electrical Insulation, pp. 270-273, 1998.

Motor

2. V. Warren, G. C. Stone and M. Fenger, "Advancements in


Partial Discharge Analysis to Diagnose Stator Winding
Problems", IEEE Intemational Symposium on Electrical
Insulation, pp. 497-500,2000.

Motor

Motor
n
u
Motor
E

C
A
B

155
191
44

109
129

321
243

0
247

274
361

374
435

39

71

70

170

156

3. G. C. Stone, J. Bragoszewski, S. R. Campbell and B. A.


Lloyd, "Development of A Practical Continuous On-Line
Partial Discharge Monitor for Generators and Motors",
IEEE Intemational Symposium on Electrical Insulation, pp.
206-209,1996.
4. Vicki Warren and Greg Stone, "Recent Developments in
Diagnostic Testing of Stator Windings", IEEE Electrical
Insulation Magazine, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 16-21, 1998.

Motor
F
Motor

A
B
C

13
8
10

13
18
7

38
33
16

32
44
6

30
14
17

39
24
12

5. H. Zhu, V. Green, M. Sasic and S. Halliburton, "Capacitive


Couplers with Increased Sensitivity On-Line PD
Measurement in Stator Windings", IEEE International
Symposium on Electrical Insulation, pp. 261-265, 1998.

'

CONCLUSION

6. Partial Discharge Seminar, IRIS Power Engineering Inc.,


pp. 20-69,2001.

Of the seven large motors, Motor A was found to have the


highest magnitudes of AI, Atan6 and PD from off-line tests.
The total PD activity (NQN) from the 500 pF coupler was

much higher than that fiom the 80 pF coupler. NQN increased


with the increase of AC voltage fiom 3.81 kV to 6.6 kV. NQN
detected by the off-line PDA instrument was much lower than
that by the on-line PDA instrument for Motor C with the
installed 80 pF coupler. PD patterns measured using the PDD,
TGA and PDA instruments showed intemal discharge in voids
of the groundwall insulation. It was confirmed that the PDD,
TGA and PDA measurements can be directly correlated by
means of the pattern and magnitude of PD. The results of offline and on-line PD measurements indicated that most of the
stator- windings of the seven large motors were in good
condition.

30