Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

BOOKLET BIOL 101, A3

TEST AP101-3

Digestion, Nutrition & Metabolism

Questions:
Test Duration:
Reading Time:

185 Multiple-Choice Questions


225 minutes
20 minutes

INSTRUCTION:
Only Bilingual Dictionaries allowed, NO NOTES. This test consists of one part, 185
multiple choice questions (numbers 1 to 185) to be answered on the computer answer
sheet (185 marks). Write your name and student number in the spaces provided on the
computer answer sheet. Carefully fill in the shapes on the computer-marked answer
sheet under your name and ID number with a 2B pencil. You must only use a 2B pencil
on the computer answer sheet. Please read the instructions on the answer sheet
carefully and follow them precisely. Select the best answer to questions. If you are
unsure of an answer, eliminate the alternatives that you know to be incorrect and select
answer from the remaining alternatives. To indicate your selection, use a 2B pencil to
blacken the corresponding oval on the computer answer sheet, AP101-1. No marks are
deducted for wrong answers. So students are advised to move on quickly without
wasting too much time on one question. - Advanced questions; require further reading
or online research.

OPEN BLOOKLET ONLY WHEN TIMER IS

Digestion
1. In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach:
A. is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place
B. is the only place where fats are completely digested
C. is the first site where absorption takes place
D. initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
2. The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called:
A. absorption
B. digestion
C. secretion
D. ingestion
3. Parietal cells of the stomach produce:
A. mucin
B. pepsinogen
C. hydrochloric acid
D. rennin
4. Which of the following is not true of oblique layer in the stomach ()?
A. allows pummel the food and hence physical breakdown of bolus
B. allows ram the food into the small intestine
C. is a layer of muscularis externa
D. folds into oblique folds called rugae which increases the surface area
5. The solutes contained in saliva include:
A. only proteases and amylase
B. mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals
C. only salts and minerals
D. electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
6. The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to:
A. collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing
B. return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low
C. distribute hormones
D. carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract
7. When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they
must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series
of reactions is called:
A. absorption
B. secretion
C. chemical digestion
D. mechanical digestion
8. Which of the following is not true of saliva?
A. moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
B. contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
C. cleanses the mouth
D. dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted
9. There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs:
A. immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the
influx of a variety of nutrients
2

B. before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
C. when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required
D. at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the
GI tract for a long period of time
10.
A.
B.
C.
D.

In addition to a protective effect of sodium bicarbonate in duodenum, it also:


neutralises gastric contents during vomiting, reducing damages to other organs
protects pancreas from self-digestion
provides the optimal environment for activity of intestinal and pancreatic enzymes
catalyses the chemical digestion of proteins at stomach-duodenum

11.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?


parietal cells
serous cells
chief cells
mucous neck cells

12.
Why people experience retching before they vomit ()?
A. because the amount of irritants in the stomach has not reached the threshold
B. because esophageal distension by gastric contents induces peristalsis which
forces contents back to stomach
C. because pressure in esophagus is too high to induce vomiting
D. because stomach is not squeezed strong enough
13.
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are
split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following
enzymes is responsible?
A. lipase
B. pepsin
C. rennin
D. cholecystokinin
14.
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following
enzymes will help to digest the meal?
A. trypsin
B. cholecystokinin
C. gastrin
D. amylase
15.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Peristaltic waves are:


waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract

16.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Chyme is created in the:


mouth
esophagus
stomach
small intestine

17.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the:


parietal cells of the duodenum
Brunner's glands
goblet cells of the small intestine
chief cells of the stomach
3

18. The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas,
respectively, unite to form the:
A. pancreatic acini
B. hepatopancreatic ampulla
C. bile canaliculus
D. portal vein
19.
The function of the goblet cells is to:
A. provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms
that enter the digestive tract in food
B. absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
C. secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
D. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of
powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
20.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the:


ileum
duodenum
pyloric sphincter
jejunum

21.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?


trypsin
lipase
dextrinase
amylase

22.
Absorption is one of digestive processes. Venous blood containing absorbed
nutrients enters:
A. Peyers patches
B. pancreas
C. liver
D. gallbladder
23.
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to
occur?
A. severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes
B. bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum
C. the acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food
D. this type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive
upset
24.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?


C
K
B12
A

25.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called:


digestion
absorption
secretion
ingestion

26.

Chief cells of the stomach ():


4

A.
B.
C.
D.

produce
produce
produce
produce

mucin
pepsinogen
amylase
HCl

27.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The pancreas:
secretes pancreatic juice through a duct into the stomach
secretes lipase, nuclease, and amylase
is an immune organ that humans can easily live without
secretes bile

28.
A.
B.
C.
D.

A person who lacks the hormone ghrelin would be expected to:


regulate the digestion of lipids
feel less or less frequently hungry, and may lose weight
have a lack the production of insulin
not feel full after a meal

29.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The liver:
sends blood into the hepatic portal vein
produces amylase and regulates metabolism of sugars and fats
produces bile and regulates metabolism of sugars and fats
is retroperitoneal

30.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Digestion in the oral cavity:


is mechanical
is mechanical and chemical
involves pancreatic amylase
does not occur

31.
Which of the following incorrectly matches a digestive system cell with its correct
characteristic?
A. chief, produces an inactive enzyme
B. parietal, makes intrinsic factor
C. Kupffer, phagocytic
D. islet, produces lysozyme
32.
Which of the following correctly matches digestive process with the correct
description?
A. ingestion; chewing, mixing, churning, and segmentation of food
B. absorption; taking food into the digestive system
C. chemical digestion; enzymatic degradation of foodstuffs into simpler molecules
D. defecation; passage of digested materials from the lumen of the GI tract into the
blood or lymph
33.
There are two different types of cells (either exocrine or endocrine) in the
pancreas. Which of the following cells or glands is responsible for secreting
pancreatic juice that is important in chemical digestion?
A. pancreatic islets of Langerhans
B. acinar glands
C. adrenal glands
D. cardiac glands
34.
Which of the following is true ()?
A. rugae are located at the inferior end of the stomach which control stomach
emptying
B. pyloric sphincter lies at superior end and regulates movement of food from the
esophagus
5

C. gastroesophogeal folds are folds of mucosal layer


D. none of the above
35.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Oesophagus pierces the diaphragm at the


gastroesophageal sphincter
upper esophageal sphincter
oesophageal hiatus
pyloric region

to enter the abdomen.

36.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is true of phases of regulation of gastric secretions ()?


cephalic phase is stimulated by the sight or smell of food
intestinal phase is stimulated by partially digested proteins and fats
gastric phase is stimulated by distension of the stomach and low acidity
A, B and C are correct

37.
its
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following incorrectly matches a structure of the small intestines with
description?
ileum contains the valve that connects to the liver
microvilli are also known as the brush border
villi are fingerlike projections of the mucosa
duodenum contains openings for the bile and pancreatic ducts

38.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The hepatopancreatic ampulla is formed from the union of the:


cystic duct and interlobular duct
greater duodenal papilla and the lesser duodenal papilla
pancreatic duct with the lacteals
bile duct and main pancreatic duct

39.
In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas, activation of pancreatic
proteases occurs in the:
A. duodenum
B. pancreas
C. stomach
D. liver
40.
During deglutition (swallowing), the bolus passes into the stomach from the
oesophagus through the:
A. urethral sphincter
B. oesophageal sphincter
C. gastroesophageal sphincter
D. pyloric sphincter
41.
A.
B.
C.
D.

During the intestinal phase of gastric regulation ():


secretin causes more HCl release
the stomach is initially stimulated and later inhibited
the gastroenteric reflex reduces stomach activity
hormones reduce chief cell activity

42.
A.
B.
C.
D.

What is the main organic molecule digested in the stomach?


proteins
nucleic acids
carbohydrates
lipids

43.
The propulsive function that occurs in the oesophagus is called:
A. swallowing
6

B. defecation
C. peristalsis
D. segmentation
44.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the large intestine?
A. it is the site for acid neutralization
B. it contains a large number of bacteria
C. is longer than the small intestine
D. it provides no absorptive function
45.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary
canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the
lumen ().
A. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa
B. serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis
C. muscularis, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
D. submucosa, serosa, muscularis, and mucosa
46.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which regulatory chemical stimulates gastric gland activity and motility?


vasoactive peptide
secretin
gastrin
CCK

47.
Which sequence below represents the correct layering of the wall of the GI tract,
starting from the layer next to the lumen ()?
A. muscularis externa, serosa, submucosa, mucosa
B. mucosa, muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa
C. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
D. serosa, mucosa, muscularis externa, submucosa
48.
Which of the following incorrectly matches a substance involved in organic
molecule digestion with its description ()?
A. sucrase, lactase, and maltase; pancreatic enzymes that act on disaccharides
B. bile; emulsifies fats for digestion
C. trypsin; digests proteins in the small intestines
D. none of the above (all correct)
49.
What would be the effect of stripping the small intestines of their villi?
A. greater absorption of nutrients would occur
B. decreased surface area for absorption, which in turn would cause malnutrition &
weight loss to occur
C. the large intestine would take over as the primary absorptive site
D. a duodenal ulcer
50.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following products does the stomach produce?


pepsinogen and secretin
bile and trypsin
HCl and intrinsic factor
mucous and amylase

51.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not a function of liver?


excretes bilirubin
activation of vitamin D
has a role in deoxification
stores water-soluble vitamins and minerals

52.
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The final product of carbohydrate digestion is:


monosaccharides
disaccharides
glycogen
polysaccharides
Which of the following cells produce HCl?
parietal cells
chief cells
G cells
enteroendocrine cells

54.
Bile salts in bile are important in lipid digestion because it break fat droplets
apart. This process of breakdown is called:
A. lipolysis
B. hydrolysis
C. emulsification
D. oxidation
55.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following cells of the stomach produce pepsinogen?


G cells
chief cells
enteroendocrine cells
parietal cells

56.
Which of the following is not one of structure of small intestine that maximise the
potential of absorption?
A. circular folds
B. microvilli
C. villi
D. rugae
57.
The digestive system in a cadaver is longer than in a living person because, in a
cadaver, there is no:
A. muscle tone
B. digestion taking place
C. food in the tube
D. nervous system influence
58.
Pancreatic islets of Langerhans are
hypoglycaemic hormone called
.
A. exocrine, insulin, glycogen
B. endocrine, insulin, glucagon
C. exocrine, glucagon, insulin
D. endocrine, glucagon, insulin

59.
A.
B.
C.
D.

cells that produce and secrete a


and a hyperglycaemic hormone called

________________ is the major means of propulsion in the digestive system.


ingestion
mechanical digestion
defecation
peristalsis

60.
The movement of large intestine begins when food residues:
A. enter the cecum
B. pass ileocaecal sphincter
8

C. cause distension in ascending colon


D. pass transverse colon
61.
Pancreatic secretions contain water, salt,
, and
process in pancreas is controlled by
hormones.
A. HCl, glycaemic hormone; gastric
B. secretin, CCK; duodenal
C. sodium bicarbonate, digestive enzymes; duodenal
D. bile, pancreatic enzymes; gastric

. The secretory

62.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The ___________ phase of gastric secretion is considered a conditioned reflex.


esophageal
intestinal
gastric
cephalic

63.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following inhibits salivation?


excessive water intake
dehydration
extreme activation of parasympathetic division
anuria

64.
Bilirubin is the chief bile pigment in bile and it is:
A. a waste product of heme of haemoglobin formed during breakdown of worn-out
erythrocytes
B. metabolism of nucleic acids
C. B-oxidation of lipid metabolism in the liver
D. gluconeogenesis
65.
Secretin & CCK are released in intestinal phase of regulation of gastric activity.
These secretions
exit of chyme from stomach and thereby
the rate of
bolus entering into small intestine, and
the rate of bolus passing through
small intestine. Consequently, this allows the maximal

in the
.
A. slow, slow, slow, absorption of nutrients, small intestine
B. speed up, speed up, speed up, digestion of nutrients, small intestine
C. slow, slow, slow, digestion of indigestible food, large intestine
D. speed up, speed up, speed up, absorption of water, large intestine
66.
Which of the following is a false statement?
A. in addition to gastrin, the stomach produces serotonin and histamine to regulate
smooth muscle contraction and parietal cells' release of HCl, respectively
B. protein digestion begins in the oral cavity under the action of salivary peptidase
C. the pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ
D. the pyloric sphincter regulates passage of chyme from the stomach into the
duodenum
67.
Involuntary swallowing is controlled by swallowing center in
. Motor
outputs are transmitted via cranial nerves, mostly by
nerves to muscles of
pharynx and oropharynx.
A. brain stem, vagus
B. midbrain, accessory
C. brain stem, vagus
D. midbrain, vagus
68.

Mass movement:
9

A.
B.
C.
D.

powerful segmental waves in large intestine faster than in small intestine


occurs before food enters stomach
powerful peristaltic waves in large intestine slower than in small intestine
begins in descending colon which drives compacted food residues into rectum

69.
Which of the following is true?
A. the (vermiform) appendix essentially has no known purpose
B. the hepatopancreatic ampulla is composed of the pancreatic duct and the lesser
hepatic duct
C. the submucosa is in direct contact with food
D. digested fats are absorbed into lymphatic lacteals
70.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not an accessory organ of the digestive system?


liver
salivary glands
pancreas
intestines

71.
In anal canal, there are two sphincters involving defecation reflex.
reflex
causes colon and rectum to contract and
anal sphincter to relax. Whereas
anal sphincter is under voluntary control ().
A. sympathetic, internal, external
B. parasympathetic, external, internal
C. sympathetic, external, internal
D. parasympathetic, internal, external
72.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The major site for nutrient absorption is the:


mouth
small intestine
stomach
large intestine

73.
Which of the following is not true of bile?
A. it is a yellow-green, alkaline solution
B. contains only bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids
and electrolytes
C. only its bile salts and phospholipids aid the digestive process
D. many substances in bile are excreted in urine
74.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not one of functions of gallbladder?


stores bile
concentrates bile
releases bile into duodenum
produces bile

75.
_______ circulation collects nutrient-rich blood from the GI tract and delivers it to
the liver.
A. hepatic portal
B. peritoneal
C. subclavian
D. cardiac
76.
Which of the following is not true of the layer of alimentary canal and its function?

A. serosa; protective outermost layer of the alimentary canal


10

B. mucosa; main site of nutrient absorption


C. submucosa; moderately dense connective tissue that has a rich supply of blood,
lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers
D. muscularis externa; responsible for only peristalsis
77.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not a function of the stomach?


the stomach mechanically digests food
the stomach produces intrinsic factor
the stomach serves as a temporary holding area for ingested food
the stomach absorbs complex carbohydrates

78.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The phases of gastric secretion from first to last are:


intestinal phase, gastric phase, cephalic phase
cephalic phase, gastric phase, intestinal phase
gastric phase, cephalic phase, intestinal phase
cephalic phase, intestinal phase, gastric phase

79.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The _________ is the first segment of the small intestine.


duodenum
jejunum
colon
ileum

80.
Digestion of carbohydrates and proteins by brush border enzymes occurs within
the ________ of the small intestine.
A. rugae
B. microvilli
C. villi
D. goblet cells
81.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Bile is stored and concentrated in the:


liver
pancreas
gallbladder
stomach

82.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Emesis is a process which involves contraction of ():


diaphragm
esophageal hiatus
both diaphragm and abdominal muscles
all of the above

83.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the liver?


has a role in detoxifying the blood
highly regenerative
stores glucose in form of glycogen
none of the above

84.
A.
B.
C.
D.

_______ is not found in pancreatic secretions.


chymotrypsinogen
bicarbonate
cholecystokinin (CCK)
procarboxypeptidase

85.

Most water is absorbed in the:


11

A.
B.
C.
D.
86.
A.
B.
C.
D.

liver
stomach
large intestine
small intestine
Gastric juice is:
pancreatic secretions
stomach secretions
hepatic secretions
all of the above

87.
Biliary calculi are solidified cholesterol and bile salts which causes vague
discomfort, jaundice, and pain in the upper abdomen. This is formed at:
A. gallbladder
B. liver
C. pancreas
D. duodenum
88.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Bacterial flora in the large intestine do not produce:


B vitamins
vitamin K
carbon dioxide
intrinsic factor

89.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following incorrectly matches a nutrient and its monomer?


nucleic acids; DNA and RNA
lipids; fatty acids and monoglycerides
proteins; amino acids
carbohydrates; monosaccharides

90.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Pepsin enzymatically digests:


carbohydrate
nucleic acids
protein
fat

91.
A.
B.
C.
D.

In buccal cavity, there are partial degradation or chemical breakdown of:


carbohydrate
lipid
protein
both A and B

92.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following increases intensity of segmentation?


sympathetic division of ANS
somatic nervous system
parasympathetic division of ANS
cooperative behaviours of both sympathetic and parasympathetic division of ANS

93.
Which of the following is not a true statement?
A. the primary goal of digestive tract regulatory mechanisms is to optimize nutrient
breakdown and absorption
B. a weak gastroesophageal sphincter can result in heartburn
C. most digestion occurs in the small intestine
D. constipation results when food passes too quickly through the small intestine
12

94.
A person who does not consume
from diet.
A. protein
B. fat
C. carbohydrate
D. calcium

would not effectively absorb vitamin D

95.
The normal range of pH in the stomach is
due to the presence of
.
A. 10.5~12.5, acidity, bicarbonate
B. 3.5~5.5, alkalinity, HCl
C. 8.5~10.5, alkalinity, bicarbonate
D. 1.5~3.5, acidity, HCl

and this

is

96.
Which of the following tunics of digestive tract secretes fluid that lubricates the
mobile digestive organs?
A. serosa
B. muscularis externa
C. submucosa
D. mucosa
97.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following does not occur during vomiting?


profuse salivation
sweating
a decrease in heart rate
nausea

98.
Which of the following is/are extrinsic autonomic nerves involved in regulating
digestive processes?
A. sympathetic and parasympathetic
B. parasympathetic only
C. sympathetic only
D. enteric nervous plexus
99.
When mucosa of alimentary canal is penetrated, there is a relatively high risk of
microbial infections because all surfaces of GITs are exposed to the external
environment. In oral cavity, which of the following is produced in response to a tissue
(mucosa) injury?
A. IgA
B. lymphocytes
C. defensins
D. saliva
100. In which of the following chemical digestion does not involve brush border
enzymes?
A. protein digestion
B. lipid digestion
C. carbohydrate digestion
D. none of the above
101. The thick stratified squamous epithelium of the oral cavity provides protection
against abrasion. This epithelisum is:
A. keratinised
B. melanised
13

C. composed of a large number of mast cells


D. covered with a sticky layer of defensin
102.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is responsible for saliva secretion?


parotid gland
sublingual gland
submandibular gland
all of the above

103. Throughout the digestive tract, food can be compacted and partially digested.
Which of the following correctly matches name of food mass along a digestive
passage and a location of its formation (start from food)?
A. chyme (esophagus), bolus (stomach), faeces (large intestine)
B. bolus (mouth), chyme (esophagus), faeces (small intestine)
C. chyme (esophagus), bolus (small intestine), faeces (rectum)
D. bolus (mouth), chyme (stomach), faeces (large intestine)
104.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following incorrectly matches a term and its description?


micturition; chewing
deglutition; swallowing
emesis; vomiting
defecation; eliminating faeces

105. Although stomach is corrosively acidic, it is not normally damaged by its acidity
because it produces:
A. pepsinogen
B. intrinsic factor
C. mucosal barrier
D. serotonin
106. Excessive emesis can have negative effects on health. Which of the following is
not one of them?
A. damaged mucosa of buccal cavity
B. dehydration
C. metabolic acidosis
D. disturbances in electrolyte balances
107.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not present in saliva?


water
IgE
salivary amylase
lysozyme

108.
A.
B.
C.
D.

A process called salivation is primarily controlled by:


parasympathetic division of ANS
somatic nervous system
higher brain centers (e.g. cerebral cortex)
midbrain

109. Although we can swallow voluntarily, it is impossible to consciously control


swallowing when bolus has reached:
A. gastroesophageal sphincter
B. nasopharynx
C. oropharynx
D. oral orifice
14

110.
A soft, retroperitoneal gland which produces a variety enzymes that break
down all categories of foodstuffs, is
and it delivers enzymes to
for chemical digestion.
A. liver, hepatopancreatic ampulla
B. pancreas, duodenum
C. liver, jejunum
D. pancreas, pancreatic duct

Metabolism and Nutrition


111.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of:


insulin
glycogen
cortisol
glucagon

112.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Essential nutrients refer to nutrients that are:


synthesized every day in the body
essential for the human body to function
stored in the body for times of starvation
obtained from an outside source because the body cannot make them

113.
A.
B.
C.
D.

When blood glucose levels fall


insulin is released
protein synthesis decreases
glucagon is released
peripheral cells take up less glucose

114. Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by


the process of:
A. fermentation
B. anabolism
C. mastication
D. catabolism
115. The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known
as:
A. gluconeogenesis
B. lypogenesis
C. lipolysis
D. fat utilization
116.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is:
glucose
fat
acetyl CoA
cellulose

117. It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because:
A. all vitamins are water-soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure
utilization
B. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
C. very few foods contain vitamins
D. all of the above
118. Anabolism includes reactions in which:
15

A.
B.
C.
D.

structural proteins are used as a potential energy source


ketone bodies are formed
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
carbohydrate utilization increases

119.
A.
B.
C.
D.

When blood glucose levels fall


protein synthesis decreases
insulin is released
glucagon is released
peripheral cells release their glucose into bloodstream

120.
A.
B.
C.
D.

In the postabsorptive state:


insulin serves as the regulatory hormone
anabolism exceeds catabolism
protein is the main energy source
glycogen is broken down to release glucose

121. Which of the following incorrectly matches an events of metabolism with the
process occurring.
A. gluconeogenesis; production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate source
B. lipogenesis; triglyceride synthesis
C. glycogenesis; polymerization of glucose
D. transamination; N

H3

synthesis

122. The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known
as:
A. lipolysis
B. fat utilization
C. gluconeogenesis
D. lypogenesis
123.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which:


glycogen is formed
glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
glycogen is broken down to release glucose
glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water

124.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The most abundant dietary lipids are:


cholesterol
phospholipids
fatty acids
neutral fats

125.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is the amount of energy the body needs to maintain life?
BMI
MR
TMR
BMR

126.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following fat-soluble vitamins is not synthesised in the body?


Vitamin E
Vitamin A
Vitamin K
Vitamin D

16

127.
______ is considered "good" cholesterol; high blood levels of this cholesterol
are thought to be beneficial. For example, it prevents atherosclerosis and reduces
the risk of heart attack.
A. HDLs (high density lipoproteins)
B. LDLs (low density lipoproteins)
C. chylomicrons
D. VLDLs (very low density lipoproteins)
128. Cholesterol, while it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body
because:
A. it helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs
B. it is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule
of steroid hormones
C. it helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation
D. it enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered
129.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The term metabolism is best defined as:


measure of carbohydrate utilization
the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats
the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day
the sum of energy produced by all the chemical reactions and mechanical work of
the body

130.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Catabolism involves processes that:


cause a decline in circulating ketone bodies
elevate glucagon levels
break down complex structures to simpler ones
mobilize fat during the postabsorptive state

131.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is a physiological response to hypothermia?


covering up with a blanket
shivering
increasing physical activity
drinking warm fluids

132.
A.
B.
C.

The primary function of cellular respiration is to:


provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
determine the amount of heat needed by the human body
generate ATP, which traps some of the chemical energy of food molecules in its
high-energy bonds
D. efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body

133. Which of the following is not true of a characteristic of a nutrient?


A. carbohydrate is comprised of simple sugars; used as the major fuel source for
cellular respiration
B. protein is comprised of amino acids; used to build structural components of cells
as well as functional components (enzymes)
C. minerals are comprised of electrolytes; important as cofactors
D. vitamins are small inorganic molecules; important as coenzymes; fat-soluble
forms are B and C
134. When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it
indicates increased metabolism of:
A. fatty acids
B. lactic acid
17

C. amino acids
D. glycogen
135.
A.
B.
C.
D.

In carbohydrate metabolism, the carbohydrates:


that are highly refined offer many valuable nutrients in addition to calories
such as the monomer galactose are normally used to make ATP
are converted into fat if present in excess
are converted into fructose by the liver before they enter into general circulation

136.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Among the conditions required for measuring the basal metabolic rate is:
being in an absorptive state
keeping the room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C
remaining in an upright position
sleeping

137.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Vitamins are organic compounds. They:


are also called provitamins if used in catalytic reactions
are classified as water-soluble or protein-soluble classes
may serve as building blocks
often function as coenzymes to assist in catalysis

138.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The hormone responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate is:
insulin
thyroxine
melatonin
glucagon

139.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The thermoregulatory centre is located in the ():


hypothalamus
mitochondrion
thymus gland
liver

140.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Heat-loss mechanisms do not include:


vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
cool air circulating around the body
the evaporation of water
direct loss by touching a cooler object

141. The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important factor in
determining BMR.
A. prolactin
B. thyroxine
C. norepinephrine
D. ADH
142.
A.
B.
C.

Which of the following is not true of uses of a nutrient?


lipids act as short-term fuel; component of membranes
vitamins; most function as coenzymes; not used as structural components
proteins are important structural material (keratin, collagen, etc.) and functional
material
D. minerals; incorporation into some body structures; used in conjunction with
enzymes

143. Which of the following is not used for energy production?


18

A.
B.
C.
D.

triglyceride
cholesterol
protein
glycerol

144. Which of the following is considered a long-term regulator of food intake?


A. cholecystokinin (CCK) levels
B. leptin levels
C. blood concentrations of amino acids and fatty acids
D. stimulation of stretch receptors
145. For a healthy normal individuals, proteins are essential to the body for all of the
following except:
A. formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
B. production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
C. production of energy
D. production of some hormones
146.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The primary function of carbohydrates is to:


maintain a large storehouse of glycogen
contribute to cell structure
form functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
maintain energy production within the cells

147.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Lipogenesis occurs when:


there is a shortage of fatty acids
glucose levels drop slightly
excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane
cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

148. Which of the following incorrectly match a vitamin with its function?
A. Vitamin A; required for synthesis of photoreceptor pigments in vision; integrity of
skin, mucosae, and normal bone; and tooth development
B. Vitamin K; enhances absorption of calcium; works in conjunction with hormones
regulating calcium blood levels
C. Vitamin D; essential for formation of clotting proteins; intermediate in electron
transport; participates in oxidative phosphorylation
D. both B and C
149. In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are
essential to the body for all of the following except:
A. production of energy
B. production of some hormones
C. production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
D. formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
150. Which of the following is not true?
A. calcium is a mineral
B. the major function of HDL is to transport excess cholesterol from peripheral
tissues to the liver
C. gluconeogenesis occurs during cell respiration in the mitochondria
D. before lipids can be metabolized, the fatty acids must undergo beta oxidation to
be converted into two-carbon acetic acid fragments
151.
A.
B.
C.

Which of the following is not true of cholesterol?


85% of blood cholesterol is manufactured in the liver regardless dietary intake
used in building cell membranes
used in synthesis of bile salts
19

D. used to synthesise steroid hormones only in adrenal cortex


152.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following would raise body temperature?


evaporation
sweating
eating a large meal
dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

153.
A.
B.
C.
D.

During fasts lasting several weeks, blood glucose is maintained by:


glycogenolysis
lipolysis
glycolysis
gluconeogenesis

154.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Insulin production is ___________ when the blood _______ levels spike.


lowest, glucose
greatest, glucose
greatest, glucagon
lowest, cholesterol

155. Small intestine receives substances from liver and pancreas for chemical
digestion. Which of the following is not one of these?
A. Vitamin B12
B. bile
C. digestive enzymes except brush border enzymes
D. bicarbonate ions
156. Amino acid rich sources such as ______ are important as they are a primary source
of ______, which is required for_______.
A. meat, glucose, fat production
B. fish, protein, enzyme production
C. pasta, glucose, ATP production
D. cheese, fat, ATP production
157. Which of the following is a micronutrient (that is, a nutrient required in minute
amounts), not a major nutrient?
A. water
B. lipids
C. minerals
D. proteins
158.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Insulin:
is abundant in the blood in the starved state
stimulates glycolysis in liver and muscle
stimulates glycogenesis in liver and muscle tissues
is used to produce ATP in cells

159.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is true of cholesterol?


can function as coenzymes
used to build enzymes
exclusive energy source for neurons
serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma
membrane

160. Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?
A. ATP production
20

B. lipogenesis
C. conversion to a nucleic acid
D. glycogenesis
161. The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel in the
fed state is:
A. fat
B. acetyl CoA
C. glucose
D. cellulose
162.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Minerals are substances that:


include carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen
are the major electrolytes in the blood
help maintain body heat balance
help to form enzyme structures

163.
A.
B.
C.
D.

A major means for conserving heat is:


increased convective loss
vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
increased metabolic rate

164.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not a use of fat deposits in adipose tissue?


used in ATP production
help absorb fat-soluble vitamins
insulation
cushions around organs

165.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following incorrectly matches a term and its description?


ketonanemia; ketones in blood
ketonuria; ketones appear in urine, common symptom in diabetes
ketoacidosis; metabolic acidosis by decreased ketone levels in blood
ketosis; resulted when ketone bodies accumulate in blood

166.
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is an example of catabolism?


lipid synthesis
using amino acids to make a protein
cellular respiration
absorbing nutrients into the blood from the intestines
A low-density lipoprotein would contain:
a high protein content
a high lipid content
a low lipid content
a low cholesterol content

168. When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it
usually indicates increased metabolism of:
A. proteins
B. fats
C. glucose
D. lactic acid
169.
A.
B.
C.
D.

What is the preferred use order of energy sources for the body?
glycogen, blood glucose, protein, fat
blood glucose, glucagon, fat, protein
blood glucose, glycogen, fat, protein
the body has no preference for which energy sources to use
21

170.
Most vitamins:
A. have only one function in the body
B. function as coenzymes in the body
C. are metabolized to make ATP
D. are used as building blocks for the body
171.
A.
B.
C.
D.

One function of vitamin A is to:


assist in blood clotting
transfer electrons in cellular respiration
help with calcium absorption
form visual pigments

172.
A.
B.
C.
D.

A function of the liver during the post-absorptive state is to:


electron transport to release glucose
glycolysis
store excess glucose by glycogenesis
mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis

173.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive state is:
thyroxine
ADH
insulin
glucagon

22

174.
The role of _____________ is to transport excessive cholesterol from
peripheral tissue to the liver, where it is broken down and becomes part of bile.
A. high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
B. very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
C. low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
D. Chylomicrons
175.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The official medical measurement of obesity is the:


proportion of bone density to weight
basal metabolic rate
body mass index
weight of a person compared to his or her height

176. ___________ acts to suppress appetite by inhibiting _____, which is the mostpowerful known appetite stimulant.
A. leptin; neuropeptide Y
B. growth hormone; lipase
C. insulin; glucagon
D. serotonin; adrenaline
177.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not one of complex carbohydrates?


pectin
starch
cellulose
none of the above

178.
A.
B.
C.
D.

In the absorptive state:


insulin serves as the regulatory hormone
glycogen is broken down to release glucose
fats are the main energy fuel
catabolism exceeds anabolism

179. The ability to convert one type of molecule to another is truly remarkable in the
body, specially:
A. pancreas
B. skeletal muscle
C. adipose tissue
D. liver
180.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not a result of over-nutrition?


kwashiorkor
insulin resistance
metabolic syndrome
type II diabetes

181.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is not one of simple carbohydrates?


maltose
glucose
fructose
galactose

182.
A.
B.
C.

Which of the following organ does not prefer fatty acids as an energy fuel?
liver
cardiac muscle
resting skeletal muscles
23

D. brain
183. In the absorptive state, the main thrust is
. In the post-absorptive state, the main thrust is
.
A. catabolism, glucagon; anabolism, insulin
B. anabolism, insulin; catabolism, glycogen
C. hydrolysis, glucagon; synthesis, insulin
D. anabolism, insulin; catabolism, glucagon
184.
A.
B.
C.
D.

and main hormone is


and main hormone is

Ingested
are absorbed via lymph.
monosaccharides
amino acids
fats
nucleic acids

185. The increased use of non-carbohydrate fuel molecules to conserve glucose is


called:
A. glucose sparing
B. gluconeogenesis
C. post-absorptive state
D. catabolism

For personal use only, last update:


1st August 2015 by Incognitus
16th February 2014 by RD
incognitus94@gmail.com

24