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to the Celestial City. However, he

warns Christian that there are many
turn-offs and windings that digress
from the Way, causing harm or destruction. Not understanding
what it will take
to be relieved of
his burden,
Christian inquires
about Goodwills ability to relieve
him of it, to which Goodwill replies, As to thy Burden, be content to bear it, until thou comest
to the place of Deliverance; for there
it will fall from thy back of itself.
Shortly after bidding farewell
to Goodwill, Christian encounters
the home of the Interpreter. He
shows Christian seven scenes full
of instruction and wisdom for his
coming journey, each of which fills
Christian with both hope and caution while preparing him for his
journey ahead.
Christian continues his journey,
coming to a highway fenced on
either side with a wall called Salvation. As Christian comes upon this
portion of the Way, he begins to
run and comes to a hill. At the top
of the hill is a Cross, and as Christian reaches it his burden effortlessly falls from his back, tumbling
down the hill and falling into a
tomb, never to be seen again.

Christian begins his journey in the City of Destruction, his hometown.
There he realizes he has a great burden on his back that he is unable to
unload on his own. As the torment of his burden grows, so does his inability
to focus on anything but relieving himself of it. Unable to hide his emotions
and grief, he pleads for his familys understanding about his burden, hoping
to help them realize that they, too, carry burdens. They, however, laugh
at his proclamations, and as time passes and he continues to lament and
grieve, they eventually turn to scoffing and even neglecting him altogether.
Christian seeks desperately for an answer to his dilemma, and one day,
as he is crying out, he encounters a man named Evangelist. Evangelist tells
him that he must travel to the Wicket Gate to find relief from his burden.
Immediately Christian runs toward it, not listening to his wife, his children,
or any of the townspeople who call after him to return.
After falling into the Slough of Despond and being rescued by a man
named Help, Christian runs into Mr. Worldly Wiseman who convinces
him that there is an easier way to be relieved of his burden than to travel
the path of the Wicket Gate. In the town of Morality lives a man named
Legality who can spare Christian the pain of his burden, and Christian,
being eager to be released from his load, changes his direction and heads
toward Morality. As his load grows heavier along the way, so does his fear
of being crushed beneath it. Just as Christian loses hope, Evangelist meets
him again and lovingly chastises him for being so easily persuaded as to think
that Legality can set him free. Christian immediately realizes his folly, repents, and returns to follow the path to the Wicket Gate.
The keeper of the Wicket Gate is Goodwill. Upon admitting Christian
through the gate, Goodwill proceeds to tell him about the journey he must
take to relieve himself of his burden and obtain access to the Celestial City.
Before him lies a narrow path, the Way, which is straight all the way through

When God releases us of
our Guilt and Burden, we are as
those that leap for Joy.

Thus Christian finds himself

relieved of the fearful, laborious
burden. He wonders at the Cross
for a long while, amazed that such
a thing could free him from all he
despises of himself. Soon his joy
becomes overwhelming gratitude,
and he cries out:
Thus far did I come laden with
my Sin; Nor could ought ease the
grief that I was in, I came hither:
What a place is this! Must here be
the beginning of my bliss? Must
here the Burden fall from off my
back?Must here the strings that
bound it to me crack? Blest Cross!
blest Sepulchre! blest rather beThe
MAN that was there was put to
Shame for me!
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As he weeps, three Shining Ones approach him, each bearing a purpose

and a gift. Acting in turn, the first One says, Thy Sins be forgiven. The
second strips him of his rags, clothing him with Change of Raiment.
The third marks his forehead and gives him a roll with a seal on it, solemnly
charging him to read it during his journey and to present it upon his
arrival at the Celestial Gate.
Christian continues his journey toward the Celestial Gate, having
fallen in love with the One on the Cross who took his burden from him.
While traveling, he encounters Formalist and Hypocrisy climbing over
the wall of Salvation. As he dialogues with them, their discussion centers
on customs, traditions, laws, and ordinances. They debate whether the
Lord will consider them trespassers or admit them into the Celestial City
since they have climbed the wall instead of entering through the Wicket
Gate. They claim the customs of their countrymen as authoritative, and
these authoritative customs give them reason to continue without further
They continue in silence, coming to the hill Difficulty. There they
find the narrow way going straight up the hill, and two paths around it
called Danger and Destruction. Christian chooses to travel up the hill,
but Formalist and Hypocrisy elect rather to travel the two paths around
where they find destruction.
Difficultys incline is so steep in some places that Christian is forced
to crawl on his hands and knees. About midway up the hill, he comes to
an Arbour which tempts him to to sit and rest. When he yields, he falls
into a deep sleep, dropping the roll the Shining One had given him. After
some time he awakes and starts on his way, unaware of his lost roll. At the
top of the hill, he discovers it is gone. Distraught, he retraces his steps back
to the Arbour where he searches, chastising himself for indulging his laziness by sleeping in a place meant for refreshment. Recovering the roll, he
is filled with joy tempered with repentance at his dereliction. After retracing
his steps, darkness falls and Christian is aware that he cannot see the dangers
lurking before him. Though afraid, he decides there is no turning back.
Christian sees a palace named Beautiful and hurries toward it. Along
the Way, however, are two lions which strike his heart with fear. But the
palaces porter, named Watchful, is keeping an eye out for pilgrims, and
he sees Christian. He calls out to Christian, encouraging him to not fear


Christian has only gone a brief way in the Valley of Humiliation

when he encounters a furious dragon named Apollyon. Though full of
fear, Christian resolutely decides to stand his ground, for had I no more
in mine Eye than the saving of my life, twould be the best way to stand.
Apollyon calls Christian a traitor, claiming the right as lord over him. He
flatters Christian for a while, feigning concern over the weakness of his
faith and offering mercy to him if he will return to Apollyons service.
As Christian resists, Apollyon seethes with rage and recounts the sins
of Christian and describes the rejection he is sure to face before the Lord.
Christian stands strong, and the two fight. Christian fights awkwardly
with his sword, but Apollyon overpowers him. In a last effort, Christian
calls out Rejoyce not against me, O mine Enemy! When I fall, I shall
arise! and gives a blow to Apollyon that deals him a severe wound, and
Apollyon flies away.

the lions. He gives Christian instructions on how to pass without being

harmed. Christian arrives at the porters house, asking to lodge for the
Watchful is curious about Christian,
so he proceeds to ask him questions
about who he is and where he is from,
trying to determine if Christian is indeed true to the Lord. After Christian
explains who he is, Watchful calls for
Discretion, asking her to also examine
Christian. She calls for Prudence,
Charity, and Piety, and they all agree
that Christian is welcome to lodge.
They provide refreshment and conversation for him late into the night.
Finally, Christian enters a chamber
of Peace where he sleeps until morning.
At daybreak, the family shows
Christian around the Palace, allowing
him to see the history of the Lord
and his followers. The palace is full
of wonderful stories of warriors past,
treasured armory and relics, and visions of what is to come on the Way.
Christian rests there several days, and
upon departing is given a sword,
shield, helmet, breastplate, prayer,
and shoes to aid him in his journey.
Discretion, Prudence, and Piety accompany him down the other side
of hill Difficulty, for as it was difficult
going up, so it is difficult going down.
After his descent, he finds and enters
the Valley of Humiliation.

A more unequal Match can

hardly be: Christian must fight an
Angel; but you see The Valiant Man,
by handling Sword and Shield, Doth
make him, tho a Dragon, quit the
A hand comes to Christian with
leaves from the Tree of Life to help
heal his wounds from the battle; and
being refreshed with food given him
by the porters family, he continues
on the Way.
After the Valley of Humiliation,
Christian comes to the Valley of the
Shadow of Death. Jeremiah 2:6 describes it as, a wilderness, a land of
deserts, and of pits; a land of drought,
and of the shadow of death, a land
that no man (but a Christian) passeth through, and where no man dwelt.
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This land is more formidable than Apollyon was to Christian: It is

utterly black, with the Way becoming so narrow that just a step to the
right is a ditch and to the left is a quagmire. Goblins and demons clamor
after him, and in a crescendo of panic he cries out, I will walk in the
Strength of the Lord! sending them to swift retreat. His mind is in such
confusion that at one point a wicked one sneaks up behind him, whispering
blasphemies that Christian believes himself to be saying. He becomes
distraught, not knowing how to discern between his own thoughts and
those of others. His confusion breaks when he hears a man in front of
him reciting Scriptures and encouraging Christian to continue forward.
Though Christian hurriedly tries to apprehend the man, he encounters
no one. Eventually, day breaks and Christian passes from the first part
of the Valley of the Shadow of Death to the second.
The second part of the Valley is worse than the first because it is set
with traps and snares of all kinds across the Way. Had it been dark, his
doom would certainly have come. However, Christian praises the Lord
for His mercy, for day has dawned and Christian finds his way easily
through this second portion.
At the end of the Valley of the Shadow of Death, Christian meets
Faithful, one from his own hometown. Together they travel, discussing
their testimonies of where they have been, what they have encountered,
and what they have learned along the Way.
Soon they encounter Talkative and begin a dialogue with him.
Christian warns Faithful not to be deceived by Talkatives ability to carry
a seemingly wise and religious conversation, for the claims Talkative
makes do not match his actions. This observation brings about the
discussion of works without faith and faith without works, as well as the
impact of the grace of God on a mans heart. And so, Faithful challenges
Talkatives ideas with a question regarding how the grace of God on a
mans heart shows itself true in a mans life. Talkative becomes offended
when his words and doctrine are shown to be without Truth, and he
departs from Christian and Faithful.
As Christian and Faithful continue, they again encounter Evangelist,
who inquires about their journey thus far. Evangelist hears all that they
have been through and exhorts them for being victorious in their travels.
Christian asks for insight into what is to come along the Way. He is told
that because of the faith he and Faithful have, one of them will undoubtedly
be martyred, but he is challenged not to despair because the martyred
one will join the Lord in the Celestial City while the other will continue
on the journey.
As they depart from Evangelist, the two Pilgrims arrive at a town
called Vanity. In this town, there is a year-long fair named Vanity-Fair
where merchants sell every lust and vanity imaginable. As Christian and
Faithful enter the town, everyone notices the coats on their backs, full
of radiance and color. When one merchant asks them what they want to
buy, they reply that they would like to buy the Truth.
The crowd reacts violently, proclaiming Christian and Faithful to be
insane. They are arrested, beaten, and put in a cage for all to see and
mock. Through their bitter treatment, neither despises their captors.
Rather, they return kind words and patience for their beatings, thereby
influencing some at the fair. However, others become furious and rule
that for the havoc they have wreaked in Vanity, they should be put to
death. Faithful is tried, found guilty, and then beaten, stabbed, and
stoned to death. Just before Christian goes to trial, he is secretly and
miraculously released and walks from Vanity unharmed.

Christian continues on his journey, and he is shortly joined by

Hopeful. Having been inspired to
leave Vanity by the example of
Christian and Faithfuls behavior
during the trials, Hopeful asks and
then is allowed to join Christian
on his journey.

Thus, one died

to make testimony
to the Truth,
and another rises
out of his ashes.
Along their way they encounter
By-ends from Fair-speech and enter
into a discussion. They find that
By-ends is religious when it suits
his social standing or feelings. He
will never strive against Wind
and Tide, and he is most zealous
when Religion goes in his Silver
Slippers; we love much to walk with
him in the street, if the Sun shines
and the People applaud him.
Christian challenges By-ends that
if they are to journey together, Byends will have to forsake all to follow the Way, whether comfortable
or not, and at that By-ends takes
his leave.
As Christian and Hopeful continue, they look back and see Byends has new friends: Mr. Holdthe-World, Mr. Money-love, and
Mr. Save-all. By-ends joins them
in conversation and poses the question: Suppose a man, a Minister,
or a Tradesman, should have an
advantage lie before him, to get
the good blessings of this life, yet so
as that he can by no means come
by them, except, in appearance at
least, he becomes extraordinarily
zealous in some points of Religion
that he meddled not with before;
may he not use this Means to attain
his End, and yet be a right honest
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All four men believe that Scripture justifies these actions. And, as they
talk, they wonder how Christian and Hopeful would answer and decide
to join them and ask. Christian answers the question for both he and
Hopeful, also with Scripture, and states

That man who takes up Religion

for the world, will throw away
Religion for the World.
Once again, Christian and Hopeful separate from By-ends and his
friends. Christian and Hopeful come to a plain called Ease, and they cross
it peacefully. However, the plain is short and they soon come upon hill
Lucre. In that hill is a Silver-Mine that traps many on the Way, turning
them aside to see the rarity of it and leading them to their death. Christian
and Hopeful pass by the mine, keeping on the Way, but notice that Byends and his friends turn to stop at it. No one knows what happens next,
but they are never seen on the Way again.
The two Pilgrims come to a meadow with a river running through
it~a meadow full of delicious fruit, of trees with leaves for healing, and
of much rest. Having stayed some time, they continue on the Way. The
river and the Way part, and the Way grows rough on their feet, discouraging
them as they go. After traveling uncomfortably for a time, a meadow
called By-Path-Meadow opens up on the side of the Way with a more
comfortable path to travel. Christian persuades Hopeful to journey to
the meadow with him. Night comes upon them and they loose their direction. Bemoaning their circumstances, they turn to retrace their steps
back to the Way. A storm rolls in and they find a shelter in which to lie
down and sleep for the night, not knowing they have trespassed through
Giant Despairs land, who finds them asleep in the shelter.
He takes them prisoner to his castle, Doubting-Castle, where he beats
them and throws them into his dungeon. Giant Despair beats them again
after several days, and after their beatings, he advises the men to commit
suicide or else he would make their lives so miserable that they would
wish they had done so. Christian is so distraught that he considers the
situation and wonders whether the idea is a good one, but Hopeful continues to encourage Christian through the trial, persuading him to trust
fully in the Lord. One night while Christian and Hopeful are praying,
Christian realizes he carries a Key called Promise that unlocks any door
in Doubting-Castle and with this key, they escape the castle and Giant
Finding the Way once again, they rejoice at the mercy of the Lord.
Continuing, they come to the Delectable Mountains that belong to the
Lord and contain vineyards, orchards, and springs~all of which are refreshing to the soul. On the tops of the mountains are Shepherds feeding their
flocks, and the two men stop to converse with them about the lands. As
the Shepherds grow comfortable with Christian and Hopeful, they take
them to see the wonders of the mountains and Christian and Hopeful
are encouraged by the sight of them. At their departure from the Delectable
Mountains, one of the Shepherds gives Christian and Hopeful a Note
of the Way. Another bids them to beware of the Flatterer, the third advises them to be sure not to sleep in the Enchanted Ground, and the
fourth wishes them Godspeed.
The Pilgrims continue on their journey, and Christian begins to tell
a story about Little Faith and his travel to the Celestial City:
Little Faith was from the town of Sincere, and he was a good man.
He began his journey on the Way and happening upon a lane called

Dead-mans-lane, he laid down

and slept. As he slept, three thieves
came upon him, beat him, and
stole his silver. Little Faith was very
distraught at losing his money, for
it was most of what he had for the
journey ahead; however, he possessed jewels that the thieves did
not steal. He was forced to beg for
the rest of his journey to keep himself alive, but he would not sell his
This story keeps a conversation going between Christian and
Hopeful for quite some time as
Hopeful does not understand why
Little Faith did not sell his jewels
to support himself. Christian explains that had Little Faith sold his
jewels, he would have been excluded from an Inheritance at the Gate
of the Celestial City and that exclusion would be worse to him than
anything he could have gained
from selling them. Little Faiths
mind was on things Divine, not
on things earthly.
As their talk ends they come to
two roads, both as straight as the
Way, and they are unsure of which
direction to go. As they are thinking, a man black of Flesh, but
covered with a very light Robe
comes to them and beckons them
to follow him, so they do. He leads
them to a trap net and they become
so entangled they cannot escape.
The white robe falls off the man,
and they discover they have been
misled by a Flatterer, about whom
the Shepherds had warned them.
While they struggle, a Shining One
sets them free and leads them back
on the Way, but not before chastising them with a whip to teach them
wisdom while explaining that the
Lord chastises those he loves.
They continue on, and Hopeful
becomes drowsy. Christian realizes
that they are entering the Enchanted
Ground, which the Shepherds also
warned them of, and so he begins
a dialogue with Hopeful about conversion to help Hopeful stay awake.
Hopeful explains that he was perfectly content at Vanity Fair, participating in selling and buying, reveling and drinking, and uncleanness of all kinds and more. When
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