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Salahaddin University Erbil

College of Science
Chemistry Department

Lab Report

Inorganic Chemistry
Name of experiment:
i.
ii.

Preparations of tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate.


Determination NH3 in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O).

iii.

Determination Cu (II) in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O).

Prepared by Students:
i.
Kosary Yasin Ahmed
ii. Omer Taha Abdulqader
iii. Aram Aziz Qader

Started date 29/10/2015, ended date 5/11/2015


Supervised by Dr. Azad H Mahdy, MSc. Sardar, & MSc. Adnan

Introduction
Tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula
[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)n]SO4. This dark blue solid is a metal complex with faint odor of
ammonia. It is closely related to Schweizer's reagent, which is used for the
production of cellulose fibers in the production of rayon. It is used to print fabrics,
used as a pesticide and to make other copper compounds like copper nano-powder.

Synthesis
synthesis the coordination compound tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4H2O. This will be accomplished by adding concentrated ammonia
(NH3) to copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate which will displace the water molecules
bound in theoriginal copper complex, and a dramatic color change occurs.
The reaction of ammonia with the copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate is a two-step
process. In the first step, solid copper (II) hydroxide is formed which is light blue in
color. The Cu(OH)2(s) dissolves as additional quantities of ammonia are added in
the second step to form the dark blue [Cu(NH3)4]2+ complex.
Reaction 1:
[Cu(H2O)4]SO4H2O
NH4+(aq)

(aq)

+ 2NH3

(aq)

Cu (H2O)2(OH)2]SO4 H2O

(s)

+2

Reaction 2:
Cu(H2O)2(OH)2]SO4 H2O
SO4H2O (aq) +4 H2O (l)

(s)

+ 2 NH4+(aq) + 2 NH3

(aq)

[Cu(NH3)4]

The overall net equation for the reaction is


Cu(H2O)4]SO4H2O

(aq)

+ 4 NH3

(aq)

[Cu(NH3)4]SO4H2O + +4 H2O

(l)

Chemical Reaction and Solubility


The deep blue crystalline solid tends to hydrolyse and evolve (release) ammonia
upon standing in air.[1] It is fairly soluble in water. The brilliant dark blue-violet
color of tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate solution is due to presence of
[Cu(NH3)4]2+. Often, the dark blue-violet color is used as a positive test to
verify the presence of Cu2+ in a solution.

Structure and Properties


The solid state salt of tetraammine copper (II) sulfate contains the
[Cu(NH3)4H2O]2+, which has a square pyramidal molecular geometry. The
bond length between the atoms in the crystal are measured using X-ray
crystallography; the Cu-N and Cu-O distances are about 210 and 233 pm.[3]
Cu(NH3)The correct concentrations of ammonia and copper sulfate solution can
be determined by colorimetry. The combination of the correct concentrations will
produce the highest absorbance read out on the colorimeter and as a result the
formula of the complex can be verified.

Uses
Most pesticides contain ammonium sulfate. Tetraammine copper sulfate is often
used as a starting material to make ammonium sulfate. Ammonium sulfate is used as
an agricultural spray adjuvant for water-soluble insecticides, herbicides, and
fungicides. There, it functions to bind iron and calcium cations that are present in
both well water and plant cells. It is particularly effective as an adjuvant for 2, 4-D
(amine), glyphosate, and glufosinate herbicides.[4]The brilliant dark blue-violet
color and a good solubility make tetraammine copper (II) sulfate an excellent
chemical to dye fabrics. Some of the recent research and development for copper
include various studies of tetraaminecopper (II) sulfate. One such research is
Chemical reduction method for preparing copper nano-powder with high purity
using sodium hypophosphite as reductant, which uses tetraaminecopper (II)
sulfate.

Determination ammonia (NH3) and Copper (CU) percentage


To determine the percentage ammonia and copper in the amine-copper sulfate
coordination compound, [Cu(NH3)x]SO4 * y H2O, synthesized in a previous lab
period and from this deduce a value for the number of coordinated ammonia
molecules x and the number of waters of hydration, y, in the molecular formula.
The moles of ammonia present in a sample of the solid salt will be determined by
an acid-base titration using standardized hydrochloric acid. Upon dissolution of the
compound in water the ammonia ligands are displaced by water:
1) [Cu(NH3)x]SO4*yH2O + xH2O -->[Cu(H2O)x]2++xNH3+SO42-+y H2O
The basic ammonia molecules are then neutralized with HCl to a methyl-orange
end-point according to the 1:1 reaction:
2) x NH3 + x HCl --> x NH4+ + x ClThe moles of copper in the sample will be determined by an oxidation-reduction
titration involving first reduction of Cu (II) to Cu (I) with excess iodide ion:
3) 2 Cu 2+ + 5 I- --> 2 CuI + I3The dark-brown colored triiodide ion, I3-, will then be titrated with standardized
sodium thiosulfate solution according to the reaction:
4) I3- + 2 S2O3 2- --> 3 I- + S4O6 2The endpoint is to be detected using a starch solution as an indicator. By adding
reactions 3) and 4) and dividing through by the common factor of two, the mole
relationship between copper-present and the thiosulfate used is determined to be
1:1.
5) Cu2+ + I- + S2O3 2- --> CuI + 1/2 S4O6 2To obtain the percentages of other consitituents of the solid, namely the sulfate
anion and the water content, an indirect means will be used. The % SO4 2- will be
taken to be 1.51 times the average % Cu found in the sample on the assumption
that for every mole of copper (2+) cation there must be a mole of sulfate (2-)
anion. Finally the percent by weight of water in the sample can be taken to the
difference between the sum of the percent by weights of the other three species
and 100%.
To deduce the chemical formula for the coordination compound containing the
copper-ammonia complex cation, sulfate anion and waters of hydration,
[Cu(NH3)x]SO4 * y H2O that was synthesized during a previous laboratory
session.

The percent ammonia in a sample of the solid salt will be determined by an acidbase titration based on the reaction between ammonia and hydrochloric acid.
x NH3 + x HCl --> x NH4Cl
The percent copper in the sample will be dtermined by an oxidation-titration
involving the overall reaction:
Cu 2+ + I- + S2O3 2- --> CuI + 1/2 S4O6 2The percent sulfate in the sample will be taken as 1.51 times the percent copper
in the sample based on the assumption that for every copper ion in the sample
there must be a sulfate anion. The factor of 1.51 comes from the ratio of the
molecular weights of SO4 2- and Cu2+. The percent by weight of water in the
sample can then be taken to be the difference between the sum of the percent by
weight of the other species and 100%.
Ok here is what I need after all the information.
% NH3 and % Cu based upon the calculations given at the beginning.

Materials Used In:


i.

Preparations of tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate:


a) Cupper sulfate (CuSO4) use for the sample
b) Water (H2O) use for dissolving the sample
c) Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
The addition of ammonia can shift the equilibrium, because The precipitate Cu(OH)2
which is formed is not stable, so it can be dissolved again., which causes the formation
of complexes [Cu (NH3)4]SO4 according this equations:
CuSO4 (aq) + NH4OH Cu(OH)2 (s) + (NH4)2SO4
CuSO4 (aq) + 4NH3 (aq) [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 (aq)

d) Ethanol use for precipitating agent and for washing the precipitate and dissoving.
ii.

Determination NH3 in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O):


a) Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) use for dissociating the complex to ions.
b) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH use for (as titrant)
c) Methyl Red use for (as indicator for detecting the end point by changing the color)

Procedure
Preparations of tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate:

1 gm of cupper sulfate

3 ml of Water
(H2O)

then add

then

(CuSO4)

dissolve in

10 ml
Ammonium hydroxide
(NH4OH)

After that add

Stir the mixture for 5 min

5 ml of Ethanol

Stir for 15 min. and


cool the mixture in ice
bath

Dry the ppt. in


air

Wash ppt. by 2ml of


ethanol

Filter the mixture

Determination NH3 percentage in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O):

dissolve in

35 ml of HCl
(0.1M)

Then titrated with

NaOH solution
(o.1M)
Then add

0.1gm of complex
Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O

At end point change the


color from pink to light
orange

Methyl red as
indicator

Determination Copper() percentage in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O):


dissolve in

20 ml of HCl
(2M)

Add

NH4OH (Conc.) drop wise


until the color of the mixture
changed to dark blue
Then add

0.1gm of complex
Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O

CH3COOH solution (2N) slowly

Then add

until the color of the mixture changed


to light greenish Blue blue

Titrated I2 Liberated with standard


solution of Na2S2O3 (0.1N) by
using starch as indicator

Then

0.6 g of KI to the solution

Result
Preparations of tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate:
Weight of filter paper
Weight of complex + filter paper

1.34 gm
2.0 gm

Weight of complex

0.66 gm

Percentage of yield

42.88 %

Determination NH3 in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O):


Weight of NH3 in Complex

0.0272 gm

Percentage of NH3 in Complex

27.2 %

Percentage of error

1.69 %

Determination Cu (II) in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O):


Weight of Cu (II) in Complex
Percentage of Cu (II) in Complex
Percentage of error

0.3087 gm
30.87 %
- 19 %

Discussion & conclusion


1-To synthesis tetraamminecopper(II) sulphate(VI) monohydrate
Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O.
2- To Determination NH3 in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O.
3- To Determination Cu (II) in the complex Cu(NH3)4]SO4.H2O.

During of the experiment one, the complex salt Cu(NH3)4 SO4.H2O was produced
when the cupric salt is dissolved in excess ammonia. It will formed a dark blue
solution due to the formation of Cu(NH3)4

2+

complex ions, Then put the solution

in ice bath for an quarter hour, This steps is important to make sure that the
complex ions will form completely. The reason that we used ice bath in this
experiment is to help the process of recrystallization occur a lot faster than the
usual. After the filtration process The crystal of complex are formed in dark blue
color precipitate of [Cu(NH3)4SO4] on filter paper and the filtrate is clear blue.

In the second part of the experiment, determined of NH3 in the complex salt
Cu(NH3)4 SO4.H2O by (indirect method) using titration, after dissociating the
complex by (HCl) titrating with (NaOH) using the methyl red for detecting end
point, at end point the color change from pink to light orange.

In the third part of the experiment, we determined of Cu (II) in the complex salt
Cu(NH3)4 SO4.H2O by iodometric method (indirect method) meaning we cannot
direct use I2 therefore we use KI as reducing agent, KI reduced the Cu+2 to Cu+ and
itself (KI) is oxidized to I2 ,thus the number of equivalent of Cu+ equal to number of
equivalent I2 therefor by these way we can determine number of equivalent of Cu+2
in the complex salt Cu(NH3)4 SO4.H2O, during titration we use starch as indicator
the color of the solution changed to dark brown when titrated the solution with
Na2S2O3 at end point the color changed to colorless.

While in the first experiment the mass that we obtained for complex salt,
Cu(NH3)4SO4 .H2O is (0.66gm), which is less than the theoretical value,(1.539
gm). Thus the yield percentage that is obtained is (42.88 %). While carrying out
this experiment there might be some errors occurred that may effects the
percentage of yield to be less than the theoretical value. For example not
completely dissolved the sample, some of the samples remain in the flask or when
we filtered the salt, we might not do it the right way. There might be a salt that is
not well filtered. Besides that, loss some of the complex during transferred the
precipitate during weighting it. There are also some problems when we need to take
the weight of the salts. The reading of the balance was not stable maybe due to the
impurities from the previous experiment that was left inside it.

In the second experiment the mass that we obtained for NH3 (0.0272 gm) which is
less than the theoretical value,(0.02769 gm).Thus the error percentage that is
obtained is (1.69 %), so I think this value of error returned for bad precaution
special during reading the buret at end point.

In the second experiment, the practical weight of the Cu+2 equal to (0.03087 gm)
which is greater than the theoretical value (0.02585 gm). Thus the error
percentage that is obtained is (-19 %), so I think this value of error returned for
presence of impurity in the complex salt Cu(NH3)4 SO4.H2O and bad precaution
special during reading the buret at end point & many factors.

References
1. www.chemistrylabmanual.com
2. Wikipedia:
i.
ii.

iii.

American Elements The material science company; tetraammine


copper(II)
sulfate monohydrate; CAS 10380-29-7
Morosin "The Crystal Structures of Copper Tetraammine Complexes. A.
Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O and Cu(NH3)4SeO4" Acta Cryst. 1969, vol.
B25, pp. 19-30. doi:10.1107/S0567740869001725
Li, Yudan; Wang, Wenjie; He, Chuan.; Chemical reduction method for
preparing copper nanopowder with high purity using sodium
hypophosphite as reductant, Faming Zhuanli Shenqing, Dec 4, 2013, CN
103418801