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Election Observation Mission

Zanzibar 2015

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

1. Background on the observation mission


The Africa Liberal Network (ALN) conducted an election observation mission to Zanzibar with
the aim of monitoring and reporting on the elections on this island. The mission comprised the
following observers:
o Rosemary Kariuki-Machua (leader of delegation, ALN Vice President for East Africa)
o Stevens Mokgalapa (Democratic Alliance MP, South Africa, ALN Vice President for Southern
Africa)
o Roy Jankielsohn (Democratic Alliance MPL, South Africa)
o Hubertus von Welck (Regional Director, FNF)
o Luke Akal (ALN Coordinator)
The observers arrived in Zanzibar ON 26 October 2015. The work of the commiss io n
commenced the next morning after accreditation at the ZEC.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

From left to right: Rosemary Kariuki-Machua, Hubertus von Welck, Steven Mokgalapa, Roy
Jankielsohn, Luke Akal.

2. Pre-Election environment
The electoral history of Zanzibar has been fraught with violence and there were expectations
for an improvement in this situation. The 2000 elections were followed by violence that led to
the exodus of 2000 CUF (Civic United Front) supporters to Kenya after clashes with police in
which 35 people were killed and 600 injured. In 2005 the death toll was similar. Internatio n a l
observers found instances of vote rigging, illegal voting, and an overwhelming presence of
security forces. During the 2010 elections a truce between CUF and the ruling CCM (Chadema
Cha Mapinduzi) prevented a recurrence of violence. In spite of the minor difference in votes

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

the election ended with party leaders congratulating each other. Election observers
unanimously declared the elections free and fair (Jussa, 2015: 1 & ZEC, 2015(a): 15-27).
The 2015 election started peacefully due to a government of national unity. As elections
loomed the political environment became more hostile with provocative comments made by
leaders at political party rallies. The CCM and CUF differ over a new constitution with CUF
expressing separatist sentiments. Currently Zanzibar remains a semi-autonomous archipela go
of Tanzania (ZEC, 2015(a): 27).
The registration process in 2015 was also marred by some allegations of violence against
opposition members by security forces (Jussa, 2015: 1). These allegations were reported by
some media and CUF. However, the Zanzibar Police denied that any such issues were of
significance and would not threaten the election process.

3. Electoral structures
The ZEC (Zanzibar Electoral Commission) is responsible for ensuring free and fair elections
in Zanzibar. The ZEC initiated a process that resulted in the development of a strategic plan
for the institution (Strategic Plan 2015-2019). This also led to a review of existing electoral
documents and the initiation of new ones. Observers and the media were provided with the
following documents by the ZEC:

Code of Ethics for Political Parties, Government, Police and ZEC.


Guidelines for the Public Media.
Guidelines and Code of Conduct for Observers.
Organisational Structure of the ZEC.
ZECs scheme of service.

The strategic plan also led to legislative reviews that based on the following pillars of the ZEC,
namely:

Strengthening the ZECs independence.


Legal framework for Electoral Appeals.
Voter Registration Permanent Voters Register.
Elections and Boundary Delimitation.
Voter Education and Public Relations.
Professional and Organisational development.
Gender, Social Inclusion and Stakeholder Engagement.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

The above led to a voter registration process. This was initially marred by problems with
Zanzibar Residence Identity cards (ZAN IDs) which are a prerequisite for registration. The
ZEC reports that the process improved by May to June 2015.
Another result of the review were some changes in the boundary delimitation. The Census 2012
led to a review of boundaries in terms of Acts 3/95 and 4/95 that were regulated by regional
administration and local government. Acts 7/2014 and 8/2014 that came into effect in May
2015 stripped the responsibility of delimitation of wards and Shehias from the ZEC and
replaced it with the Minister responsible for Regional Administration and Local Governme nt.
The ZEC restricted itself to the constituency delimitation that increased constituencies for the
House of Representatives from 50 to 54. The ZEC indicated that no complaints were received
regarding the delimitation process (ZEC, 2015(a): 29-30).

4. Registration of ALN observers


The registration of the ALN observers took place early on 23 October 2015 at the ZEC collatio n
centre.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

The process was efficient and without undue delays. Observers each received an accreditatio n
document with a photograph of the observer (which was to be on display at all times) as well
as a file with various documents that included an electoral history of Zanzibar, a list of polling
stations per constituency, and codes of conduct.

5. Visits to polling stations: 23 October 2015


The mission split into two groups that visited various polling stations. Polling stations includ ed :
Skuli ya Kwampura (Amani constituency), Skuli ya Msingi and Skuli ya Primari ya Nyerere
(Magomeni constituency), Skuli ya Maandalazi (Mfenesini constituency), and Skuli ya Bububu
(Bububu constituency), amongst others.
It was noted that some tents were already erected for voting at Skuli ya Maandalazi in
preparation for election day. The observers were also alerted to a problem with a double
registration of a voter at Skuli ya Nyerere (see photo below):

Observers were impressed by the posting of voter details inclusive of photographs outside of
polling stations. Voters were also divided in groups of about 350 into various classrooms to
expedite the voting process (see photographs below):

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

It was also evident at all polling stations that voters were using the opportunities made possible
to them to verify their details on the voters roll outside of schools see photographs below):

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

6. Briefing by the ZEC: 23 October 2015


The ZEC briefed observers and the media on their preparations for the elections at their results
centre. Computers were available for use of political parties, observers, and media at the results
centre. The ZEC Chairman Jecha Salum Jecha briefed the meeting on systematic issues relating
to the elections as well as preparations for the elections. He indicated that they have a firstpast-the-post system linked with a proportional representation system whereby House of
Representatives Women special seats are allocated and Councillor special seats, both according
to the amount of seats of political parties in both structures. The ZEC has seven commissio ne rs
appointed by the President of Zanzibar in consultation with the Leader of Government Business
in the House of Representatives and two members after consultation with the Leader of the
Opposition in the House of Representatives (or alternatively if this post does not exist with
political parties). One member is from sitting judges and one at the discretion of the President.
All commissioners serve for five years. Section 119(11) and (12) guarantees the independence
of the ZEC. In terms of this, the commission does not have to comply with any governme nt,
political party, or court interference. The ZEC has the following functions:

The overall supervision of the general conduct of all Presidential, members of the
House of Representatives and Local Authorities Leader Election in Zanzibar.
Promotion and regulation of voter education.
Demarcation of constituencies.
Appointment of officers to hold office in the commission.
Conducting referenda.
Prepare and supervise the Permanent Voter Register.

The ZEC indicated that there are 503 860 registered voters. There are 380 polling centre
Districts and 1580 polling stations. They indicated that voter education did take place. There
were fourteen Presidential candidates nominated, 180 candidates for the House of
Representatives from 17 political parties, and 385 candidates from 18 political parties for Local
Government elections. They also indicated that 1355 observers were accredited to observe the
elections (1250 from 17 local groups and 105 from 16 international groups). Polling material
would be distributed on Saturday, 25 October 2015. Voting would take place between 07H00
and 16H00 on Sunday, 26 October 2015. Poling agents would be appointed by political parties.
Votes would be counted at polling stations in a transparent manner and results posted outside

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

of each station. All material is then sent to the HQ of the constituency. Political Party Poling
agents may escort this material.
Tallying of all results are done at Tallying centres in each constituency. The Elections Act (11
/1984) indicates that this starts with the Presidential results (ZEC, 2015(b): 1-13).

7. Attendance of the final CCM election rally: 23 October 2015


A group of observers attended the CCM final rally after the ZEC briefing. The rally was
attended by large groups of CCM supporters and was festive and peaceful (see photographs
below):

8. Visit to Zanzibar Police Headquarters: 24 October 2015


The mission paid an unannounced visit to the Zanzibar Police Headquarters to meet with senior
management in order to obtain their views on the security environment prior to the elections
and identify possible hotspots to be monitored.
The Police Commissioner Hamdani O Makame briefly introduced himself and left due to an
engagement with the President. The Deputy-Commissioner Kali Msangi politely introduced
members of his senior management who were also present. He indicated the following:

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

That they were prepared for the elections and that each polling station would have a
police presence.
The police will accompany all electoral material.
Possible hotspots had been identified and additional police would be deployed there.
These included: Kinuni, Stonetown, and various other places.
There was also some activity that required police monitoring at Miembeni.
During the registration process only three cases were lodged with the police that are at
the DPP for scrutiny and decision on prosecution.
They have a reaction force to deal with any serious incidents during the elections.
People not voting or working at stations are not allowed more than 200 metres from
polling stations on election day.

9. Meeting at CUF offices: 24 October 2015


The mission met with the CUF Election Officer Mr Muhene Said. He briefed the observers
with the following information:

Each party has its own election programme and that is why they had their final rally
earlier than that of the CCM.
There was less violence and harassment than in previous elections during campaigning
and the CUF campaign was smooth.
They did not experience serious problems with ZEC except regarding demarcation of
boundaries of new constituencies.
The new polling stations in new constituencies caused some problems during and after
voter registration, since some voters had been moved to different polling stations within
the same constituency.
In some instances, the same people have different voting registration numbers on
different cards.
Voters rolls were also only received two weeks before the elections, although this does
comply with the ZECs own regulations.
CUF will have three agents at each station, 1 Zanzibar, 1 Union, and 1 for councillo rs
and House of Representatives.
Party agents are trained and receive payment and food.
Problems were expected in the Central District, especially Chwaka, Uzini, and Tunguu
constituencies.
People from the mainland who have been given cultivation rights in Zanzibar are
threatened to be sent back if they do not vote for CCM.
ZEC has capacity problems and are only active during election periods, not in between.
There will be underage voting since Shehias decide who is eligible to vote.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

People in Zanzibar tend to vote for a party, not candidates.


While all parties are given airtime on radio and TV, there are often power failures or
other technical problems during opposition broadcasts.
Intimidation is expected to increase today and tomorrow (election day).
During the registration period, people were shot by individuals wearing masks. The
perpetrators are believed to have been soldiers.
Some locals also rejected people known not to live in the constituencies, who wanted
to register there during registration periods. This caused some problems.
The voter education by the ZEC is just ceremonial. This adds to numbers of spoilt
ballots.
CUF does voter education at meetings and through facebook, e-mails, sms, etc.
Rigging will take place using the 7743 dead people identified on the voters roll. If we
see any indications of rigging we will inform the world and not accept it.
There is no appeal or dispute resolution process.

10. TV monitoring: 24 October 2015


From about 3 p.m. to 6: 15 p.m. on Saturday 24 October, a CCM rally was broadcast on two
local TV channels simultaneously. We did not see any similar coverage for opposition parties
the afternoon before the election. See photograph below:

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

11. CUF press conference at Maszons Hotel @ 18H30: 24 October 2015


CUF presented a list of complaints about the election process at a press conference the evening
before the election; various allegations were made regarding problematic areas. See the
attached press statement (Addendum A).

12. Election day: 25 October 2015


The observers split into two teams and departed the hotel at 06H30 to enable them to be at
polling stations at opening time at 07H00. The following polling stations were visited by my
group:

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

CONSTITUENCY

POLLING STATION

COMMENTS

Mkwajuni

TC Mkwajuni

Tumbatu
Donge

Maandalazi
Donge Mtambile

Mahonda

Mahonda

Bumbwini

Bumbwini

Amani

Faraja

Amani
Kikwajuni
Pangawe

Kwamtipura
Maandalazi
Msingi

Welezo

Welezo

Voting underway by 7 a.m,


party agents very vigorous,
7 streams of voters.
No visible problems, voting flowing
Larger queues, large numbers of
women voting, party agents not in all
venues, TEMCO observers present.
Run out of Union ballots by 08H30 at
one booth, other observers from
TEMCO and US Embassy. Returned at
10H00 and ballots were present.
Some party agents are only observing
and not given names of voters, some
booths have no party agents.
6 tents in the courtyard for voting, long
queues
Long queues.
Almost completed voting by 13H50.
Observed five people arrested by
police. On our arrival they were
removed from the front of the polling
station, allegedly to the local police
station. Only four boxes present with
the national box missing. Large
contingents of soldiers and police
patrolling the area. Community
members informed us of assaults and
harassment by police. Observed police
fanning out among houses.
Large contingent of security forces,
observed a ballot box seal on the
ground outside polling station number
TAN 0262801 Polling booth facing
outside

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

Mtopepo

Mtopepo

Requested to visit here after allegations


of police harassment of people. Large
numbers of police present on foot and
in vehicles. Voting still taking place
after polling station closed at 16H00
since there were people there by
closing time who still needed to vote.

Pangave

Msingi

Counting appeared to be taking place


normally in front of party agents. Staff
appear to know procedure. Still a large
security force presence and groups of
locals observing them. The atmosphere
was very tense when we departed.

13. General observations


The following general observations must be made:

There appear to have been problems with registration of voters and demarcation of
constituencies.
The problems identified and concerns raised by CUF and presented at the press
conference must be noted. These are predominantly related to the ZECs administra tio n
of the registration process and preparations for the elections.
The electioneering appears to have been free of any serious incidents. The
electioneering was very vibrant judging from the election material (flags, posters, and
billboards in the streets in all areas).
The ALN observers were not threatened or harassed in any way prior to the elections
or on election day.
It was visible that the presence of security forces was much larger and vigorous (both
on foot and in vehicles) in some areas than in others on election day.
The process of separating the voters roll at polling stations to allow for fewer voters at
each point assisted in preventing too much congestion.
The process of placing voters rolls and photographs of voters outside all polling
stations appears to have been very helpful to voters, judging from the amounts of people
checking these rolls prior to election day. However, we did not come across any ZEC
officials at these polling stations, which would have been useful for voters checking
their registration status.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

Given the large numbers of ZEC personnel required to man so many voting points, they
appeared to have been trained and relatively efficient.

14. Post-election reports


Post-election reports are of grave concern and should be noted. These include the following:

A declaration on Monday, 26 October 2015, by Maalim Seif Hamad of CUF that he


had defeated his rival Ali Mohamed Shein of the CCM with more than 52% of the vote.
He is quoted as saying: For those of you who have still not come to grips with the
reality, and still think there are ways of fabricating a different outcome, we would like
you to know that it is over. This was done even though the results were only expected
to be announced on Thursday (Aljazeera, 2015). However, it is noted that the results
could be checked per polling station where they were counted.
The reported storming of the ZEC collation centre by about 70 soldiers on Tuesday, 27
October 2015. Officials stopped announcing results and observers and media were held
in the hall for three hours (BBC, 2015).
It was reported on Wednesday, 28 October 2015, that the Chairman of the ZEC Jecha
Salum Jecha broadcast a statement on public television that the polls were nullified and
must be repeated. His alleged violations included double-voting and cheating. Police
have subsequently been reported to have fired tear gas to break up crowds (eNCA,
2015). The independence of the ZEC is protected from interference by law, but it
appears that the occupation of the ZEC results centre by security forces could have been
an attempt to coerce them into the announcement.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

15. Recommendations for future ALN observation missions


The members of the ALN election
recommendations for future missions:

observation

mission

propose the following

Development of a ALN guide book on election observations; including educationa l


information on preparation; conducting observations; relevant form templates to be
used by observers; useful contacts; and communication tools and techniques.
Communication tools would include digital cameras and mobile phones equipped with
local sim cards and airtime for ease of communication amongst the observer groups.
Longer periods of time to conduct research prior to and post-election day. This will
allow for:
o Analysis of strong points and gaps in the electoral law and the production of
recommendations of reforms to the electoral commissions and future
legislatures
o Observation of voter registration, campaigns, media coverage and the security
situation
o to be in be in frequent engagements with electoral stakeholders: governments,
electoral management bodies, political parties caucuses, media, civil
societies, associations of women, youth, persons with disabilities, minorities
and the marginalised

The identification and recommendation of a group of observers from ALN member


parties and organisations. These individuals should undergo relevant election
observation training and be the priority when selecting future observation teams

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

16. Sources of information


Aljazeera,
2015. Zanzibar
opposition
claims
election
victory,
27 October.
http://aljazeera.com/news/2015/10/zanzibar-opposition-claims-election-day-victory151027053037823. Date of access: 28 October 2015
BBC, 2015. Tanzania election: Government ministers suffer shock defeat. 27 October.
http://bbc.com/news/world-africa-34646445. Date of access: 28 October 2015.
eNCA, 2015. UPDATE: Zanzibars electoral commission annuls elections. 28 October.
www.enca.com/africa/ruling -party-holds-lead-tanzania-election. Date of access: 28 October
2015.
Jussa, I. 2015. With this election, Zamzibar could make history and end one-part rule. The
Guardian.
http://theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/23/zanzibar-election-end-one-party-rule.
Date of access: 28 October 2015.
ZEC, 2015(a). A concise political and electoral history of Zanzibar 2015. Booklet issued to
observers on 23 October 2015 during registration of observers.
ZEC, 2015(b). Briefing for International Observers: The Zanzibar Electoral Commiss io n
Preparations for the General Election 2015. Presentation document distributed at a ZEC
briefing on 23 October 2015.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

Addendum A:
Civic United Front statement to media and observers prior to elections
BRIEFING TO INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS AND MEDIA
1. Lack of clarity over constituencies new bounderies.
2. Refusal by ZEC to conduct electronic verification of the Voters Register.
3. A quick research done manually by CUF Policy, Research and Training Unit has
discovered a number of irregularities in the Register:
- Double or multiple registration of voters in an exercise engineered by CCM in
collaboration with ZEC.
- Registration of underage voters.
- Non-removal of deceased persons (4,999 identified so far).
- Removal of eligible voters from the Register (at an average of between 150 and
200 per constituency) which can amount to 8,100 in total.
- Displacement of voters from one constituency to another and within a
constituency from one polling station to another.
4. Systematic denial of voters cards to newly registered voters.
5. Distribution of voters cards to CCM members through Shehas.
6. Fake ballot papers already marked and stuffed in ballot boxes waiting to be
smuggled in to the polling stations.
7. ZEC stamps v/s SMZ stamp
8. Issuing of more than one ballot to CCM voters.
9. Use of force and intimidation.
10. CUF Polling Agents denied identity cards up to this moment (ZEC and NEC ploy).
11. Sudden change of polling stations (from Bububu Primary School to Kijichi Primary
School in Bububu constituency)
12. Ballot boxes stuffed with fake ballots stationed at Bwawani Hotel (ZEC Tallying
Centre). Aim is to demand recount at national level and mix these ballot boxes with
the genuine ones and hence alter results.
13. Need for transparency during counting and tallying of votes at the counting station,
constituency centre and at ZEC national tallying centre.
14. Disruption of elections if trends at counting will not favour CCM.

Democratic Alliance Federal Head Office


P.O Box 1475
Cape Town
8000
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (+27) (0)21 465 1431
Email: info@africaliberalnetwork.org
Website: http://www.africaliberalnetwork.org

OTHER ISSUES:
1. Tearing of CUF billboards
2. Kidnapping of a CUF polling agent Hassan Iddi Omar from Mangapawani
(Mahonda constituency) in Zanzibar Northern Region who was taken from his
house at midnight yesterday and found today at Unguja Ukuu in Zanzibar
South Region where he was dumped in the bush.
AREAS TO WATCH:
1. Mahonda constituency (North Zanzibar)
2. Tumbatu constituency (North Zanzibar)
3. Nungwi constituency (North Zanzibar)
4. Bumbwini constituency (North Zanzibar)
5. Chukwani constituency (Zanzibar West B District)
6. Mfenesini constituency (Zanzibar West A District)
7. Bububu constituency (Zanzibar West A District)
8. Mtoni constituency (Zanzibar West A District)
9. Mtopepo constituency (Zanzibar West A District)
10. Welezo constituency (Zanzibar West A District)
11. Mwanakwerekwe constituency (Zanzibar West B District)
12. Kiembe Samaki constituency (Zanzibar West B District)
13. Shaurimoyo constituency (Zanzibar Urban District)
14. Chumbuni constituency (Zanzibar Urban District)
15. Kikwajuni constituency (Zanzibar Urban District)
16. Malindi constituency especially at Lumumba School and Makadara School polling
stations (Zanzibar Urban District).