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1.

Seed dispersal is important in the migration of plants from one area to another area. Plants have
evolved many methods, both physical and biological, by which to disperse their seeds.
50 maple seeds, which are wind dispersed, were dropped one at a time from two different
heights, 0.54 m and 10.8 m respectively. The histograms below show the distribution of the
distance the maple seeds travelled.
18

18

17

16

H e ig h t = 0 .5 4 m

15

14

14

12

12

10

10

N um ber
o f seed s 6

N um ber
of seeds

8
5
4

17

H e ig h t = 1 0 .8 m

16

6
4

5
4
3

D is ta n c e tra v e lle d / c m

D is ta n c e tra v e lle d / m

[Source: student experiment, Guralnick]

(a)

For each height, identify the distance travelled by the greatest number of seeds.
(i)

Height = 0.54 m: ...............................................................................................

(ii)

Height = 10.8 m: ...............................................................................................


(1)

(b)

State the effect of height on seed dispersal.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Suggest two reasons for the effect of the drop height on the distance travelled by the
seeds.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
1

(2)

The following graphs show the rate and timing of seed release from different species of grass in
the same area during the summer.
100

100

F e s tu c a r u b r a

R a te o f
s e e d fa ll /
num ber 50
w e e k 1
1 0 0 c m 2

R a te o f
s e e d fa ll /
num ber 50
w e e k 1
1 0 0 c m 2

0
14

21 28

June

12

19 26

J u ly

16

30

14

A ugust

21 28

Ju n e

12

19 26

J u ly

400

A g ro s tis s to lo n ife r a

600

16

30

A u g u st

P o a tr iv ia lis

300

R a te o f
s e e d fa ll / 4 0 0
num ber
w e e k 1
1 0 0 c m 2 200

H o lc u s la n a tu s

R a te o f
s e e d fa ll /
num ber 200
w e e k 1
1 0 0 c m 2 100
0
14

21 28

June

12

19 26

J u ly

16

A ugust

30

14

21 28

Ju n e

12

19 26

J u ly

16

30

A u g u st

[Source: J L Harper, Population Biology of Plants, Academic Press (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) 1997, page 57]

(d)

Identify the grass species which produces the most seeds in this area.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(e)

Identify the grass species which produces the most seeds in June.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(f)

Compare seed production for all species relative to the timing of their release.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(g)

Suggest two benefits for these plants in the timing of seed release.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

Biological seed dispersal is usually dependent on the nutritional content of the seed or fruit. The
following table gives the nutritional content for fruits of different species in temperate and
tropical climates.
Percentage by DryWeight
Common Name (genus)

Protein

Lipid

Carbohydrate

Dispersal
Agents

Temperate
Cranberry (Vaccinium)

89

Birds

Hawthorn (Crataegus)

73

Birds

Pin cherry (Prunus)

84

Birds

Pokeberry (Phytolacca)

14

68

Birds

Strawberry (Fragaria)

88

Birds

Tropical
Bird palm (Chamaedorea)

14

16

55

Birds

Fig (Ficus)

79

Bats

Mistletoe (Viscum)

53

38

Birds

Monkey fruit (Tetragastris)

94

Monkeys

Wild nutmeg (Virola)

63

Birds

[Source: H Howe and L Westley, Ecological Relationship of Plants and Animals,


Oxford University Press 1988, page 121]

(h)

Compare tropical fruits to temperate fruits in relation to the mean values for lipid,
carbohydrate and protein content.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(i)

Explain which fruit would have the highest energy content.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(j)

Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of dispersal of seeds by animals.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 17 marks)

(a)

height 0.54 m: 6079 cm / 0.600.79 m (from the plant)


and height 10.8 m: 02.9 m
(from the plant);
Units needed for both parts of the answer.
(b)
(c)

the greater the height from which the seed fell,


the further it travelled from the parent plant

at the greater height:


seed can catch the wind to travel further / updrafts /
more wind at greater height;
farther to the ground and does not travel straight down /
more time to be blown before hitting the ground;
at lower height:
seed can fall straight down;
seed can hit downdraft and fall faster;
Any point must explain the difference in distance
travelled from the two heights.

2 max

(d)

Agrostis stolonifera

(e)

Poa trivialis

(f)

Poa produces seed earliest in the summer / June;


Holcus produces most seed in July;
Agrostis and Festuca produce seed in (late July to) August;
Holcus and Poa have a peak time of seed fall /
short period of seed fall;
Agrostis and Festuca may continue to increase in
seed production to September;
Accept any of these points made conversely as an alternative.

(g)

3 max

Award [1] each for any two of the following.


to avoid predation /
6

(h)

(i)

(j)

disperse at times when other species are dispersing their seeds;


to avoid competition;
late in the year to allow seeds to germinate over winter /
better germination conditions;
better dispersal conditions / more wind / animals for dispersal;
photoperiod required day length for flowering;
more energy stored at the end of the summer for seed production;
more light / warmth / better conditions for seedling photosynthesis /
growth;

2 max

Award [1] each for any two of the following.


tropical fruits have higher lipid content than temperate fruits;
temperate fruits (80%) have greater carbohydrate
content than tropical fruits (55%);
protein levels are similar in both groups of fruits /
slightly higher in temperate fruits
than tropical fruits;
(must make it clear that the difference is slight)

2 max

mistletoe;
high proportion of lipid and carbohydrate
(lipid has approximately twice the energy content
of protein and carbohydrate);

Award [1] for advantage and [1] for disadvantage.


animal dispersal advantage:
travel further / digestion cracks seed coat for better germination /
deposited in feces with organic matter /
better in areas with little wind;
animal dispersal disadvantage:
predation / seeds eaten / deposited in poor environment /
buried too deep / buried too shallow (if deposited with feces) /
animal might become extinct / scarce;

2 max
[17]

2.

Describe the metabolic events of germination in a starchy seed.


(Total 5 marks)

absorption of water;
(embryo) increases respiration;
(embryo) secretes GA to (aleurone layer);
(stimulates) production of amylase;
digestion of starch to smaller sugars / maltose;
mobilize to tissues / transport of foods /
nutrients to embryo;

3.

Which would be an adaptation of xerophytes?


A.

Large air spaces

B.

Large numbers of stomata

C.

Hairs on the leaves

D.

Reduced roots

C
7

(Total 1 mark)

4.

The leaves of plants are adapted to absorb light and use it in photosynthesis. Draw a labelled
diagram to show the arrangement of tissues in a leaf.
(Total 6 marks)

Award [1] for each of the following structures, shown in the correct relative position
and labelled. Individual cells are not needed but do not penalize if they are shown.
upper epidermis;
palisade layer / mesophyll;
spongy layer / mesophyll;
lower epidermis;
xylem (in a major or minor vein);
phloem (in a major or minor vein);
collenchyma (in the midrib);
guard cells; (do not accept stoma / stomata only)
[6]

5.

Explain how manipulation of day length is used in the production of flowers.


...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 6 marks)

some flowering plants are short-day plants;


others are long-day plants;
important variable is length of darkness / photoperiod;
some plants grown in greenhouses with controlled light conditions;
short-day plants kept in the dark during daylight hours;
long-day plants artificially lit during the night;
using an appropriate wavelength / far-red light / 730 nm;
possible to expose only for brief periods to keep costs down
but long enough to interrupt the dark period;
involves interaction of phytochromes with metabolic reactions;
controlled by the plants biological clock;
[6]

6.

Glucosinolates are chemicals found in some vegetables, which are responsible for the taste of
horseradish, wasabi and broccoli. There are two types of glucosinolate, aliphatic and indolyl.
They have been found to have many positive health effects, including carcinogen detoxification
and antioxidant properties. Different varieties of broccoli vary in their content of glucosinolates
as shown in the graph below. Researchers have found that 61% of the variation in aliphatic
glucosinolate concentration is due to genetic factors compared with 12% for indolyl
glucosinolates.
K ey:
p ro g o itrin (a lip h a tic )
g lu c o ra p h a n in (a lip h a tic )
g lu c o b ra s s ic in (in d o ly l)

25
20
G lu c o s in o la te
15
c o n c e n tra tio n /
1
m o l g d ry m a ss
10
5
0

B rig a d ie r

Packm an

P e tro

V a rie ty o f b ro c c o li
[Source: E H Jeffery et al., Nutrition Today, (2002), 37, page 208)

(a)

Using the graph, compare the amount of aliphatic glucosinolates among the different
varieties of broccoli.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
9

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Using the data, explain how outbreeding could be used to develop a new variety of
broccoli with increased glucosinolate content.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

(a)

in Brigadier and Packman, glucoraphanin higher in concentration than progoitrin;


progoitrin approximately equal in Packman and Brigadier / greatest in Petro;
Brigadier has highest total glucosinolate concentration;
Brigadier has highest glucorphanin concentration;
Packman has lowest total glucosinolate concentration;
Packman has lowest glucorphanin concentration;
3 max

(b)

(outbreeding is) reproduction involving fusion of gametes produced by


genetically unrelated individuals;
can increase aliphatic glucosinolate concentration because more variation
is due to genetic factors;
Brigadier and Petro have more aliphatic glucosinolates;
cross Brigadier with Petro;
because Brigadier has more glucoraphinin and Petro has more progoitrin;

3 max
[6]

7.

An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of water stress on cucumber (Cucumis
sativus) seedlings. Cotyledons were detached from four day old seedlings and treated with
polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water absorbing compound. -amylase activity was measured in
cotyledons treated with PEG at concentrations of 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. This enzyme catalyses
the conversion of starch into maltose. The mean results are shown in the graph.

10

0 .3

- a m y la s e a c tiv ity p e r
p a ir o f c o ty le d o n s
/ m o l m a lto s e m in 1

0 .2

0 .1

0
0

D u ra tio n o f tre a tm e n t / d a y s
[Source: D Todak, et al., (2000), Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, pages 739745]

(a)

Identify the maximum activity of -amylase in the 50% treatment.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Compare the -amylase activity in the cotyledons treated with 20% PEG with those
treated with 30% PEG.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Deduce the relative free sugar content of the cotyledons treated with 20% PEG compared
to those treated with 30% PEG.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

11

(d)

Suggest reasons for the change in activity of -amylase during water stress.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

(a)

0.29 ( 0.01) mol maltose min (units needed)

(b)

no substantial increase in activity in the 20% treatment over the five days of the
experiment / 30% sample reaches maximum activity two days after start of treatment;
higher level of activity at all times for 30% treatment compared with 20% treatment;
activity approximately six times higher for 30% treatment than for 20% treatment on
day two;
any other appropriate numerical example;
2 max

(c)

30% treatment will have greater amount of free sugars (maltose) than
20% treatment

(d)

water stress will trigger synthesis of proteins / -amylase;


maltose and other free sugars attract water so will reduce the effect of water stress;
maltose and other free sugars may prevent water loss (by osmosis);
starch exerts less osmotic pressure / solute potential than free sugars;
30% PEG creates an optimum environment for / -amylase activity;
2 max
[6]

8.

Use and conservation preferences for savanna trees were investigated in a West African country.
Residents from different villages evaluated the importance of 20 woody species for eight
different uses: edible fruits, vegetable sauce, construction, firewood, medicine, commerce, field
trees and conservation. The following data is based on answers from 200 residents.
N u m b er o f resp o n se s
20
15
10
5

20
15
10
5

20
15
10
5

20
15
10
5

20
15
10
5

20
15
10
5

20
15
10
5

20
15
10
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

A d a n s o n ia d ig ita ta
A tz e lia a fr ic a n a
A n n o n a s e n e g a le n s is
B a la n ite s z e g y p tia c a
B o m b a x c o s ta tu m
D e ta r iu m m ic ro c a r p u m
D io s p y ro s m e s p ilifo r m is
F ic u s s y c o m o r u s
G a rd e n ia e r u b e s c e n s
L a n n e a m ic ro c a r p u m
P a r k ia b ig lo b o s a
P e r ic o p s is ta x iflo r a
P ilio s tig m a th o n n in g ii
P le ro c a r p u s e r in a c e u s
S te rc u lia s e tig e r a
S tr y c h n o s s p in o s a
T a r n a r in d u s in d ic a
V ite lla r ia p a r a d o x a
V ite x t d o n ia n a
X im e n ia a fr ic a n a
E d ib le
fru its

K ey:

do not know

V e g e ta b le
sau ce

C o n s tru c tio n

n o t im p o rta n t

F ire w o o d

M e d ic in e

C o m m e rc e

m o d e ra te ly im p o rta n t

F ie ld
tre e s

C o n s e r v a tio n
p r io rity

v e ry im p o rta n t
12

[Source: Economic Botany; Kristensen and Lykke, reprinted by permission from Economic Botany, vol. 57 (2), pages 203217,
Kristensen and Lykke. Copyright 2003, The NewYork Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York]

(a)

Identify the most important tree species to the villagers.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

State the category of use for which villagers have most difficulty in finding useful
species.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

13

(c)

Compare the usefulness of species in providing edible fruit with their usefulness for
vegetable sauce.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Determine the percentage of species that are valued entirely as very important in at
least three categories.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(e)

Suggest a property of the wood from P. erinaceus that makes it one of the preferred
species for use in building houses.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

(a)

Vitellaria paradoxa

(b)

construction

(c)

3 species / A. digitata, P. biglobosa, V. doniana


"very important" in both categories;
10 species ranked "very important" for edible
fruits and 7 species for vegetable sauce;
overall the 20 tree species were slightly more valuable
for edible fruits than for vegetable sauce;
Ximenia africana more useful as edible
fruit but not as vegetable sauce / vice versa for Bombax costatum;
in both categories there were no "do not know" responses;

(d)

3
100 15%
20
Do not need to show working

(e)

2 max

strength;
resistance to insect attack eg termites;
attractiveness;
14

resistant to decay;
flexible;
not too heavy;
easy to cut;
tradition;

1 max
[6]

9.

In order to prevent transfer of pollen from an anther of one plant to the stigma of the same plant
(self-pollination), the sunflower (Helianthus spp) anther sheds its pollen before the stigma is
mature enough to receive it. Early in the morning the anther is exposed by elongation of the
filaments. The anthers open at this time to release their pollen (anthesis). The stigma appears
above the anthers by late afternoon, and by the following morning it is fully receptive.
To see how the filament (F) and the style (S) are affected by light, their lengths were measured
at time intervals starting 12 hours before anthesis (12). Some plants were grown in continuous
white light (L24) and some plants grown under cycles of 16 hours white light followed by 8
hours dark (L16/D8). The results are shown in the graph.

[Source: Lobello et al, Journal of Experimental Botany, (2000), 51, pages 14031412]

(a)

Filaments of the plants grown in continuous white light increased in length by 0.25 mm in
the 28 hours after anthesis. Calculate how much the filaments of the plants grown in
alternating white light and dark increased during the same period.

15

....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Compare the increase in the length of the style in the plants grown in continuous white
light with those grown in alternating white light and dark.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

The table compares the percentage of ovules that have been fertilized and developed into seeds
in sunflower plants grown under continuous white light with those grown under alternating
light and dark. The numbers represent the mean one standard deviation.

(c)

Light treatments

Percentage of fertilized ovules

Continuous white light (L24)

11.40 7.76

Alternating light and dark (L16/D8)

58.26 4.06

Explain the differences in the percentages of ovules fertilized using the data in the graph
about the growth of filaments and styles.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)

16

(d)

Explain how standard deviation (SD) shown in this table can be used to help in
comparing the effect of light treatments on the fertilization of ovules.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)

To analyse the effect of growth regulators on filament elongation, further experiments were
performed in the dark, white light and red light. The flowers were treated with auxin or with
gibberellic acid and compared to a control with no growth regulator. The results are shown in
the bar chart below.

17

(e)

Identify, with reasons, which factors promote and which factors inhibit the elongation of
filaments.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(f)

Explain the disadvantages to a plant of self-pollination.


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

(a)

2.9 ( 0.2) mm (units required)

(b)

cyclic light makes style grow almost immediately while with continuous
light it takes longer to start to grow / L16 / D8 starts growing in first hour
while L24 style starts growing after 6 hours / growth is more gradual in L24;
with continuous light the style grows less / continuous (L24) grows to 9.8 mm
while cyclic (L16 / D8) grows to 10.2 mm / little difference after 28 hours;
in both cases growth only starts with anthesis;
2 max

(c)

47% / more fertilized ovules in cyclic light;


filament grows more in cyclic light than continuous;
pollen closer to stigma so pollination more probable;
in continuous light anthers do not become exposed;
Accept converse wording.

(d)

(e)

standard deviation is a measure of variability / indicates the spread of


values around the mean;
continuous light data is more variable (because it has a higher standard
deviation);
helps to decide whether the difference between two means is significant;
68% of values are 1 SD from mean;
difference between means is approximately 47 / appears to be significantly
different / light treatment makes a significant difference;

3 max

3 max

darkness promotes / white light inhibits because filaments shorter than in


darkness;
red light inhibits because filaments shorter than in darkness;
auxins promote because filaments are longer than in control / in white
and red light;

18

gibberellic acid inhibits because filaments are shorter in continuous white


light / darkness;
3 max
Reason must be present to receive the mark. Accept if converse
wording.
(f)

self-pollination reduces / does not promote variation / no new combination


of alleles;
no variation for natural selection;
more susceptible to infectious diseases;
more prone to genetic disease / (inbreeding) more likely to be homozygous
for disease;

2 max
[14]

10.

Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important widespread agricultural crop. Scientists


studied the transport and distribution of sodium in sweet pepper by growing plants in sodium
chloride solutions.
The graph below shows the sodium ion concentration in plant parts of sweet pepper grown in 15
mM sodium chloride for three weeks.
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
S o d iu m io n c o n c e n tra tio n /
m M k g 1

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
R oot

L eaves

F ru it

S te m

P la n t P a rt
[Source: M Blom-Zandstra et. al., Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations,
Journal of Experimental Botany (1 November 1998), vol. 49, issue 328, pp. 18631868,
by permission of Oxford University Press]

(a)

(i)

State the concentration of sodium ions in fruits.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

19

(ii)

Calculate the percentage increase in sodium ion concentration between root and
stem.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

20

(b)

Suggest why a high sodium ion concentration in the cells of the stem is important in
providing support to this type of plant.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

State one possible use of sodium in plants.


....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

Scientists also found that the concentrations of sodium ion in cells of the stem and in
xylem sap were the same. Explain why this led the scientists to believe there was no
active transport between xylem and stem.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(e)

Suggest one possible method of transport of sodium ions between xylem and stem.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

21

The graph below shows the sodium ion concentration of the xylem sap in relation to the
distance from the base. Two experiments were performed.
Experiment 1: plants grown in 15 mM sodium chloride solution only
Experiment 2: plants grown in 15 mM sodium chloride solution and then transferred to a
sodium-free solution for an extra week
K ey:

S o d iu m io n c o n c e n tra tio n /
m M

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

40

60

80

e x p e rim e n t 1

100

e x p e rim e n t 2

120

140

D is ta n c e fro m b a s e / a rb itra ry u n its


[Source: M Blom-Zandstra et. al., Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations,
Journal of Experimental Botany (1 November 1998), vol. 49, issue 328, pp. 18631868,
by permission of Oxford University Press]

(f)

State the relationship between sodium ion concentration and distance from the base of the
stem in experiment 1.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(g)

(i)

State the sodium concentration when the stem is 50 arbitrary units from the base in
plants for each of the following.
Experiment 1: .................................................................................................
Experiment 2: .................................................................................................
(1)

22

(ii)

Explain the difference in the sodium ion concentration in this part of the stem in
plants of experiment 1 and experiment 2.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(h)

Compare the distribution of sodium ions in the stems of plants in both experiments.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)

Water transported in xylem is transpired through stomata in leaves. The electron micrograph
shows one stoma of the lower epidermis of the leaf of a Simon bamboo (Arundinaria simonii).
Its magnification is 3000.

[Source: Courtesy of Professor Zulma E Rgolo, Instituto Darwinion, Buenos Aires, Argentina]

(i)

(i)

Draw a line showing the maximum length of the stomatal pore.


(1)

23

(ii)

Calculate the real size of the stomatal pore. Show your working.
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(1)

(j)

Explain two abiotic factors that affect transpiration rate in this leaf.
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(2)
(Total 18 marks)

(a)

(i)

2 mM kg
(ii)

(units required)

180 () or

(28 10) 100


10

(b)

cells in stem absorb water (by osmosis) providing turgidity / turgor pressure

(c)

maintain osmotic balance;


help to maintain turgidity / assist active transport;

(d)

1
1
1
1 max

active transport means movement against a concentration gradient;


there is no concentration gradient / concentration in xylem should be lower
than stem (but it is not);

(e)

diffusion / facilitated diffusion

(f)

sodium ion concentration decreases as you get further away from the
base / vice versa

(g)

(i)

experiment 1: 17mM
experiment 2: 6mM

Both answers must be correct to receive [1].


(ii)

(h)

in experiment 1 (concentration of sodium ions is high because) sodium is


continually taken up;
it is lower in experiment 2 because sodium is lost by diffusion into
medium (when no sodium in medium);
in experiment 2 there is more water uptake (by osmosis);
2 max

sodium ion concentration in experiment 1 is higher close to base;


(moving away from base) sodium ion concentration decreases in experiment
1 but remains constant / decreases slightly in experiment 2;
sodium ion concentration rises in experiment 2 after 100 arbitrary units but
continues to decline in experiment 1;
same sodium ion concentration in both experiments at 105 arbitrary units;
lower sodium ion concentration in experiment 1 compared with experiment 2
when close to the top / far from base;
3 max
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(i)

(i)

Award mark if line drawn off the image but it must be 21(1)
mm.
(ii)

real size = length of line drawn 3000 = 0.007(0.0005)mm

Units are required, allow for ECF. Also accept answer in cm.
(j)

humidity decreases transpiration rate because atmosphere is saturated;


temperature increases transpiration rate because there is more kinetic energy;
light increases photosynthesis which opens stomata increasing the rate of
transpiration;
wind / air movement lowers concentration outside leaf;
2 max
[18]

25