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Vishal Kulkarni , BMSCE , Bangalore

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Week- 2 Report

Real Picture of Optical fiber


Introduction ..Page 2
Research concepts in optical fiber..Page 2
OpticalReflectometry.Page 3
Effects of nuclear radiation on fiber...Page 4
What stands in the way of Digital India Page 4
Conclusion Page 5



Real Picture of Optical fiber

In the content of this paper the main highlights will be on the research area
undergoing in optical fiber domain concerning to its fiber structure , metering principles and
gauges along the side of the effects on fiber operation when exposed to nuclear radiative
environment .
The other part of this paper speaks about the fiber manufacturing process and lastly knowing
on the hurdles to be overcome for gaining a successive height in making digital India concept
come true and also jobs full.

2. Research concepts in optical fiber

2.1Advancements in fault detection
Optical access equipment extending outward from communications buildings is
designed to be highly reliable and to withstand harsh environments. However, in extremely
rare cases, faults can occur that interrupt service. To repair such faults and quickly restore
service, the location and cause of the fault must be narrowed down as much as possible
before sending maintenance staff to the site. To achieve this, there are two new approaches
that will allow us to categorize such faults remotely
a) Accurate measurement of remote fault points
The optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique currently used in the field to
measure the distances to fault points is not highly accurate, so it is therefore difficult to
determine the precise location and cause of a fault. The phase-noise-compensated optical
frequency domain reflectometry (PNC-OFDR) technique that we are researching overcomes
these problems. In addition to locating faults, we can also detect tiny identification (ID)
patterns embedded in remote connectors, creating the potential for entirely new facility
operation scenarios.
b) Measurement to distinguish fault points below a splitter
In passive optical networks (PONs), optical splitters are placed at locations close to the
customers to increase the efficiency of equipment sharing. However, if a fault occurs between
a splitter and the customers residence, the location of the fault cannot be determined
correctly using conventional OTDR. We have devised a principle that enables us to obtain


Real Picture of Optical fiber

measurements below individual splitters using a physical phenomenon called Brillouin

scattering, which occurs within the optical fiber, and have demonstrated this principle for the
first time.
2.2 Flexible branching of an optical fiber
With metal cables, current flows as long as there is contact, so branches can be established
anywhere. If optical fibers could be similarly branched, it would expand the range of
operations and maintenance scenarios in which they could be used. Local light injection
technology involves placing a probe fiber near a bent section of optical fiber and injecting
light through the probe fiber . Light radiating from the optical fiber passes through the
insulation, so some corresponding losses are unavoidable. However, the system should be
practically usable if a stable level of coupling efficiency that is suitable for the operational
application can be ensured by optimizing the refractive-index-matched materials, optical
lenses, and probe position
2.3 Bending-loss-resistant fiber
Our free-bending optical cord has overturned the common belief that optical fiber cannot be
bent. In the past, great care had to be taken not to bend optical fiber, but we have expanded
the range of application scenarios with the implementation of hole-assisted fiber (HAF),
which produces almost no losses even when bent. Recently, these optical fibers have even
been passed through narrow gaps such as those around doors and window sashes. There is a
maintenance and operability trade-off with these technologies, but by applying HAF where it
is needed, interruptions due to bending can be eliminated, and it may be possible to simplify
the optical cable structure

3. Optical reflectometry
Optical reflectometry is a critical diagnostic tool for lightwave systems and components.
There are basically three reflectometric techniques suitable for fiber-based applications:
optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR), low coherence frequency domain reflectometry
(OLCR) and coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR).
The different methods have tradeoffs in range, resolution, speed, sensitivity and accuracy.
Typically, the low coherence technique is used for sub-millimeter resolution measurements



Real Picture of Optical fiber

with very high sensitivity but only over limited range (< 5 m)[1]. OTDR is used for longer
range (several kilometers), low-resolution system-level applications.
OFDR falls between OTDR and OLCR in that its range capabilities are on the order of
tens to hundreds of meters with millimeter-range resolution
OFDR has advantages over OTDR and OLCR for certain applications. Specifically, the
coherent technique is well-suited for applications that require a combination of high speed,
Sensitivity and resolution over intermediate length ranges.

4. Effects of Radiation on Optical Fibers:

Optical fibers have many advantages over metallic lines such as broad bandwidth, low-loss,
immunity from interference due to electromagnetic induction, etc. They can be used to
implement ultra-fast pulse signal transmission over a long distance under the circumstance
with sophisticated electromagnetic radiation. However, while optical fibers are exposed in
nuclear radiation environments, changes in their optical properties will occur thus resulting
in deterioration of system performance eventually.
When radiation projects to optical fibers, three effects will produce: (1) Increase of optical
fibers absorption loss (2) Changes of optical fiber refractive index. As a result, boundary
conditions will no longer fully meet the optical fiber waveguides, and increase of evanescent
field coupling energy will lead to additional loss. (3) Development of optical fiber
luminescence. It is usually considered to be fluorescence or Cerenkov effects. It is very
difficult to detect the light due to its weak intensity along optical fiber axis.
The effects are more pronounced for gamma radiations since it can penetrate more and so
capable of making alterations in refractive indices of fiber.

5. What stands in the way of Digital India

The 1.06 billion number of Indians who currently dont have access to the Internet. Indias
offline population is greater than that of China and Indonesia



Real Picture of Optical fiber

The 1 million miles of fiber optic cable needed to connect 250,000 village clusters in India to
the Internet, according to a committee set up to get the project into gear. The original plan
estimated that 370,000 miles of cable would do the job.
The 1% of clusters of villages that up to June 30 were fully connected to Internet services in
community centers, hospitals and schools under the National Fiber Optic Network that was
launched in 2011.
The year 2013 was original deadline for completion of the network. The date has since been
shunted back twice and now stands at 2019.
The revised budget for the fiber optic network is now $11.2 billion. Almost four times what
was originally planned.

So on ending sentences of this report it shows that how a nation could be dependent on its
technological growth on other countries and many delaying factors that curb the
technological build in country .

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