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CHAPTER 3

Three Phase System


(Part 1)

CHAPTER 3: THREE-PHASE
SYSTEM

This part will cover the subtopic as below:


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Introduction
3-phase generation
3-phase circuit
Definitions: phase & line voltages, phase & line currents
V & I in star-connected system
V & I in delta-connected system

1) Introduction
Three-phase electric power is a type of polyphase
system, and is the most common method used by
electric power distribution grids worldwide to distribute
power.
Three circuit conductors carry three alternating currents
(of the same frequency) which reach their instantaneous
peak values at different times.
Taking one conductor as the reference, the other two are
delayed in time by one-third (120 phase shift) and twothirds of one cycle (240 phase shift).

Electrical Power System


Electric power supply system in a Malaysia comprises of:
generating units that produce electricity
high voltage transmission lines that transport electricity
over long distances
distribution lines that deliver the electricity to consumers
loads that receive the useful power
Loads

11kV 20kV (50


Hz)
Generation

Distribution
Transmission
Figure 3: An example of power
system in Malaysia

Why the 3-phase system?


For the same power output:
More economical (less cost) - uses less conductor material
to transmit electric power compared to single-phase or twophase systems at the same voltage
Able to transmit high powers efficiently
With a neutral wire, the three phase system allows the use a
higher voltage load while still supporting lower voltage single
phase appliances.

Produce a magnetic field that rotates in a specified direction,


which simplifies the design of electric motors
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2) 3-Phase (3) Generation


Must understand the generation of single phase
system first:

3-Phase (3) Generation

Time

Certain text books use A,B,C instead of R,Y,B


Each phase is separated by 120 phase-shift
ERR = V sin

EYY = V sin ( - 120)

EBB = V sin ( - 240)


or = V sin ( + 120)
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Please refer this website : http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=IAU14008

Phase Sequence
The order of voltage waveform sequences in a polyphase
system is called phase rotation or phase sequence.
If we're using a polyphase voltage source to power
resistive loads, phase rotation will make no difference at
all. Whether R-Y-B or R-B-Y, the voltage and current
magnitudes will all be the same.
There are some applications of three-phase power, that
depend on having phase rotation being one way or the
other.
3 motor is one of them

Sequence:
Negative Sequence

Positive Sequence
C

B
R-Y-B @ ABC

R-B-Y @ ACB

eRR1 sin

sin 120

eRR1 sin

sin 120

eYY1 sin 120

eYY1 sin 1200

eBB1

eBB1

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Example 1: (Assume the system is balance and sequence is R-Y-B)

a. If VRR = 277V0 , what are VYY and VBB


Answer: VYY= 277V-120

VBB= 277V120

b. If VYY= 347V-120 , what are VRR and VBB


Answer: VRR = 347V0

VBB = 347V120

c. If VBB = 120V150 , what are VRR and VYY


Answer: VRR = 120V30

VYY = 120V-90

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3) 3-Phase Circuit
2 Types:

Star or wye (Y)


connection

Delta () or mesh
connection

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Connections Between Generator-Load


1. Star to star

3. Star to delta

2. Delta to delta

4. Delta to star

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Star-star (or Y-Y) Connection


In a balanced load, the
resultant current in neutral
conductor is zero, IR + IY + IB
= 0.

Neutral points
IR
IY
IN

Neutral conductor

IB

With neutral conductor, the


system is known as 4-wire
star-connected system or 3phase 4-wire system

Without neutral conductor, the


system is known as three-wire
star-connected system or 3phase 3-wire system

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Configuration
Ir

Iy

Ib

Voltages at the Generator


Voltages at the Load
Phase Voltages
Phase Voltages
ERN, EYN, EBN
VRn, VYn, VBn
Line Voltages (Line to Line)
Line Voltages (Line to Line)
ERY, EYB, EBR
VRY, VYB, VBR
Line Currents = Phase Currents : Ir, Iy, Ib

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4) DEFINITIONS

Definitions (Star) :

Line Voltages
ERY, EYB, EBR Line voltages at the generator
Vry, Vyb, Vbr Line voltages at the load
Phase Voltages
ERN, EYN, EBN Phase voltages at the generator
Vrn, Vyn, Vbn Phase voltages at the load
Line Currents = Phase Currents
Ir, Iy, Ib

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Definitions (Delta) :

Line Currents
Ir, Iy, Ib Currents in the line conductors
Phase Currents
Iry, Iyb, Ibr Currents through phases
Line Voltages = Phase Voltages
Vry, Vyb, Vbr

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5) V & I in Star-Connected System


The relationship between line and phase voltages of a star circuit,
consider:
Using KVL:
VRY = VRn + ( - VYn ) = VRn- VYn
Now assume a
magnitude V for each
phase and take VRn
as reference. The
sequence is R-Y-B
and the system is
balance. Therefore:
VRn = V0
VYn = V-120
VBn = V120

Substituting 2 ->1:
VRY = VRn- VYn
= V0 - V-120
= V(1+j0)-V(-0.5-j0.866)
= V(1.5+j0.866)
= 1.723V30
=3 V30
=3VRn30

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5) V & I in Star-Connected System


VYB = VYn- VBn

=3VYn-90
VBR = VBn- VRn
=3VBn150

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Summary: V & I in Star-Connected System

Phasor Diagram:

V Lin e

3V P h a s e P h a s e 3 0 o

V P hase

V Line
Line 30 o
3

Only for a balanced star


connection. Otherwise,
derive from KVL.

VRY 3VRn Rn 30 0
VYB 3VYn

VBR 3VBn

Yn

30

30 0

Bn

|VLine| = 3 |VPhase|
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ILine = IPhase

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Example (Balanced Star-Connected System)


For the following circuit, suppose ERN = 120V0 , Zrn = Zyn = Zbn = (12 j9)

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Determine the phase voltages at the load.


Determine the line voltages at the load.
Show all voltages on a phasor diagram.
Compute IR, then determine IY and IB by inspection.
Verify answer in d by direct computation.

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Solution:
0
a.VRn = ERn. Thus, Vrn 120V0
Since the system is balanced,

V yn 120V 120 o

& Vbn 120V120 o

b. Since the system is balanced,

Vry 3Vrn ( 30 o ) 208V30 0


V yb 208V 90 0

& Vbr 208V150 0


.

c. The phasors are shown below:

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d. The currents:

Ir

Vrn 120 0 0
120 0 0

8.0 A36.87 0
Z rn 12 j9 15 36.87 0

I y 8.0 A36.87 0 120 0 8.0 A 83.13 0

I b 8.0 A36.87 0 120 0 8.0 A156.87 0

e. The currents by direct computation

Iy

Ib

V yn
Z yn

120V 120 0
8.0 A 83.130
15 36.87 0

Vbn
120V120 0

8.0 A156.87 0
Z bn 15 36.87 0
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Delta Configuration

Line Currents
Ir, Iy, Ib Currents in the line conductors
Phase Currents
Iry, Iyb, Ibr Currents through load
Line Voltages = Phase Voltages
Vry, Vyb, Vbr

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6) V & I in Delta-Connected System


The relationship between line and phase current of a delta circuit,
consider:
r

For Voltage, we can see that VLine = VPhase


For current, using KCL, at node r, we get

Ir + Ibr = Iry
Ir = Iry - Ibr
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Now assume a magnitude I for each phase current and take Iry as
reference. The sequence is R-Y-B and the system is balance.

I ry I 0 o

I yb I 1 2 0 o

&

I br I1 2 0 o

Substuting..
Ir = Iry- Ibr
= I0 - I120
= 1.723 I-30
=3 I-30
=3 Iry-30
Iy

= Iyb- Iry
=3 Iyb-150

Ib

= Ibr- Iyb
=3 Ibr90
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Summary : V & I in Delta-Connected System

I Line 3 I Phase Phase 30 0


I Phase

I Line
Line 30 0
3

Phasor Diagram:

I r 3 I ry ry 30 0
I y 3 I yb
I b 3 I br

yb

br

150 0
90 0

VLine = VPhase
|ILine| = 3 |IPhase|

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Example 1 (Balanced Delta-Connected System)


For the circuit in the previous slide page, suppose Vry = 240V15 ,
Zry = Zyb = Zbr = 10 + j 3
a) Determine the phase currents.
b) Determine the line currents.
c) Sketch the phasor diagram.

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14

Solution:
a. I ry
b. Ir

Vry
Z ry

24015 0
23.0 A 1.70 0
10 j3

I yb 23.0 A 121.7 0

I br 23.0 A118.30

3Iry 300 39.8 A 31.70

I y 39.8 A 151.7 0
I b 39.8 A88.30
c.

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Example 2

Balance load 22.426.6

30

15

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Example 3

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Example 4

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Example 5
VAB = 208V30

Determine :
a)

Phase current

b) Line current

Solution :
a)

I ab

V
20830
ab
13.9 A 23.13
Z ab
9 j12
I bc lag I ab with 120o
I bc 13.9 A 143.13

I ca lead I ab with 120

I ca 13.9 A96.87

b)

I a 3I ab 30
3 (13.9)(30 23.13) 24 A 53.13
I b lag I a with 120o
I b 24 A 173.13

I c lead I a with 120o

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I c 24 A66.87

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Example 6
Line voltage at generator is 208 volts.
Determine line voltage at loads.
Solution :

Vab E AB
Find 1 equivalent circuit

ZY Z / 3
(9 j12) / 3
3 j 4
phase voltage at generator
208
120V
3
as reference : E AN 120V0

E AN
E AN

use voltage divider


3 j4
1200 117V0.22
Van
3.1 j 4.1

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Vab 3Van30 203V30.22

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