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Terrorism the use or threat of violence directed at people or governments to

punish them for the last action and/or to bring about a change in policy that is to
the terrorists liking.
There are 7 forms of transnational criminality that play into terrorism:
1. Illicit drug trafficking provides easy access to large funds for operations.
Example: Globally there is about $500 billion dirty drug money used to
finance illegal activities.
2. Money laundering activity aimed at making illegally obtained untaxed funds
appear legitimate.
Example: Bribery, black market activities, corruption, extortion, and
embezzlement all require laundering.
3. Infiltration of legal business to buy or establish a legitimate business to
perform as a front for terrorists to smuggle money, agents and supplies.
Example: Al Qaeda established an import-export firm with Tatari Design and
Tatex Trading to smuggle money, agents and supplies.
4. Computer crime there is abuse of cyberspace for money laundering and
potential cyber-attacks on the national security of the United States.
Example: Terrorists can launch major strikes through computer networks in
the future, including Al Qaeda.
5. Illicit arms trafficking Weapons of mass destruction including nuclear,
bacteriological and chemical.
Example: United Nations inspections of suspected Iraqi nuclear arms
facilities. No weapons of mass destruction were found by UN inspectors or US
military personnel.
6. Traffic in persons illegal migrants from less desirable homelands in search of
promising lands such as the US, pay smugglers billions. These people
ultimately become vulnerable recruits for terrorist activities.
Example: With the War on Drugs in Mexico, the cartel bribes migrants to
smuggle drugs as well as themselves into the US.
7. Destruction of cultural property terrorists, especially those with millennial
goals or of religious or political extremism, seek to destroy past cultures and
to impose their own vision of culture.
Example: Hitlers terrorists burned down the synagogues and every other
cultural symbol, especially art, literature and music deemed inconsistent with
the new culture they wanted to impose.
Edwin H. Sutherland one of the founding scholars of American criminology
Criminology the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It
includes within its scope, the process of making laws, of breaking laws and of
reacting toward the breaking of the laws. The objective of criminology is the
development of a body of general and verified principles and of other types of
knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and treatment or prevention.

Criminologists collect information on crime and criminals for study and analysis
in accordance with the research methods of modern science.
Deviance a broad concept encompassing both illegal behavior and behavior that
departs from the social norm.
Social norms are perceived standards of acceptable behavior prevalent among
members of a society.
Crime is any human conduct that violates a criminal law and is subject to
Example: murder, theft
Consensus model a model of criminal law making that assumes that members of
society agree on what is right and what is wrong and that law is codification of
agreed upon social values.
Example: if the vast majority of a group shares a view, the group has acted by
consensus. This model assumes that members of a society by and large agree on
what is right and what is wrong and that codification of social values becomes law.
Laws are created for the general good.
Conflict model a model of crime in which the criminal justice system is seen as
being used by the ruling class to be controlled by the lower class.
Example: it is through power struggles that various interest groups manage to
control law-making and law enforcement. Accordingly the appropriate object of
criminological investigation is not the violation of laws but the conflicts within
Criminal Justice System the interdependent and interactive components of
police, courts, and corrections that form a unified whole.
Example: Criminal justice focuses on scientific studies of decision making processes,
operations, and such justice related concerns as the efficiency of police, courts, and
corrections systems; the just treatment of offenders; the needs of victims, and the
effects of changes in sentencing philosophy.