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Unit 1: Levels of Organization

Chapter 3: Cells


Aids to Understanding Words
Define the following word parts:












Clinical Example
Explain why cloning begins with a stem cell.


3.2 Composite Cell
a. Answer the following questions about the cell membrane.
i. Chemically, the cell membrane is mainly composed of _________________________ and
ii. Describe the role of lipid molecules in making the cell membrane semipermeable.

b. Fill in the following table:
Structure and Function of Cellular Organelles

Cell Membrane

Endoplasmic Reticulum


Golgi Apparatus



Answer the questions concerning movement through cell membranes. How does osmosis differ from diffusion? . v. 3. i. What substances in the human body are transported by diffusion? iv. Describe facilitated diffusion. What is dialysis? Describe how it is used in an artificial kidney.3 Movement through Cell Membranes a.Mitochondria Lysosomes Peroxisomes Microfilaments & Microtubules Centrosome Cilia & Flagella Vesicles Nuclear Envelope Nucleolus Chromatin IV. In what direction do the molecules of solute move in diffusion? ii. vi. When does diffusion stop? iii.

b. i. What provides the necessary force for this process? iii. ii. In active transport. molecules move from regions of ___________________________ concentration to regions of ______________________________ concentration. What substances are transported by this membrane? d. i. Compare active transport to facilitated diffusion. Answer the questions concerning active transport. Label the tonicity of the solution in each drawing. ___________________________ ________________________ Answer the questions concerning the accompanying diagram. What transport mechanism is illustrated here? ii. Below are three drawings of a red blood cell in solutions of varying tonicity. . What is the source of this force? iv. How are molecules transported across the cell membrane? v. ________________________ c.

e. ii. i. What organelles are involved? iii. The process by which cells develop differences in structure and function is ________________________________. e. What mechanism is illustrated in this drawing? ii. . prophase metaphase anaphase telophase c. Answer these questions concerning cell differentiation. What kinds of foreign objects are transported? iv.4 The Cell Cycle a. 3. Describe the events of cytoplasmic division. Describe the role of DNA in this process. d. Describe the press of apoptosis. The series of changes that a cell undergoes from its formation until its reproduction is called its ______________________________________. What is receptor-mediated endocytosis? V. Answer the following questions concerning the accompanying diagram. i. b. Describe each of the following events in mitosis. How is this mechanism important to cell survival? v.