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# Rigid-body dynamics studies the movement of systems of interconnected bodies under the action of

external forces. The assumption that the bodies are rigid, which means that they do not deform under the
action of applied forces, simplifies the analysis by reducing the parameters that describe the configuration
of the system to the translation and rotation of reference frames attached to each body.[1][2]
The dynamics of a rigid body system is defined by its equations of motion, which are derived using
either Newtons laws of motion or Lagrangian mechanics. The solution of these equations of motion
defines how the configuration of the system of rigid bodies changes as a function of time. The formulation
and solution of rigid body dynamics is an important tool in the computer simulation of mechanical
systems.

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation
to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, andpressure, that
partly describe a body of matter or radiation. It states that the behavior of those variables is subject to
general constraints, that are common to all materials, not the peculiar properties of particular materials.
These general constraints are expressed in the four laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics describes
the bulk behavior of the body, not the microscopic behaviors of the very large numbers of its microscopic
constituents, such as molecules. The basic results of thermodynamics rely on the existence of idealized
states of thermodynamic equilibrium. Its laws are explained by statistical mechanics, in terms of the
microscopic constituents.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of
solid objects subject to stresses and strains. The complete theory began with the consideration of the
behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated
as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of
the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important founding pioneer in mechanics of materials
was Stephen Timoshenko.
The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains
in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts. The methods employed to predict the
response of a structure under loading and its susceptibility to various failure modes takes into account the
properties of the materials such as its yield strength, ultimate strength,Young's modulus, and Poisson's
ratio; in addition the mechanical element's macroscopic properties (geometric properties), such as its
length, width, thickness, boundary constraints and abrupt changes in geometry such as holes are
considered.