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PowerPoint Lecture

Presentations prepared by
Donal Skinner,
University of Wyoming

CHAPTER

PCB 3703
Human Physiology I

14

Yerko Berrocal, M.D.


Associate
Professor
2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter Outline
14.1 Physical Laws Governing Blood Flow and BP
14.2 Overview of the Vasculature
14.3 Arteries
14.4 Arterioles
14.5 Capillaries and Venules
14.6 Veins
14.7 The Lymphatic System
14.8 Mean Arterial Pressure and Its Regulation
14.9 Other Cardiovascular Regulatory Processes
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14.1 Physical Laws Governing Blood Flow and


Blood Pressure
Flow Rule
Circulatory system = closed system
Pressure = force exerted by blood
Flow occurs from high pressure to low pressure
P is the force pushing blood against the various
factors resisting the flow of liquid in a pipe
Flow = P/R
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Pressure Gradients in the Cardiovascular


System
Pressure gradients drive flow from high pressure
to low pressure
Flow due to pressure gradients = bulk flow
Heart creates a pressure gradient for bulk flow
of blood
A gradient must exist throughout the circulatory
system to maintain blood flow
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Figure 14.1 A model that relates blood flow to the pressure gradient.

100 mm Hg

P = 40 mm Hg

60 mm Hg
Flow
Flow = 20 mL/min

P = 0 mm Hg

Flow = 0

200 mm Hg
160 mm Hg

Flow

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Flow = 20 mL/min

P = 40 mm Hg

Pressure Gradients in the Cardiovascular


System
Pressure gradient across the systemic circuit
P = pressure in aorta minus pressure in vena cava just
before it empties into right atrium
Pressure in aorta = mean arterial pressure (MAP) = 90
mm Hg
Pressure in vena cava = central venous pressure (CVP)
= 0 mm Hg
P = MAP CVP = 90 0 = 90 mm Hg
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Figure 14.2 A pressure gradient is the driving force for blood flow.

Vena cava pressure =


0 mm Hg
Systemic
organs

Right
atrium

Right
Left
ventricle ventricle
P = 85 0
= 85 mm Hg

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Left
atrium

Heart

Aortic pressure =
85 mm Hg (MAP)

Pressure Gradients in the Cardiovascular


System
Pressure gradient across pulmonary circuit
P = pressure in pulmonary arteries minus pressure in
pulmonary veins
Pulmonary arterial pressure = 15 mm Hg
Pulmonary venous pressure = 0 mm Hg
P = 15 0 = 15 mm Hg

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Veins

Venules

Capillaries

Arterioles

Arteries

Figure 14.3 Pressures and pressure drops in the pulmonary and systemic circuits.

Pressure
drops:
Systemic
circuit

Systemic
circuit
Pulmonary
circuit
Pulmonary
circuit
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Resistance in the Cardiovascular System


The pressure gradient in the systemic circuit is
much greater than the pressure gradient in the
pulmonary circuit
Flow through both circuits is equal
Flow = P/R
Thus resistance through the pulmonary circuit is
much less than resistance through the systemic
circuit
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Figure 14.4 The effect of resistance on flow.

P = 40 mm Hg
Low
resistance

Flow = 20 mL/min

High
resistance

Flow = 10 mL/min

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Resistance in the Cardiovascular System


Factors affecting resistance to flow
Radius of vessel
In arterioles (and small arteries)can regulate radius

Length of vessel
Viscosity of fluid =
Blood viscosity depends on amount of RBCs and
proteinsusually constant

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Resistance in the Cardiovascular System


Toolbox: Poiseuille's Law
R=8L
r4
Flow = P/R

Therefore: Flow = P r4
8L
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Resistance in the Cardiovascular System


The effect of arteriole radius on blood flow
Regulation of radius of arterioles (and small arteries)
Vasoconstriction
Decreased radius increased resistance
Vasodilation
Increased radius decreased resistance

Pulmonary circuit features less resistance than systemic


circuit
Lower pressure gradient is required for blood flow
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Resistance in the Cardiovascular System


Total peripheral resistance = combined resistance
of all blood vessels within the systemic circuit
Resistance across a network of blood vessels depends
on resistance of all vessels
Flow through network varies with resistance
Vasoconstriction in network increased resistance
decreased flow
Vasodilation in network decreased resistance
increased flow
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Relating Pressure Gradients and Resistance


in the Systemic Circulation
Flow = P/R
Flow = cardiac output (CO)
P = mean arterial pressure (MAP)
R = total peripheral resistance (TPR)

CO = MAP / TPR

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14.2 Overview of the Vasculature


Arteries: carry blood away from heart
Microcirculation
Arterioles
Capillaries: site of exchange
Venules

Veins: return blood to heart

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Figure 14.5 The relationships of blood vessels according to size and the direction of blood flow in the systemic
circuit

Oxygenated
blood from
heart

Deoxygenated
blood to
heart

Connective tissue

Valve

Smooth muscle
Endothelium
Lumen
Microcirculation
Arteriole

Venule

Network of capillaries
Artery

Vein

Basement
membrane
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Endothelium

Capillary

Overview of the Vasculature


Walls of blood vessels
Endothelial cells line inner layer of all blood vessels
Other components of blood vessel walls:
Smooth muscle
Fibrous connective tissue
Collagen
Elastic connective tissue
Elastin

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Figure 14.6 Structural characteristics of the five blood vessel types.


Average internal Average wall
diameter (mm) thickness (mm)

4.0

Special
features

Muscular, highly elastic

1.0

Artery

0.03

Muscular, well innervated

0.006
Arteriole

0.008

Thin-walled, highly permeable

0.0005
Capillary

0.02

0.001

Thin-walled, some smooth muscle


Venule

5.0

Thin-walled (compared to arteries),


fairly muscular, highly distensible

0.5

Vein
= Endothelium
= Smooth muscle
= Connective tissue
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Wall thickness
Internal
diameter

14.3 Arteries
Arteries as a pressure reservoir
Arterial blood pressure

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Arteries
Rapid transport pathway
Large diameter
Little resistance

Walls contain elastic and fibrous tissue


Under high pressure

Muscular arteries
Less than 0.1 mm in diameter
Little elastin
Smooth muscle regulates radius
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Arteries: A Pressure Reservoir


Storage site for pressure
Thick, elastic arterial walls
Low compliance
Expand as blood enters arteries during systole
Recoil during diastole

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Figure 14.7a The role of arterioles as a pressure reservoir.

Expanding pressure
due to increased volume

Aortic
valve

Flow

Flow
Left
ventricle

Arteries
Systole

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To
systemic
organs

Figure 14.7b The role of arterioles as a pressure reservoir.

Elastic recoil

Aortic
valve

Flow

Left
ventricle
Arteries
Diastole

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Arteries: A Pressure Reservoir


Compliance: measure of how the pressure of a
vessel will change with a change in volume
Low compliance (arteries)
Small increase in blood volume causes a large increase in
pressure

High compliance
Large increase in blood volume is required to produce a
large increase in pressure

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Arterial Blood Pressure


Pressure in the aorta
Varies with cardiac cycle
Systolic blood pressure = maximum pressure
Due to ejection of blood into aorta

Diastolic blood pressure = minimum pressure


Not zero due to elastic recoil

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Figure 14.8 The events involved in blood pressure measurement.

Slide 1

Pressure in the cuff

Systolic pressure
(beginning of sounds)
Blood ow:
Sound:

Diastolic pressure
(end of sounds)

No ow

Turbulent ow

Laminar ow

No sound

Korotkoff sounds

No sound

Cuff pressure
above
110 mm Hg

Cuff pressure
between 70 and
110 mm Hg

Cuff pressure
below 70 mm Hg

Stethoscope
Cuff

No blood ow
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Turbulent ow in compressed
artery makes audible vibrations
(Korotkoff sounds)

Laminar ow in noncompressed
artery makes no sounds

Arterial Blood Pressure


Measuring blood pressure
Pressure cuff and sphygmomanometer
Compressed artery
Turbulent flow produces Korotkoff sound
Pressure at first Korotkoff sound = systolic blood pressure

Uncompressed artery
Laminar flow, no sound
Pressure when sound disappears = diastolic blood
pressure
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Arterial Blood Pressure


Blood pressure determinations
The measured BP is shown as SP/DP
Example: 110 / 70

Pulse pressure = SP DP
Example: 110 70 = 40 mm Hg

MAP = SP + (2 DP) / 3
Example: (110 + 140) / 3 = 83.3 mm Hg

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14.4 Arterioles
Arterioles: resistant vessels
Part of microcirculation
Connect arteries to capillaries or metarterioles
Contain rings of smooth muscle to regulate radius
and, therefore, resistance

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Arterioles and Resistance to Blood Flow


Arterioles provide greatest resistance to blood flow
Greater than 60% of TPR
Largest pressure drop in vasculature
90 mm Hg to 40 mm Hg

Resistance is regulated

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Veins

Venules

Capillaries

Arteries

Arterioles

Figure 14.9 Pressures in the vasculature. Pressures in the vasculature.

Pressure
drops:
Arteries
Systemic
circuit

Arterioles
Systemic
circuit
Capillaries
Venules
Veins

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Arterioles and Resistance to Blood Flow


Changes in arteriole radius
Radius depends on contraction state of smooth muscle
in arteriole wall
Arteriolar tone
Contraction level (radius) is independent of extrinsic
influences

Vasoconstriction
Increased contraction = decreased radius

Vasodilation
Decreased contraction = increased radius
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Arterioles and Resistance to Blood Flow


Functions of varying arteriole radius
Controlling blood flow to individual capillary beds
Regulating mean arterial pressure

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Figure 14.10 Changes in the radius of arterioles.

Rest, arteriolar tone

Contraction of smooth
muscle causes
vasoconstriction

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Relaxation of smooth
muscle causes
vasodilation

Intrinsic Control of Blood Flow Distribution to


Organs
Regulation of blood flow to organs is based
on need
Regulated by varying resistance
Organ blood flow = MAP / organ resistance

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Figure 14.11a The effects of pressure gradients and resistance on blood flow to organs.

Heart

AP

Organ A

VP

AP

Organ B

VP

AP

Organ C

VP

Arteries
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Veins

Figure 14.11b The effects of pressure gradients and resistance on blood flow to organs.

AP

P = AP VP

VP

Flow

Percent of
cardiac output
(total ow)

1.5 L/min

50%

1.0 L/min

33%

0.5 L/min

17%

Total ow: 3.0 L/min

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Figure 14.11c The effects of pressure gradients and resistance on blood flow to organs.

AP

P = AP VP

Flow

VP

Percent of
cardiac output
(total ow)

1.5 L/min

60%

0.5 L/min

20%

0.5 L/min

20%

Total ow: 2.5 L/min

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Intrinsic Control of Blood Flow Distribution to


Organs
Local factors that control vascular resistance
Vascular resistance is regulated through changes in
radius of arterioles
Depends on contractile state of smooth muscle in walls
of the vessel
Local factors regulate radius, thereby regulating blood
flow

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Intrinsic Control of Blood Flow Distribution to


Organs
Regulation in response to changes in metabolic
activity
Changes associated with increased metabolic activity
generally cause vasodilation
Carbon dioxide
Potassium
Hydrogen ions

Changes associated with decreased metabolic activity


generally cause vasoconstriction
Oxygen
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Intrinsic Control of Blood Flow Distribution to


Organs
Active hyperemia: increased blood flow in
response to increased metabolic activity
Steady state
O2 is delivered as fast as it is consumed
CO2 is removed as fast as it is produced

Increased metabolic rate


O2 is consumed faster than it is delivered
CO2 is produced faster than it is removed
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Figure 14.12 The effects of pressure gradients and resistance on blood flow to organs.
Cells
Carbon
dioxide

Extracellular
uid

Oxygen

Blood ow

Arteriole

Capillaries

Under normal steady-state conditions, oxygen (purple


dots) is delivered to tissues by the blood as fast as it is
consumed by cells, and carbon dioxide (green dots) is
removed from tissues by the blood as fast as it is
produced by cells.

The decreased oxygen concentration and increased


carbon dioxide concentration act on arteriolar
smooth
muscle to promote vasodilation.
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Inc.

An increase in the metabolic rate causes oxygen to


be consumed faster than it is delivered and carbon
dioxide to be produced faster than it is removed. The
oxygen concentration in extracellular uid decreases,
while carbon dioxide concentration increases.

Vasodilation promotes increased blood ow, which


increases oxygen delivery to cells and carbon dioxide
removal from cells.

Intrinsic Control of Blood Flow Distribution to


Organs
Reactive hyperemia: increased blood flow in
response to a previous reduction in blood flow
Blockage of blood flow to tissues
Metabolites increase and oxygen decreases
Vasodilation

When blockage is released


Increased blood flow due to low resistance
Metabolites removed, oxygen delivered
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Figure 14.13 Comparison of active and reactive hyperemia.


Active Hyperemia

Reactive Hyperemia

Tissue

Tissue
Blood ow

Metabolic rate

O2 consumption
CO2 production

Negative
feedback

O2 concentration
CO2 concentration

O2 concentration

Local arteriolar
smooth muscle

Local arteriolar
smooth muscle

Vasodilation

Vasodilation

Resistance

Blood ow

Negative
feedback

Resistance

Blood ow

O2 delivery

O2 delivery

CO2 removal

CO2 removal

O2 concentration
CO2 concentration

Initial stimulus
Physiological response
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CO2 concentration

Result

O2 concentration
CO2 concentration

Slide 1

Intrinsic Control of Blood Flow Distribution to


Organs
Myogenic response: change in vascular
resistance in response to stretch of blood vessels
in the absence of external factors
Myogenic autoregulation of blood flow
Increased perfusion pressure increases blood flow and
pressure in arterioles
Increased pressure in arteriole stretches arteriole wall
Stretch of vascular smooth muscle induces contraction
of vascular smooth muscleinherent property of
smooth muscle
Vasoconstriction decreases blood flow
Purpose: keep blood flow constant (autoregulate)
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Figure 14.14 The myogenic response to changes in perfusion pressure.

Arteriole
Perfusion pressure

Flow

Stretch of arteriolar
smooth muscle

Constriction
Negative
feedback
Resistance

Flow

Initial stimulus
Physiological response
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Result

Slide 1

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Understanding Exercise: Independent


Regulation of Blood Flow
Cardiac output increases during exercise
Distribution of blood does not increase
proportionally
Dilation of vessels to skeletal muscle and heart
increases blood flow to muscles
Constriction of vessels to GI tract and kidneys
decreases blood flow to these organs

Disproportionate flow diverts blood to muscles


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Understanding Exercise 14.1 Independent Regulation of Blood Flow.

Resting blood ow
Cardiac output (CO) = 5 L/min
Skin 0.25 L/min

Exercise blood ow
Cardiac output (CO) = 25.0 L/min
Kidneys 0.85 L/min
GI tract 1.05 L/min

Skeletal muscle
1.0 L/min
Kidneys
1.0 L/min
Others
0.6 L/min
GI tract
Brain
1.25 L/min
0.7 L/min

Heart 0.2 L/min

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Heart 1.15 L/min


Brain 0.8 L/min
Others 0.5 L/min
Skeletal muscle
20.0 L/min

Skin 0.65 L/min

Extrinsic Control of Arteriole Radius and Mean


Arterial Pressure
Flow = P/R
CO = MAP / TPR
MAP = CO TPR
MAP depends on total peripheral resistance (TPR)
TPR depends on radius of arterioles

Radius of arterioles is regulated by extrinsic


mechanisms to control mean arterial pressure
Sympathetic activity
Hormones
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Extrinsic Control of Arteriole Radius and Mean


Arterial Pressure
Sympathetic control of arteriolar radius
Sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle
of arterioles
Smooth muscle of most arterioles (not those in brain)
has adrenergic receptors
Norepinephrine binds to adrenergic receptors
Produces vasoconstriction
Increases TPR
Increases MAP
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Extrinsic Control of Arteriole Radius and Mean


Arterial Pressure
Distribution of adrenergic receptors in arterioles to
skeletal and cardiac muscle
Both and 2 adrenergic receptors
Norepinephrine binds to receptors
Vasoconstriction

Epinephrine binds to and 2 receptors


Vasoconstriction at receptors
Vasodilation 2 receptors

Epinephrine has greater affinity for 2 receptors


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Extrinsic Control of Arteriole Radius and Mean


Arterial Pressure
Effects of epinephrine on arteriole radius
Concentration dependent
Lower concentrationsbinds 2
Vasodilation

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Extrinsic Control of Arteriole Radius and Mean


Arterial Pressure
Effects of epinephrine on arteriole radius
Higher concentrationsbinds and 2
Vasodilation in skeletal and cardiac muscle vascular beds
Decreases TPR decreases blood pressure
Vasoconstriction in most vascular beds
Maintains/increases TPR maintains blood pressure
Dominant effect is usually vasoconstriction

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Extrinsic Control of Arteriole Radius and Mean


Arterial Pressure
Hormonal control
Epinephrine
Released from adrenal medulla

Vasopressin (ADH)
Secreted by posterior pituitary
Increases water reabsorption by kidneys
Vasoconstriction

Angiotensin II
Vasoconstriction
Increases TPR
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14.5 Capillaries and Venules


Capillary Anatomy
1040 billion per body
Total SA = 600 m2
Most cells within 1 mm of a capillary
1 mm long

Pores between endothelial cells


Protein-free plasma moves through pores
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Capillary Anatomy
Site of exchange between blood and tissue
510 mm in diametersmall diffusion distance
Walls
One cell layer
Small diffusion barrier
Have greatest total cross-sectional area
Have slowest velocity of blood flow, which enhances
exchange
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Veins

Venules

Capillaries

Arterioles

Arteries

Aorta

Figure 14.15 Total cross-sectional area and velocity of blood flow through the vasculature.

Capillary Anatomy
Continuous capillaries
Most common
Small gaps between endothelial cells
Allow small water-soluble molecules to move through

Fenestrated capillaries
Large gaps between endothelial cells forming pores or
fenestrations (windows)
Allow proteins, and in some cases blood cells, to move through

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Figure 14.16a Two types of capillaries.

small water-soluble
molecules to move through

proteins, and in some cases


blood cells, to move through
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Local Control of Blood Flow Through Capillary


Beds
Local control of smooth muscle in microcirculation
Arterioles
Metarterioles
Precapillary sphincters

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Local Control of Blood Flow Through Capillary


Beds
Metarterioles
Intermediate between arterioles
and capillaries
Directly connect arterioles to
venules
Function as shunts to bypass
capillaries
Rings of smooth muscle at strategic
locations
Contract and relax in response
to local factors
Contract increase blood flow
through capillaries
Relax decrease blood flow
through capillaries
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Local Control of Blood Flow Through Capillary


Beds
Precapillary sphincters
Rings of smooth muscle that
surround capillaries on the
arteriole end
Contract and relax in
response to local factors only
Contraction constricts
capillary decreases blood
flow
Relaxation increases blood
flow
Metabolites cause relaxation
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Movement of Material Across Capillary Walls


Exchange across capillary walls
Diffusion: most common mechanism
Lipophilic: across membrane
Lipophobic: through channels

Transcytosis: exchangeable proteins


Mediated transport: in brain

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Figure 14.18 Exchange of materials across the wall of a continuous capillary.

Endothelial cell

Pores

Plasma
Lumen

O2, CO2,
fatty acids,
steroid
hormones
Na+, K+,
glucose

Capillary

Proteins

Water-lled
pore

Interstitial uid
Diffusion through
cells (lipid-soluble
substances)
Diffusion through
pores (watersoluble substances)
Restricted movement of most
plasma proteins
(cannot cross
capillary wall)
Transcytosis of
exchangeable
proteins across
cells
Cytoplasm
Plasma membrane

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Movement of Material Across Capillary Walls


Bulk flow of fluid across capillary wall based on
pressure gradients
Protein-free plasma moves across capillaries
Filtration = movement out of capillary into interstitial
space
Absorption = movement into capillary from interstitial
space

Purpose: distribute ECF

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Movement of Material Across Capillary Walls


Starling forces across capillary walls
Forces for bulk flow: hydrostatic and osmotic pressures
Hydrostatic pressure gradient: force due to fluid
Osmotic pressure: osmotic force exerted on water by
nonpermeating solutes
Only nonpermeating solute: proteins
Oncotic pressure: osmotic force of proteins

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Factors influencing transcapillary fluid


movement

(+)
(-)

(-)
(+)

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Filtration and Reabsorption

Formula for fluid exchange:

Qf = forces for filtration MINUS the forces against filtration


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Table 14.3 Forces Affecting the Movement of Fluid Across Capillary Walls.

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Movement of Material Across Capillary Walls


Factors affecting filtration and absorption across capillaries
Standing on feetincreases hydrostatic pressure
Injuries
When capillaries are damaged, they leak fluid and proteins
Histamine increases capillary permeability to proteins
Liver disease
Decreases plasma proteins
Kidney disease
Increases blood volume and, therefore, blood pressure
Decreases plasma proteins
Heart disease
Pulmonary edema
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Venules
Smaller than arterioles
Connect capillaries to veins
Little smooth muscle in walls
Some exchange of material between blood and
interstitial fluid

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14.6 Veins
Large diameter, but thin walls
Valves allow unidirectional blood flow
Present in peripheral veins
Absent from central veins

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Veins: A Volume Reservoir


Compliant vessels
Expand with little change in pressure
Function as blood reservoir
60% total blood volume in systemic veins at rest

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Figure 14.20 Curves showing how the volume of blood contained in arteries and veins varies with the pressure inside
them.

Veins

Arteries

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Figure 14.21 Distribution of blood volume in the various portions `of the cardiovascular system.

Pulmonary blood
vessels 12%
Systemic arteries
and arterioles 15%

Heart 8%

Capillaries 5%
Systemic veins
and venules 60%

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Factors That Influence Venous Pressure and


Venous Return
Skeletal muscle pump
One-way valves in peripheral veins
Skeletal muscle contracts
Squeezes on veins, increasing pressure
Blood moves toward heart
Blood cannot move backward due to valves

Skeletal muscle relaxes


Blood flows into veins between muscles
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Figure 14.22 The skeletal muscle pump.

To heart

To heart

Valve
closed

Proximal
valve
opened

Vein
Vein
Valve
opened

Distal
valve
closed

Skeletal muscle contracted


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Skeletal muscle relaxed

Factors That Influence Venous Pressure and


Venous Return

Respiratory pump
Inspiration
Decreases pressure in thoracic cavity
Increases pressure in abdominal cavity

Pressure on veins in abdominal cavity


creates gradient favoring blood movement to
thoracic cavity
Increases central venous pressure
Increases venous return
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Factors That Influence Venous Pressure and


Venous Return
Blood volume
Increased blood volume increased venous pressure
Decreased blood volume decreased venous pressure
Long-term regulation of blood pressure occurs through
regulation of blood volume

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Factors That Influence Venous Pressure and


Venous Return
Venomotor tone
Smooth muscle tension in the veins
Increase in venomotor tone
Contraction of smooth muscle in the wall of a vein
Smooth muscle in walls of veins is innervated by sympathetic
nervous system
Norepinephrine acting at adrenergic receptors causes venous
constriction
Increases central venous pressure
Decreases venous compliance
Increases venous return
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Figure 14.23 Factors affecting venous pressure and, therefore, mean arterial pressure.
Activity of
muscle pump

Activity of
respiratory
pump

Activity in
sympathetic
nerves to veins
Veins
Venomotor tone

Venous compliance

Venous pressure

Venous return

Heart
Atrial pressure

End-diastolic pressure (preload)

End-diastolic volume (EDV)

Stroke volume (SV)

Cardiac output (CO)


Initial stimulus
Physiological response
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Result

Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

Blood
volume

Slide 1

14.7 The Lymphatic System


System of vessels, nodes, and organs
Vessels are involved in returning excess filtrate to
circulation
Vessels form an open system starting at the capillaries
Lymph moves from capillaries to veins
Lymphatic veins drain into the thoracic duct, which empties
into the right atrium
Lymph moves through the lymphatic veins in the same way
as blood flows through regular veins
Also part of immune system (macrophages)
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Figure 14.24 The lymphatic system.

Lymphatic capillaries
Lymph ow
Lymph
node
Pulmonary
capillaries

Pulmonary Circuit

Blood
ow
Systemic Circuit

Valve Lymph
node

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Lymph
ow

Lymphatic capillaries

Systemic
capillaries

14.8 Mean Arterial Pressure and Its Regulation


Determinants of mean arterial pressure
Heart rate
Stroke volume
Total peripheral resistance

Regulation of mean arterial pressure


Neural control
Hormonal control

Control by low-pressure baroreceptors (volume receptors)

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Determinants of Mean Arterial Pressure


Heart rate
Stroke volume
Total peripheral resistance
Calculations
MAP = CO TPR
CO = HR SV
Therefore: MAP = HR SV TPR

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Figure 14.25a-b How increases in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance increase mean arterial pressure.

Aorta
From
Flow (CO)
heart

Constant MAP

Flow

Flow (CO)

Increased MAP

Flow

An increase in
cardiac output . . .

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To
systemic
organs

. . . when total peripheral


. . . leads to an increase in the volume
resistance remains the
of blood contained in the aorta and
an increase in mean arterial pressure . . . same.

Figure 14.25c How increases in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance increase mean arterial pressure.

Flow (CO)

A constant
cardiac output . . .

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Increased MAP

Flow

. . . leads to an increase in the volume


. . . when total peripheral
of blood contained in the aorta and
resistance increases.
an increase in mean arterial pressure . . .

Determinants of Mean Arterial Pressure


Extrinsic control of arteriole radius
MAP is regulated through control of the heart (CO) and
arterioles and veins (TPR)
Neural control
Hormonal control

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Determinants of Mean Arterial Pressure


MAP: driving force for blood flow
F = P/R
Regulating MAP is critical to normal function
MAP < normal
Hypotension
Inadequate blood flow to tissues

MAP > normal

Hypertension

Stressor for heart and blood vessels

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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Short-term regulation: seconds to minutes
Regulates cardiac output and total peripheral resistance
Involves the heart and blood vessels
Primarily neural control

Long-term regulation: minutes to days


Regulates blood volume
Involves the kidneys
Primarily hormonal control

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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Neural control of MAP
Negative feedback loops
Detector = baroreceptors
Integration center = cardiovascular centers in the
brainstem
Controllers = autonomic nervous system
Effectors = heart and blood vessels

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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Baroreceptors = pressure receptors
Sometimes called stretch receptors
Arterial baroreceptors = sinoaortic receptors
Aortic arch
Carotid sinuses

Respond to stretching due to pressure changes in


arteries

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Figure 14.26 Arterial baroreceptors.

Carotid bifurcation
Carotid sinus
Common carotid
artery

Arterial
baroreceptors

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Aortic
arch

Figure 14.27 Response of arterial baroreceptors to changes in arterial pressure.

Normal

Increased
pressure

Decreased
pressure

110
Arterial
pressure
(mm Hg)

70
Action potentials

Baroreceptor
response
(membrane
potential, mV)
Baseline
frequency
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Decreased
Increased
action potential action potential
frequency
frequency

Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Cardiovascular control center
Medulla oblongata
Integration center for blood pressure regulation

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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Cardiovascular control center
Input
Arterial baroreceptors
Low-pressure baroreceptors
Chemoreceptors
Proprioceptors
Higher brain centers

Output
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system
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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Autonomic output to cardiovascular effectors
Parasympathetic input to
SA node (decreases HR)
AV node
Sympathetic input to
SA node (increases HR)
AV node
Ventricular myocardium (increases contractility)
Arterioles (increases resistance)
Veins (increases venomotor tone)
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Figure 14.28 Major neural pathways in the control of cardiovascular function.

Parasympathetic
preganglionic
(vagus nerve)

Dorsal motor
nuclei of
the vagus
Cardiovascular
control centers

SA node
Medulla
oblongata
Ventricular
myocardium
Sympathetic
Heart
Sympathetic
Arterioles
Sympathetic

Spinal cord
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Sympathetic chain

Veins

Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Baroreceptor reflex: negative feedback loop to maintain
blood pressure at normal level
Detectors = baroreceptors
Afferents = visceral afferents
Integration center = cardiovascular control center
Efferents = autonomic nervous system
Effectors = heart, arterioles, and veins

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Figure 14.29 The events in the baroreceptor reflex in response to a drop in mean arterial pressure.
MAP

Arterial baroreceptors
Frequency of
action potentials
conducted to CNS

Cardiovascular control center


Parasympathetic activity

SA node
Action potential
frequency

Sympathetic activity

Ventricular myocardium

Veins
Venomotor tone

Contractility

Arterioles
Vasoconstriction

Compliance

Venous pressure
Negative
feedback
EDV

HR

TPR

SV

MAP
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Initial stimulus
Physiological response
Result

Slide 1

Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Baroreceptor reflex in action
Hemorrhage
Decreases blood volume
Blood volume decrease decrease in mean arterial pressure
Triggers the baroreceptive reflex
Increases sympathetic activity
Decreases parasympathetic activity
Increased resistance and decreased blood flow in GI tract
Blood diverted from GI tract to brain

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Figure 14.30 Baroreceptor-mediated responses to hemorrhage.

Control

Heart
rate
Stroke
volume

Cardiac
output

Total
peripheral
resistance

Mean
arterial
pressure
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Hemorrhage

Reex
compensation

Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Long-term regulation
Baroreceptor reflex quickly compensates for changes in blood
pressure
Does not correct the problem
Long-term regulation occurs through renal regulation of blood
volume

Hormonal control
Epinephrine
Vasopressin
Angiotensin II

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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Epinephrine
Released by adrenal medulla in response to sympathetic activity
Increases mean arterial pressure
Acts on smooth muscle of arterioles
Increases TPR
Acts on smooth muscle of veins
Increases venomotor tone
Acts on heart
Increases HR and SV

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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Vasopressin and angiotensin II
Vasoconstrictors
Increase TPR
Increase MAP

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Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure


Cardiac and venous baroreceptors
Low-pressure baroreceptors = volume receptors
Location
Walls of large systemic veins
Walls of the atria

Decrease in blood volume activates receptors which


trigger responses that act in parallel with the
baroreceptor reflex

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Thank You !!!

2013 Pearson Education, Inc.