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Indian Journal of

Dental Research

ISSN: 0970 - 9290


Volume: 19 / Issue: 1 / January - March 2008

CONTENTS

Editorial
Authorship
B Sivapathasundharam ........................................................................................................................................................................

Original Research
Effect of chemical surface treatments and repair material on transverse strength of repaired acrylic denture resin
Mahroo Vojdani, Sakineh Rezaei, Lila Zareeian ...................................................................................................................................

Intrusion in implant-tooth-supported fixed prosthesis: An in vitro photoelastic stress analysis


Murali Srinivasan, Padmanabhan TV ....................................................................................................................................................

Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery:
A retrospective study
Vinod Narayanan, Shankar Guhan, Sreekumar K, Ashok Ramadorai ..................................................................................................

12

The effect of post-core and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors
Sendhilnathan Dakshinamurthy, Sanjna Nayar ....................................................................................................................................

17

The effect of ibuprofen on bleeding duringperiodontal surgery


Shiva Prasad BM, Vijaya M, Sridhara B Reddy, Sudhir R Patil, Nagaraj B Kalburgi .............................................................................

22

In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of an herbal dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans and
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Yogesh Kumar Vyas, Maheep Bhatnagar, Kanika Sharma ...................................................................................................................

26

Effect of three commercial mouth rinses on cultured human gingival fibroblast: An in vitro study
Flemingson, Emmadi Pamela, Ambalavanan N, Ramakrishnan T, Vijayalakshmi R ............................................................................

29

The diagnostic and prognostic implications of silver-binding nucleolar organizer regions in periodontal lesions
Mini Saluja, Vandana KL ......................................................................................................................................................................

36

Review Articles
Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate
Sunitha Raja V, Munirathnam Naidu E .................................................................................................................................................

42

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: A review of literature


MS Hashemi Pour ................................................................................................................................................................................

47

Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV: Classification and management of common oral diseases
Sunita Amruthesh ...............................................................................................................................................................................

52

Case Reports
Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla
Sivakumar G, Kavitha B, Saraswathi TR, Sivapathasundharam B ........................................................................................................

62

Ewings sarcoma of the maxilla


Vikas Prasad B, Ahmed Mujib BR, Bastian TS, David Tauro P .............................................................................................................

66

Two-rooted mandibular second premolars: Case report and survey


Prakash R, Nandini S, Suma Ballal, Sowmya N Kumar, Kandaswamy D .............................................................................................

70

Histochemical and polarization microscopic study of two cases of vegetable/pulse granuloma


Manjunatha BS, Kumar GS, Vandana Raghunath ................................................................................................................................

74

Central giant cell granuloma of the anterior maxilla


Amar A Sholapurkar, Keerthilatha M Pai, Auswaf Ahsan .....................................................................................................................

78

Symposium Report
ISDR International symposium on research priorities in Dental Science and technology in Asia and Africa
M Rahamatulla .....................................................................................................................................................................................

83

Journal Reviews
Einstein A, Sathyakumar M ..................................................................................................................................................................

85

Book Review ................................................................................................................................................................................

51

Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

Copyright 2008 by Editor-in-chief, IJDR

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REVIEW ARTICLE
Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV: Classification and management
of common oral diseases
Sunita Amruthesh

Dept. of Oral Medicine and


Radiology, K.L.Es Dental College
and Hospital and Research
Centre, Bangalore - 560022,
India

Received
Review completed
Accepted
PubMed ID

ABSTRACT

: 26-07-06
: 01-07-07
: 26-07-07
:

This article, the fourth in the series titled Dentistry and Ayurveda, describes in brief the
panchakarma therapy, which is a distinctive feature of the Ayurvedic method of detoxifying
the body. The various therapies and medicines used in Ayurveda have been elaborated. Further,
an attempt has been made to correlate dental diseases in Ayurveda with the modern-day
classification, clinical features, and management.
Key words: Alternate medicine, Ayurveda, complementary medicine, dental diseases, dentistry,
integrated medicine

The introduction, basics of the entities of health, diagnosis,


and principles of management of diseases in Ayurveda has
already been discussed in Dentistry and Ayurveda sections
I, II, and III, respectively.[1-3]

THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES
(KIRIYA KALPA)[1-6]
To preserve normal dental health, different methods are
advised for regular practice, such as the following:
1. Dantha dhavani (brushing)
2. Mukha prakshalan
3. Kavala (gargling)
4. Gandoosha
5. Abhyanga (oil massage)
6. Vyayama (exercise)
7. Pratimarsha nasya (errhine therapy)

oleation, fomentation, and massage, where a therapist uses oil


bath, heat, and the physical pressure of massage as the tools
of treatment to soften and mobilize the malas (impurities)
and push them to kosthas, i.e., gross channels (excretory
system), from where they get easily excreted or are expelled
with the help of major internal puricatory procedures of
samsodhana karma and (2) internal purication, which is
the major intervention [Figure 1].
In principle, the samsodhana karma is followed by
specic samsamana or curative treatment, which consists
of rationally planned diet, drugs, and life-style changes.
While formulating a scheme of samsamana treatment, the
physician keeps in mind the prakrti or nature of the patient
and the components of his vikrti or morbidity, namely the
pattern of vitiation of doshas, dhatus, agni, etc. He takes
the help of pancabhautika composition of drugs and diets,
including their rasa, guna, virya, vipaka, and prabhava

PANCHAKARMA[2,6,8-14,16,22,25]
The Panchakarma therapy aims to purify the body at the
gross and subtle levels as well as to clean the channels of
the body to enable free ow of nutrients, medicaments, and
metabolites. The living human body consists of innumerable
channels called srotas. Ayurveda advocates that samsodhana
is the way to clean these channels in order to enable the
organism to heal itself spontaneously as well as to enable
the medicaments reach the target sites more easily. Thus,
samsodhana is considered a prerequisite before all kinds of
medications and therapeutic interventions. There are two
forms of samsodhana: (1) external purication by way of

PANCHAKARMA

PURVA KARMA

PASHCHYAT KARMA

(preparatory, viz, dipana,

(i.e., special dietary regimen

pacana, snehan, svedana)


(Main therapies)

VAMANA

VIRECANA

VASTI

(Emesis)

(Purgation)

(Enemata)

ANUVA SAN

Corespondence:
Dr. Sunita Amruthesh,
E-mail: sunitamruth@yahoo.com
Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

or samsarjana karma)
PRADHANA KARMA

(Oily enema)

SIROVIRECANA
(Insuflation)

RAKTAMOKSANA
(Blood letting)

ASTHAPANA
(Decoction enema)

Figure 1: Panchakarma procedure


52

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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

and follows the law of samanya and visesa (homologous vs


heterologous).

PURVAKARMA OR PREPARATORY MEASURES


The word panchakarma means ve actions. It is a curative
line of treatment for all diseases that are not amenable to
shamana chikitsa, i.e., the palliative line of treatment. The
ve methods or procedures of elimination of vitiated doshas
from the body are:
l. Vamana karma (emesis therapy)
2. Virechana karma (purgation therapy)
3. Basti karma
a. Anuvasana vasti/basti karma
b. Nirooha vasti karma
4. Rakthamokshana
5. Nasyakarma (shirovirechana)
The main operative treatment of panchakarma (pradhana
karmas) is always preceeded by preoperative eliminative
procedures to bring vitiated morbid dosha from the
shakhaas, which include rakthaadi dhatus and twak to the
koshta. Due to aggravation, increased uidity, suppuration,
removal of obstruction at the entrance of the channel
of circulation, and reduced pressure, the vitiated doshas
leave the periphery and come to the central part of the
body (alimentary tract). By the application of preoperative
measures like sudation and oleation, the vitiated dosha can
be brought to the alimentary tract and eliminated through
urdhwa marga (upper orifice/mouth) or through adho
marga (lower orice/anus). Certain postoperative treatment
procedures are necessary for a complete cure. Emesis therapy
is advised for alleviating and curing diseases associated with
kapha. Similarly, purgative and enema therapies alleviate
diseases associated with pitta and vata, respectively. Errhine
therapy is a specic treatment for the diseases of the head.

FORMS OF MEDICINES
Powders, lambatives, decoctions, medicated oils (taila),
medicated ghees (ghritas),[17-19] confections, and wines are
the forms of medicines. Ingredients for the drugs such
as roots, leaves, etc., should be culled in the appropriate
seasons.
Illness management is a four-part procedure:
1. Shodan: cleansing by panchakarma
2. Shaman: palliation or reduction of intensity of the
disease; there are seven types of shaman:
a. Dipan: kindling the digestive re for vata and kapha
disturbances
b. Pachana: burning the toxic waste
c. Ksud-nigrah: fasting
d. Trut-nigrah: observing thirst
e. Vyayam: yoga-exercise
f. Aap-seva: sunbathing
53

Amruthesh

g. Marut-seva: breathing, exercise, and meditation


3. Rasayan: rejuvenation
4. Satwajaya: mental and spiritual healing

Ama
Undigested, unabsorbed, and unassimilated food particles
are sticky and adhere to the tissues and clogging channels,
interfering with the normal functioning of the body
organs. Cleansing eliminates ama, dietary and life-style
interventions are initiated according to the disturbed
doshas (body materials and psychic abnormalities) and the
prakriti (physical and mental constitution of a person) and
are accompanied by spiritual nurturing, removing chinta
(serious worry), physical exercise, and yoga practice.
Mercury is considered a yogavali or activator of other drugs.
Metals and mineral preparations, called bhasm, are used
extensively in Ayurvedic medicine, Gold, silver, copper,
mercury, zinc, tin, arsenic, gypsum, lime, alum, borax,
silica, diamond, ruby, emerald, sapphire, jade, moonstone,
sunstone, turquoise, and mica are commonly used.

Bhasms have unique pharmacological properties that cannot


be accomplished by the properties of a pure metal salt.

Rasayana[15,20-22]
They are general tonics and have multipotent power for
rejuvenating all body tissues. Drugs prescribed in Ayurveda
primarily consist of herbs, bhasm, rasas, and medicated oils
(for topical application, nasal instillation, and enemas). In
Ayurveda, a single herb is rarely administered to a patient;
it is usually a combination of several herbs.
And data on more than 5000 Indian medicinal plants have
been compiled in the compendium of Indian plants.
Ayurvedic formulas are used to improve health and as
adjuvants in conjunction with other methods of treatment.
The most popular is chyavanprash. It can be taken daily
with food. It promotes a healthy appetite and improves
digestion and absorption of food; increases bowel tonicity;
strengthens the colon and intestine; regulates bowel
movements; and builds up good health by promoting the
levels of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins, and
removing undesirable fats. It also assists natural immunity,
maintains new tissues, increasea red blood cell count and
haemoglobin synthesis, cleara toxic materials from the body,
and improves blood ow. It helps with relaxation, sound
sleep, and coping with stress, fatigue, and the mental strains
of daily life. It also renews vital energy, strengthens mental
and physical functions, alleviates nervous tension and
anxiety due to stress, and supports creativity by increasing
mental energy.
Moreover, rasayanas provide relief from morning stiffness
at the joints and postexercise joint and muscle pain, and
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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

Amruthesh

sprains; improve cartilage regeneration in joints; build


healthy bones; clear impurities from the body; and improve
vitality and stamina. They strengthen respiration and blood
circulation, dispel excess mucus from respiratory system,
build healthy lungs, and stimulate the male and female
reproductive systems.

Yoga[4,5,7-9,11-14,16,20,22-25]
Yoga is used as a therapy to improve general health and
vitality. Yoga is dened as the nirodha (inhibition) viritti
(uctuations) of chitt (consciousness). It is the restraint of
the mental activity.

Classifications of management [Figure 2]


I.

A. Urjaskara: promotion of health and vigour


1. Rasayana (rejuvenation)
2. Vajikarna (virilication)
B. Rogaghna (cure of diseases)
1. Prasamana (mitigating disease)
2. Apunarbhavakara (preventing recurrence)
Dravya (with use of drugs); There are three kinds
of drugs:
a. Bhauma (mineral) - from gold to salt
b. Audbida (vegetable)
i.
Vanaspati - bears fruits
ii. Vanaspatya - bears owers and then
fruits
iii. Virudh - creepers and bushes
iv. Osadhi - perishes after the fruit
matures
Adravya (without use of drugs): The various
methods include:
i.
Fasting
ii. Exposure to breeze
iii. Sunlight
iv. Shade
v.
Sacred spells
vi. Appeasing Gods
vii. Charity
viii. Threatening
ix. Terrorising
x.
Shock
xi. Creating happiness

xii. Tormenting
xiii. Laughing
xiv. Sleep
xv. Avoidance of sleep
xvi. Riding
xvii. Music, dance etc.
II. Trividha chikitsa
A. Daivavyapasraya (invoking grace of Gods)
1. Chanting hymns
2. Wearing of plants, gems
3. Auspicious ceremonies, oblations, sacrice, vows
4. Expiatory rites, fasting, reciting holy chants
5. Surrendering to Gods
6. Pilgrimages
B. Yuktivyashrays: administation of food and drugs
C. Satvarajaya (controlling mind): control mind,
keeping it away from unhealthy thoughts
III. A. Apakarsana (elimination)
1. Bahya (external) - tumors, infections, foreign
bodies
2. Abhyantara (internal) emesis, purgation, etc.
B. Prakrutivighata samsamana (mitigational alleviation of diseases)
1. Use of oil massage
2. Sudation (fomentation)
3. Applying poultices
4. Pouring decoction or other liquids
5. Mild massage
C. Nidanatyaga (avoidance of cause): avoidance of
cold, heat, food, exercise; using things that are
unctuous, dry, etc., in accordance with the doshas
IV. A. Hetuviparita (opposite of cause): using materials that
are light, dry, and hot to keep away diseases caused
by materials that are heavy, unctuous, and cold
B. Vyadhiviparita (opposite of disease)
1. Mulopakrama (chief method)
a. Langhana (thinning)
b. Brhmana (fattening/stoutening)
2. Panchakarmas: ve puricatory therapies

THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES[4-6,8-16]
I. Dhoomapana[4,9,10,12-15]
Dhoomapana is an important therapy, consisting of the
inhalation of medicated smoke through mouth or nose and
releasing it through the mouth. It is commonly indicated
in head, throat, nose, ear, and dental disorders.

Chikitsa (treatment)

The different types are prayogika, virechanika, snehika,


kasaghna, and vamaneeya dhoomapana.

Langhan
Fasting
Figure 2: Types of treatment
Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

Brahmn
Nourishing

a. Prayogika/shaman dhoomapana: Eladigana dravyas


except kusta and tagaru is pasted on 12-inch long shara
kanda, which is then covered with silk cloth upto
8 inches of its length; it is dried in shade; then shara
kanda is removed; and the 8-inch medicated varthi is
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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

used for dhoomapana.


b. Virechanika dhoomapana: Varthi prepared with shiro
virechana drugs like vidanga
c. Snehika dhoomapana: Varthi prepared with eranda,
devadaru, madooschista, sarja ras, and guggulu
d. Kasanghana dhoomapana : Varthi prepared with
bruhati, kantakari, trikatu, kasamarda, hingu, guduchi,
karkataka, and shrungi
e. Vamaneeya dhoomapana: Varthi prepared with snayu,
twak, horns, bones, dried sh, meat, and insects, or with
vamaka dravyas
f. Vrana dhoomapana: Varthi prepared with vrana ropana
dravyas
The indications of dhoomapana in mukha rogas include
mukha paka, dysgeusia, hanugraha, upajihwa, and halitosis.
Contraindications have also been described.
The procedure is as follows: The selected drugs are ground
into a ne paste and smeared over a hollow reed made of
gold, silver, copper, or brass. Four more coatings are made
after drying of each layer and then smeared with ghee or
oil. One end is lit and the smoke is inhaled.

II. Raktha mokshana (bloodletting)


This procedure is indicated in raktha and pitta disorders.
Raktha mokshana is done by using shrunga (cowhorn
for aspiration), jalauka (leeches), ghati (cupping glass),
alaabu (white gourd), and venesection (siravyadana). This
procedure is indicated in some mukha rogas.

III. Nasya karma


Nasya karma is an important therapy in panchakarma for the
management of the diseases of shalakya tantra (ENT, eye, and
dental diseases) and other systemic disorders like vata vyadhiunmada, apamara, moorcha, kesha vikara, and pumsamana
karma. It is the last step in panchakarma therapy.
It is a special and important therapy, in which the medicine
is administered through the nose in the form of a power,
liquid, oil, or smoke.
Drugs may be used for nasya in the following forms: chuma
nasya, kalka nasya, swarasa nasya, ksheera nasya, kwatha
nasya, saara nasya, udaka nasya, dhooma nasya, mamasarasa
nasya, taila nasya, ghritha nasya, madya nasya, and raktha
nasya.
Charaka classified nasya into two broad types, with
subcategories in each, as follows:
A. 1. Navana: sneha nasya, shodhana nasya
2. Avapeedana: shodhana nasya, stambana nasya
3. Dmapana nasya
4. Dhooma nasya: prayogika dhooma nasya, virechanika
dhooma nasya, snehika dhooma nasya
5. Pratimarsha nasya: snehan nasya, rechan nasya
55

Amruthesh

B. 1. Rechana nasya
2. Tarpana nasya
3. Shamana nasya

Drugs used for nasya


Charaka prescribed the following drugs for nasya :
apamarga, pippali, maricha vidanga, shigru, sarshapa,
tumburu, jeerak, ajamoda, pilu, harenuka, pruthweeka,
surasa, swetha, kutheruka, phaninjaka, shireesha, lashun,
haridra, daruharidra, sauvarchalavana, saindhavalavana,
jyothishmathi, shunthi, gandeera, shallaki, tejovathi, ingudi,
dalcini, varthaki, ela, sumukha, gandeeraka, kalmalaka,
parnasa, ghrungver, mulak, tarkari, arka, alerka, kusta,
nagadanthi, vacha, bhargee, gavakashea, awakpushpee,
vruchcnikali , brahmes , ativisha , lodhra madanphala ,
sapthaparna, nimba, devadaru, agaru, sarela, hingu, guduchi,
bruhati, ikshavak, trikatu, gomaya, gomutra, lavana, and
ela.

IV. Gandoosha and kavalagrah


According to them, the difference between the two is only
in the dosage and procedure of using the drug.
In gandoosha, a medicated uid is held mouthful for a
specic period until there is lacrimation and nasal discharge,
and then the patient spits it out.
In kavalagra, the mouth is only three-fourths lled with
the medicated uid; the uid is swished in the mouth for a
specic time and then spat out.
According to Sarangadhara, kalka (medicated bolus) drugs
are used in kavala, and liquids are used in gandoosha.

Classication of kavala or gandoosha


These are of four types according to Vagbhata: (1) snigda
gandoosha, (2) shaman, (3) shodhan, and (4) ropan.
1. Snehan or snigda gandoosha: The drugs used are snigdaushna, madura, and lavana in vata prakopa. The medicine
is mixed with other vata hara sneha, mamsaras, etc.
2. Shaman gandoosha: Drugs are prepared with tiktha,
kashya, and madura rasa for pitta shaman, but in
prasadan gandoosha of Sushrutha, the drugs should be
prepared with madura, sheetha for pitta shaman.
3. Shodhan gandoosha: Drugs are prepared with teekshna,
ushna, ruksha, katu, amla, and lavan rasa for kapha
shaman. Gomutra, madya, shuktha, madu, dhanyamala,
etc., should be used along with the drugs.
4. Ropan gandoosha: Drugs are prepared with ushna,
kashaya, katu, madura, and rasa for vrana ropana.
Ghritha, ksheera, and sneha dravya are used along with
the drugs.
Gandoosha vidhi (procedure)
The correct procedure must be followed, which is of utmost
Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

importance in the managament of mukha rogas. It is a special


process as well as pashchyath karma to nasya karma, vaman
karma, etc., to save the body from complications of kapha
dosha. The steps are as follows:
1. Preparation of the patient for gandoosha.
2. Preparation of the medicine according to the conditions
of the patient. For example,
a. Triphala - trikatu , pancha , valkala , dashamoola ,
vacha,[17,18] etc., should be ground to prepare kalka
(bolus or paste) to keep in the mouth or to swish in
the mouth.
b. Liquid medicines : like grhitha , taila , madhu ,
water, madya, mamsa rasa, gomutra, decoctions of
medicines, shuktha, kanji, etc.
c. According to the vitiation of doshas, either kalka
or kashaya, or both, should be selected for the
therapy.
3. Gentle massage.
4. Light fomentation at neck, cheek, face, head, shoulders,
etc.
5. The patient is seated comfortably in a chair; the medicine
is held in the mouth, or swished, up to the specic time
(till kapha collects in mouth or there is lacrimation),
after which it is spat out. Pashchyath karma or other
gandoosha is performed.
6. Gentle massage and light fomention at neck, face,
cheeks, shoulders, head etc.
Indications for gandoosha are: (1) shira shoola (headache),
(2) mukha roga (diseases of osta, dantha moola, dantha,
jihwa, talu, gala, etc.), (3) lala srava (salivation), (4) mukha
sdsha (vataj disorders of mouth), (5) hrullasa (nausea), and
(6) aruchi (tastelessness).
Regular gandoosha vidhi achieves the following benets:
(1) swara balam (strength to voice), (2) hanubalam (strength
to jaws), (3) strength to face, (4) ruchyam (better taste
perception), (5) druda dantha (strong and healthy teeth), and
(6) resistance against doshaja or aaganthuja mukha rogas,
shiro rogas, karna rogas, nasa roga, and netra roga.
Schedule for gandoosha: The medicated uid is kept in
mouth till (1) collection of kapham in the mouth, (2) nasa
srava, (3) karna srava, and (4) netra srava. The uid is then
spat out. The procedure may be repeated with another
drug, or pashchyath karma (next procedure) is performed,
depending on the condition of the patient.

Samyak yoga lakshanas of gandoosha: Symptoms of adequate


gandoosha include: (1) relief from the disease or symptoms,
(2) freshness of all indriyas, face, and mind, (3) lightness
of body, (4) sound sleep, and (5) normal taste, appetite,
digestion capacity, and general health.
Atiyoga lakshanas of gandoosha: Symptoms of excessive
gandoosha include: (1) shosha (dryness of mukha, srotas,
Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

Amruthesh

etc.), (2) daha (burning sensation), (3) paka (ulceration),


(4) trushna (thirst), (5) aruchi (loss of taste), and (6) kiam
(debility).

Asamyak yoga lakshanas of gandoosha : Symptoms of


inadequate gandoosha include: (1) alastwa (laziness),
(2) aggravation of the disease, (3) kapha vitiation, (4) aruchi
(tastelessness), (5) hrullasa (nausea), and (6) tandra (inactive
state or sleepy mood).
Some important yogas of gandoosha
These include (1) hot water gandoosha in general
kapha disorders of mukha; (2) gandoosha with kanji or
dhanyamla in aruchi; (3) daruharidr-rasa kriya or triphala
kashaya gandoosha in mukhapak; (4) trikatu sarshapa
hareetaki kalkam + ksharaj ala gandoosha in kaphaj
mukha roga; (5) tila kalka + water gandoosha in dantha
harsha; (6) ghritha or ksheera gandoosha in pittaja mukha
rogas; (7) ksheeri vruksha kashaya gandoosham in bleeding
gums; (8) decoction of kaseesa, lodra, pippali, manahshall,
priyang, tejohwa + honey, gandoosha in pyorrhea (pus
discharge from gums); (9) pancha pallava kashaya +
ghitha + mada + sugar gandoosha in (gingivitis) upakusha;
(10) gandoosha with frimedadi taila or sahacharadi taila
or sarshapa taila or narayan taila or prasarini taila in gum
disorders (dantha moola vyadhies); (11) decoction of lodra,
musta, jatamamsi, rasanjan, patanga + honey, gandoosha in
saushira (dantha moola vydhi); (12) patola-nimba, triphala
kashaya gandoosha in gum disorders; (13) dashamoola
kashaya + tila taila gandoosha in dantha rogas; (14) trikatu,
sarshapa, saindhava lavana, gandoosha in kaphaja jihwa
roga; (15) kshara jala gandoosha in kaphaj mukha roga);
(16) tila taila gandoosha is best done daily to prevent mukha
roga; (17) yastimadu kashaya gandoosha in mukha paka;
and (18) kakolyadi or vidarigandhadi ghritha gandoosha in
pittaj mukha rogas.
Pratisarana (mouth pastes): There are three types, based on
use, viz., rasakriya, kalka, and churna.
Mukhalepa (face pastes): There are three types, viz., doshaghna
(for mitigating the dosha), visaghna (antipoisonous), and
varnya (for improving color and complexion).
Mukha rogas (diseases
cavity)[4,6,9,10,12-16,21,22]

of

the

face

and

oral

These are classied as follows:


I.
Osta roga (diseases of lips)
II.
Danta moola roga (diseases of gums)
III. Danta roga (diseases of teeth)
IV. Jihwa roga (diseases of tongue)
V.
Talu roga (diseases of palate)
VI. Gala roga (diseases of throat)
VII. Mukha dhi (sarvaj)
VIII. Ganda roga
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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

I. Osta roga
1. Vataj osta roga
2. Pittaja osta roga
3. Kaphaja osta prakopa
4. Sannipathaja osta prakopa
5. Rakthaja osta prakopa
6. Mamsaja osta prakopa
7. Medoja osta prakopa
8. Kshathaja osta prakopa
9. Khandausta (harelip)
10. Grandhi (cyst)
11. Jalaarbuda (mucocele)
12. Gandalaji (cellulitis)
Vataj osta prakopa: Vata doshas vitiate, and osta (lip) is stony
hard, rough, stiff, blackish, painful, and has ssures. A typical
treatment for the condition consists of: (1) abhyanga with
chatur snehas and madooschista (beeswax) or yastimadu +
lodra + sariba + shravani + neelothphala + patola + kaka
machi + tailam (til oil); (2) nadi sweda (sweating therapy
using a tube) with vata haradravya kashaya (medicine/
decoction that corrects vitiated vata, e.g., eranda patr
(castor leaves), ksheera pakwa kashaya; (3) upanaha sweda
(poultices); (4) shirovasti (anointing the head) with vata
harataila, e.g., bala taila; (5) nasya with vataharataila, e.g.,
balataila; (6) pratisarana with (a) sarala niryasa, sarjarasa,
devadaru, and guggulu, yastimadu, (b) taila + ghritha +
sarjarasa + rasna + guda + saindhav lavana + gyrica
pakwataila + madooschistam for local application; and
(7) internal yogas ghrithapan (ghee), mamarasa sewana (meat
soup), shothahara, shoolahara (analgesic), and krimighna
(antibiotic) vranaropana yogas (preparation of medicines
that promote healing), e.g., tiiphalaguggulu, gangakrasayan,
and maharasnadi quatha (a decoction).
Clinical treatments have been described for all the other
diseases of the lips.

II. Diseases of the gums (dantha moola vyadhis)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Sheethada (scurvy, gingivitis)


Dantha pupputaka (gingival abscess)
Dantha vestak (periodontal abscess)
Upakusha (periodontitis)
Dantha vydarbha (allergic gingivitis)
Vardana (supernumerary tooth)
Adhimamsa (pericoronitis)
Saushira (ANUG)
Mahashushira (cancrum oris)
Paridhara
Vataj dantanadi
Pittaj dantha nadi
Kaphaj dantha nadi
Sannipathaj dantha nadi
Dantha vidradi

1. Sheetada (scurvy gingivitis): The general principles


of treatment include: (1) swedana (sweating therapy);
57

Amruthesh

(2) rakthamokshana (blood letting) with alabu, gati,


or jalauka (leech application); rubbed with coarse
powder (dantha gharshana choorna); (3) pratisarana
yogas (preparations): (a) priyangu triphala and musta,
(b) musta, arjuna twacha, triphala, priyangu, shunti,
rasanjan + madhu, (c) kaseesa lodra pippali, mahashila,
(d) dadima twacha, triphala, rasanjan, shunti, saindhava,
lavana, musta + honey, (e) lavana and sarshapa taila as
toothpowder; (4) gandoosha or kavalagraha (gargle,
mouthwash) with: (a) musta, arjuna twacha, triphala,
priyangu, rasanjan and shunti, (b) shunti and parapataka,
(c) vataghna taila and ghritha, (d) ksheeri vriksha
kashaya, (e) shunti, sarshapa, triphala, musta rasanjan,
(f) babbula twacha (decoction of the bark of babbula);
(5) nasya snehana nasya: (a) if vata is associated,
(b) madukadi triphala taila nasya if kapha dosha persists
(yasti, madhu, utpala, padmaka triphala + taila), (c) nasya
with triphala ghritha if raktha is associated; (6) internal
yogas (medicine preparation): (a) shoola hara, shotha
hara, vrana ropana preprations are to be administered,
e.g., triphala guggulu, kanchanara guggulu, lakshadi,
guggulu, (b) lagusuthasekara ras, and (c) sarivadi vati,
trathakadivati or khadiradivati. Avoid brushing; add
ne powder or tiktha kashaya ras for massaging and
cleaning teeth (dantha dhavana).
2. Dantha pupputaka (periapical or dento-alveolar abscess):
kapha and raktha dosha. Treatment involves: (1) raktha
mokshana, (2) application of kshara, (3) pancha lavana
preparation in salt and madhu (honey) for massaging
over the gums, (4) kavala (gargle), (5) snigda bhojan,
and (6) ghee.
3. Dantha vestak (periodontal abscess): The treatment
consists of: (1) raktha mokshana, (2) prathisarana with
medicated powder prepared with lodra, yastimadu
laksha chandan + honey, (3) arogyavardhini vati
with cows milk for local application, (4) gandoosha:
ksheeri vruksha kashya + honey + ghee, (5) nasya
with medicated ghee prepared with kakolyadi dravya,
dashaguna ksheera, (6) swetha manjan and dashan
samskar choorna for brushing, (7) khadiradivati for
chewing, (8) irimedadi taila or sarshapa taila applied
to the gums; gargling with lukewarm water, and
(9) raktha and pittahara chikitsa (administer medicines
that treat raktha and pitta dosha).
4. Upakusha: (periodontitis): Treatment principle includes:
(1) vaman (emetic therapy); (2) virechan (purgation);
(3) shirovirechana; (4) raktha mokshana with gojihwa
patra or mandalagrashastra; (5) pratisarana: (a) trikatu,
lavana + madhu, (b) laksha, priyangu, patanga, kusta,
shunti, maricha, yastimadhu rasanjan, ghrithamanda,
or madhu; (6) (a) pippali, swetha, sarshapa shunti,
vetasa with hot water, (b) gbritha prepared with
kakolyadi madhura dravya, (c) ksheeri pallava kashaya
+ madhu, (d) pancha pallava kashaya + madhu +
ghritha + sharkara (sugar), (e) sahacharadi taila, and
(f) irimedadi taila.
Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

5. Dantha vydarbha
6. Vardhan /adhidantha : Removal of tooth followed
by agnikarma (cautery) and vrana chikitsa (wound
healing).
7. Adhimamsa (pericoronitis): Treatment includes:
(1) adhimamsa chedan (excision of excessive tissue),
pratisarana with vacha, chavya, patha, sarjakshara,
and yavakshara + madhu; (2) kavala: pippali + madhu;
(3) mukhadhavana (wash, gargle with decoction of
patola, triphala, and nimbatwak); (4) shirovirechan;
and (5) virechana dhooma.
8. Saushira (ANUG): kapha, pitta, and raktha doshas.
Treatment includes: (1) raktha mokshana; (2) chedan
and lekhan ; (3) pratisarana with lodra , musta ,
shatapushpi, triphala, rasanjan, patong, phalapushpa,
and katphala + madhu; (4) (a) gandoosha: decoction
of above drugs, (b) with ksheeri vruksha kashaya;
(5) nasya: with medicated ghritha pepared with sariva,
neelakamala yastimadhu, lodra, agara, and chandan (for
kalka) + 10 times the volume of milk, ghritha.
9. Maha saushira (noma): Treatment is a more vigorous
application of that given for saushira.
10. Paridhara
11. Dantha naadi (sinuses/stula osteomyelitis): (1) vataja,
(2) pittaja, (3) kaphaja, (4) sharyaja, dantha nadi, and
(5) tridoshaja. Treatment consists of: (1) upanaha
swedam (hot application), (2) nadividarana (incision
of sinus), (3) puyanirharana (drainage of abscess),
(4) prakshalana (currettage), (5) purana or pratisarana,
(6) nadivrana chikista, (7) dantha nirharana, (8) lekhana
(saucerization), (9) kshara (alkali) or agnikarma
(cauterization), and (10) pratisarana.

III. Dantha rogas (diseases of the teeth)[20]


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Dalana
Krimi dantha (dental caries)
Dantha harsha (hypersensitivity)
Bhanjaka
Dantha shaykara (calculus)
Dantha kapalika
Shyavadantha (pigmentation)
Hanumoksha (mandibular dislocation)
Danthavidradi
Karala
Chaladantha
Adidanth (supernumerary tooth)

1. Dalana (focal reversible pulpitis): Treatment includes:


(a) sweda with hot water (warm water gargles);
(b) dantha pali lekhan (scraping/lekhan of carious lesion/
calculus with vreehimukha shastra); (c) agnikarma with
hot oils; (d) pratisaran with powders of musta, saindhava
lavana, salt, dadima twacha, triphala, rasanjan, priyangu,
jambausti, shunti, madhu; (e) kavala with ksheeri
vruksha kashaya; (f) nasya with anutaila.
2. Krimi dantha (dental caries): The treatment can vary
Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

Amruthesh

3.

4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.

with the condition of the tooth.


a. If tooth is not mobile: (1) swedana, (2) raktha
mokshana, (3) vataghna avapeedana nasya, (4) sneha
gandoosha, (5) bhadra daarvadi lepam, and (6) snigdha
bhojan.
b. If tooth is mobile: extraction and cauterization
(agnikarma).
c. For relieving pain due to caries: (1) dhoopana with
seeds of kantakari; (2) keeping the vati (tablet) in
the mouth (hingu, katphala, kaseesa, sarjakshara,
and kusta vidanga; (3) sariva kalka, mukhadharana
(chewing) as krimighana (antimicrobial);
(4) ardhrakat krishna lavaria , mukhadharana
(chewing) as antimicrobial; (5) vataghna taila,
e.g., narayanataila for gandoosha; (6) brahatyadi
gandoosha; (7) gandoosha with medicated oil
prepared from hingu katphala, vidanga, kaseesa,
sarjakshara, and kusta; (8) application of clove oil;
(9) nasya with sarshapa taila (oil); (10) nasya with
medicated oil prepared from vidari, yastimadu,
kasheruk, and shrungatak mixed in 10 times its
volume of milk.
Dantia harsha (hypersensitivity due to attrition or
abrasion): The vata is vitiated. Treatment includes:
(1) kavala gandoosha with (a) lukewarm oils (chatur
sneha sarpi taila vasa, and majja), (b) trivruth ghritha
or with vataghna aushadas, (c) yastimadu, tila, and
ksheera ( ksheera pala aushada), (d) sarshapataila
or narayanl vishnu prasarini taila; (2) nasya: sneha
nasya ; (3) dhoomapana : snehika dhoomapana ;
(4) shirovasti : vataghna taila ; (5) snigdhabhojan
mamsarasa, navaneetha, and ghritha, (6) vatahara
chikitsa.
Bhanjaka (enamel hypoplasia): Treatment consists of:
(1) kapha vataghna chikitsa (correct kapha and vata),
(2) ardhitha vata chikitsa, (3) abhyanga with narayan
taila , (4) swedan , (5) vasti , (6) gandhoosha with
yastimadhu, tilaksheerapaka, (7) kavala with aakara
karavadi yoga, (8) erandataila panam.
Dantha sharkara (calculus): Treatment inclues:
(1) nidana parivarjana (proper brushing and
gargling); (2) shareera shodhana (vamana, virechana);
(3) danthamala lekhana (scaling); (4) pratisarana with
kshara + mdhu; (5) poorana with laksha + madhu
(restoration); (6) kavala or gandoosha as in dantha
harsha.
Kapalika dantha
Shyava dantha
Hanu moksha (dislocation of mandible): Treatment
includes: (1) arditha vata chikitsa, (2) shiro vasti,
(3) nasya, (4) dhooma, (5) upanaha sweda
Dantavidradi
Karala (ill-formed teeth)
Chaladantha (mobile teeth/periodontitis): Treatment
includes: (1) sneha (oleation) and gandoosha with
dashamoola quatha; (2) gharshana with tutha, lodra,
58

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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

pippali, triphala, rakthachandan, and saindava lavana;


(3) snigda nasya; (4) snigda kavala; and (5) snigda
bhojan.
Dantha shoola (tooth ache/odontodynia)
Treatment includes: (1) hingu, katphala, kaseesa, sarjakshara,
kusta, vidanga pratisaran; (2) gandoosha with hugwadi taila;
(3) eranda, bruhati dwaya, mundi, siddha taila, gandoosha;
(4) dhoopana with kantakari seeds; and (5) clove oil
application.
If extraction is indicated and done, (1) yastimadu + taila to
be applied, (2) vidari, yastimadu, shrungataka, kasheru, and
ksheera siddha taila nasya.

IV. Jihwa gatha rogas (diseases of the tongue)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Vataja jihwa kantaka


Pittaja jihwa kantaka
Kaphaja jihwa kantaka
Alasa
Upajihwaka
Adhihwaka

1. Vataja jihwa kantaka (acute glossitis): Treatment


includes: (1) abhyanga with chatursnehas, (2) nadi or
upanaha sweda, (3) sneha pratisarana, (4) sneha nasya
(vatahara, vrana ropana, shothahara chikitsa).
2. Pittaja jihwa kantaka (chronic glossitis): Treatment
includes: (1) rakthamokshana : rubbing surface of
tongue with leaves of gojihwa or shephalika; (2) sira
vyadana (venesection); (3) pratisarana with kakolyadi
madhura sheetha dravyas; (4) kakolyadi dravya kwatha
gandoosha; (5) kakolyadi dravya milk + sneha siddha,
sneha narayam; (6) pittahara ahara and vihara.
3. Kaphaja jihwa kantaka: Treatment includes: (l) lekhana
or gharshana with the leaves of gojihwa or shephalika
to remove impure blood, (2) raktha mokshana ,
(3) pratisarana:trikatu, sarshapa and saindhava lavana,
(4) kavalagraha with swetha sarshapa + saindhava
lavana, (5) yusha sevana:yusha + food.
4. Alasa (Ludwigs angina): Treatment includes: (1) virechana,
(2) rakthamokshana, (3) kavala, (4) shirovirechan,
(5) dhooma, (6) vamana, (7) nasya.
5. Upajihwak (ranula): Treatment includes: (1) raktha
mokshana, lekhana, pratisarana, nasya, dhoomapana;
(2) chedan and teekshana dravya pratisaran with katuki,
pippali, nimba.

V. Talurogas (diseases of the palate)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
59

Gala shundi
Tundikeri
Adrusha
Kacchapa
Talu arbuda
Mamsa sanghata

Amruthesh

7. Talu pupputa
8. Talu sosha
9. Talu paka
1. Gala shundi: Treatment includes: (1) shaman chikista:
kavala, gandoosha, nasya, and dhoomapana; (2) chedan
karma with samdamshayantra and with mandalagra
shastra; (3) pashchyat karma (post chedan therapy) (a) pratisarana with maricha, ateesha, patha, vacha, kusta,
shyonak, rasna, saindhava lavana + madhu, (b) kavala with
the decoction of vacha, ativisha, patha, rasna, katuki, and
nimba, (c) dhoomapana with panchangee varthi prepared
by ingudi, kimihe, danthi, trivruth, and devadaru, (d)
kshara, siddha, mugda, yusha, and bhojan.
2. Tundikeri (tonsillitis): Treatment includes: (1) shamana
chikitsa : kavala , gandoosha , dhooma , and nasya ;
(2) shastra chikitsa (gala shundi); (3) pratisarana with
gruha dhooma + katuvarga dravyas; (4) nasya with taila
prepared from apamarga beeja (seeds), vishnukrantha,
dhanthi, vidanga; (5) saindhava lavana and tila kalka.
3. Adrusha (palatitis): Treatment includes: (1) shaman chikitsa:
(a) abhyanga, (b) pratisarana, (c) kavala, (d) gandoosha and
(2) shastra chikitsa.
4. Talu kacchapa (adenoma of palate): Treatment includes:
(1) shamana chikitsa: (a) abhyanga, (b) pratisrana,
(c) kavala, (d) gandoosha, (e) dhooma, (f) nasya; (2) shastra
chikitsa: chedana.
5. Talu arbuda (epithelioma of palate): It is due to vitiated
raktha dosha. There is no treatment since it is asadhya
vyadhi (incurable). Palliative measures include:
(1) chedana; (2) pratisarana with sarj akshara + shunti +
honey; (3) gandoosha with taila + madhu; (4) nasya with
teekshana (intensive) taila nasya.
6. Mamsa sanghata (broma of patate): It is caused by
kapha + raktha doshas. Treatment includes: (1) shaman
chikitsa; (2) chedan chikitsa as for galashundi.
7. Talu pupputa (cyst): Kapa dosha, medodhatu causes a
painless xed swelling. Treatment includes: (1) chedana,
lekhana; (2) pratisarana, kavala, nasya.
8. Talu sosha (atrophy/cleft palate): Vata and pitta vitiation,
vatapitta jwara. Treatment includes: (1) Treat the cause
(nidana parivarjanam); (2) vata pitta hara chikitsa;
(3) ghee taken after meals; (4) pippali shunti pakwajala
panam (boil decoction of pippali and shunti); (5) pippali
shunti ghritha panam (preparation of pippali and shunti
in ghee); (6) gandoosha with amla dravya or sneha
dravya; (7) drink snigda jangola mamsarasa; (8) nasya
with ksheeri sarpi.
9. Talu paka (palatal ulcers): Treatment includes: (1) nidana
parivarjanam; (2) pitta visarpa hara chikitsa; (3) if there
is no suppuration, kavala with sheetha kashaya, madhura
dravyas like kakolyadi; (4) if there is suppuration,
(a) asta pada vatha bhedan (eight-legged incision),
(b) teekshana ushna pratisarana, (c) kavala with vasa,
nimba twak, patola, etc.
Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

Amruthesh

TERMS OF GLOSSARY

Kantakari: Solanum xanthocarpum.


Katuki: Picrorrhiza curroa
Kaseesa: Ferrous sulphate.
Kshara: Alkali.
Kashaya: Decoction.
Katuvarga: Group of pungent drugs.
Khadiradi vati: A tablet preparation.
Krishna lavana: Blacksalt.
Ksheera: Milk.
Ksheeri vruksha kashaya: A decoction of ve trees (Barks) in
milk.
Kusta: Saursurea lappa.
Lagusuthasekara: A preparation (tablets).
Laksha: Laccifer lacca (Lac).
Lakshadi guggulu: A tablet preparation.
Lekhana: To scrape.
Lepa: External application.
Lodra: Symplocos racemosus.
Madhu: Honey.
Madhuschistam: Bees wax.
Maharasnadi quatha: an anti inammatory analgesic decoction.
Mahashila: Arsenic trisuiphate.
Maricha: Piper nigrum.
Mundi: Speranthus indica.
Musta: Cyprus rotundus.
Narayana/ Vishnu/ prasarini taila: An oil preparation.
Navaneetha: Butter.
Neelotphala: Lotus.
Nimba: Azaridacta indica.
Panam/sevana: To drink/eat.
Pancha lavana(5 salts):( 1 )Saindhavana (rock salt), 2)Samudralava
na(commomsalt) 3)Bida, 4)Sowarcha, 5)Udbida lavana.
Pancha pallava kashaya: A decoction of inflorescence of 5
owers.
Parpataka : Mollugo stricta.
Patanga: Caesalpinia sappan.
Patha: Cissompelios pareire.
Patola: Trichosanthes dioica.
Phalasha pushpa: Butea monosperma.
Pippali: Piper longum.
Pratisarana: Massage with dry power.
Priyangu: Callicarpa macrothylla.
Rasanjan: Extract of beriberis aristrata.
Rasna : Vanda rosaftinghii.
Rodhra: Symplocus racemosa.
Sahacharadi thaila: An oil preparation.
Saindhava lavana: Rock salt.
Saralaniryasa: Oleoresina of Pinns longifolin.
Sariba: Hemidesmus indicus.
Sarivadi vati: A tablet.
Sarja:Dipiroecarpus alaus.
Sarjarasa: An extract.
Sarshapa: Mustard- Brassica Alba.
Shaman: Mitigation.
Sharkara: Sugar candy.
Shata pushpi: (saunf/fennel), Anethum sowa.
Shephalika: Nyctanthes arbortristis.

Abhyanga: Oil massage.


Aakara Karavadi yoga: a formulation
Agaru: Aquillaria agallocha.
Agikarma: Cauterisation. Ardraka: Ginger.
Alabu : Lagenera avulgaria ser(white gourd).
Apamarga:Achyranthus aspera.
Arjuna: Terminalia arjuna.
Arka:Calotropis procera.
Amala: Sour, Embelica ofcinalis.
Asoka:Saraka Indica.
Ativisha: Aconilum hetophylum.
Anutaila: Oil preparation.
Babbula: Acacia arobica wild.
Bedana: Incision.
Bhadra darvadi lepam: A preparation for external application.
Brahatyadi Kashaya: A preparation for external application.
Chandana: Santalum album linn.
Chatur sneha: Oleation with 4 oils.
Chavya: Piper chaba hunter.
Chedana: To excise.
Dadima twacha: Bark of pomegranate, Punicagranatum.
Dravya: Liquid.
Dantamanjan: Tooth powder.
Danthi: Baliospermum montanum.
Dashagunaksheera: Milk preparation.
Dashamoola quatha: a decoction.
Devdaru: Cedrus deodara.
Ela:Elettarria cardamomum.
Eranda: Ricinus communis linn.
Ghrita: Ghee.
Gojihwa: Onosma bracteatum wall.
Gokshura:TribulusTerresrnas.
Guduci :Tinospora cordifolia.
Guggulu: Commiphera mukul.
Gandak rasayan: Sulphur preparation.
Gyrica:Ferrous pyrate.
Hingu: Asofoetida:
Ferula foetida regal.
Hingwadi taila: An oil preparation.
Iremedadi taila: Oil preparation.
Ingudi: Balanites aegyptiaca.
Jaati: Jasminum grandiorum.
Jaatiphala: Nutmeg.
Ja1auka: Leach
Jambausti: Nut of Syzigium jambolana:
Jangola: A dry area
Jwara: Fever.
Jyotismati :Celeusterus paniculatus.
Kadira: Acacia arabica.
Kakamachi: Solanum nigrum.
Kakolayadi:
Kalka: Paste/ bolus.
Karanja :Pangomia glabra.
Krimighna: Antimicrobial.
Katphala : Myrica nagi.

Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

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Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV

Amruthesh

Shirovasti: Oleation to the head.


Shodhan: Purication \ detoxication.
Shoolahara: Analgesic.
Shotahara: That which controls swelling.
Sharavani: Sparantus Indicus.
Shrungataka: Trapa bispinosa.
Shunti: Zingiberus ofcinalia.
Shyonak: Oroxylum indicum.
Siddha taila: Oil preparation.
Sneha: Oleation.
Snigdha: With ghee/ oil.
Sweda: Sweating.
Swetha manjan: a tooth powder.
Tejohwa: Zanthoxylum armatum.
Thaila: oil.
Tila: thill, Sesamum indicum.
Tiktha kashaya ras: a preparation of bitter drugs.
Tratakadivati: a tablet.
Triphala: Three fruits.
Trivruth: Operculina terpethum.
Tulasi (Surasa) Ocimum sanctum.
Twak: Bark of Cinnamomum zeylanium.
Tutha: Copper sulphate.
Utphala: A variety of lotus.
Usheera: Vettiveria zizanoides.
Vacha: Acorus calamus.
Varthaka: Solanum melongena.
Vetasa: Salix caprea.
Vidanga: Embilia ribes.
Vidari: Puraria tuberosa.
Vishnukrantha:
Vranaropana: wound! Ulcer healing.
Yastimadu: Glyceriza glabra.
Yavakshara: an alkali.
Yogas: preparations/formulations.
Yusha: A thick soup

would also like to thank all those who have helped me directly and
indirectly in this endeavour.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

21.

I would like to dedicate this article in the fond memory of my


parents Mr. K. Kadadi and late Mrs. Shobha K. Kadadi for being
role models and instilling right values.
I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. B. A. Venkatesh,
Professor and H.O.D. of Shalakyatantra for his guidance; Dr. P.
K. Dayal, former Professor and Head, Department of O.M.R, A. J.
Shetty Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, and Editor, DR;
and Dr. D. Bailoor, Vice Principal, Yenopoya Dental College
and Hospital for their timely help and sincere encouragement. I

61

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How to cite this article: Amruthesh S. Dentistry and ayurveda - IV:


Classification and management of common oral diseases. Indian J Dent Res
2008;19:52-61.
Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Indian J Dent Res, 19(1), 2008

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