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Energy Systems for

Exercise

Human Energy Systems


ATP-PC

System

adenosine triphosphate
phosphocreatine
Lactic

Acid System

anaerobic glycolytic pathway


Oxygen

System

aerobic metabolic pathways

ATP-PC Energy System


ATP Energy for muscle contraction

ATP-PC System
ATP
highest

rate of energy
production
lowest total energy capacity
all energy for muscle
contraction must flow through
ATP

ATP-PC System
Phosphocreatine
Rapid

equilibrium with
ATP/ADP
Highest rate of energy
production
Lowest total energy production

Lactic Acid System


Anaerobic
Uses

glycolysis

muscle glycogen, blood


glucose, liver glycogen as
substrates (not FAT or PRO)
High rate of ATP energy production
Primary fuel in sprint-type activities
(a few seconds - few minutes)

Lactic Acid System


Important

when:

Activity longer than a few seconds


creatine-P depleted/limited

Activity too intense for aerobic


metabolism
oxygen delivery limited
limited rate of O2 :

uptake in lung
transport and delivery to muscle cell
transport and delivery to mitochondria

Lactic Acid System


Lactic acid is the end product
Low total energy capacity

lactic acidosis
Inhibits glycolytic enzymes

Training effects
improved aerobic capacity reducing lactate
production
improved removal of lactate

Ergogenic aids
bicarbonate loading

Oxygen Energy System

Oxygen Energy Systems


Aerobic

carbohydrate
metabolism
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport
system

lower rate of ATP energy production


high total energy capacity
primary source of energy for higher
intensity endurance events (~< 30 min)

09.06 Aerobic Respiration Overview

Slide number: 2
Glucose

Plasma
membrane

Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm

Extracellular fluid

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

09.06 Aerobic Respiration Overview

Slide number: 4
Glucose

Glycolysis

Pyruvate

ATP
NADH

Acetyl-CoA

NADH

Plasma
membrane

Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm

Extracellular fluid

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

09.06 Aerobic Respiration Overview

Slide number: 6
Glucose

Glycolysis

Pyruvate

ATP
NADH

Acetyl-CoA
Krebs
cycle

NADH
H2O

ATP
NADH

Plasma
membrane

Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm
ATP

Extracellular fluid
CO2

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

O2

Oxygen Energy Systems


Fat

oxidation

Beta-oxidation, Krebs cycle, Electron


transport system

Lowest rate of ATP-energy production


Highest total energy capacity
Primary source of energy during lower
intensity endurance events (~>30 min)

Oxygen Energy Systems


Protein

oxidation

Amino acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, Electron


transport system

Low rate of ATP-energy production


Limited total energy capacity
significant source of energy during long
endurance events

% Contribution of Aerobic and


Anaerobic Energy Sources

Human Energy Stores


Sources of energy for energy systems

ATP-PC
Carbohydrates

Muscle glycogen
Blood glucose
Liver glycogen

Human Energy Stores


Fats

- Triglycerides

Adipose triglycerides
Muscle triglyceride

Hormone sensitive lipase


Activity enhanced with caffeine

Ketone bodies
partially oxidized fatty acids
produced in liver, burned in muscle
significant source of energy during prolonged
endurance exercise

Human Energy Stores


Proteins
direct muscle oxidation
(branched chain amino
acids)
gluconeogenesis in liver from
amino acids

Exercise Energy Metabolism:


Examples

data

of experimental

Exercise Energy Metabolism:

Examples of
experimental data

Example 1:

Metabolic Fuels During


Intense Exhaustive Exercise
3

one minute sprints with one


minute rest
muscle needle biopsy
prior to
15 sec post-exhaustion (exhaustion)
30 minutes post-exhaustion
(recovery)

Example 1:

Metabolic Fuels During


Intense Exhaustive Exercise

initial

ATP
(umol/g)
4.6

PC
(umol/g)
17

exhaustion

3.4

3.7

recovery

4.0

18.8

Example 1:

Metabolic Fuels During


Intense Exhaustive Exercise

Glycogen

Lactate

initial

88 ug/g

1.1 umol/g

exhausted

58

30.5

recovery

70

6.5

Key Points

In repeated one minute sprints


Lactic acid system primary source of fuel
[lactic acid] increases 30-fold resulting in
lactic acidosis
ATP & C~P are regenerated quickly after
exercise
Elevated lactate seen 30 minutes after
exercise

Example 2:

Glycogen Utilization During


Endurance Exercise

Protocol

Trained and untrained runners


Treadmill running at ~ 70% VO2 max
Run to exhaustion
Measure muscle glycogen content every
20 minutes until exhaustion

Example 2:

Glycogen Utilization During


Endurance Exercise
Minutes
exercise
0
20
40
60
80
90

Glycogen
(untrained)
94 (umol/g)
39
22
11
0.6 (exhausted)

Glycogen
(trained)
100 (umol/g)
55
39
14
11
0.2 (exhausted)

Key Points
Glycogen primary source of fuel in
exercise lasting 60-90 minutes
Glycogen depletion associated with
fatigue
Rate of glycogen utilization rate higher
early in exercise, lower late in exercise
Utilization of glycogen lower in trained
athletes

Example 3:

Glycogen Degradation Rate During


Exercise

Protocol
Trained and untrained subjects
Treadmill running at different % VO2 max
Muscle biopsies to determine rate of
muscle glycogen utilization

Example 3:

Glycogen Degradation Rate During


Exercise
80

70

glycogen degradation rate

60

50
Trained

40

Untrained

30

20
10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

% VO2 max

60

70

80

90

Key Points
Rate of glycogen utilization directly
related to intensity of exercise
Trained athletes utilize glycogen at
lower rates than untrained subjects at
same relative %VO2

More efficient delivery of oxygen and


mobilization/oxidation of stored fats.

Example 4:

Effect of Glycogen Level on Rating of


Perceived Exertion

Protocol

Trained runners
Treadmill test at %70% of VO2max
Muscle biopsies for glycogen determination
RPE evaluation

Key Points
Glycogen utilization rate highest early in
exercise
Muscle glycogen concentration
inversely related to rating of perceived
exertion

Example 5:

Effect of Initial Muscle Glycogen Levels


and Endurance
Protocol

Fed trained athletes diets for 4 days


either
Low (10%)
Moderate (50%)
high carbohydrate (85%)diets

Treadmill running at 65% VO2max


Muscle biopsy for glycogen analysis
prior to treadmill run

Example 5:

Effect of Initial Muscle Glycogen Levels and


Endurance
200
180

High carb diet

Time to exhaustion (min)

160
140
120

Moderate carb diet

100
80
60

Low carb diet

40
20
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

initial muscle glycogen (g/100g)

3.5

Key Points
Initial Glycogen Levels and Endurance
During treadmill running, time to
exhaustion is correlated with initial
muscle glycogen content
Muscle glycogen content is affected by
diet

High carb diets promote glycogen storage

Example 6a:

Muscle Glycogen and Soccer Performance


(Agnevik, 1970)

1.2

mg glycogen/100g

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
Pre-game

Half-time

Post-game

Example 6b:

Muscle Glycogen and Soccer Performance


Saltin, 1973

14000

12000

time (seconds)

10000

8000

Walking
Running
Total

6000

4000

2000

0
High Glycogen

Low Glycogen

Key Points
Diet and Soccer Performance
Glycogen depletion is possible during
soccer play
Initial glycogen content affects time
spent running and total active time

High glycogen allows for more running and


total activity during soccer games

Example 7:

Effect of Successive Days of Intense Training on


Glycogen Content
Costill & Miller (1980)

Trained endurance runners


3 successive days of running 10 miles
at 80% of VO2 max
Dietary intake of CHO

58% of Calories
70% of Calories

Example 7:

Effect of Successive Days of Intense Training on


Glycogen Content
Costill & Miller (1980)

140

Muscle glycogen (mmol/kg ww)

120

100

80
High CHO
Low CHO
60

40

20

0
0

10

20

30

40
Time (hours)

50

60

70

80

Key Points:
Effect of Successive Days of Intense Training on
Glycogen Content

Glycogen depletion can occur with


successive days of intense training
Even when individual training day is not
glycogen depleting

High carbohydrate diets promote


replacement of glycogen used during
exercise
Helps prevent glycogen depletion during
successive days of training

Metabolic Causes of Fatigue During


Exercise.
Table 3.9 (Williams)

Decreased

Levels of Energy

Substrates
decreased

phosphocreatine levels
decreased muscle glycogen
decreased blood glucose
hypoglycemia

Metabolic Causes of Fatigue During


Exercise.
Table 3.9 (Williams)

Decreased Levels of Energy Substrates


(cont.)

decreased blood branch-chain amino acids


Significant source of energy for muscle during endurance
exercise
Central Fatigue Hypothesis (increased formation of
depressant neurotransmitters)

Decreased blood BCAA during exercise


Increase blood tryptophan:BCAA ratio
Shared blood:brain barrier transport system
Increased brain tryptophan
Increased synthesis of serotonin from tryptophan
Increased feeling of fatigue

Metabolic Causes of Fatigue


During Exercise.
Disturbed

Acid-Base Balance

lactic acidosis

Decreased

Oxygen Transport

decreased blood volume due to


dehydration
High altitudes
Nutritional anemias

Metabolic Causes of Fatigue


During Exercise.
Increased

Core Body
Temperature
dehydration
environmental conditions

Disturbed

Electrolyte Balance

high sweat loss


no electrolyte replacement