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Weight : 1.

5 kg / 1130 cm3
-2% of body weight
Receives 15% cardiac output
Consumes 20% of total bodys O2
Utilizes 25% of energy (glucose)
Contains 160 000km of blood vessels
Contains 75% of H2O
Contains 100 billion of neutrons
Doesnt have pain receptors
Alive only 4-6 minutes without O2

Thick layer of neural tissue


Cover the brain
Contains 4 regions :
1. Frontal Lobe

2. Parietal Lobe
3. Temporal Lobe
4. Occipital Lobe

PREMOTOR & PRIMARY MOTOR


CORTEX
-CONTROL EXECUTION OF VOLUNTARY

ORBITOFRONTAL
CORTEX

PREFRONTAL CORTEX
-PERSONALITY
EXPRESSION
-PLANNING OF COMPLEX
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS

-COGNITIVE PROCESSING
OF DESCISION-MAKING

FRONTAL
LOBE
(FRONTMOST
REGION)

OCCIPITAL LOBE
The rear of cerebral cortex
Two main parts:
i. Primary visual area
-receive visual input from
retina (shape, colour, size,
motion, dimension)
ii. Visual association area
-interpret information that
acquired
through the
primary visual cortex
iii. Vision *

RECEPTION & PROCESSING

CONTROL

of sensory information from body

goal directed voluntary movements

PARIETAL LOBE
(NEAR THE BACK & TOP OF BRAIN)

MANIPULATION /
INTEGRATION
of objects / different senses
(understand concepts)

a) PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY AREA


b) SOMATOSENSORY ASSOCIATION
AREA
c) PRIMARY TASTE AREA
* SOMATIC SENSES

TEMPORAL LOBE
The side of head above the
ears
Organizing & combining
what we see, hear, language
& speech production,
memory association &
formation.
Structure of limbic system
located within it
Hearing *

Also called as small brain

Located at the base of skull


Relays information to
muscles to control
movement, balance,
equilibrium & muscle tone.

Located near body protrusions


Connect to cerebellum to spinal
cord
Consists of midbrain, medulla
oblongata & pons.
Coordinate & relay motor signal
sent between brain and body.
Control nervous system.
Taste *

located on top of the


brain stem
Control emotions &
motivations

Consist of 4 parts :
I. Amygdala
II.Hippocampus
III.Hypothalamus
IV.Thalamus

Amygdala

Emotional responds, hormonal secretions &


memory.

Hippocampus

Indexes, sends & retrieves memory (long


term storage in cerebral hemisphere)

Hypothalamus

Maintain homeostasis, automatic peripheral


nervous system, food, H2O intake
regulation, sleep & wake cycle regulation

Thalamus

Relays sensory signals (between spinal cord


& cerebrum
Smell *

HOW THE BRAIN WORKS & HOW


STUDENTS CAN RESPOND
THINKING BRAIN

REACTIVE BRAIN

PREFRONTAL CORTEX

LOWER, AUTOMATIC BRAIN

17% OF BRAIN

83% OF BRAIN

REFLECT ON INFORMATION

REACT TO INFORMATION
INSTINCTIVELY

WORK WHEN CALM, NO


STRESS & HIGH INTEREST

WORK WHEN ANXIOUS,


SAD, FRUSTRATED & BORED

RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS)


Lower back of brain (brain stem)
Receive input from sensory nerves

OPTIMUM BRAINS WORKING


Keep physically healthy
Brain breaks (syn-naps)
Rest enough

Practice focusing & observing yourself


Learning calmly/ positive emotions
Do some exercises (short break)

DIRECTION OF INFORMATIONS FLOWING


SUCCESS : RAS open and flow information to thinking brain
OVERWHELMED : reactive brain take over

RAS

LIMBIC SYSTEM

Amygdala & hippocampus


Evaluate whether information is
useful
RAS

LIMBIC
SYSTEM

LIMBIC SYSTEM
AMYGDALA
Take up excessive amounts of your brains available
nutrients and oxygen.

HIPPOCAMPUS
Link new sensory input to both knowledge and
experiences (ready process)

OPTIMUM BRAINS WORKING


-Take time to reflect / Take a deep breath
-Visualize in peaceful place
-Teachers: fun games or activities (increase neurochemical
enhancements )

-Renew & practice


-Repeat stimulation
-Practice make permanent

DIRECTION OF INFORMATIONS FLOWING


-Positive mood : send information to thinking brain
-Bad mood : closes the pathway to RAS and amygdala

-----

DOPAMINE
Most important neurotransmitters
between neutrons
Transmission : -crucial to brains
capacity & process new information

More dopamine release when


experience is enjoyable
- enhance alertness, memory &
executive
Optimum brain by :
-interacting with friends

-physical activities
-listening/ reading

THINKING BRAIN
Called as prefrontal cortex.
Increase the nerve
communication networks.
Process new information
(executive function)
Convert short term into
long term

RAS

LIMBIC
SYSTEM

THINKING
BRAIN

HOW THE MEMORY WORKS IN LEARNING


TEACHING GROWS BRAIN CELLS
CONSTANTLY CHANGE STRUCTURE &
FUNCTION OF NEUTRONS &
CONNECTION

NEUTROPLASTICITY

TEACHERS :
Fix limit based on learning
disabilities
Pubic test scores / achievements
Providing experiences can maximize
its learning & proficiency

HIGH STRESS RESTRICTS


BRAIN PROCESSING TO
SURVIVAL STATE
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
(UNDERGOES MATURATION
THROUGHTOUT SCHOOL YEARS )

EMOTION SENSITIVE LIMBIC SYSTEM


(DETERMINE WHICH PART OF BRAIN RECEIVE
INPUT & RESPONSE OUTPUT)

TEACHERS:
Should know when the stress cut off flow
from / to PFC (behavior is involuntary)

HOW THE MEMORY WORKS IN LEARNING


MEMORY IS CONSTRUCTED
& SORED BY PATTERNING
HIPPOCAMPUS
(REQUIRE ACTIVATION / PRIOR
KNOWLEDGE

ACTIVATION OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE


+ NEW INFORMATION

TEACHERS :
Demonstrate patterns, connections
& relationship
Receive timely feedback & reflect
experiences

MEMORY IS SUSTAINED BY USE


SHORT-TERM MEMORY NEED TO
ACTIVATED MULTIPLE TIMES TO INCREASE
ITS DURABILITY

RETENTION
(NEW MEMORIES ARE CONNECTED TO
OTHER COMMON STROED MEMORIES)

TEACHERS:
Multisensory instruction, practice, review
Construct concept of memory to new
stimuli/ knowledge