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Technological University of the Philippines

Ermita, Manila
College of Engineering
Electronics Engineering Department
ELE 4L
Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design, lab

PH Level Analyzer using Gizduino and Phototransistor


PROJECT

GROUP 4
Abella, Mark Erwin A.
Abong, Paolo R.
Alilio, Aron James B.
Anda, Kilvert
Arizala, Charmaine Clarisse B.
Bolicano, Dyme Frianne
Castor, Glenn Francis P.
Cenita, Michelle S.
Domingo, Ralphlin Jason B.
Laderas, Eliezer M.
Managbanag, Adrian R.
Villanueva, Jan Rhoter C.
BSESE 3D

Engr. Ira C. Valenzuela


Instructor

January 5, 2015

I. Abstract
THE DEVICE IS A SIMPLE, HAND-HELD AND PORTABLE PH TEST
STRIP READER
(6.1 X 3.4 X 2.1 in.). IT RUNS MAINLY WITH THE USE OF
GIZDUINO PATCHED WITH THE ARDUINO UNO SOFTWARE. IT
ALSO USES THE LIGHT-SENSING PROPERTIES OF A
PHOTOTRANSISTOR WHICH SENSES THE LIGHT INTENSITY AND
INDUCES IT TO ITS VOLTAGE EQUIVALENT ACCORDING TO THE
PROGRAMMED RANGES. IT ALSO USES A TRI-CHROMATIC LED
WHICH TRANSMITS A COLERED LIGHT (RED, GREEN AND BLUE)
TO THE TEST PADS OF THE PH TEST STRIP, WHICH IS TO BE
SENSED BY THE PHOTOTRANSISTOR. ONCE THE GIZDUINO
PROCESSES THE DATA, THE OUTPUT WILL BE SHOWN IN A
SEVEN-SEGMENT LED DISPLAY. THE DEVICE IS CONVENIENT
AND USER FRIENDLY, FOR THE USER ONLY NEEDS THE
PREPARED TEST STRIP TO BE PLACED ON THE TEST STRIP
READER AND PUT IT UNDER THE DEVICE FOR READING. THE
GIZDUINO IS CONNECTED TO A COMPUTER/LAPTOP
THROUGH A PL2303 PROLIFIC PRINTER PORT CABLE AND IS
CONTROLLED BY THE PRE-INSTALLED ARDUINO 1.0.6
PROGRAM. IT ALSO SERVES AS THE POWER SOURCE OF THE
DEVICE, BUT OTHERWISE CAN OPERATED JUST BY THE USE OF
AN AC-TO-DC UNIVERSAL ADAPTER. THIS PROPOSED MODULE

DEMONSTRATED THE EXCELLENT READING OF PH LEVELS,


HASSLE-FREE AND ALMOST HANDSFREE.

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction
Phototransistor is a device that converts light energy into electric
energy. It is a bipolar device that is completely made of silicon or another
semi-conductive material and is dependent on light energy. Phototransistors
are used for a wide variety of applications. In fact, phototransistors can be
used

in

any

electronic

device

that

senses

light.

For

example,

phototransistors are often used in smoke detectors, infrared receivers, and


CD players. In this project, it use in a device that can determine the pH level
of a certain sample. The device is useful and dominant solution for the
examination of pH level.

Background of the Study


Testing your pH value is important because it instantly indicates your
health level. Healthy blood has a pH level of 7.35. A pH below 7 is acid and
is an indication of poor health. You may experience symptoms like: low

energy, pains and aches, mood swings, worrying and fears, poor sleep or
being overweight. If you have a pH of 5, you're probably seriously sick. You
can reverse this acid state by eating more alkaline foods. Also, monitoring
your pH is an excellent motivation to stay healthy.

Image processing technology had been a frequent interest of


research, since it is among the rapidly growing technologies today with
its applications in various aspects. Due to its growing popularity, it has
been integrated with machines to perform visual automation such as
feature-and-pattern recognition.

Statement of the Problem


The proponents of the project sought answer to the following
questions:

1. How to detect the pH level using phototransistor?


2. How to determine the pH level depending on the voltage output?
3. How to use light intensity to detect pH levels using a phototransistor?

Objectives(General and Specific)

General Objective

To create an optical absorbance test strip reader using LED and


photodetector circuits with Arduino as microcontroller.

Specific Objective

1. To determine

the

absorbance

of

a test

strip

using

LED

and

photodetector circuits.
2.

To be able to compute the hue based on the RGB colors.

Significance of the Study


PH is the parameter for acid and base levels of a certain fluid. Acids
can be hazardous if people are not aware of the pH level of the fluid being
used. Only professional medical technologists and doctors know how to
determine pH levels. The purpose of this project is to improve modern home
technology using Arduino as pH level analyzer. The device will be convenient
and easy to use. The project will focus on the determination of pH level on
an unidentified sample using light absorbance properties from the pH test
strip.

Scope and delimitation


The digital image processing is concentrated on recognition of
features, such as color and light intensity, present on the pH test strip. This
study will utilize the Arduino Uno programming Commands instead of

Gizduino which was actually used. The device is not a hundred percent
accurate due to insufficient calibration methods.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

1. Conceptual Paragraph

In this Project, the Phototransistor was used to induce voltage


proportional to the level of light intensity sensed from the pH test strip.
Standards were used to identify the pH level of the sample that are tested is
in the right level. The chromatic LED gives off three colors, the red, and
green and the blue light emitted by the LED will strike the colored panel
indicators of the test strip and will reflect to the phototransistor. The
phototransistor will induce voltages with respect to the colors that was given

off by the chromatic LED. The Gizduino patched with Arduino Uno will
select the highest induced voltage and will retain the color that gives off the
highest intensity to the phototransistor. After retaining the selected value of
induced voltage, it will be classified according to the range that is
programmed in the Gizduino. The pH level that is identified by the device
will be shown on a seven-segment LED display. This method was shown to be
an effective way of identifying the pH level of a sample test strip.

2. Related Studies

In Novel Optical Absorbance-based Multi-analytes Detection Module


Using a Tri-chromatic LED, PDs and Plastic Optical Fibers and its Application
to a Palmsized Urine Test Strip Reader (Dae-Sik Lee, Mun Yeon Jung, 2010),
they fabricated and characterized a new palm-sized urine test strip reader
(9.5 x 6.5 x 1.8 cm3) using a novel optical absorbance-based multi-analytes

detecting module, consisting of a three-chromatic light-emitting diode (LED)


component, photodiodes, and optical waveguide for digital readouts. The
instrument is a handheld, simple but powerful in obtaining reliably a
numerical analog output compatible with urine-based test strips. The
proposed optical module demonstrated the excellent reading out of signal
levels of proteins, glucose, blood cells, respectively, in the test urine strip
kits, with low fabrication cost, rapidness, precision and reproducibility. In this
project, it uses pH-level Indicator test strip and Gizduino to encode and
decode the transmitted voltage from the phototransistor.

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Project Development
a. Collecting the data and brainstorming for ideas

b. Designing the chassis


c. Preparing the PCBs

d. Programming the Gizduino


e. Testing the circuits

f. Finalizing the design and testing

Materials and Equipments


Printed Copper Board (pcb)
Gizduino
Seven Segment Display
Integrated Circuit 74SN47 (2pcs)
Trichromatic LED
330 ohms Resistor (19pcs)
10 K ohms Resistor
Phototransistor
Merck KGaA pH-indicator strip
6.1 x 3.4 x 2.1 in. Chassis

Stranded wire
Solid wire (#22)
Soldering Iron
Pliers
Side Cutter
SolderingLead
Permanent Marker
Electrical Tape
Drill press
UTP cable

Data Analysis

Testing Procedure
1. Testing the phototransistor and the Arduino program
a. Connect the cable to the laptop/computer and to the Arduino port
of the device.
b. Run the Arduino program in the laptop/computer and check the
programmed codes for errors.
c. Prepare the phototransistor circuit.
d. Let a light source transmit light to the phototransistor.

e. Check the output display in the Arduino program's serial monitor.


The output
should be of high value (not exceeding 1000). If so,
the phototransistor circuit is
working.
2. Testing the seven-segment display
a. Connect the seven segment circuit to the Gizduino.
b. Program the Arduino program to do a count-up to check if all the
lights of the
seven-segment display is working.
3. Testing the device
a.

Evaluation Procedure
Gantt Chart
DATE
December 13-14, 2014

ACTIVITY
Planning the project and research
Buying the equipments/materials
needed
Troubleshooting of the Arduino

December 16-17, 2014

Buying additional
materials/equipment
Designed the chassis
Prepared the PCBs
Preliminary design and
troubleshooting

December 19-20, 2014

Buying additional materials/equipment


Made adjustments to malfunctions and
errors in the circuit design of the
phototransistor

December 27-29, 2014

Buying additional PCBs


Made adjustments for more stabilized
design

Started planning for the


documentation
January 3-8, 2014

Finishing touches
Implemented the new design of
chassis
Made improvements in the design
and finalizing
Finished the documents