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1, JANUARY 2007

for Enhancing Ambient Intelligence Scenarios

Giovanni Acampora, Member, IEEE, and Vincenzo Loia, Senior Member, IEEE

modeling in a good way. Within human-directed scientific

areas, such as cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience

and biomedical sciences, models have been and are being

developed for a variety of aspects of human functioning. If

such models of human processes were represented in a formal

and computational format, and incorporated in the human

environment in devices that monitor the physical and mental

state of the human, then such devices are able to perform a

more in-depth analysis of the humans functioning. This can

result in an AmI environment that may more effectively affect

the state of humans by undertaking in a knowledgeable manner

actions that improve their well-being and performance. Moreover, AmI environments are strongly depending upon dynamic

aspects, i.e, a same system could take various decisions in

different time and, consequently, are necessary computational

methodologies capable of dealing with time concept in a direct

way.

Starting from this considerations, our studies try to define

a novel AmI architecture based on the integration of methods

of cognitive modeling as the Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs)

[6] together with computational paradigms oriented to the distributed artificial intelligence as can be considered the multiagent systems in order to propose an AmI system modeled as

a collection of dynamical intelligent agents whose behaviours

are defined by a cognitive network capable of opportunely

modifying the AmI status by analyzing the cognitive state

of the user. FCMs have gradually emerged as a powerful

modeling and simulation technique applicable to numerous

research and application fields do not necessarily belonging to

political and sociology areas. In fact, in the last years FCMs

have been exploited to model the behaviour of complex applications as control plant systems, electrical circuit analysis,

cooperative man-machines, distributed group-decision support

and adaptation and learning, etc. [7] [8] [9].

Nevertheless, a complex AmI environment could have a

dynamic behaviour that the FCMs (or one of its extensions

[10][11][12] [13] [14]) have not able to model. Indeed, these

methods are not able to formally deal with external or temporal

events changing the so-called cognitive configuration of the

system which is characterized by: 1) the number and the value

of cognitive concepts, 2) the number and the value of causal

relationships, 3) the B-Time value.

This paper presents a novel AmI architecture organized as

multi-agent system exploiting FCMs and Timed Automata

to model intelligent entities capable of controlling the environment in a dynamic and cognitive way for enhancing the

users life quality by maximizing their personal comfort and

paradigm that deals with a new world where computing devices

are spread everywhere in order to make wider the interaction

between human beings and information technology and put together a dynamic computational-ecosystem capable of satisfying

the users requirements. However, the AmI systems are more

than a simple integration among computer technologies, indeed,

their design can strongly depend upon psychology and social

sciences aspects able to describe and analyze the human being

status during the systems decision making. Consequently, from

a computational point of view, an AmI system can be considered

as a distributed cognitive framework composed by a collection

of intelligent entities capable of modifying their behaviours by

taking into account the users cognitive status in a given time.

This paper introduces a novel methodology of AmI systems

design that exploits multi-agent paradigm and a novel extension

of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps theory benefiting on the theory of Timed

Automata in order to create a collection of dynamical intelligent

agents that use cognitive computing to define actions patterns

able to maximize environmental parameters as, for instance,

users comfort or energy saving.

Index TermsFuzzy Cognitive Maps, Ambient Intelligence,

Multi-Agent Systems, Systems Dynamic.

I. I NTRODUCTION

MBIENT Intelligence (AmI) systems are computer

framework capable of integrating computation into a

living environment [1] in order to enable the people to move

around and interact with their surroundings more naturally

than they currently do [2], [3]. Literature shows that different

computer approaches have been exploited in order to try to

integrate intelligence in living spaces in a transparent way. In

particular, Computational Intelligence approaches can be used

to realize context awareness and model a collection of relationships between environmental events. These relationships

could be derived by the application of neural or evolutionary

techniques which collect data into the user surrounding [4][5]

to define fuzzy rules modeling the behaviour of the AmI

framework. Typically, these approaches are embedded into

a distributed computing frameworks allowing the intelligent

environment to be managed in a transparent and remote way.

From this point of view an AmI system can be considered as a

distributed service oriented architecture, where each service is

designed by using computational intelligence methodologies.

However, last researches proves that an AmI system is more

than a simple integration of computational methodologies and

computer networking technologies and additional scientific

Computer Science, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Salerno, 84084 Italy. Email: {gacampora, loia}@unisa.it.

Manuscript received April 19, 2005; revised January 11, 2007.

978-1-4244-3597-5/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE

770

Agent h

Agent 1

Clock 1

Clock 2

...

Clock k

AmI

Concepts

User

Concepts

Cognitive Inference

AmI

Concepts

AmI

Concepts

...

User

Concepts

Actuator1

Actuato2

Cognitive Inference

AmI

Concepts

Agent Behavior

User

Concepts

...

User

Concepts

Agent Behavior

...

User

Status

...

Actuators Enviroment

Fig. 1.

considered the energy saving.

II. A M I S YSTEM S A RCHITECTURE

Figure 1 shows our proposal of AmI systems architecture.

It is simple to note that the framework is composed by

a collection of intelligent agents able to exhibit a set of

well-defined behaviours depending on the cognitive state of

environment, user and time. In order to achieve this result,

the architecture merges together fuzzy cognitive maps, timed

automata and multi-agent systems. Indeed, FCMs enable the

different component of the system to be controlled by simple

cognitive relationships; timed automata are used to embed the

time concept in the system in a formal and direct way; the

multi-agent paradigm is exploited to distributed the knowledge

in a complex and distributed environment. Reasoning in this

way, each agent can be considered as a dynamic finite state

machine where each state is represented by means of a cognitive map able to manage appropriate AmI and user concepts.

In the following subsection will be introduced our proposal

of agents inference engine starting from the definition of the

single components which realize it. The case study section

will be devoted to presents an AmI scenarios exploiting our

proposal lived from multiple users.

state. In general, a FCM functions like associative neural

networks. A FCM describes a system in a one-layer network

which is used in unsupervised mode, whose neurons are

assigned concept meanings and the interconnection weights

represent relationships between these concepts. It is important

to mention that all the values in the graph are fuzzy, i.e,

concepts take values in the range between [0, 1] and the arcs

weights are in the interval [1, 1]. Between concepts, there

are three possible types of causal relationships, that express

the type of influence from one concept to the others. The

weights of the arcs between concept Ci and concept Cj could

be positive Wij > 0 which means that an increase in the

value of concept Ci leads to the increase of the value of

concept Cj , and a decrease in the value of concept Ci leads to

the decrease of the value of concept Cj . Or there is negative

causality Wij < 0 which means that an increase in the value

of concept Ci leads to the decrease of the value of concept

Cj and vice versa. Beyond the graphical representation of the

FCM there is its mathematical model. It consists of an 1 n

state vector A which includes the values of the n concepts and

an n n weight matrix W which gathers the weights Wij of

the interconnections between the n concepts of the FCM. The

matrix W has n rows and n columns where n equals the

total number of distinct concepts of the FCM and the matrix

diagonal is zero since it is assumed that no concept causes

itself. The value of each one concept is influenced by the

values of the connected concepts with the appropriate weights

and by its previous value. So, the value Ai for each concept

Ci is computed by the following rule:

n

Ai = f (

Aj Wij ) + Aold

i

that model systems by means of a collection of concepts and

causal relations among concepts. In details, variable concepts

are represented by nodes in a directed graph and the graphs

edges represent the casual influences between the concepts.

The value of a node reflects the degree to which the concept

is active in the system at a particular time. This value is a

function of the sum of all incoming edges multiplied and the

(1)

j=1

j=i

Aj is the activation level of the concept Cj at time t, Aold

i

is the activation level of concept Ci at time t (it is clear that

the variable t just represents the iteration number between

two successive FCM matrix computation), and Wji is the

weight of the interconnection between Cj and Ci , and f is

a threshold function, i.e, a function used to reduce unbounded

inputs to a strict range. This threshold mapping is a variation

of fuzzification process in fuzzy logic. The threshold functions

used in the calculation of FCM are, mainly, of two different

kinds:

x if 0 x 1

0 if x < 0

f (x) =

1 if x > 1

and

1

1 + ex

Differently from standard FCMs, the RBFCMs use a fuzzy

rule base to evaluate the weight of incoming concepts Aj

in a simultaneous and accumulative way. The time interval

between the instants t and t + 1 has referred as Base Time

(B-Time) which represents the resolution of the simulation,

i.e., the highest level of temporal detail that a simulation can

provide in the modeled system.

771

f (x) =

entity that lives its existence by crossing a sequence of time

periods named cognitive eras. As it will be better depicted in

the following sections, a cognitive era is the longest interval

time in which the environment does not change its cognitive

configuration, i.e., its concepts, causal relationships and the

B-Time value.

In order to embed the cognitive era idea into the FCMs

context it is necessary to introduce a temporal abstraction

capable to deal with the cognitive eras in a direct and formal

way. This novel concept is named T-Time and, the timed

automata are the formal methodology implementing it. T-Time

can be view as a mechanism capable of changing the cognitive

configuration of a FCM by moving the system from a cognitive

era to the successive one.

B. Timed Automata

As previously said, each agent of the proposed system is

modeled through a finite state machine capable of throwing

state transitions by considering time values. Timed automata

are the formal method that realizes this idea. In detail, a timed

automaton is a standard finite-state automaton extended with a

finite collection of real-valued clocks providing a straightforward way to represent time related events, whereas automatabased approaches cannot offer this feature. The transitions of

a timed automaton are labeled with a guard (a condition on

clocks), an action or symbol on alphabet , and a clock reset

(a subset of clocks to be reset). Intuitively, a timed automaton

starts execution with all clocks set to zero. Clocks increase

uniformly with time while the automaton is within a node.

A transition can be taken if the clocks fulfill the guard. By

taking the transition, all clocks in the clock reset will be set

to zero, while the remaining keep their values. Thus transitions

occur instantaneously. Semantically, a state of an automaton is

a pair of a control node and a clock assignment, i.e. the current

setting of the clocks. Transitions in the semantic interpretation

are either labeled with an action (if it is an instantaneous

switch from the current node to another) or a positive real

number i.e. a time delay (if the automaton stays within a node

letting time pass).

The set of behaviours expressed by an agent modeled by

means of a timed automaton is defined by a timed language,

i.e., a collection of timed words. Both timed concepts are

defined in the follows.

named clocks then the set (X) of clock constraints is

defined inductively by:

:= x c|c x||1 2

where x is a clock in X and c is a constant in Q, the set of

nonnegative rationals.

A clock interpretation for the set X of clocks assigns a

real value to each clock; that is, it is a mapping from X to

R. A clock interpretation for X satisfies a clock constraint

over X if and only if evaluates to true using the values

given by .

Now, a precise definition of timed transition table, which

define the timed automaton behaviour, is given:

Definition 3. A timed transition table A is a tuple

, S, S0 , C, E, where:

is a finite alphabet,

S is a finite set of states,

S0 S is a set of start states,

C is finite set of clocks, and

C

E SS2 (C) is the collection of transitions.

An edge s, s , a, , represents a transition from state

s to state s on input symbol a. The set C represents

the collection of clocks to be reset with this transition,

and is a clock constraint over C.

If (, ) is a timed word viewed as an input to an automaton,

it presents the symbol i at time i . If each symbol i is interpreted to denote an event occurrence then the corresponding

component i is interpreted as the time of occurrence of i .

Given a timed word (, ), the timed transition table A starts

in one of its start states at time 0 with all clocks initialized to

0. As time advances, the values of all clocks change, reflecting

the elapsed time. At time i , A state from s to s using some

transition of the form s, s , i , , reading the input i , if

the current values of clocks satisfy . With this transition the

clocks in are reset to 0, and thus start continuing time with

respect to the time of occurrence of this transition. Formally,

this timed behaviour is captured by introducing runs of timed

transition tables.

Definition 4. A run r, denoted by (

s, v), of a timed transition

table , S, S0 , C, E over a timed word (, ) is an infinite

sequence of the form

1

2

3

r : s0 , 0

s1 , 1

s2 , 2

sequence of times values i R with i > 0, satisfying the

following constraints:

1) Monotonicity: increases strictly monotonically; that is,

i < i+1 for all i i + 1.

2) Progress: For every t R, there is some i 1 such

that i t.

following requirements:

Initiation: s0 S0 and 0 (x) = 0 for all x C.

Consecution: for all i 1, there is an edge in E of

the form si1 , si , i , i , i such that (i1 + i i1 )

satisfies i and i equals [i

0](i1 + i i1 ).

= 1 2 . . . is an infinite word over and is a time

sequence. A timed language over is a set of timed words

on .

The timed transition table together with the run concept are

the main notions used in our approach to embed dynamism in

the standard FCM definition.

772

M APS TO C REATE DYNAMICAL I NTELLIGENT AGENTS

This section is devoted to introduce a novel intelligent

agents inference engine that try to improve agent capabilities

by merging, in the same methodology, concepts coming from

computational intelligence area together with system dynamics. This result is achieved by solving the temporal drawbacks

of FCM discussed in section II-A and introducing the Timed

Automata based Fuzzy Cognitive Maps( TAFCMs). TAFCMs

add temporal concepts to standard FCM by exploiting a timed

automaton whose possible behaviors define all the potential

sequences of cognitive eras (and the related cognitive configurations) that the system could cross during its life-cycle. In

particular, TAFCMs improve FCMs by associating each state

in a timed automaton with a cognitive configuration which

describes the behaviour of a system in a time interval. Therefore, TAFCMs are able to model dynamic changes in cognitive

representation of system and, consequently, perform a more

realistic and coherent cognitive computation. A TAFCM, as

will be formally defined at the end of this section, is a

couple of two components: a timed automaton that describes

the dynamic evolution of a system and a FCM modeling

the cognitive behaviour of system during first phase of its

existence. Once that the automaton computation starts over a

given timed word, the state transitions will opportunely modify

the initial FCM in order to model the system in a better and

time-dependent way.

introducing a novel definition of FCM based on the

graphs theory;

modifying the Timed Automata definition introducing the

concepts of cognitive edges, timed cognitive transition

table, cognitive evolution and cognitive run;

showing as these definitions are capable of moving a system among several cognitive eras modifying its behaviour

during the time.

vision of our cognitive system. The successive step is to

introduce a collection of operators able to transform the

cognitive structure defined in (2). These operators represent the

fundamental operations on which constructing the proposed

cognitive/dynamic model. They will change the cognitive

configuration of a given agents FCM, F = (V, E) , by

following the rules:

To add concepts;

To add causal relationships;

To remove concepts;

To remove causal relationships;

To magnify/reduce the strength of a causal relationships;

To magnify/reduce the level of system concept.

Definition 5 (Adding a novel cognitive concept - ). This

operator modifies in a direct way the set V containing the

fuzzy cognitive concepts. Let ct be the concept to add to V set

and let {ck , cl , cm , . . .} V be the concepts set influencing by

ct and let {ch , ci , cj , . . .} V be the concepts set influenced

by ck . Then, the behaviour of is defined as follows:

VC = VC {ct }

E = E ({ct } {ck , cl , cm , . . .})

E = E ({ch , ci , cj , . . .} {ct })

(3)

Definition 6 (Removing a cognitive concept - ). The operator removes a cognitive concept, named ct , from the

concepts set V . Let {ck , cl , cm , . . .} V be the concepts set

influenced by ct and let {ch , ci , cj , . . .} V the collection of

concepts acting on ct . Then:

VC = VC {ct }

E = E ({ct } {ck , cl , cm , . . .})

E = E ({ch , ci , cj , . . .} {ct })

(4)

The first step towards the definition of TAFCMs is the

redefining of the standard FCMs by means of the graph theory.

From this point of view, an FCM F can be defined as follows:

F = (V, E)

V = VC VR

VC = {ci |ci [0, 1]}

VR = {fuzzy rules on VC }

E = {(ci , cj )|ci , cj V }

w : E [1, 1]

btime R

(2)

Definition 7 (Additive modification of cognitive concept ). This operator modifies the value of a concept ct value

in additive way. Let r R be a real number, then, if r 0:

V {ct } {(ct + r)} if (ct + r) 1

VC =

(5)

V {ct } {1}

if (ct + r) > 1

or, if r < 0:

VC

collection of cognitive concepts (normalized in [0, 1]), VR is

the set of fuzzy rules used by RBFCM to compute multiple

fuzzy causes in the system; E is the set of causal relationships

between concepts; w is a function associating an edge in E

with a real weight in [1, 1]; btime is a real variable exploited

by the rules in VR to model the length of a cognitive iteration.

If VR = then the graph F represent a simple FCM.

773

=

V {ct } {0}

if (ct + r) 0

if (ct + r) 0

(6)

Definition 8 (Multiplicative modification of cognitive concept

- ). This operator changes the value of a concept ct value

through a multiplicative constant. Let r R+ be a real

number, then,

V {ct } {(ct r)} if 0 (ct r) 1

(7)

VC =

if (ct r) > 1

V {ct } {0}

by a given state of timed automaton modeling del T-Time

concept of our system (as will be shown in the following

subsection), it is possible to define an operator, , capable

of associating a real number (expressing the B-Time value) to

each automaton state:

This operator is used to add a novel causal relationship to a

FCM F . Let (ci , cj ) be causal relationship with ci , cj V and

(ci , cj ) E and let wij [1, 1] be the weight of relationship

(ci , cj ), then:

E = E {(ci , cj )}

w : E [1, 1] with w /E = w and w ((ci , cj )) = wij

(8)

F = (VC , E ) and are, respectively, the FCM and weight

function resulting from the application of operator.

Definition 10 (Removing a cognitive causal relationship ).

This operator remove a given causal relationship from the

collection of causal relationships E. Let (ci , cj ) be the relationship to remove , with ci , cj V , (ci , cj ) E and

w((ci , cj )) = wij [1, 1], then:

E = E {(ci , cj )}

V = V {ci , cj }

w : E [1, 1]

(9)

because E E. Then, F = (V, E ) is the FCM resulting

from application and w is the weight function of F .

fBT ime : S R

btime = fBT ime (s) and s S

proposed TAFCM idea is not currently usable to modify the

VR set, i.e., the collection of rules, however, experimental

results will shown that this limitation does not deteriorate the

performance of TAFCM from the dynamic modeling point of

view.

Once defined the operators changing FCM configuration it

is possible to define the cognitive operator set:

Cop = {, , , , , , , , , }

The Cop allow us to redefine the Timed Automata concept

in order to introduce a novel kind of transition edges capable

of changing the cognitive configuration of the modeled system.

In particular, the following edges set is adding to the standard

transitions set of timed automata:

EC S S 2C (C) Cop

, S, S0 , C, E, EC , where:

is a finite alphabet,

S is a finite set of states,

S0 S is a set of start states,

C is finite set of clocks

C

EC S S 2 (C) Cop is the collection

of cognitive transitions. An edge s, s , a, , , , with

Cop produces the same effect of a standard transition

s, s , a, , , but it individuates the task defined by the

operator Cop . The set C represents the collection

of clocks to be reset with this transition, and is a clock

constraint over C.

weight function.

Definition 12 (Multiplicative modification of cognitive concept ). This operator changes the value of a given causal

relationship by multiplying it for a real value . Analogously

to the previous operator, this task is performed by redefining

the weight assignment function w. Let (ci , cj ) be the causal

relationship to modify in multiplicative way, then w : E

[1, 1] is the modified function defined as follows:

w((cl ,cm ))

if (cl ,cm )=(ci ,cj )

w((cl ,cm ))

(11)

weight function.

Definition 13 (B-Time updating ). As previously stated,

each cognitive era can be characterized by a different value of

(13)

edges idea is:

(10)

(12)

Definition 14 (Cognitive identity ). The operator represents a simple function identity that transforms a FCM F in

itself. This operator does not have practical usefulness but its

definition it is necessary to introduce the definition of TAFCM

in a more simple way.

). The operator named modifies the value of a given

causal relationship by adding it to a real value . This

task is accomplished by opportunely redefining the weight

assignment function w. Let (ci , cj ) be the causal relationship

to modify in additive way, then w : E [1, 1] is the

modified function defined as follows:

w((cl ,cm ))

if (cl ,cm )=(ci ,cj )

of a TAFCM and the properties characterizing its dynamic

behaviour.

Definition 16. A TAFCM T A is an ordered pair composed

by an initial cognitive configuration named F 0 together with

a timed cognitive transition table TM which represents the

mathematical entity acting as melting point between cognitivism and dynamism in system modeling. Formally:

774

TA = (F 0 , TM )

(0) : s0 S0

(14)

(1) : s1 S

(2) : s2 S

of an agent are: cognitive evolution and cognitive run.

The cognitive evolution is a mapping among the states

S contained in TM and the collection of possible cognitive

configurations obtained starting from F 0 . More in detail, the

cognitive evolution is a mathematical succession, generated

in an inductive way, which maps each state in S with a

one or more cognitive configurations obtained by sequentially

applying over F 0 the cognitive operators in S S 2C

(C) Cop . Then:

..

.

(j) : sj S

..

.

(0) = (s , F )

The inductive step. Let (i 1), with i > 1, be the cognitive

pair defined as:

(i 1) = (si1 , F i1 )

where si1 S and F i1 F , then:

(i) = (si , F i )

with si S, F i =

si1 , si , a, , , i EC .

i (F i1 ), i

and

This depends upon the topology of graph modeling the

component TM of the TAFCM. Indeed, if the topology of

TM contains cycles then the edge si1 , si , a, , , i

EC can be crossed more times and, consequently, various FCM can associated with a same state sh S. i.e.,

sh st st+c1 st+c2 . . . st+ck . . . and

{(st+c1 , F t+c1 ), (st+c2 , F t+c2 ), . . . , (st+ck , F t+ck ), . . .}

I .

More intuitively, the expression (15) shows the sequence

of pairs composing a cognitive evolution over s0 S0

together with the fuzzy cognitive transformations obtained by

exploiting the i operators.

j1

Fj

j

..

.

Definition 18. Let be a cognitive evolution, then a cogs, v), of a timed transition table

nitive run rc , denoted by (

, S, S0 , C, E, EC over a timed word (, ) and a collection

of cognitive operators Cop , is an infinite sequence of the

form

: N S F

(15)

Obviously, the cognitive evolution only represents a mapping between the states of timed automaton TA and the

collection of cognitive configurations computable starting from

F 0 by applying different sequence of operators in ; no

dynamic aspects are considered in the cognitive evolution

definition and, therefore, we introduce the idea of cognitive

run extending the initial idea of the run of standard timed

transition table.

be a TAFCM defined over a timed cognitive transition table , S, S0 , C, E, EC with S = {s0 , s1 , . . . , s|S|1 } the

finite set of automaton states; let F be the collection of

all FCMs defined by means of expression (2) over a set

{cl R : l = 1 . . . k} of initial cognitive concepts; let

= {1 , 2 , . . . , || } be a subset of operators in Cop used to

define the edges in EC . Then, the cognitive evolution over

a state s0 S0 is:

The base case (i = 0). Let s0 S0 be an initial state of

, S, S0 , C, E, EC , then:

F0

0

F1

1

F2

2

..

.

1 ,1

2 ,2

3 ,3

with s S, i [C R] and i Cop , for all i 0,

satisfying the following requirements:

Initiation: s0 S0 and 0 (x) = 0 for all x C.

Consecution: for all i 1, there is an edge in E of

the form si1 , si , i , i , i such that (i1 + i i1 )

satisfies i and i equals [i

0](i1 + i i1 ).

Atomicity: The operators i Cop are atomic operations

and their computation time is equals to 0, i.e., they do

not modify the duration of permanence in the automaton

state si , (i i1 ).

i

i

Evolution: each state s of a pair s , i in rc is mapped

i

on a FCM F as described by the cognitive evolution .

i

system then the set of cognitive run rc defined over the

timed language L, generated by TM , completely describes

the collection dynamic behaviours of the system, whereas, the

cognitive run rc defined over a single word wi L defines a

precise dynamic behaviour of the system, i.e., wi defines the

T-Time.

Definition 19 (T-Time). If TA = (F 0 , TM ) is a TAFCM and

TM is a timed automaton recognizing the timed language L =

{w1 , w2 , w3 , . . . , wi , . . .} and wi is a timed word and rc is

a cognitive run defined over wi then wi is a T-Time of the

system.

Starting from the T-Time definition a formal description of

cognitive era and cognitive configuration is given.

775

Sensors Side

S1

S2

S3

Seasons

Side

S4

0.8

0.1

a, , ,

-0.2

0.25

0.25

3

Adding User Side

Day

Side

Actuators Side

Human Side

Fig. 4. The timed automaton that describe a portion of the agents dynamic

behaviour of the AmI environment.

Fig. 2. The cognitive map that models interactions among sensors S1 , S2 ,

S3 , S4 , actuator A and the human status H.

AmI M AS = {(F 0 , TM )1 , (F 0 , TM )2 , . . . , (F 0 , TM )p }

Human Side

of changing their behaviour in a time-dependent way and

whose behaviours are depending upon a collection of cognitive

relationships that consider human and technology aspects. In

detail, during its life-cycle, each agent in Ami M AS is

capable of changing its cognitive behaviour by means of the

application of the cognitive operator Cop when some temporal

constraints are satified. As a simple sample of application we

can consider the cognitive agent shown in figure 2. This agent

is designed as a cyclic cognitive network capable of setting

the environmental parameters through cognitive maps engine:

the sensors S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 are, for instance, the temperature

and lighting sensors that the agent exploits the infer the novel

status of actuators and the human being. Figure 2 corresponds

to the following initial FCM:

H2

0.6

S1

S2

S3

S4

0.8

-0.1

0.25

H1

Human Side

0.25

-0.2

A

Actuators Side

F 0 = (V, E)

V = {S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 , H1 , A}

E = {(H1 , S1 ), (H1 , S2 ), (H1 , S3 ), (H1 , S4 ),

(S1 , A), (S2 , A), (S3 , A), (S4 , A), (A, H1 )}

w(H1 , S1 ) = 0.2

w(H1 , S2 ) = 0.3

w(H1 , S3 ) = 0.4

w(H1 , S4 ) = 0.1

w(S1 , A) = 0.25

w(S2 , A) = 0.1

w(S3 , A) = 0.2

w(S4 , A) = 0.8

w(A, H1 ) = 0.25

novel user lives into the environment.

rc is a cognitive run defined over the T-Time wi = (, ) L:

1 ,1

2 ,2

3 ,3

then time interval between the instant i and i+1 is the ith

cognitive era of system and the FCM F i that depicts the

system during the same interval is defined as the ith cognitive

configuration .

IV. A C ASE S TUDY: AN A MBIENT I NTELLIGENCE

S CENARIO

Last section shows as the intelligence of an agent can be

simply defined by means of an ordered pair composed by a

cognitive and dynamic component. In other word, our proposal

introduces a method to define, in a single entity, the most

important components that every intelligent system should to

have: the reasoning and the time. Starting from the definition

of a single agents intelligence, it is direct to introduce a multiagent scenario as a collection of TAFCM agents managing an

by a timed automata. The transition 0 1 represents the

situation where a novel user lives the enviroment, then, the

agent modify its behaviour by applying the operator able

to add a novel concept together with the collection of causal

relationships influencing old concept; the transitions 0 1

represent the change of behaviour of the agent related to time

constraints. In particular, transition 0 4, 0 5, 0 6, 0

7 is used to individuate a change of behaviour depending upon

the passing od the seasons and the related cognitive operators

776

TABLE I

T HE F 0 S B EHAVIOUR

FCM

Iteration

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

TABLE II

T HE (F 0 ) S B EHAVIOUR

Concepts

H

A

0.01

0.0

0.08 0.04

0.07 0.06

0.07 0.08

0.07 0.09

0.08

0.1

0.09 0.11

0.1

0.12

0.11 0.13

0.12 0.14

0.13 0.14

Iteration

0

1

2

3

FCM Concepts

H

A

0.13

0.14

0.13

0.14

0.13

0.14

0.13

0.14

H2

0.05

0.13

0.14

0.14

about these transitions have been omitted); the transitions

0 8, 0 9 are used to change the causal relationships

of the cognitive agent during the same day: for instance, the

relationship among the lighting sensors and human status is

more strong during the night, when, the light can be very

annoyinf for the user (details about these transitions have been

omitted). Figure shows the cognitive agent resulting from the

application of transitions 0 1: a novel user enters into the

environment and the agent has to consider the relationship

between him and the AmI systems sensors network:

different methodologies: ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous

networking and intelligent user-friendly interface. The main

aim of Computational Intelligence is to design set of methodologies capable of realizing rationale ubiquitous computing

embedded into efficient ubiquitous networking. In this paper,

this aim is satisfied by introducing a multi-agent system

implemented by means of an innovatove novel inference

methodology that solves, in a one shot, cognitive and dynamic

problem. Moreover, our proposal opens new challenges in the

Computational Intelligence community by inviting researcher

to define ourselves cognitive operators, evolutions and runs to

better design their multi-agent environment.

F 0 = (V, E)

V = {S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 , H1 , A}

E = {(H1 , S1 ), (H1 , S2 ), (H1 , S3 ), (H1 , S4 ),

(S1 , A), (S2 , A), (S3 , A), (S4 , A), (A, H1 )}

w(H1 , S1 ) = 0.2

w(H1 , S2 ) = 0.3

w(H1 , S3 ) = 0.4

w(H1 , S4 ) = 0.1

w(S1 , A) = 0.25

w(S2 , A) = 0.1

w(S3 , A) = 0.2

w(S4 , A) = 0.8

w(A, H1 ) = 0.25

w(H2 , S1 ) = 0.1

w(H2 , S2 ) = 0.2

w(H2 , S3 ) = 0.1

w(H2 , S4 ) = 0.1

w(A, H2 ) = 0.6

The table I and II shows the behaviour of our dynamical

cognitive agent. In detail, I describes the human(H) and actuator(A) concept with the following sensors value: S1 = 20,

S2 = 30, S3 = 15, S4 = 12. When the user H2 live

the system, the cognitive map F 0 modifies itself and the

table II presents the behaviour of the novel cognitive model.

It is important to note that the FCM (F 0 ) achieves the

convergence in only three step. This is due the fact that

the actuator A have always achieved its better value and,

consequently, the user H 2 is faster than H to accomplish its

optimal status.

777

R EFERENCES

[1] G. Acampora and V. Loia, Using fml and fuzzy technology in adaptive

ambient intelligence environments, International Journal of Computational Intelligence Research, 2005.

[2] G. Acampora and V. Loia, Fuzzy control interoperability and scalability

for adaptive domotic framework, IEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics,

2005.

[3] G. Acampora and V. Loia, A proposal of ubiquitous fuzzy computing

for ambient intelligence, Information Sciences, 2008.

[4] F. Doctor, H. Hagras, and V. Callaghan, A type-2 fuzzy embedded agent

to realise ambient intelligence in ubiquitous computing environments,

Inf. Sci. Inf. Comput. Sci., vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 309334, 2005.

[5] H. Duman, H. Hagras, and V. Callaghan, Intelligent association selection of embedded agents in intelligent inhabited environments,

Pervasive Mob. Comput., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 117157, 2007.

[6] B. Kosko, Fuzzy cognitive maps, International Journal of ManMachine Studies, no. 24, pp. 6575, 1986.

[7] C. D. Stylios and P. P. Groumpos, Fuzzy cognitive maps in modeling

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vol. 8, pp. 8398, 2000.

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systems, Appl. Soft Comput., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 12431251, 2008.

[9] W. Stach, L. Kurgan, and W. Pedrycz, Parallel learning of large fuzzy

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