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Bella Sky
Taking precast concrete to the limit

Kaare K.B. Dahl


2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Agenda
The background
Key figures
Handling the vertical load
Horizontal stability
Steel or concrete?
3 of the greatest challenges

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Project team

Owner:

Bella Conference Center

Architect:

3xN

Structures:

Ramboll

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Bella Conference
Center
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Basic requirements
4-star hotel
>800 rooms
Max. height 78.235m above sea level
Direct acces to the Bella Center
Northern road uninterrupted

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Key figures

two 76.5 m high towers


24 stories
2 connecting bridges
812 4-star hotel rooms
44.000 m2
3 restaurants
32 meeting rooms
800.000.000 BRL

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

A leaning building

Pisa: 4 degrees

Bella Hotel: 15 degrees

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Tower 1
Horizontal displacement of the top 10 stories

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Tower 2
Horizontal displacement of the lower 14 stories

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Bella Hotel

Main forces

Destabilizing moment
1.200.000 kNm

Max. foundation load


300.000 kN acting on
15*20m slab

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Basic buildup

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Precast elements

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Why do the towers lean?

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Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

The main structural system

(as we thought it was going to be at the very start)

6.616 concrete elements


walls
columns
beams
hollow core slabs
450 staircase concrete elements

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

The main structural system as it really is

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Leading horizontal loads towards the back

Normal floor plan

6. floor

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Calculations

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Horizontal and vertical load take-down


The whole structure is calculated in one go

Structural calculations using


ROBOT:
13 load cases
6-9 iterations pr. loadcase
Computertime per tower:
3 PCs each 48 hours

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Iterations correct modelling of foundations


Starting point

Iteration: 1

Iteration: 2

Iteration: 3
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Horizontal stability

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Basic buildup

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Longditudinal stability
Tower 1

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

30

Longditudinal stability
Tower 1

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Longditudinal stability
Tower 1

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Transverse stabilitet

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Steel or Concrete?

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Why precast concrete instead of steel frame?


Stiffness
A steel frame structure will require many diagonals..
low selfweight=> vibrationproblems.
Sound transmission
very demanding transmission values between rooms is readily
solved by using concrete walls.
Firesafety
Steel requires fireproofing concrete does not.
Quick erection of main structural system
there is after all only a few leaning elements.
Overall shorter time for building the house
there are many walls in this building.
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Steel or concrete?

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Why precast concrete instead of steel frame?


Stiffness
A steel frame structure will require many diagonals..
low selfweight=> vibrationproblems.
Sound transmission
very demanding transmission values between rooms is readily
solved by using concrete walls.
Firesafety
Steel requires fireproofing concrete does not.
Quick erection of main structural system
there is after all only a few leaning elements.
Overall shorter time for building the house
there are many walls in this building.
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Vibrations

0.68 Hz

Comfort criteria (ISO 10137)


residential: max. 0.047 m/s2
office:
max. 0.071 m/s2
Calculation
max 0.068 m/s2

1.07 Hz

Comfort criteria
residential: max. 0.04 m/s2
office:
max. 0.06 m/s2
Calculation
max 0.042 m/s2
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Why precast concrete instead of steel frame?


Stiffness
A steel frame structure will require many diagonals..
low selfweight=> vibrationproblems.
Sound transmission
very demanding transmission values between rooms is readily
solved by using concrete walls.
Firesafety
Steel requires fireproofing concrete does not.
Quick erection of main structural system
there is after all only a few leaning elements.
Overall shorter time for building the house
there are many walls in this building.
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

General build-up

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Why precast concrete instead of steel frame?


Stiffness
A steel frame structure will require many diagonals..
low selfweight=> vibrationproblems.
Sound transmission
very demanding transmission values between rooms is readily
solved by using concrete walls.
Firesafety
Steel requires fireproofing concrete does not.
Quick erection of main structural system
there is after all only a few leaning elements.
Overall shorter time for building the house
there are many walls in this building.
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

General build-up

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

3 of the greatest challenges

The connection between the longitudinal and transvers wall


Vertical joints in walls (shear capacity)
The top connecting bridge

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Transvers wall

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Bella Hotel

Joint over transvers wall elements


Insitu joint (transvers wall)

Longitudinal wall

Beam element
(transvers vall)

Transvers wall elements

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Joint over transverse wall elements


23 stories

24 stories

320mm

700mm

500mm

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Joint over transvers wall elements


Insitu joint (transvers wall)

Longitudinal wall

8Y25 in top and


bottom

Beam element
(transvers vall)

Transvers wall elements

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Longitudinal wall

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Joint over longitudinal wall


Insitu-joint
(longitudinal wall)

4Y32 in top
and bottom

Longitudinal wall
element

Beam element
(transvers wall)
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Bella Hotel

The connection between the longitudinal and


transversal wall
Joint over transvers wall

Joint over
longitudinal wall

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

4 Y32 +
6 Y25 +
2 Y16

8 Y32

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Bella Hotel

Vertical joints in walls

we need from 50 to 550kN/m


50kN/m

550kN/m

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

The top connecting bridge

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Bella Hotel

Connecting bridge

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Bella Hotel

Factors influencing the movements of the


towers
Windload
Wind on the facades
Torsion of the towers

Oscillation

Eccentric liveload (long.)


Eccentric liveload (transv.)
Creep of the concrete
Creep of the subsoil..
Skewed heating

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Creep of subsoil
PLAXIS-3D-calculations

Tilnrmet
Settlementflytning
of heeli
bagenden
approx. er
12mm
12mm

Settlement of toe
approx. 22mm
2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Factors influencing the movements of the


towers
Windload
Wind on the facades
Torsion of the towers

Oscillation

Eccentric liveload (long.)


Eccentric liveload (transv.)
Creep of the concrete
Creep of the subsoil
Skewed heating

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Resulting movement
x
Ux

Uy

Partial Uxregn

Uyregn

(mm)

(mm)

Creep

(mm) (mm
)
140
18
1,00

140

18

Wind

71

1,00

71

Eccentric

16

60

1,00

16

60

Thermal

12

98

0,5/1,3 5

38

Total away

168

186

Total against

28

169

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel

Thank you
Questions?

2015-10-08
Bella Hotel