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lnetltut fraricale-'Pll .. ole publlcatlone


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Thierry BOURBI~
lnstitut

Fra~

du P6trole

now with Sc:hlumbetger

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Olivier COUSSY
LabcJqtoire Central des Ponts et Chau..._

Bernard ZINSZNER
lnstitut

du Nlrole

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Foreword by

acoustics
of porous
media

Ama NUR
'-.~

Professor
Director of the Sgnford Rock PllysQ Project
Geophysics Depertment. Stanford Un~

Translated from the French


by Nisaim MARSHALL

'-../

'~

1987

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"

GULF PUBUSHING COMPANY

BOOK DIVISION HOUSTON, LONooN. PARIS, TOKYO

EDITIONS TECHNIP 27 RUE GINOUX 75737 PARIS CEDEX 15

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technip

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Translation of
c Acoustique des milieux poreux
T. ~ 0. eot.y. B.,zirtii&IW'

. C ldkiona T~. P.W1111 ..


~

For (apra taka from 1*\io- ~shed

~8111hot~:::.~ted
intlefilurec;ap . ~~
,
list(title

and patitisher)c:ail be to.iod at the emt.of$be.book.

....__

.t"This Edition, 1987


Gulf Publishing Company
Book Division
Houston, Texas
~,

ISBN 0-87201-025-2
Library of Congress Catalog Cerd No. 88-82913
---.,

1987 Editions Technip, Paris

All rights ..-ved. No Pllrt of this publication may be reproduced or


transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, rac:ording. or any infOI'INtion storage and retrieval
system. without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in France
by lmprimarie Nouvelle. 45800 Saiolt-Jean-de-Braye

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~-

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.. fcreWord :_~.=. -

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'-,..,...-

!2'

It has Ion& been recognized that~: wayc; ctifr~d~ristics as measured on the earth's
surface can provide information not onl~--~bl>.!!UJae1l.ttitude and distribution of interfaces
between rock types within the earth, but also about the mineralogy, as well as the state of
the rocks present. In fact much of our knowledge about the internal constitution of the
earth has been derived from seismic wave characteristics such as velocities and
amplitudes.
Althoup seismic methods, notably reflection methods in exploration geophysics have
been used most extensively, they were in the past applied mostly to delineate rock
interfaces in the earth's shallow crust, to evaluate structures which might bear
hydrocarbons. In contrast relatively little use has been made of seismic waves for the
determination of the rock properties of direct interest to hydrocarbon recovery (e.g.
porosity, permeability), or the direct detection of hydrocarbons. Even in acoustic logiing.
only the estimation of porosity from velocities has been developed as a regular service.
The estimations of permeability or saturation are based on other, non seismic, methods.
Because of the increasing value of oil, the growing complexity of recently discovered oil
ftelds, and the growing realization that reservoirs and recovery are more heterogeneous
than assumed. in the past, a major shift in the use of seismic methods has taken place
during the past one or two decades. One of the central aspects of this shift involves the
need to establish and understand the relation between the seismic properties of reservoir
and reservoir related rocks, and their production properties (porosity, permeability) and
state (mineralogy, saturation, pore pressure etc.). Some obvious applications are the
evaluation of stratigraphic traps, fracture detection, and the spatial distribution of
porosity and permeability.
Seismic methods are almost never used in hydrocarbon recovery assessment, in spite of
the growing need to better understand recovery. A major problem which has emerged in
the area of reservoir evaluation and production is the realization of the complexity of
most reservoirs, leading to great uncertainties in estimated total recovery, recovery rates,
and recovery method. Reservoir complexity is typically related to the signifiCant spatial
heterogeneity in porosity, permeability. clay content, fracture density etc. The spatial
variabilities cannot be inferred at any level of detail from well testing data, logs, or cores.
They may only be obtained, hopefully, from remote geophysical measurement, especially
seismic measurement.
A direct consequence of the heterogeneous nature of reservoirs is the complexity of
their recovery processes, ranging from problems like the migration of the gas cap in
reservoirs with discontinuous shales, overpressure zones, and the tracking of steam or
temperature in thermal recovery in reservoirs with large spatial variation of permeability.

_lj

VIII

FOREWORD

There is little doubt that seismic methods will play, in the future, a major role in helping
to solve production and recovery problems. But we first need a better understanding of
what it is that seismic waves can tell us about reservoir rocks, and how to extract the
desired information. This book is an important step in this needed direction.

A. NUR

Professor
Director of the Stanford Rock Physics Project
Geophysics Department, Stanford University
July 1986

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First of all, we thank the lnstitut Franrais du Petrole ( IFP) for making: this book a
possibility. Over and beyond material contribution from IFP, we benefned from the
invaluable help of our colleague$ there.
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We wish to thank in particular:


P. RAsoLOFOSAON who provided us with friendly support and assistance in the writing of
Chapter 6.

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G. GRAu, M. LAvERGNE and P. TAIUFwho read the manuscript, which improved a great
deal due to their constructive criticism.
D. BELAUD, M.-T. BIEBER, M. GuEDJ, M. HuaTE, C. JACQUIN, M. MASSOI" and the IFPDocumentation and Publi<:ation Services who have contributed in their different areas of
expertise.
Editions Technip is responsible for the particularly careful presentation of the book.
We must also not forget B. HALPHEN of the Laboratoire Centra/des Ponts et Chaussees
who encouraged us, along with M. PANETand J.-P. PoiiUER, respectively of Simecso/ and
the lnstitut de Physique du Globe de Pmis who kindly wrote the foreword to the French
edition.

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D. GoLDBERG of Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory reread the English translation


at great length, and his remarks enabled us to clarify many passages.

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A. Nua from Stanford University, to whom rock physics owes so much, kindly
agreed to write the foreword for the English edition. We wish to thank him here most
warmly.

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contents
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Foreword ..................................................

'--.

NOMENCLATURE ................................................. .
GENERAL INTRODUCfiON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VII

Chapter l
POROUS MEDIA
'---"

lntrocluction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

'---'

l.l. POI'Oiity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1. 111e . , , . , . or pon1111ty

1.1.1 Dellllldoa oleEUII_. 61caeued porGiides .


1.1.3. 8,edftc c-.: liiU ..!nlll ...... clay ponllity .

1.2. 'l'1le pore space: aUcroseopk pometric analysis .......................


1.11. MediMI for 1i1 , .... die pore tpaee
'~

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1.11 Simple eXlmqlles or pore l!letrles .................................. .


1.111. lntcrpuular space in a packina of identical spheres
1.111 Ideal VUIJY medium ......
1.2.3. Act.al pore 1p11ca
1.13.1. Choquette aDd Pray classifiCatiOn ....
1.13.1. Application of mathematical morphology to the description of poi'OJIS media
1.13.3. SpecifiC case of crack and fracture pore spaces .............

1.3. Tbe pore space: capiDary approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.3.1. Capillary e~~ulllbria: ................ deflllitro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 Caplbry ~ c:.nes . . . . .
1.3.3. Afplic:lldouf C8flllbry ~ c:.nes to ,......_, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.4. ..... 4111billadoll at ... ~ Kale . . . .
1.3.4.1. Principles of .the visualization of fluids in capillary equilibria . . . . .
1.3.4.2. Application to the aeometric description of pore networks . . . .

.
.

I0

1o
II
II
12
12
13
13
15
15
15
18
21
22
22

24
26
29
29
30

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CONTENTS

XII

Concept of relative permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30
31
31
33
35
38
38

1.5. Problems of scale in porous media .................................. .

40

1.5.1 Defmition of minimiHII ~tion vol- .....................

40

1.5.2. MinimiHilltomogeaizadoa Yo111111e aad ph)'licalllellanor ..

42

1.6. Example of a natural porous medium: Fontainebleau sandstone ......... .

43
43
43
43

1.4. Fluid flow in porous media


1.4.1. Cae of a single ftuid totaDy saturating a pore space: absolute or siagle-phase permeability
1.4.1.1.
1.4.1.2.
1.4.1.3.

Defmition, units and measurements .................


Characteristics of the pore space affecting permeability .............
Porosity/permeability relationship in intergran.ular spares . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.2. Multiphae ftows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.4.2.1.

1.6.1. SoU4 skeleton ......................


1.6.2. Pore space ..................................
1.6.2.1.
1.6.2.2.
1.6.2.3.

Geometric characteristics .............................


Porosity/permeability relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total porosity trapped porosity relationship ...................

44

47

Chapter 2

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

l.t. Review of elastodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.1.1. Straia teosor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49
49

2.1.2. Stress teosor aad eqtdlibrl.m e.aaadolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

u- elasddty .................. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.4. u . . elasticity aac1 rock ..c~aaa~c:s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54
56
56

2.1.3. CollldtutiTe law of


2.1.4.1.
2.1.4.2.

linear elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rock mechanics and effective moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.5. Wave propagation in an isotropic linear elasde mediiHII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.1.5.1.
2.1.~.2.

Waves in 3D space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I D wave equation (elastic case) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2. Wave propagation in saturated porous media: Biot's theory . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.2.1. Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2. Equations of movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2.1.
2.2.2.2.
2.2.2.3.
2.2.2.4.
2.2.2.5.

Strain potential and stresses . . . . . . . .


Gasmann's equation and Biot's theory . . . .
Dissipation pseudo-potential . . . . . . . . . .
Kinetic energy . . . . . . . . . .
Equations of lliOvement . . . . . . .

.
.
...
. .
..

.
..
..
..
..

.
.
.
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.

..
..
..
.
.

. ..
. . .
. ...
.
. . .

. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . ..
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.. ...

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.

58
59
59
61

63
64
66
66
67
69

70
70

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CON1'Pfi'S

XIII

QuaJitati,e aspects of Biot's model. . . .


Experimental results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72
73
74
81
84
85
85
88

2.3. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

llledium...........

95

l.%.3. Wa.-e pi'OIIIIIlldoe


l.%.3.1.
:Z.Ul.

Existence of a slow P wave . . .

.....................

Waw velocities and attenuations . . . . . . .

l.l.4. Blot's......,. ... TftDIIIII'IIaw . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.5.

~t.......

1.1.6. Expetlehll wrif-cioe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1.6.1.
1.1.6.2.

Appenclix 2.1. Wave propagation ia a aon-ilotropie elasdc:

Olapter 3
WAVE PROPAGATION AND VIBRATION EFFECI'S

IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA
(IIIIWimeasioaal)

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

3.1. Delayed behavior of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.1.1. Relaxlltloa tiiCI . .....

100
100
101

3.l. Unear Yilc:oelutic behavior ......: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

102

3.1.1. Creep t11C1

3.3. Dynamics of Ulli4imensional liaear Yitcoelastk media, fust coacepts of the


quality factor Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1. eo.,lex....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1. Han11011k pro~~~ea.

3.3.3.

. .... .... .. ..................... ....... .......

w~ propaaadoa .

3.3.3.1.
3.3.3.2.

Wave propagation and attenuation . ~.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Variation in time of a free wave packet: group velocity and phase velocity .

3.3.4. Qwality fader .........,. IIOtleM .


3.3.5. EU!Dfle of ~or tltcoelllldc .......

to,....._.. ................

3.4. Important viseoelastk models .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.4.1. Deolollcalaodels.. . . de(~ ...
factor ......... :. . . .. ..

die.....,.

3.4.1. MMMeel ..,_. from die fl8llty r.eter .......... ; . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.4.1.1.
3.4.1.2.

NCQ model (Nearly Ceustant Q) . . . . . . . . . .


CQ model (Constant Q) .. . .

104
104
lOS
107
107

108
112
114

ll7
117
123
123
124

CONTENTS

XIV

3.5. Vibrations in viscoelastic media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . , .

128
128
132
132
134
13 5

3.6. Conclusions concerning the quaUty factor and fmal remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139

3.7. Conclusions..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

141

Appendix 3.1.

142

3.5.1. TraveUiag waves 111111 ribrations . . . . . . . . . .


3.5.2. Modal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2.1. Nonnal modes . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1.1. Foroed vibrations and free vibrations
3.5.3. Defmitions of die quaUty factor 1l'5iag vibrations

. . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. . . . .

The Kramers-Kronig relations.............................

Chapter 4

EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUFS FOR


MEASURING VELOCmES AND ATTENUATIONS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

145

4.1. Measurements using waTe propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

146
146
148
148
151

4.1.1. Diffac:tddes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2. Measurement prindples 111111 experimental techniques .
4.1.2.1. Velocity measurements . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1.1. Attenuation measurements . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. .
. . . . . ... . . .. .. . . . .

4.2. Measurements using vibrating systems (standing waves) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pendulums ......
Resonant bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

161
161
161
163
163
163

4.3. Methods using stress/strain ctmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

4.4. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

171

4.2.1. Difl:.Culties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. Geueral priadples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3. Experimeatal setaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3.1.

4.2.3.2.

!....................... ; . . . . . . .

Oaapter 5

WAVE PROPAGATION IN POROUS MEDIA


RFSULTS AND MECHANISMS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

175

5.1. Results and mechanisms in the laboratory.............................

175
176
176

5.1.1. Velocities: results 111111 mecbanisms . . . . . . . . . .


5.1.1.1. Velocities and pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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'XV

CONTI!N1S
5.1.1~

-~

5.1.1.3.
5.1.1.4.
5.1.1.5.
5.1.1.6.
5.1.2.

Velocities and aturations ............ , , ,


Velocities and temperatures .
Velocities aod l'roqueacy
Velocities and strains ...............
Summary

Ac.-...._: l't8lllts
5.1~1.

......................

5.1.2.5.

Attenuations and pn:ssures ............................


Attenuations and saturations .........................
Attenuations and temperatures .......... , ..........
Attenuations and frequency ...............
Attenuations and strains

5.1~

Summary

5.1.2.2.
5.1.2.3.
5.1~4.

5.1.3. A"rm .-.: ..._..


5.1.3.1.
5.1.3.2.
5.1.3.3.

lnterJranular friction .. , ...


Attenuation mechanisms in "dry" and very sliJbtly saturated f9Cb ..... .
Attenuation mechanisms in partiaUy or fully saturated rocks ..

5.2. -Results aad medaaaisms coacerning in litu measurements ...... _......... .


5.2.1. lldrodtlcdoa .............

'----

5.2.2. Vllodtt. .. .
5.2.2.1. In situ velocity measurements ......
5.2.2.2. Velocities and porosity .............................
5.2.1.3. Velocities and density ....................................
5.2.2.4. Velocities and clay content ...............................
5.2.2.5 Velocities and'compection ......................
5.2.2.6. V,./f/'11 and Poisson's ratio .................................
5.2.17. Summary on in situ velocity measurements ..................
5.2.3. AUraa .._ ........... . .-
5.2.3.1. In situ atteouation tneaSUn:DlCilts
5.2.3.2. Results ' ~
5~4.

Caacl d - Ia dta

r-r ................................ -.. .

187
193
198
198
202
202
204
204

207
211

215
215
217
218
218
220
229
229
230
230
230

233
233
237
239
239
240
240

242
242

~-

'-

Chapter 6

WAVF.S AND INTERFACES


-----

Iatroclucdon ........................................................ .
6.1. Wave propqatlon in saturated porous media. Discontinuity effects ...... .

245

6.1.1 ........,.~ ............................

246

6.1~

'-

245

w- ~at die lilted- or two..,.....,._._..


6.1~1~

Calc of normal incidence ...

249
249

6.1~2.

Analysis of n:flection on the fn:e surface of a semi-infmite saturated porous


medium .......................

258

..............

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CONTENTS

XVI

6.1.3. lllterfaee problems betweea ~..._.tell me41ia. Aptlladoa to aco8ltic logiq . . .

Interface waves . . . . . . . .
Seismic source in the vicinity of a fluid/porous medium interface . . . . .
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

263
263
269
281

6.l. Retledion and transmission in l'iscoelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

283

6.1.1. Wa.e equation in Yiscoelastic media . . .

283
287
287
288
288

6.1.3.1.
6.1.3.1.
.6.1.3.3.

6.2.2.

Eaef1Y balaDce and quality factor


6.2.2.1.
6.2.2.1.
6.1.2.3.

....................... . .

Energy balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quality factor . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constant Q model in two dimenlions . . . . .
Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface effect of attenuation . . . . . .

290
290
29 5

6.1.<1. lllterfaee waves Ia 'rilcoelaldC Bllllla ...... .

297

6.3. General conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

298

6.2.3. Reftecdoeuad .........._ .. two uni- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6.1.3.1.
6.2.3.1.

Chapter 7

SOME APPLICATIONS
IN PETROLEUM GEOPHYSICS
Introduction ........................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

299

7.1. Low frequency seismie prospecting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

302

7.1.1. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

302

7.1.2. CoBYeetioaal ilmic: ~ .......


7.1.1.1. Combined use of P and S waves . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2.1. Signal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1.3. Three-component studies . . . . . .

..
. . .
....
.

302

7.1.3. a-,.o1r selsmics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

308
309

7.1.3.1.
7.1.3.2.

' .
..
.
.

.
...
...
.

.
.
.
.

.
...
...
..

.
..
..
..

.
.
.
.

..
..
..
.

Variation in fluid phase or pore pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Analysis of fractured zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

303
303
306

310

loggiD&.....................................

310

BmLIOGRAPHY........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . .

315

AUTHOR INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

325

SUBJECT INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

329

7.2. Full wavefonn acoustic

'"'
~------~---------------------------------------------------------------------------~----- - - - - - - -

',..,_/

nomenclature
A subscript (letter or number) after a comma denotes a partial derivative with respect to the
coordinate related to this subscript:

c2 uJC ...

iJu"
""' ,., iJy

--~2

"""- cy

au,
2
"' ..

OXz

Time derivatives arc denoted by a dot (ftrst derivative) or two dots (second derivative):
.

iJu
iJt
iJ2u

u==-

ii=-

iJtl

Vectors are represented by bold characters.


The notations div, and. curl and V 2 indicate the divergence, gradient, curl and Laplacian
operators, namely in Cartesian coordinates:
div

"-

= iJcjiJC + iJcjl, + ocjl,


iJx

oy

i}z

+- (ac~~
ac~~ o+)
ox oy ' cz

an
curl

+_(c+. _a+,
cy

ac~~"

iJz ' oz

iJ2cll

_ac~~. o+, _i+,.)


ex OX

ol+

iy .

ale~~

v = iJx2 + oy2 + iJzl


'--

The real and imaginary parts of a complex quantity are indicated by:
Real part
=(
Imapnary part ... (

)a or Re (

h or Im (

The system used is the Sl system. with a few exceptions (i.e. permeabilities).

The nomenclature below does not include the multiple constants used in the text. These are
generally represented by the characters A, B, C, y etc.

A
a
~

Co

attenuation vector.
tortuosity (Biot theory) (see also t(c/>)).
torsion constant.
hydraulic dift'usivity.

c.

clay content.

c.(h)

Covariance function in the u direction


for a length h.

c,ft,

elastic constant tensor.

i!

I
'~

---"

NOMENCLATURE

c
d,
0

o.
D

e
E
F(Q>l

!c
fo
f(t)
G

J ,.(x)
"
%
%

kinetic energy.
skin depth.
dissipation potential.
surface dissipation potential.
thermal diffusivity.
aspect ratio.
Young's modulus.
formation factor.
frequency.
critical Biot frequency.
scattering central frequency.
creep function.
amplitude coefficient including geometric divergence effects.
Bessel functions of the ftrst kind
(n'h order).
permeability (in mD).
hydraulic permeability.
permeability tensor.

relative permeability to water as a


function of saturation.
,... ~-(S,.) relative permeability to non-wetting
fluid as a function of saturation.
K,
interface hydraulic permeability.
k
wave number.
wave vec~or.
k
k*
complex wave number.
K"'(S,.)

k*
K

Ko

K,
Kfl

K,
l

L
M
D

PeG

Pc
Pt

complex wave vector.


bulk modulus.
open (or dry) bulk modulus (Biot
theory).
closed (or saturated bulk modulus
(Biot theory).
fluid bulk modulus (Biot theory).
skeleton bulk modulus (Biot theory).
Lagrangian.
length of sample concerned.
elastic modulus (in general) or specific
elastic modulus used in Biot's theory.
normal vector.
pressure.
capillary pressure.
access pressure.
limit capillary pressure.

Pelf

Pc

p,
p
P,

p2
Q
Q,o

Qs
QE

Q.ll
Qs,
Qror
Qbiph

Q.~

0
R;
R,.
Rh

R,
IR
r(t)

s
SH

SV

s..
s....
s.
ff
T
lr
t,
t
u

-r.
"r."
f~

effective pressure.
confming pressure.
pore pressure.
compressional wave.
compressional wave of the f1rst kind.
compressional wave of the second
kind.

quality factor.
P wave quality factor.
S wave quality factor.
extensional wave quality factor.
Rayleigh wave quality factor.
Stoneley wave quality factor.
global quality factor.
quality factor related to interface fluid
flow.
intrinsic quality factor (viscoelasticity).
volumetric flow rate.
radius of curvature (i = 1,2).
mean radius of curvature.
hydraulic radius.
radius of gyration.
reflection coefficient.
relaxation function.
surface area.
shear wave polarized in the horizontal
plane.
shear wave polarized in the vertical
plane.
water saturation.
irreducible water saturation.
residual saturation.
age of sediment.
period.
transmission coefficient.
surface tension.
tangent vector.
displacement.
mean displacement of continuous
liquid phase.
pore volume.
total sample volume.
solid volume.

-----------~--~~-~-~~-~-------------

----~-

--~~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------~-

NOMENCLATl"RE

;!

f~

\1
V-..

V.,.
V

v,.
v,.,
J's
VR
Ys.
VE

V,

v.
V1

V.

w
~
!<?:

z
2

r
b(r)

b
b

bii
.II W

strain potential.
maximum stored energy during a
cycle.
average stored energy during a cycle.
velocity.
compressional wave velocity or P
wave velocity.
velocity of compressional waves of the
second kind (or slow waves).
shear wave velocity or S wave velocity.
Rayleigh wave velocity.
Stoneley wave velocity.
extensional wave velocity.
group velocity.
phase velocity.
velocity in saturating fluid.
velocity in rock matrix.
fdtration velocity vector.
depth.
acoustic impedance.
attenuation.
gamma function.
Dirac distribution.
logarithmic decrement.
logarithmic decrement at pulsation

t;j

,
~

(I

e
I.

A
Jl
\'

.;
.;,.
p
p,

PJ
(I
(1i_:

Cl,

r
rtol

r
cp
cj!
4J

co.

'I'

Kronecker delta.
dissipated energy.

(:)

{}

3
strain.
strain tensor.
angle.
viscosity.
angle.
volumetric strain.
Lame's parameter.
wavelength.
shear modulus.
Poisson's ratio.
fluid content
reduced damping at pulsation co., .
density.
matrix density.
fluid density.
stress.
stress tensor.
pure shear.
rise time.
tortuosity of current lines.
specifiC function used in Biot's theory.
phase.
porosity.
scalar potential.
vector potential.
angular frequency.
integration volume.

---

-.---

____,

'~J

general Introduction

With a sharp blow ofhis hammer, he struck the smooth


granite and almost immediately pressed his ear against
the surface warmed by the sun, whose rays had shone on
this very spot. He heard the sound diverge mtd scauer in
far-flung reverberations mtd realized that tltere he would
discover great things.

Boris Vian
(Autumn in Peking)

The classic laws of elastodynamics and their extension to viscoelastic behavior are
generally postulated for homogeneous and continuous materials. Their application to
porous media requires a sweeping adaptation. Porous media are, by their very essence,
composite and multiphase. Composite because the solid fraction - the skeleton -. is
formed of grains whose chemical or crystalline features are often different and multiphase
because this solid fractiort is always ;~ssociated with a gas or liquid phase that occupies the
voids between the grains.
This microscopic heterogeneity of the porous medium induces a complex macroscopic
physical behavior sensitive to slight variations in fluid content or of the solid structure.
The acoustics of porous media are intended to characterize their behavior by synthesizing
between the.rigor of the laws of mechanics and the natural disorder of porous media. The
task is difficult, but this difficulty is correlated to the importance of the applications to
which even partial results can lead. In fact, acoustic analysis is one of the surest means
available for the remote investigation of porous rocks and for the nondestructive testing of
materials.
The ideal fteld of application - at least for its economic benefits - is geophysics. bt the
subdiscipline of acoustics, classic seismics. which predominates, was originally intended to
provide a geometric image of the subsurface, by using the reflection or refraction of
acoustic waves from discontinuities at the boundaries of geologic strata. This procedure
was eminently successful. The prodigious groWth of electronics in the recording of signals
and the computation facilities for their processing now serve to routinely obtain highquality geometric images of the subsurface. This result, which stems from the substantial
improvement in the signal/noise ratio, is essentially achieved by the measurement of

GEl'ERAL

I~TRODL"CIIO"'

different transit times, interpreted in the light of elastodynamics. The acoustics of porous
media as such is never an inherent part of this study.
However, beyond the very success of these purely geometric methods, the need has
gradually emerged to characterize the types of material the acoustic wave has traversed
and even their fluid content. The lithologic and petrophysical approach to the subsurface
by seismic methods, the prospector's old dream. is unfeasible today without a better
knowledge of the acoustics of porous media.
A second major field of applied geophysics is that oi acoustic recordings in oil wells, in
other words seismic logs and well seismics. In this case. the need for familiarity with the
laws governing the interaction of mechanical waves \\ith the porous medium is obvious.
There is no better proof ofthis than the proliferation of experimental work on this subject.
While petroleum geophysics, due to its economic importance, appears to monopolize
the faeld of potential applications, one should not minimize the faeld of nondestructive
testing of porous materials (concretes. vuggy plastics etc.). an area in which the
applications are the most immediate, because measurements in conditions approaching
laboratory conditions are naturally easier to perform. Owing to their composite and
multiphase character, the acoustics of porous media constitutes the hub of several
disciplines, and this is materially reflected by the three authors, whose specialties are
physics, mechanics and geology.
Chapter 1 is devoted to the description and visualization of the porous medium itself.
One example of a natural porous medium, Fontainebleau sandstone, is discussed at the
end of the Chapter.

The simplest multi phase case corresponds to the porous medium totally saturated with
fluid. Chapter 2 provides a theoretical examination of wave propagation in this type of
medium, differentiating between movements within the solid matrix and those of the
saturating fluid. An experimental justifacation of this theory is given at the end of the
Chapter.
To distinguish between fluid and solid movements is to privilege global phenomena (at
the scale of the sample) as opposed to local phenomena (at the scale of the pore and grain).
One way to globally identify local phenomena consists of considering a homogeneous
medium, equivalent to the porous medium observed in terms of mechanical behavior.
From this viewpoint, Chapter 3 attempts a theoretical development of wave propagation
in viscoelastic media, as this type of medium fairly closely simulates the behavior of porous
media. The concept of quality factor is introduced with the use of the main viscoelastic
models.
Since velocities, attenuations and damping are introduced conceptually, it is necessary
to defme them more specifacally. Chapter 4 examines a number of vital defmitions and their
interrelationships. This Chapter describes the main experiments designed to measure
velocities and attenuations in porous media.
Chapter 5 presents the results given in the literature concerning various laboratory
experiments on porous media. The dependence ofvelo-:ities and attenuations on different

GE~ERAL INTRODUCTIO~

physical parameters (pressur~ temperature, frequency) is examined in detail. together with


their most plausible theoretical interpretation. A number of empirical formulas are given
for fteld measurements, helping to identify the various types of formations traversed by the
acoustic wave.
Thus far, none of the foregoing Chapters has dealt with the prot-lem of interfaces defmed
as the places of contrast of acoustic properties (elastic or anelastin Chapter 6 summarizes
the theories of Chapters 2 and 3, and applies them to the problen of interfaces. The effect
of permeability on volume and surface waves and the effect of attenuation contrast are
examined in detail.
And fmally, the fteld engineer's viewpoint is discussed in the last Chapter. A number of
applications in petroleum geophysics are considered. Emphasis is placed on the difftculties
currently encountered in fteld measurements and interpretation of the acoustic properties of porous media.

-----------------------------

---------

--'--

1
porous media

INTRODUCTION
Porous bodies are aggregates of solid elements (grains, matrix etc.) between which the
voids form the pore space itself. These voids within the porous body give rise to the wide
differences in physical behavior between dense solids (such as minerals) and porous
substances, which are complicated assemblages in which the presence of a fluid, even in
very small amounts, adds to the overall complexity.
The ratio of void volume to total volume of the sample is called the porosity. This
petrophysical value is usually easy to defme and to measure. However, the process
become.s far more complicated when one attempts to make a geometric description of the
pore space. While a few specific cases (such as the pore space existing in packed spheres of
the.same diameter) lend themselves easily to quantitative description, most actual pore
spaces are too complex to be dealt with in a strictly geometric manner, and only relative
descriptions are feasible. One mainly tries to highlight how the medium investigated
differs from the spaces most routinely observed. For instance, it is important to draw a
clear distinction in the medium investigated between the pores themselves (namely the
void volumes which store fluids and allow them to flow) and the grain boundaries or
microcracks, which are mainly surfaces marking discontinuities between the solid
elements, and which play a vital role in the mechanical properties.
Faced with the relative failure of a strictly geometric description, progress is possible by
using a physical phenomenon, the capillary equilibria in the pore spaces. The analysis of
these equilibria helps to treat the pore space with a series of simplifications that set the
stage for a more systematic quantification. Conversely, these capillary equilibria are, in
themselves, an important factor in the study of porous bodies. In fact, if two or more fluids
co-exist in a porous medium (as in petroleum reservoirs for water, oil and gas; and in the
uppermost layers of the ground for water and air), these capillary effects become decisive
for physical behavior.
One of the major characteristics of most porous Ndies is to allow fluids to flow. We
shall review the concepts of absolute permeability (porous media totally saturated by a
single fluid) and relative permeability (porous media containing two or more immiscible
fluids).
We shall also show how pore spaces are liable to raise problems of scale. An absolute
apparent scale of the porous medium does exist, that of the solid grain forming the

10

POROUS

~fEDL\

skeleton. For a better understanding, however. it is often necessary to replace this absolute
scale by the concept of a scale relative to the physical processes examined. and this relative
scale may be quite different from one process to another.

1.1

POROSITY

The measurement of porosity

1.1.1

By defmition, porosity is the ratio of the pore volume (1"-,.) to the total volume(1~) of the
body considered. The solid volume (1 ~)is given by 'I~= 1; - 1';.. Hence it suffices to
measure two of these three parameters to calculate porosity. The most common
measuring methods are summarized in Table 1.1. Methods (ll and (4), (l) and (5), and (3)
and (5) are generally used, and sometimes (l) and (7) or (3) and (7).
TABLE

1.1

MAIN MErnOOS FOR MEASURING POROSin

Measured
volume

Total
volume

Text
reference

Measuring method

(I)

Buoyancy in mercury: Mercury, the non-wetting liquid, does not


penetrate without pressure into commonly encountered porous
media. This method provides aver~ accurate measurement of the
total volume

(~)

Direct sample measurement of the d!(f~rent lengths: This method is


only suitable for test specimens with very regular shapes

'Y,

Pore
volume
'Y,

Solid
\"olume

(3)

(4)

Compressibility of a perfect gas: A plot is made of the pressure vs.


volume injected in a container that is ftrst empty and then
contains the sample. The difference is used to calculate the volume
of solid,-whose compressibility is ignored

(5)

Buoyancy in a wetting fluid totally sawrating the porous body: Solid


volume is measured directly from the difference between the dry
and immersed weight

(6)

Measurement of solid density: After fme grinding of the porous


substance

(7)

Calculation of the solid density: By quantitative analysis of the


constituent minerals

~--

Setting of wetting fluid by total saturation under vacuum: Pore


volume is obtained directly from the difference in dry and
saturated weight

---

- -

ti

POROUS MEDIA

II

Monicard (1965) and Dullien (1979) furnish details about these measuring methods.
In actual fact, these methods are not equivalent. While the determination of total
volume does not raise a theoretical problem (provided that the size of the sample is very
large in comparison with the pore size), the same cannot be said of the determination of the
other two parameters which are closely linked. Techniques (3), (4) and (5) take account
only of the pores connected to the exterior, while methods (6) partly and (7) entirely
account for all the voids.
-

1.1.2 Defmition of connected and disconnected porosities


Depending on the method employed, one can therefore measure the connected porosity,
namely the void volume connected to the exterior, or the total porosity, namely the void
volume connected to the exterior or not. The difference between these two represents the
disconnected porosity.
Disconnected porosity is rarely found in most natural porous media. The clearest
example of disconnected porosity is given by fluid inclusions in crystals. This disconnected
porosity is often negligible in sedimentary rocks. In crystalline rocks with very low
porosity, fluid inclusions may account for a large fraction oftotaJ porosity. In lavas with
vuggy textures, the fraction of disconnected porosity is often smaller than normally
believed. The vugs are interconnected by very fme channels or cracks, But, even in the case
of pumice stone, a large part of the porosity is clearly connected with the exterior, but
through channels that are so narrow that the air is trapped inside the vugs when the
sample is immersed in water. This poorly connected porosity is called trapped porosity and
will be examined in Section 1.3.2.
Generalizations are more difficult in the case of artificial materials. Porous bodies
produced by sintering (glass, alumina, steel etc.) sometimes exhibit a substantial fraction of
disconnected porosity (up to.9% of the total volume in sintered nickel, for example).
In conclusion, in many types of porous media, disconnected porosity is slight but
cannot be ignored. Above all, one should avoid the confusion that may be engendered by
more or less subjective terms such as effective porosity or dead:-end porosity.

1.1.3 Specif1c cases: incoherent media, clay porosity


The measure of the foregoing quantities presume that, before any measurement, the
connected porosity of the media examined has been emptied of the liquids it contained,
and that this elimination (generally by heating) has beell carried out without disturbing
the structure. This is often true of coherent media, but signifrcant exceptions exist.
Incoherent media (soils, muds, recent sediments etc.) only acquire their structural
properties by the presence of water. This means that (if the concept of porosity is fully
retained) measurements and, above all techniques for the observation of the pore space
will raise different,problems from those that we are developing here for coherent media.
. If one simplifies to the extreme, clayey and shaly media constitute an intermediate case.
They contain water in three main forms. These different types of water can be investigated

12

POROUS MEDIA

by thermogravimetric analysis, which consists in measuring the loss in weight of a sample


by heating (on this subject, see Grim, 1953). These threeforms of water are the following:
(I) Water located between the particles or clay clusters. This water occupies the pore
space in the usual sense. It is eliminated by drying at low temperature (below 70"C).
(21 Water located between crystalline folia (illite, montmorillonite) or in tubes existing
within certain crystals (such as sepiolites). The expulsion of this water requires a
defmite energy. and heating to temperatures approaching 1OO"C is necessary. Above
all. this form of dehydration displays a degree of irreversibility depending on the
type of mineral concerned.
(3) Formation water of the crystals, which is only released by their destruction at
temperatures above 200"C, and which therefore in no way corresponds to a notion
of pore space.
On the other hand, if one considers types (1) and (2), it is clear that the measurement of
the porosity of a clayey medium may depend in some cases on the dehydration
temperature. As a rule, clays are not dehydrated above 70"C. Heating above this
temperature involves interfoliate water, at the risk of irreversibly altering the structure.
This provides an example of the problems generally raised by the petrophysical analysis of
clay bodies. The state and hence the properties of the sample may depend closely on the
history of dehydration that it has undergone.

1.2 THE PORE SPACE:


MICROSCOPIC GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS
1.2.1

Methods for visualizing the pore space

Setting aside quantitative macroscopic defmitions, if we wish to observe the pore space,
we must have investigative facilities at the scale ofthe pore. For coherent media, it suffices
to saturate the pore space totally with a liquid which can then be solidified. Use is often
made of synthetic resins (including. epoxy) which are injected under vacuum and
polymerize under the effect of time or heat. In this way, the pore space can be analyzed by
the conventional methods of optical microscopy, with thin sections (Plate 1), polished
sections etc. For observation by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), one can also
fabricate moldings of the pore network (replicas) by destroying the mineral phase with
hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, to leave only the resin (Plate 2). The replica
technique offers the advantage over other methods of allowing observations at very high
magnification. and offurnishing a virtually three-dimensional view."{he very wide depth
offleld of the SEM serves to obtain stereographic photos [by tilting the preparation under
the microscope between two photos (Plate 6)]. This makes it possible to measure the

...._____ __ _

--------~~~~~~~~~~~~--~~~--~~~~--

"

'--

l
~

POROUS MEDIA

13

thickness of very thin cracks, and even to consider the use of photogrammetric methods to
observe pore geometries. These different techniques are discussed at length in Pittmann
and Duschatko (1970), Caye et al. (1970) and Delfmer (1971).

~,

1.2.2 Simple examples of pore geometries


Observed at the microscopic scale, pore spaces display an extraordinary diversity
(Plate 1), and in broaching the analysis of their geometry, it is wise to refer to simpler
specific cases. We shall examine two types:
(a) The intergranular space in a pack of spheres.
(b) The ideal vuggy medium.

1.1.2.1 Intergranular space in a packing of identical spheres

This pore geometry has been discussed in many works (by G. Cargill in 1984, for
example), because it lends itself well to the preparation of experimental models and to
computer simulations. This is also the theoretical case most closely approaching the pore
spaces frequently encountered in natural media (sandstones) and artificial media (sintered
materials).
In fact, the dense random packing of isogranular spheres is very complex. It is therefore
customary to describe only regular packings (which do not exist in reality for volumes
larger than a few grains). Table 1.2 summarizes the main characteristics of the three
packings most often described.
These regular packings offer us a preliminary view of the geometric complexity of pore
spaces. For each regular packing, the diameter of two types of sphere can be calculated:
(a) The largest sphere inscribable in the widest zones of the pore space (for a cubic
packing, this sphere has~ radius of 0.732, where the unit of length is the grain
radius).
(b) The largest sphere passing through the narrowest pore cha~els (accesses), i.e. the
largest sphere that can .. circulate" freely through the entire pore space concerned
(for the cubic packing, its radius is 0.414).
The radio of these two radii is 0.56 for cubic packing. In this case, it is evidently
unrealistic to try to divide the pore space into two clearly distinct zones: thepores (i.e.
subspherical widenings corresponding to the largest inscribable sphere) and the
"accesses" to these pores, as is often done on two-dimensional sections of the pore space.
This ratio is about 0.3 for more compact packings. This shows that the distinction
between accesses" and pores" is inore diffiCult to make than is often believed. Similar
conclusions are drawn by considering the volumetric aspect of the problem. Table 1.2
shows that the largest inscribable sphere represents only a fraction ofless than 45% ofthe
total pore space of the regular packings described. The notion of pores in the sense of

---- -

Compact
hexagonal
or tetrahedral

Simple
hexagonal

J!

Q,

]
~

~.
.
..,

I~ ~

Sohd phase
crystal
structure

I'~

Tetrahedral
void

J-

..

'

nw . '

Simple
rhombus void

Cubic void

{Wj

p ore
structureHl

about
36

25.9

39.6

47.6

p orost't y
(%)

I I

z ,., ... , ('

The unit or length is the radius or the sphere.


(I) From GUILLOT (1982). (2) From CARGILL (1984).

Dense random
packing or hard
spheresf21

:=-

~
~

~~

SintJ?Ie

.
Packmg type

'.

t&

around 9
on
average

I2

Numhcror
con tac t
points
h
per sp ere

I octahedral

2 tetrahedral

I ,

'k

at least f1ve main


types
Bernal's canonical
holes

2 trigonal

.
Votd type

TARLE 1.2
CIIARA<TEIUSTI<'S OF SOME SPIIERI<'AL I'ACKINCiS

most
rrcquenl
radius
0.29

0.4 I4

0.225

0.528

0.732

Radius
.
o r maxtmum
inscribable
h 01
sp ere

Radius

tmj;.,

0.1 )~

0.414
and 0.155
curvilineartriangular
pore access

pore access

~~

0.414
curvilinear-

r' .

ofmaximum
sphere
.
passmg
through
narrowest
pore channels

Fraction

27

45

43

.,

(%)

sph~re

con tamed
. 111
t~em~xtmum
mscnbable

ofpo~osily

15

'--

subspherical widenings that are relatively large in comparison with the .. accesses is only
truly meaningful for the intergranular space if the porosity is signiftcantly reduced by the
compaction of natural sediments or by the intense sintering of artiftcial materials.
This points out the limits of a strictly geometric analysis. In practice, the intergranular
medium tends to be considered mainly through a series of equations relating porosity to
other petrophysical parameters. An example of this procedure is given for Fontainebleau
sandstones (see Section 1.6).

~.

1.2.2.2 Ideal

\.._

'---

'-

POROUS MEDI:\

I__
(_
\.._
~-

vug~

medium

The ideal vuggy medium is defmed as a medium whose pore space is formed of spheres
(a complement or inversion of the above intergranular space). This is often the ftrst
geometry considered for porous media. although this case is quite rare in natural
environments. This type of pore space nevertheless exists in vuggy lavas and oomoldic
limestone, for example. It is more often found in vuggy artiftcial media (concrete, glass,
plastic~ In addition to its great simplicity. it displays the feature of being totally devoid of
inter-pore connections, so long as the spheres are not in mutual contact. Experiments and
calculations related to percolation theory show that a minimum porosity of 30% (in the
simple case of spheres of identical radius) is necessary for the porous phase to be
continuous (Larson et al., 1980). This 30% threshold is very important when investigating
the electric or hydraulic characteristics of this type of medium. For example, fluid
circulation (permeability) remains zero (very low in natural cases) in media with porosities
less than 20 to 30%. and then rises sharply once the threshold is crossed.

"-..

....:..

.-'
; '

'"<>~
I
:~

;::

i~

I -

~:r

...,

'--

~~

1.2.3 Actual pore spaces


We have shown that a presumably simple pore space, such as the intcrgranular space,
may prove to be very complex. One can well imagine the problems raised by actual media
(see Plates 1 and 2). In addition to this intrinsic complexity of commonly found pore
spaces is the problem of the three-dimensionality of pore spaces as opposed to the twodimensionality of our means of observation and analysis. Even in the rare cases in which
partial (caSting) or total (serial sectionst three-dimensional data are obtained, overall
methods are lacking to describe and. even more important, to quantify the pore
geometries.
To attempt to resolve this major diftkulty in microscopic description, several methods
have been developed and are derived from a wide variety of theories. We shall provide two
contrasting examples. The ftrst consists in a classiftcation adapted to carbonate rocks,
whose pore spaces are likely to display an extraordinary variety due to the chemical
mobility of carbonates, among other factors. The second example corresponds to an
approach based on the principles of mathematical morphology.

1.2.3.1

Choquette and Pray

classif~c:ation

;....

This method (partly illustrated by Plate l) is \\idely used by petroleum geologists. It


essentially consists in defming the pore space as the complement of the solid skeleton

16

POROUS MEDIA

-~

-1-~~
~

-~

~
1

PLATE 1

VARIETY OF NATURAL PORE SPACES


Examples of carbonate rocks
Choquette and Pray classification

J1

Photographs of thin sections


(30 J.lm thick rock sections)
Illuminated by transmitted light

Before making the thin sections, the rocks were saturated with dyed resin. Hence the pore
space appears in red in the photographs. Note that only macroporosity can be identified by
this system of photography.

FABRIC-SELECilVE POROSITY

Photo 1 - lntergranular porosity. Oolitic limestone.


Photo 2 - Moldic porosity. The large pores are due to the complete dissolution of microfossils.
Photo 3 - lntragranular porosity. Nummulite limestone.

NON F ABRIC-SELECilVE POROSITY

Photo 4 - Remnant of vuggy porosity in a totally dolomitized oolitic limestone.


Photo 5 - Channel porosity. Microcracks widened by dissolution.
Photo 6 - Porosity in stylolites. Stylolites are microcracks of a \ery specif1c type, related
to pressure/solution processes.

. .J

WWL

I :Jl JI1J -

WWL

l 3H:JNV1d

~~~~-~--~-~---~~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~-


\.....

PLATE 2
'-'

PORE CASTS
(Epoxy replicas)
Scanning Electron Microscope photographs
After the injection of epoxy resin. the entire mineral phase (solid) is destroyed by acids.
Only the resin , representing the pore space, appears in the photographs .

......
......

'-"

~,m

\.....

Ground Pyrex
(Compare with photo 3 Plate 4)

Vuggy dolomite

....

]soo ,m

II
...._,

II
I

.......

I
I
Nummulite limestone
(Compare with photo 3 Plate I)

Altered feldspath

18

POROUS MEDIA

which is easier to describe, and whose shapes are familiar to sedimentologists. In


comparison with this solid skeleton, the pore space is defmed as lying between the grains
or the crystals (intergranular and intercrystalline). within the grains (intragranular), or
formed by the total dissolution of a grain (moldic porosity).
The description can be further refmed by using the dependence between the porosity
and the initial rock structure at the time of its deposition. Hence two major types are
distinguished: fabric selective porosity, directly dependent on the initial structure, and
non-fabric selective porosjty, superimposed on this structure by fracturing (fracture
porosity) or by weathering (channel porosity).
Among other advantages, this type of classification offers the advantage of clarifying the
development of porosity in relation to the history of the rock. But its main drawback is to
minimize the quantification of the dimensions of the pore space. Thus the application of
this classification to rock physics is often limited to implicit generalities such as:
intergranular porosity is better connected than intragranular or moldic porosity.
Yet classifiCations inspired by petrography offer the great value of highlighting the vital
fact of the frequent diversity of pore geometries within the same medium. In a given
medium. it is not rare to fand the pore space divided among two or more geometric types,
with contrasting characteristics and hence physical behaviors. To. understand a
petrophysical behavior, it is therefore usually necessary to overlook the total measured
porosity, and to consider only the fraction of this porosity that plays a role in the process
investigated.

1.2.3.2 Application of mathematical morphology to the descrlptioa


of porous media
Mathematical morphology is the mathematical and probabilistic analysis of shapes. To
apply this theory to the description of pore spaces, use is made of digitized images
processed by specialized computers (image or texture analyzer, Plate 3). We shall restrict
ourselves to a very concise review of this technique developed from the theoretical work of
Matheron (1967), and described exhaustively by Serra (1982).
The shape of a porous medium observed over a very small area is merely the particular
culmination of a more general process. One can therefore try to formulate this process by
means of a probabalistic theory. Within a homogeneous medium. this process is always
the same. Whatever the point selected as the origin of the observations, it is reproduced
indefinitely, always equal to itself. It can be represented by a stationary variable.
To describe this medium. it can therefore be analyzed by using reference fagures, i.e.
points, segments, circles etc. by raising questions such as: do both ends of segment h or the
entire circle R belong to the porous medium? The answer is expressed in terms of
probability, and the assumption of invariability by translation enables us to apply the laws
specific to stationary random variables.
The covariance function is one example of this probabilistic approach: if A is the set of
pores of a medium with porosity l/J (where AC, the complementary set of A, is the solid),
the term covariance Cu(h) in direction u is the probability that both ends of a segment of
given length h belong to the set of pores A when segment h is displaced parallel to a given

PLATE 3

lS

AUTOMATIC TEXTURE ANALYSIS

.y

Example of hexagonal granulometry in the grain phase


of a Fontainebleau sandstone

d
e
Video image

Memorized image

te

0
)[

;:

:-'

s,
a

IS

A t elevision camera placed behind the microsope (thin sections, polished sections) or an epidiascope
(photography) furnishes a video image which is exceptionally contrasted in the case presented
. (epidiascope). A gray threshold is selected to separate the phases. An image formed of black or white points
(around 400 x 400 points) is memorized. In the general case, this phase separation operation
(segmentation) is often difftcult, and requires a whole series of ftltration operations.

'o

Hexagonal granulometries

:s

;t

)f

,'Y
IS

e.
iP
)l

IS

)f ...-'

I),
)[
l.

Structuring element -

A series of additions/subtractions of translated images is used to determine the fraction of the phase
analyzed (black phase: grain) which may contain a given structuring element. The ratio of the area of this
fraction (white in the photograph) to the total area of the phase is measured .

20

POROUS MEDIA

direction oriented by the unit vector u. The assumption that the variables are stationary
requires that this probability is exclusively a function of h:
Cu(h)

= prob { M(x)eA

and

.\1(x +oleA}

(Ll)

where x is the position vector of point M.


Hence Cu(O) = (jJ, and this independently of u, since, in this case, x and x + hu are
identical, and the porosity (jJ is clearly the probability that x belongs to the set of pores.
If h becomes very large. one can consider that x and y = x + hu are independent.
Therefore, if:
h-. oo and Vu
C.(h) = prob (xeA et yeA)= prob (xeA) prob (yeA)= (jJ 2

(1.2)

The value of h for which C.(h) practically reaches its asymptote t/J is called the range in
the u direction. Like the function c.(h~ this range may be independent of u, as in the case
of statistically isotropic media This distance, which characterizes the zone this
phenomenon influences, is very useful in understanding porous media Figure 1.1 gives
the simplest example of the function c,;(h).lt often occurs that the shape of the curve is
more complex, indicating the complex organization of the porous medium (the "nugget
effect" indicates an abnormal concentration, for example).

c (hi

I
l

Range

Fig. U

Covariance function.

Automatic texture analysis, which allows a rigorous and rapid quantification


(automation) of the pore spaces, appears to be headed for substantial growth. However, it
has to contend with difficulties at tw.o levels:
(a) At the practical level, digitized images of the pore space must be obtained before any
analysis. The principle is simple: a television camera is employed and operated
behind a microscope. In practice, however, the acquisition of good quality images
requires a lengthy adaptation on costly equipment (Delfmer, 1971).
(b) At the theoretical level, it will be a major task to select, among the many quantitative
parameters furnished by image analysis, those that are really useful for the
petrophysical interpretation of pore spaces.

POROUS MEDIA

21

1.2.3.3 Specifac case of crack and fracture pore spaces


,

The pore geometries described above display the common feature of being actual threedimensional spaces. This volume accounts for a significant fraction of the pore bodies
considered. However, virtually two-dimensional pore geometries exist, such as planar
surfaces of negligible thickness. These are closer to discontinuities in a solid phase than
pores in the commonly accepted sense, and they include fractures, cleavage planes, and
grain boundaries, which are generally grouped under the term of cracks.
Thus defmed, these discontinuities can only be of very limited volumetric importance,
and, if not, the medium would lose all coherence. It is estimated that 0.5% fracture
porosity is a very high value. Yet their mechanical role is vitally important (see for example
Chapter 5).
The visualization of these cracks raises certain practical difficulties. Once observed,
however, by treating them as sets of planes, they can be described more easily than pores.
The low volumetric importance of these cracks often imposes more sophisticated
display methods than for ordinary pore networks. Resin injection methods must account
for the very low permeabilities often involved (low viscosity resins, high injection
pressure). The pore cast technique is mainly used for actual observation (destruction of the
mineral fraction by acids), with stereographic techniques. For observations at lower
magnification. it is sometimes useful to employ ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy
techniques, which help to detect very small amounts of resins containing fluorescent
pigments.
These crack type media a:Iso provide a popular fteld for sample preparation artifacts:
crack propagation under the effect of temperature and pressure during drying, washing or
saturation. But the most difficult point (for natural materials extracted from the subsurface
in boreholes)is the effect on the microcracks of the sudden decompression experienced by
the core when it is raised to the surface. It is often difftcult to differentiate between the
microcracks really present in situ and those created or widened by decompression.
Sometimes, a very meticulous SEM analysis of microcrack planes yields some indications:
microcrystals, micro "pillars", etc., but this only occurs in rare examples. This alteration
of deep borehole samples by decompression is of fundamental importance for the
interpretation of petrophysical measurements (acoustics or permeability of compact
rocks, for example), especially since this microcracking is not necessarily reversible under
the effect of the confming pressure recreated in the laboratory.
By contrast, this artificial microcracking may prove to be a valuable means of
investigating the structure of materials (for example, detection of remanent stresses in
rocks).
Volumetrically "negligible", sensitive to artifacts, and closely dependent on the stress
state of the sample, the crack and fracture pore spaee is often difficult to observe. Its vital
influence on the mechanical properties of the porous mediumjustif1es the efforts required
in this area.

22

POROUS MEDIA

1.3 THE PORE SPACE: CAPILLARY APPROACH

n
I

1.3.1

s:
sl

Capillary equilibria: general discussion and defmitions

When two or more immiscible fluids co-exist in a pore space, the interfaces between
these fluids and the solid are the locus of capillary processes. Restricting ourselves to twophase mixtures, it may be observed that one of the two fluids spreads preferentially in
contact with the solid (wetting fluid). By contrast, the other fluid tends to minimize its
contact area with the solid (non-wetting fluid). In the case of water and air, for instance, the
water is usually the wetting fluid.
A surface tension t. exists at the interface between the two fluids, inducing a pressure
difference that depends on the mean curvature of the interface. This capillary pressure Pea
is governed by the Laplace equation:
Pea =

r.(;l ;J .

(1.3)

where R 1 and R 2 are the main radii of curvature ofthe interface. The + sign corresponds
to the general case in which the centers of curvature 0 1 and 0 2 are located on the same side
of the interface. The - sign corresponds to the case in which the centers of curvature are
lo~ated on both sides, as may be observed in convex/concave interfaces (Fig. 1.2). In
p*ctice, one mainly speaks of the mean curvature 1 Rm such that:
2

=-+Rm Rt- R2

(1.4)

02

01

Fig. 1.2 Example of convex/concave interface.

The existence, between the fluids, of this pressure difference, which depends on the shape
of the interfaces, implies that the equilibria existing within a pore space are not random.
The analysis of these capillary equilibria is very useful from several standpoints.

-- - - - - - - - - - -

g
a

(]

'V

r
(

,_
r.
s
e

..

POROUS MEDIA

23

In the experimental procedures which attempt to reach stable and significant states. it is
not possible to control fluid saturations completely. (The fluid saturation is the ratio of the
volume of fluid f to the total pore volume.) For a given experimental procedure, in fact,
saturation can only vary between defmite limits. The capillary pressure, and hence the
shape of the fluid clusters, may also depend closely on the fluid saturation technique for a
given saturation. This shows that these capillary equilibria are important factors in the
general behavior of a sample, because they interact with the other physical processes
affecting the combination of solid and immiscible fluids.
Capillary equilibria also offer an excellent means to investigate the pore space itself.
These capillary effects enable us to measure a number of characteristics of the pore space
(porosimetry) or to transform the porous geometry allowing measurements on simpler
volumes than on the initial space. We shall merely review a few definitions. The interested
reader can fmd a detailed description of capillary effects in Morrow (1970) or Dullien
(1979).
Wettability. The concept of wettability has been d~fmed above empirically by the
variable aft'mity of a fluid for the solid. It is customary to quantify this affmity by the value
of the contact angle (} between the fluid interface and the solid (Fig. 1.3). This
simplification is only valid for perfectly regular surfaces. In actual pore spaces, this concept
of wettability may become extremely complex (refer to Morrow, 1975).

F~g.

1.3 Defmition of contact angle.

We shall restrict ourselves to the case of perfect wettability (0 = 0), i.e. where a fluid
shows a dearly preponderant affmity for the solid. For commonly encountered clean
porous bodies (rock, glass, etc.), this often occurs for a liquid/gas mixture, in which the gas
is the non-wetting fluid.
Drainage and imbibition. The term drainage is used when a non-wetting fluid, under the
effect of a pressure which counterbalances the capillary forces, invades a porous medium,
expelling the wetting fluid. If the saturation with wetting fluid increases (following a drop
in pressure), the process is one of imbibition.

24

POROUS MEDIA

1.3.2 Capillary pressure curves


The basic experiment for analyzing capillary equilibria in porous media consists in the
determination of the relationship between saturation and ::apillary pressure for different
fluid saturation methods. The most commonly employed method is that of capillary
desorption (sometimes called the restored states method). It requires the use of a semipermeable membrane (such as a ceramic plate) whose pores are so fme that, once they are
totally saturated with water, they oppose the penetration of air by capillary pressure (this
pressure may exceed one megapascal).
The sample, totally saturated with water, is placed in a pressure vessel, on the ceramic
plate, whose lower face is at atmospheric pressure (Fig. 1.4). Since the ceramic is
impermeable to the gas, a pressure p can be applied to the gas that is greater than that of
the water in the sample, with the water remaining at atmospheric pressure.

Pr-.wizedgn

...........
...........................
:. :. :. &a;np...:.:.:
...........
.................................
................
................
.
.
..........................

.. uw

_ . Water

Fig. 1.4 Schematic diagram of desorber.

The water expelled by the air (drainage) flows along the ceramic and the curve of
capillary pressure (Pea) is plotted against water saturation (S..) (Fig. 1.5).
The fmt drainage or initial drainage (from a water-saturated sample) only begins at a
given capillary pressure (Pace) (threshold pressure). This is the pressure that must be
reached for the air to be able to penetrate into the largest pores of the sample.
By raising pressure Pea the sample progressively empties, and drainage tends to stop
before the wetting fluid (water) has been completely expelled. Although the pressure is
raised, the water saturation no longer decreases. The wetting phase configuration is such
that fluid movements therein become impossible. The water is found in the form of small
clusters interconnected by water films that are so thin that their viscosity is very high. The
sample is in a state of irreducible saturation with wetting fluid (S,.J

.~

he-

"

.rv
:ti-

('!

.I
e

!
.!I

\,.,.
,, 1.!:
\

If

j
;

;Q

\\'

Ifl.

of

,,,,,, i

:n

lk
if

25

I'Oit.OUS MEDIA

'\

il
il

\~
\ \

,,
\

PCOs8

Wetting Fluid: liquid

- - - Wetting

I
_

~Juid: men:uty Y..,of

-pressure
0

20

40
60
Wetting fluid 11tur1tion

..,

100

Fig. 1.5 Capillary pressure curves.

If this experiment is continued by progressively releasing the capillary pressure, the


water again penetrates into the sample (imbibition) but the process is not reversed. At a
given capillary pressure, the water saturation is signifiamtly lower at imbibition than for
initial drainage. Once zero capillary pressure is reached, the water saturation is lower than
100%, and, in some cases, this water saturation value is closer to that of the irreducible
saturation than to 1OOo/o. Part of the air is trapped during the imbibition process. This air
fraction is called the non-wetting fluid residual saturation. Its value, related to the total
volume of the sample, is the trapped porosity.
During drainage, when the non-wetting fluid invades the pore space, the volume it
occupies obeys the Laplace equation. For a given capillary pressure, the mean curvature of
the interface is f1xed. The increase in capillary pressure therefore ~ds to increasingly
smaller radii of curvature. The capillary pressure curve during drainage hence corresponds to the measurement of the increase (in the pore space concerned) of a volume
bounded by a surface with an increasingly smaller radius of curvature. This explains
why drainage can continue until the complete invasion of the pore space by the nonwetting fluid (subject to the concept of irreducible saturation, as defmcd above, and
corresponding to the break in hydraulic, and not geometric, continuity of a liquid wetting
phase).

26

POROUS MEDIA

On the other hand, imbibition corresponds to a progressive increase in the mean radius
of curvature of the wetting fluid 'non-wetting fluid interface. Marked discontinuities may
appear, since fractions of the volume of non-wetting fluid may separate from the main
mass. This can occur, for instance, if certain areas of the pore space are not of sufficient
radius of curvature as would be required to allow the expulsion of the non-wetting phase
located" upstream". These relative narrowings play the role of a capillary valve. When the
capillary pressure drops to p1, function of the largest allowable mean radius or curvature
at the narrowing, the non-wetting phase remains upstream, is disconnected. and forms a
trapped cluster at pressure p1

:c
- .d

sar
"h
'11fi

1.3.3 Application of capillary pressure curves to porosimetry


We have shown that, when water is drained by air, an irreducible saturation zone exists
at high pressures, corresponding to the immobilization ofthe water phase. This zone does
not exist if the wetting fluid is a rarefted gas(" vacuum") which disappears with the gradual
penetration of the non-wetting fluid. This applies to the mercury (non-wetting
fluid)/mercury vapor (wetting fluid) pair. If a vacuum is previously applied, one can cause
drainage by the penetration of mercury into a sample. This is the principle of mercury
porosimetry. Initially popularized by Purcell (1949), this method has formed the subject of
an abundant literature. Wardlaw and Taylor (1976) can be consulted on this subject.
To interpret mercury porosimetry, the porous medium is treated as a network of
capillaries whose mean radius R is calculated by J urin's equation:
Pe=

2t. cos ()
R

11.5)

In the case of mercury in contact with most commonly encountered minerals, in


drainage, the wettability angle is close to 140". At a given pressure, the mercury invades the
fraction of the pore space connected with the exterior by" accesses" with a radius larger or
equal to that given by Jurin's equation. Hence porosimetry can be used to quantify the
access radii, but not the pore radii. This restriction must always be kept in mind in the
interpretation of porosimetric results.
The distribution of access radii in common porous media is usually of the log normal
type. The experimental results are therefore presented (Fig. 1.6) with pressures (and hence
the radii) on the logarithmic scale.
For the semi~quantitative description of pore spaces, the most useful representation is
the access radius distribution curve (this is the derivative of the curve described above).
This type of representation is often called the porosimetric spectrum (Fig. 1.6).
Mercury porosimetry is an important tool for the quantiftcation of pore networks.
However, excessive quantitative extrapolations should be avoided. In practice, the main
use of porosimetry resides chiefly in its capacity to identify the existence, in many porous
media, of several families of" pores" with highly contrasted access dimensions and hence
physical properties.

ius

27

POROUS MEDIA

figure l. 7 shows the porosimetric spectra of various porous media. A single type of
access radius can be seen to exist in certain cases (for example chalk). On the other hand,
many other porous bodies display very clear bimodal spectra (bioclastic limestone, shaly
sandstone). The existence of three or four types of pores can be observed in some cases.
This shows why the interpretation of the physical properties of these media is heavily
influenced by the consideration of this diversity of pore types.

13

!lJ:

enl
!l~.

tb

ue

s ....

,.'

100

10

0.1
Injection pressure (MPal

Le-.
'r
(b)

e'

li

Ll

01

I..

.l:

Jo

7.5

75

750

7500

Accen radii (nm)

Fig. 1.6 Schematic porosimetric curve (a) and spectrum (b).


'-

...I

Porosimetric radii (.um)

0.1

10

100

Rock type

q,

(%)

mO

White chalk

42

ra
Micritic
limestone

23

\u
to

24

. IC

Pelletal
limestone

30

20

. 3
Crinoidal
limestone

24

250

- -1

m~

Oolitic
limestone

33

700

~i~

Bioclastic
. limestone

37

~~

2000

e,

th
Bioclastic
limestone

44

10

500

tS

Oedolomitized
limestone

33

._,

7000

dJ
j(
~~

Slightly shaly
sandstone

25

600

Kaolinitic
sandstone

20

1700

Silt

30

0.1

10

100

c
f
.(

Fig. 1.7 Example of porosimetric spectra of sedimentary rocks.

..I

POROUS MEDIA

29

1.3.4 Fluid distribution at the microscopic scale


We have examined capillary equilibria from the macroscopic standpoint by means of
drainage and imbibition curves, but it is interesting to determine the geometric shapes of
dusters of wetting and non-wetting fluids in various equilibrium conditions. This helps us
to understand the physical behavior of these clusters. and also, conversely, to achieve a
more accurate two-dimensional description of the complex geometries of actual porous
media.

1.3.4.1

Principles of the visualization of fluids


in capillary equiUbria (Plate 4)

Use is made of pairs of wetting/non-wetting fluids of which one of the phases can be
solidified after having reached the desired capillary equilibrium. Two types of pairs are
mainly used.
Wood's metaljvacuuni (Swanson. 1979, Dullien and Dhawan, 1974, for example).
Wood's metal is an alloy of tin and bismuth which melts at 700C and. above 1200C,
displays capillary behavior closely approaching that of mercury. Experiments are then
conducted with the molten metal that are identical to those of mercury porosimetry, and
then, by sudden cooling, the capillary equilibrium thus obtained is frozen. Polished
sections fabricated from the samples thus treated allow easy observation of the location of
the Wood's metal, and hence the determination of the accessible zones of the pore space,
ior a mean curvature that depends on the pressure applied.
Polymerizable synthetic resins (Etienne and Le Fournier, 1967. Zinszner and Meynot,
1982). Before polymerization, synthetic resins are liquids that wet rocks perfectly (in
comparison with air). Using the air/resin pair, this makes it possible to conduct the
drainage and imbibition experiments described above, and, after having reached the
desired state of equilibrium, to polymerize the resin and f1x this state that can then be
analyzed on a thin section or a polished section. The wettabilities of the rock by water or
resin in the presence of air can be considered as identical as a f1rst approximation.
For drainage: a vacuum-injected sample of dyed resin undergoes centrifugation,
draining the resin. The acceleration is selected so as to produce:

(a) either a zone in which a relationship exists between saturation of wetting fluid and
drainage pressure, where the resin occupies the pore volumes whose access radius is
smaller than a radius that depends on the imposed acceleration,
(b) or a state of irreducible saturation, where the resin occupies the same sites as the
water at the end of the drainage tests.
For imbibition: capillary rise is carried out. The base of the sample is placed in the resin
\vhich, by expelling part of the air, gradually iO\ades the sample under the effect of
capillary forces alone. At the f1rst order, the fmal result does not depend on the pair of
fluids used (provided that the wettability contrast is good). Thus a capillary equilibrium is
reached corresponding to the one existing at the end of total imbibition. An example of
this process is thoroughly discussed by Pickell et a/. (1966) and Bousquie (1979).

30

POROUS MEDIA

In a more general manner, the air/resin pair can be used in many cases to simulate the
experiments conducted with air/water and oil/water pairs, to observe and to quantify the
geometries of the clusters of the different phases.

.. r

'fa1

.;OJ

1.3.4.2

Application to the geometric description of pore networks

Capillary equilibria depend primarily on the geometry ofthe pore spaces and not on the
pair of fluids employed (provided the wettability contrast is clear). We have discussed this
point for imbibition. It is also the case for drainage (apart from the irreducible saturation
zones) if one uses the parameter Puft. cos 6. Based on a very complex pore geometry, it is
then possible to subdivide the space into several fractions corresponding to the capillary
phases. Our investigative resources (thin sections, polished sections) allow only a twodimensional observation, but the capillary effect, even seen in these conditions, integrates
part of the data relative to the third dimension. Two types of preparation are normally
employed:

he
be

i
I

,iz

1.

l.

flc
ch

Drained samples (Plate 4). This helps to analyze the fraction of the pore space connected
by a porosimetric access radi1ls that is larger than the mean radius of curvature
corresponding to the. drainage pressure. Using a porosimetric curve for a sample, one can
select the fraction of pore space related to the process analyzed, and then separate this
phase by drainage to obtain images that are much more easily quantiftable (for example,
by the image analyzer) than the total pore network.

i,n

co

Totally imbibed samples (Plate 4). We have shown above that, after total imbibition, the
non-wetting fluid occupies the zones of the pore space whose maximum mean radius of
curvature was large in comparison with that ofthe "accesses". This reflects a defmition of
the "pore" considered as a widening of the pore space. This notion of a pore, although
very familiar, is actually very complex because it is three-dimensional (this point was
raised in Section 1.2.1 for regular packings of spheres). Bubbles of residual non-wetting
fluid show the complexity of the pore space. In pore size analyses based on twodimensional observations, it is often advisable to distinguish this fraction of the pore
space.

wl

01

er
e<

1.4 FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

tr
d

Fluid flow in porous media has formed the subject of intensive theoretical and
experimental investigation, and Dullien (1979) can be referred to in this respect. We shall
restrict ourselves here to reviewing the points that are useful for the rest of our study, and
to provide measures for order of magnitude estimates of permeability.
From the outset, it must be stated that, more than any other petrophysical property,
permeability is sensitive to the scale factor. If one measures the flow rate of a fluid through

-1:

.r

i
I

,I
----------

------------------------------

'-

POROUS MEDIA

31

a rock formation at meter or hectometer scale, one can realize how rare discontinuities
(fault, fracture) can determine the behavior of the formation. These bulk permeabilities or
in situ permeabilities are frequently virtually independent of the type of rock. The reservoir
engineer or hydrologist calculates these transmissivities. If, however, one is interested in
the petrophysical behavior of porous media, the natural permeability of these media must
be considered. This is often called the matrix permeability, and is measured on centimetersized samples free of discontinuities. Our discussion is restricted to this scale.

t~

tJ- I.'S

"

1.4.1

trv

Case of a single fluid totally saturating a pore space :


absolute or single-phase permeability

{I,_

t'
.liv

1.4.1.1

Permeability was fiTst defmed by Darcy, in the speciflccaseofwater, by showing that the
flow rate per unit area was proportional to the pressure drop in the porous body and to a
characteristic parameter of the .porous body concerned called permeability. The
introduction of the concept of viscosity helps to generalize this law for all fluids,
considering only non-turbulent flow.
Darcy's law in its simplest form is writtenct):

~eo
1~..

niS

....

Defmition, units and measurements

::-r

=~SAp
'1

h..

(1.6)

where
Q =volumetric flow rate in a given direction through a slice of the medium of thickness.
Aland areaS with a pressure difference L1p at the ends of the slice.
" = permeability of the porous medium,
'1 = viscosity of the fluid,

of

,,

Al

n~"

or its differential form:

'0.,.._

U= -

II

where

U is the flltration

K/'1 grad p

(1.7)

velocity of the fluid.

Permeability is treated as an area, and its unit in the International System is hence the
m 2 But this unit is little used today, because it is disproportionate to the values
encountered in nature. The traditional unit of permeability is the darcy tO), which is
equivalent to the square micron (l darcy is exactly equal to 0.986923 J.UD 2 ), but the
millidarcy (mD) (;;;: 10- Is m 2 ) is frequently used, as it is better adapted to the order of
magnitude of the permeabilities generally observed.
In fluid mechanics experiments in porous media, the permeability is usually calculated
directly from the measurement of the flow rate and the pressure drop. For a rapid

1(

dl

let(l) The expression of Darcy's law given above corresponds to the isotropic case (i.e. " independent of
direction). In practice. however, it is important to note the strong dependence of permeability on direction for
many pore spaces.

:v

~ll-

,j

PLATE 4
VISUALIZATION OF CAPILLARY PROPERTIES
Photographs of thin sections of rocks selectively saturated
\\ith dyed resins or Wood's metal by drainage and imbibition
Photo 1

'j!
'

Total imbibition. Vuggy dolomite (dolomitized oolitic limestone).


Red resin. wetting fluid. Yellow resin, residual non-wetting fluid (trapped). The characteristic
shape ("bubbles") of the clusters of residual non-wetting fluid can be observed.

Photo 2 - Drainage and imbibition. Crinoidal limestone.


The sample, f1rst saturated with blue resin, was centrifuged to irreducible saturation, and then,
after polymerization of the blue resin, impregnated with red resin. Blue resin represents
irreducible wetting fluid. Red resin represents the fraction displaceable by imbibition of the
non-wetting fluid accumulated during drainage. Yellow resin represents the residual fraction
of non-wetting fluid. Note particularly a petrographic detail which plays an important role in
the distribution of the displaceable and trapped phases of the non-wetting fluid. The fme layer
of palisadic cement surrounding the crinoids has burst under the effect of compaction. and the
fragments of cement part the intergranular spaces, favoring imbibition (red resin) without
substantially altering the rock structure. The pore spaces devoid of these fragments usually
correspond to trapped porositY (yellow resin). This compartmentation process, which reduces
trapped porosity, is not an exceptional occurrence.
Photo 3 - Drainage. Ground Pyrex.
~olten Wood's metal behaves like mercury (non-wetting fluid) and porosimetry experiments
can be performed in which this metal is frozen by cooling. Black, Wood's metal (drained
zones). Red resin, subsequently injected (undrained zones).

-,

I
t

Ai

Photo 4 - Successil"e drainages. Crinoidal limestone.


The rock. f1rst saturated with blue resin, was subjected to drainage by centrifuge, and theri,
after polymerization; to' saturation with red resin, followed by centrifuge under low
acceleration. It was then saturated with yellow resin. The color of the resin present in a pore
depends on the access radius.

Blue

Red

Yellow

Acceu Radii (jlml -

The very small access radius zones (blue resin) correspond to microporosity in the crinoids
(invisible in transmitted light) and also to intragranular macroporosity. A good intergranular
porosity (red resin) is connected by flow channels smaller than 1 ~m. This is frequently
encountered in well-cemented bioclastic grainstones.

'

Afl
.J

tnOJ
";l

L
~

m
.. -.

'0

"lS

:11 J-"1cl - t 3H:JNV1d

POROUS MEDIA

33

determination of the absolute permeability of a large number of samples, the variable-load


air permeameter is often used. A column of water placed in negative pressure in a
calibrated tube returns to equilibrium by aspirating the atmospheric air through the
measurement sample (Fig. 1.8). The time taken by the column to fall between two
predetermined marks is proportional to the permeability.

11

Sample

Calibrated tube

......_. al

Constant level tank

Fig. 1.8 Schematic diagram of air permeameter.

1.4.1.2 Characteristics of the pore space affecting permeability


The f1rst parameter with which permeability K can be correlated is obviously the
porosity t/J. In fact, while examples of excellent t/J/K correlation exist (see Section 1.6.2.2),
this relationship is more often than not ambiguous. Hence, for limestone rocks with 20%
porosity, Figure 1.9 shows that the permeabilities commonly vary from 10- 3 to more
than 1 D. Permeability is far more closely conditioned by the size of the flow channels
inside a porous medium than by their relative abundance. For example, if one takes a very
simplif1ed porous medium formed of straight capillaries of radius R and porosity t/J,
Poiseuille's equation
gives K = f/JR 2 /8. In this equation, the radius R appears as the
square and therefore plays an important role.

e)

(2) Note that Poiseuille's equation relates the flow rate


a capillary tube of radius R, this equation is written :

a to the pressure difference per unit length Jp/ .1/. For

a= 1tR~

s,

Isee, for example, Mandel, 1950).

Jp
dl

34

POROUS MEDIA

tO

20 30 40

to

10"1

to

to

t0" 2

~ to

to3

e."'

:c

"'

a.

10"

tO.

to

10"

"'

tO," a

0.5

(.)

tO

20

30 40

Porosity (%I

Fig. 1.9 Schematization of porosity/permeability relationship, in rocks.


We used data from Brace, 1984, for crystalline rocks, and from Scholle, 1977,
for micritic limestones.

The problem of </J-K correlation lies in this ambiguity: porosity is the easiest parameter
to defme and to measure, so that priority tends to be assigned to it in correlations, as
opposed to the access radii, which are more difficult to defme and to measure. Moreover,
for a given type of porous medium, the pore "radius" itself varies with porosity, and it is
above all this correlation which induces the </J-K relationship.
In practice, it is necessary to proceed in two steps to understand the
porosity permeability relationship of a given medium: firSt by identifying the different
types of access radius existing in the medium, and then by relating the permeability to the

-------------

35

POROUS MEDIA

porosity fraction corresponding to the largest type of access radius. The simplest means of
identification (but experimentally the most costly) is mercury porosimetry. Figure 1. 7
gives examples of porosimetric spectra among which many are bimodal, with differences
in radii often exceeding one order of magnitude. Obviously, only the large access radius
family influences the permeability.
In many cases where mercury porosimetry is unavailable, an attempt can be made to
identify the different types of porosity by direct observation on a thin section or a pore
network casting (Plate 5), followed by a quantitative estimate on a thin section. Once this
analysis is completed, it is generally easy to explain the t/J-K relationship by relying on a
pore geometry model such as the intergranular model, which is the most widely used.

1.4.1.3

Porosity/permeability relationship in intergranular spaces

The intergranular space displays a t/J-K relationship that is fairly well known
experimentally, at least for grains of subspherical shape and constant grain size
distribution (Jacquin, 1964, for example). We have shown that, for the permeability of a
network of cylindrical capillaries, the combination of the Darcy and Poiseuille laws give
the equation:
R2
(1.8)
K=-t/J
8
For a network of tortuous capillaries of any cross~section, an equation of the same type
is found by introducing the hydraulic radius Rh, the tortuosity of the current lines -r:(t/J ),
and a shape parameter A, that is relatively invariable:

e)

= r(t/J)

Rh

tP

(1.9)

.JS,

However, Rh is a function of t/J


where Sis the specif1c area of the pore space. Since .jS
is itself an inverse function of the grain diameter d, Carman and Kozeny established the
following equation for the permeability of such a network (Carman, 1961):
d2
K = Bt/J3 -r:(t/J)

(1.10)

where B is a constant for a given medium.


Permeability is hence proportional to the square of the grain diameter. Figure 1.10
shows an experimental verification on intergranular spaces.

(3) The tonuosity of a capillary model quantifies the mean developed length (I~) of a current line joining the
two ends of the model, in relation to the real length of the model (I..):

'~

rlt/>)=-~

1..

The exact expression of tonuosity varies with different authors.

36

POROt:S

~IEDIA

The parameter K/d 2 is a function of lj>", with n varying experimentally in accord with
porosities from n;;?; 7 (l/> < 5~o) to 11 ~ 2 (l/> ~ 30%). In the Carman-Kozeny equation, if
tortuosity is constant, the exponent n is 3. and this is observed in sintered glass and
Fontainebleau sandstone for porosities ranging from 15 to 30%. Many natural
intergranular media display porosities between 10 and 25%. Hence an exponent
between 4 and 5 is often used for these media. Ghen the wide scatter observed in
permeability measurements. this value of n corresponds to a" mean" between the low and
high porosities.
></d2

lx1o-l

4000

400

40
Sintered giiS$
I

280 pm spheres
o 50 pm sPheres
4

10

20

40

Porosity (%I

Fig. 1.10

c1>

vs ;

relationship in sintered glass (from Pellet, personal

correspondence l.

The high exponents observed for low porosities are related to a threshold effect. For the
pores to be interconnected, a critical porosity must be reached (this point may be
statistically modeled by the percolation theory). Experimentally, this critical threshold
appears to lie at about 5% in clean sandstones and some sintered glasses. A certain
terminological ambiguity of this threshold must be clarified. The threshold does not
correspond to a transition from disconnected porosity to connected porosity (see
Section 1.1.2) since, even at very low porosities. physical connections often persist between
the pores. But these connections are so thin that they ~orne insignif1cant in relation to
fluid circulation.

PLATE 5
EXAMPLES OF BIMODAL PORE NETWORKS
(Epoxy pore casts)

f
i

Scanning Electron Microscope photographs

...

10

TI

~-tm

Photo I - Oolitic limestone.

Detail of photo I.

This limestone consists of oolites formed themsel ves of very fm.: calcite cr;;stals, between
which abundant microporosity exists. Intergranular macroporosity can be observed
between the oolites. Fluid flow obviously takes place only in this fraction of the pore space.

20

~-tm

1
Photo 2 - Kaolinitic sandstone.

Detail of phoio 2.

Clusters of kaolinite crystals have developed in some of the intergranular macro pores of
this sandstone, generating a specific porous medium .

38

1.4.2

POROUS MEDIA

Multiphase flows

The simultaneous flow of two or more immiscible fluids in a pore space is difficult to
investigate experimentally, since it requires the measurement of flow rates arid pressures in
all the phases. We have shown that multi-phase mixtures are subjected to capillary
pressure effects. The superposition of this capillary effect on the dynamic pressure drop
partly explains this experimental difTlculty. Hence, despite its great practical interest for
the production of hydrocarbon f1elds and the abundance of theoretical and experimental
work already devoted to it, this branch of fluid mechanics in porous media is still the focus
of many discussions. We shall simply review the concept of relative permeability for two
fluids, whose surface tension t, is high and wettability well contrasted.

1.4.2.1

Concept of relative permeability

If, in a porous medium, a combination of water (considered as the wetting fluid 1and a
non-wetting fluid is caused to circulate, a steady state is obtained for each flow rate,
characterized by the pressure drop gradients in each of the phases, the flow rate, and the
fluid saturations. By analogy with Darcy's equation, it is possible, for these different states,
to calculate the permeabilities relative to water Kw(S,..) and to non-wetting fluid K""'(S,..).
Dividing these values by K, the single-phase permeability of the medium concerned. yields
the relative permeabilities, for which one example is shown as a function of saturation in
Fig. l.ll.

>

1
.
B.

Non-wetti119 Fluid

0.6

-~

a:

0
0

SW;

sr

100

Water saturation (% l

Fig. 1.11

Relative permeability curves.

39

POROt:S MEDIA

Note ftrst that, as defmed above, the experiment can only be performed between two
saturation states defmed in Section 1.3.2: irreducible water saturation s. . . and residual
saturation of non-wetting fluid S,. When the sample is in a state of irreducible water
saturation, the water is by defmition immobile and has zero relative permeability. The
water is also limited to very thin ftlms on the walls or to clusters within menisci of very
small radius of curvature. This does not hinder the flow of non-wetting fluid. whose
relative permeability is close to l. In a state of residual saturation with non-wetting fluid,
the situation is reversed, but not symmetrical: the non-wetting fluid is discontinuous and
immobile and exhibits zero relative permeability. Moreover, it occupies the central parts
of the pore network and considerably hampers the flow of water. The relative water
permeability of a porous body in a state of residual saturation with non-wetting fluid is
generally much lower than l (see Fig. l.ll).
Between these two extreme cases, permeabilities depend on saturation and the fluid
setting method. We have shown that, for the same saturation, the shapes ofthe phases may
vary. For the relative permeability to non-wetting fluid, this is generally greater in
drainage than in imbibition. In the latter case. in fact, the non-wetting fluid is partly
discontinuous (clusters of trapped porosity). For relative permeability to water, which is
usually very low, this difference is difficult to pinpoint.
Table 1.3 gives a number of values of relative permeability to water and to oil (non.
wetting) for natural media in a state of irreducible and residual saturation.

y
p
r -

ll

i)

TABLE

1.3

ExA~fPLES OF RELATIVE PER!IfEABILITIES

Type of porous
medium

I
~:

1
f

.
J
l

Clean sandstone .......


Coarse-grained shaly
sandstone .............
Chalk. ................
Fine limestone .........
Oolitic limestone .......
Bioclastic limestone ....

Irreducible
water saturation

Single-phase
permeability
(water)
"(mD)

Sw)
(%

Relative
permeability
to oil

ll

220

22
42
28
15
34

1700
2.4
25
80
1100

20
18
20
20
30

Porosity
% ()

Oil
residual saturation

s,

I Relative

(%1

permeability
to water

58

0.04

1
0.8
0.7

40

32
20

0.3
0.15
0.03
0.18
0.1

33
60

Note that, in a state of irreducible saturation, the relative permeabilities to oil all
approach 1. It is not rare to exceed 1 experimentally when the permeability to oil is
slightly improved by the presence of a ftlm of water on the walls! On the other hand. in a
state of residual oil saturation, the relative permeabilities to water are low and variable
from one rock type to another. No clear relationship exists between single-phase
permeability and relative permeability. For example, compare chalk to fme limestone. for
which the relative permeability is much lower, despite a single-phase permeability that is
ten times greater. These two types of permeability do not depend on the same geometric
characteristics of the pore space.

40

POROUS MEDIA

From the practical standpoint, it is important to recall that values of relative


permeability to water are generally low (even with very high water saturations). and must
be taken into account. for instance, in the interpretation of the acoustic properties of twophase mixtures. More simply, from the experimental standpoint, these low relative
permeabilities explain the slowness with which certain two-phase equilibria are
established in "apparently" quite permeable media with respect to single-phase
permeability.

1.5 PROBLEMS OF SCALE IN POROUS MEDIA


The application of the macroscopic laws of mechanics to porous ltl'"..dia implies that
these media are continuous, in other words that physical values can be defmed at each
point; such as porosity. permeability, saturation etc., in the form of derivable functions of
the point concerned. In fact, discontinuity turns out to be the basic characteristic of a
porous medium, since, at the microscopic scale, a point lies either in the solid or in the
pores.(limiting the matter to the porosity variable). The discontinuity problem is a classic
one in physics. The originality ofthe porous medium resides in the fact that the dimensions
o(the tlementary volumes, necessary for taking care of the discontinuity effects, may vary
substantially for a given medium in accordance with the parameter analyzed.

'

i
1.5.1

Defmition of minimum homogenization volume

To defme this minimum homogenization volume, let us consider a two-dimensional


example of the intergranular pore space (formed of grains of diameter d) (Fig. 1.12). If
concentric circles with increasing areas are implanted at random, the change in porosity as
a function of circle diameter can be measured. In the example given, the center is implanted
in a pore, and the initial porosity is therefore 1. The mean value of the porosity of the
medium is reached with circles of 2d to 3d in diameter. In this way, the minimum area
required to homogenize the porosity variable can be calculated statistically.
Section 1.2.3 defmed the range of the covariance function. This is the distance from
which two points in the space concerned no longer display a statistical relationship
between each other. This offers us a concept very close to that defmed above. The range is
hence a means to quantify the size of the minimum homogenization volume of the porosity
variable. The range is on the order of magnitude of one or two grain diameters for
intergranular spaces with well-sorted grain size distribution. As soon as the pore structure
becomes complex (as in certain limestones for example), the minimum volume to be
considered may be very large in comparison with the unit grain size.
If, presuming the example of the intergranular medium in Fig. 1.12, one analyzes the
phase dispersed in the form of bubbles representing a low saturation, the same method of
concentric circles leads to the observation that the minimum homogenization area (i.e. of
the representativity of the phenomenon) has a diameter of 6 to 8 units. It is also observed

.M

e
t

41

POROUS MEDIA
1

1-----C

'
I

Cc
0111
,.. :z:

i
j

'

..:

Solid: black phaM 172"1


Pore: wllltelftd cr.,......tched ph-. 12ft)
The cross-hatched ph- represents 10% of
the white ph-. (satumionl

~
c

~-fd
en.,_

z~O

-!iii

80

60

40

2::1

100

....,

/
II
I

0..

20

16

t;

12

''---------

fi

.i:
~

.t:; :I

0
4

.g

10

Diameter of meaturement circles

Fia- 1.12 Defmition of minimum homogenization volume on an example of


porous media (top), The evolution of porosity and saturation as a function of
the diameters of the measurement circles is given in the bottom ftgure.

that the drawing is not sutTtciently large to clearly defme this saturation. If we had a larger
observation fteld to measure the covariance function, it would exhibit a clear nugget. effect
(C(h) = 0 between O.Sd and 3d).
Hence, for the same very simple medium, a sharp variation is observed in the size of the
homogenization volume for the "porosity parameter and one of the "saturation"
parameters. This may apply to all the remaining variables. As for permeability,
quantification is far more ditTtcult because a two-dimensional simplification is unfeasible.
However, it can be understood intuitively that the volume required to defme permeability
is greater than that defming porosity in many cases. For the mechanical parameters

..
_,.

!
l

(moduli), it is possible in principle to use a volume equivalent to that required for porosity,
as long as the material is not cracked. But, if the medium displays cracks, it is the cracks
that are essential for the "'echanical behavior and,. once again, the minimum
homogenization volume may be significantly greater than that corresponding to porosity.

42

POROUS MEDIA

1.5.2

:-!

Minimum homogenization volume and physical behavior

Consequently, when a law of macroscopic behavior is defmed for a given medium, one
must account for these different minimum homogenization volumes. Mechanical
experiments are only .. macroscopically" meaningful ifthe sample is much larger than the
minimum homogenization volume of the parameter analyzed. For cracked media, this
volume may sometimes be considerably underestimated.
In acoustic experiments, the wavelength must be compared with 1he minimum
homogenization volume of the medium, or, more precisely, with the largest of the
minimum volumes for the parameters involved (porosity, saturation, permeability):
(a) If the wavelength is significantly greater than the diameter of this homogenization
volume, the vibration behaves effectively as it would in a homogeneous
macroscopic" medium. The vibration is not sensitive to the microscopic
discontinuities of the porous medium.

1
(

'

(b) If the wavelength is of the order of magnitude of this homogeneity dimension,


diffraction effects occur, radically altering the behavior. The main homogenization
volume (which is no longer the right one) must be divided into smaller cells (which
are themselves homogeneous), at the scale of the grain~ for example, and these cells
must be used as the basis for analysis.
(c) If the wavelength is much smaller, one is virtually faced with the initial problem: the
porous medium no longer exists as such, and the analysis must be resumed at a
much smaller scale. The medium to be analyzed in this case consists of the
individualized grains and pores.
This contrasting behavior of the relationship between the scale of the medium and the
wavelength does not raise any basic difficulties as long as the homogenization volume
does not vary during the experiment. However, this is not always the case, and a delicate
problem may be faced when a parameter such as saturation is adjusted. The example in
Fig. 1.12 shows that, in some geometric configurations, low saturations may give rise to
homogenization volumes much larger than that of the pore space itself. In a desaturation
. experiment, the homogenization volume may thus vary until the scope of the
wave/medium relationship is changed, with the experiment passing progressively from
'homogeneous medium" behavior to "diffracting medium" behavior.

-----------~---------------~

1
ty,

k
11'

:y.

POROUS MEDIA

43

1.6 EXAMPLE OF A NATURAL POROUS MEDIUM:


FONTAINEBLEAU SANDSTONE
We have shown that no global approach is available for the analysis and description of
porous media, but rather a set of methods, whose common feature is undoubtedly to
describe the particular features of the medium, analyzed in relation to simpler or betterknown typical examples. For practical applications, it is therefore useful to have such
models. We shall now give a simplifted description of a typical example of a granular
porous medium, Fontainebleau sandstone, which serves as a basis for many rock physics
experiments.

-,
~

1e
ill'-~
I~

i~
-~

1.6.1

h.__

Solid skeleton

1e
'--

n"IS'-C"

\ __ _

I,
l

[)'-

lt

sr
\

e'--

I
'

'
f

'

l,
~

\_
'-

~-

"

I.

'-

1'--

'''\..

1.6.2

Pore space (Plate 6)

Associated with this exceptional simplicity of the solid skeleton is a pore spaCe that is
itself rather simple (apart from the problem of microcracks in certain samples, which is
discussed in Chapter 5 Section 5.1.1.1), making Fontainebleau sandstone a good example
of an intergranular pore space, especially since the cementation, which was highly
variable, provides an uninterrupted range of porosities between 3 and 30%.

~ l

1.6.2.1

~r'

,l..__

Fontainebleau sandstone is essentially formed of quartz grains that have undergone


long-term erosion and good grain size sorting before being deposited, during the
Stampian, in dunes bordering the shore. The original deposit is formed of grains of
rilonocrystalline sub-spherical quartz, around 250 ~in diameter. Following a geological
evolution, still not fully understood, these sands underwent cementation (more or less
intensive) by silica, which crystallized around the grains in the form of quartz in crystalline
continuity with them. Fontainebleau sandstone thus displays exceptional chemical and
crystallographic simplicity, and contain more than 99.8% quartz.

~- '
Y

Geometric characteristics

Examples of hexaganal granulometry of the pore space are given in Fig. 1.13. This
granulometry is obtained using a texture analyzer. The y axis gives the percentage of the
pore space accessible to a hexagon of a given ''diameter". Although this provides a
representation identical to a grain size distribution curve, it must be recalled, for practical
interpretation, that this pore size distribution does not actually correspond to
individualized objects.
The porosimetric spectra are given in Fig. 1.14. Note the good correlation between
porosity and modal access radius. Many measurements are available in the porosity
range 8 to 22%, enabling us to observe a linear relationship of the type R,.. = aot/J,
where R,. is the modal radius in Jim, tjJ the porosity in %, and a0 a proportionality factor
approaching 1.

44

POROt:S MEDIA

100

\\,..:\.

.....
0

lj

!8
0 c
C.\!!

80

,..._~

60

O.!

s,!
.. 0

,',.... ..
.

c ..
~;e

~=

4.5%

'..
'....:.'...._:~.:::::__
---~ .:':":':-........

20
0

50

--- ~= 9.5%

'

'.. '\..
',..::--.

40

~~

.ti

--- ~= 23%
~= 16.5%

200
100
150
"Radius" of reference hexagon (j.tm)

250

Fig. 1.13 Hexagonal (two-dimensional) granulometry in Fontainebleau


sandstones for the porous phase.

; = 21%

\I

.2

!
..

~ = 14.5%

'

H ~

. -~

0"'
~

&.

1.

..,
~
~
~

,. ~

= 9.5%

I
I

= 5.2%
I

.J

I
10 20

0.1

100

Pore access radius (j.tm)

Fig. 1.14 Porosimetric spectra of Fontainebleau sandstones.

1.6.2.2 Porosity/permeability relationship


It is not surprising that this geometric regularity is associated with an exceptionally
precise </>-K relationship. This relationship was ftrst investigated by Jacquin, 1964, using
the parameter K/d 2 , where dis the grain diameter. Figure 1.15 illustrates our results. This
relationship corresponds to more than 400 samples taken from different outcrops of

----~-------------------------

....

.,.

PLATE 6
EPOXY PORE CASTS OF VARIOUS POROSITIES
FONTAINEBLEAU SA~DSTONES
Stereographic views of
Scanning Electron Microscope photographs
500 11m

= 28 %

= 21 %

r'

r
r

r
r
r
('

,..
(

= 5 %

46

POROUS MEDIA

,I

n=8
://
/ ),,.,n=3
1000

."1'

i
!

'

; ...y

s..

,r
4!
f:

100

10

10"1

't

..f:

I- =

$
'

1----;---~~-----.....-
5
10
15 20 25 30
2

-"<

'1

Porosity(%)

Fig. 1.1! Porosity/permeability relationship in Fontainebleau sandstones.

15

.//

l: 10

u.

./

0
0

./10

15

20

25

Tot1l porosity(%)

Fig. 1.16 Free porosity/total porosity relationship in Fontainebleau


sandstones.

'
'~
'---

'

---~-------------~

-----

POROL"S MEDIA

t'

47

Fontainebleau sandstone. Slight variations in grain size distribution explain the splitting
of the curve, which nevertheless offers a rare example of good correlation. Note the
variation in exponent n of the equation" = f((jJ") discussed in Section 1.4.1. Between 8
and 25% porosity, the exponent is very close to 3, as in the Carman-Kozeny equation.
This point should be observed in the light of the linearity of the 4J vs porosimetric access
radius relationship, and of the equation K = a(j)R 2 for flow in straight capillaries. At lower
porosities, n rises to 7 or 8 (for 4J < 5%1. This can be related to the problems of
percolation threshold already discussed.

1.6.2.3 Total porosity/trapped porosity relationship

1
~

r:

Trapped porosity corresponds to the pore fraction of the space which preserves the nonwetting fluid at the end of total imbibition. We have shown that this trapped porosity
corresponded to widenings of the pore space. By comparing the hexagonal granulometries
(Fig. l.l3) with the porosimetric spectra (Fig. l.l4), one can observe that the pore phase
granulometry decreases more slowly than the access radius with decreasing porosity. In
this case, the relative importance of trapped porosity must rise. This can be observed in
Fig. 1.16, and for samples with porosity lower than 6%, the porosity is entirely trapped (to
within measurement uncertainty). A threshold effect is therefore observed.
Threshold effects at low porosities are fairly common. For intergranular spaces
(Fontainebleau sandstone), the thresholds appear to lie between 4 to 6% porosity, but for
bimodal pore networks, they may occur at a much higher value.

--

---------------~-

'-

wave propagation
in saturated porous media

~'

t,,
t

"

.
INTRODUCTION

;f
~

The application of the general results of continuum mechanics to heterogeneous


materials implies that the wave phenomena are observed at the macroscopic scale. Hence
the parameters introduced in the previous Chapter are presumed to be defmable on the
elementary volume dx 1 dx 2 dx 3 employed in the mathematical description of this
Chapter. In other words, porosity f/>, permeability " etc., are continuous functions of
point Mat the macroscopic geometric scale considered (i.e. f/>(M), K(M) ), while their local
values depend on the microscopic, physical and geometric characteristics at point M.
This Chapter is intended to broach the study of wave propagation using the tools of
continuum mechanics. The first part reviews the results ofCiastodynamics Ul, which can be
applied to porous media if the dissipative character of propagation is ignored. The second
part shows how the two-phase character of saturated porous media introduces a
dissipation, and how this factor can be taken into account. We shall then show the
importance and the limits of the model introduced, and the need for further developments.

2.1
2.1.1

REVIEW OF ELASTODYNAMICS

Strain tensor

Subject to forces, solid bodies are deformed, and the distances between material points
vary. Let us consider any point of a solid body, represented by its position vector x
(components x 1 = x, x 2 = y, x 3 = z) which, after deformation, becomes the point

(l) It is well worth consulting the works of Landau and Lifchitz(l967), Ewing et al. (1957), Achenbach (1973),
Germain (1973), and Mandel (1974).

50

i~

WAVE PROPAGATION

SATURATED POROUS

~EDIA

represented by vector x'. Displacement during transformation is therefore characterized


by the vector (see Fig. 2.1):
(2.1)

u = x'- x

-----

,,

...

.....

'

: ; ; -M
/M'
I
/

''' . ,

'/" "

...

'

\
I

X'

';

'

'\

,/
.....

Fig. 2.1

-i

""-

1
d

'

___ , ,

I
,,

~-

.~

- VI

Deformation of a solid body.

li

The distance between two infm1tely close points before deformation was:

11

= (dxf + dx~ + dx~)2

d/

(2.2)
~

After deformation it has become:


dl' = (dx~2
which, according to (2.1), is written:

..... Jo

+ dx22 + dx32 )2

(2.3)
1

= [(dx 1 + du 1) 2 + (dx 2 + du 2 )~ + (dx 3 + du 3 ) 2)2

(2.4)

Substituting du 1 = u1.k dxk where the summation is considered to be on the repeated


subscripts, as in the rest of this text, one then obtains:
d/' 2 = d/ 2 + 2e1k dx 1 dxk
(2.5)

dl'

where e1k is defmed by:


1

e;k

= :;- (u;.t + uk,i + u;.iul.k)

c
p

(2.6)

tl

(e1k) is called the strain tensor. For small deformations, the only case considered here, the
variation in distances between material points, and hence the variation in displacement, is
small compared with the distance itself. In other words, the products of derivatives can be
ignored in comparison with the derivatives themselves. Hence the linearized strain tensor
is written:
1

eit =

2 (u 1,k + uul

tl

(2.7)
1

Let us now consider the variation in length in direction l. This consists in making in (2.5):
d/' 2 = dx~2 , d/ 2 = dx~ et dxf = 0 if k -:I- I.
This immediately gives :

I)

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

dx~

= dxi(l + 2 11 )

51

(2.8)

If b(x 1 ) is the difference in norms between dx 1 and dx~ divided by the norm of dx 1 , one
obtains:
dx~2

_,

1
~
"'

(2.9)

Equations (2.8) and (2.9) then give:


[I

;~

= dxi[l + b(x 1)JZ

+ c5(x 1)] 2 =

+ 2t 11

(2.10)

Assuming small deformations, b(x 1 ) is infmitely small and Eq. (2.10) leads to:

b(x 1) = e11

(2.11)

This shows that, assuming small deformations, the diagonal elements e;; are equal to the
linear dilatation in the corresponding direction i.
If we now examine the transformation of the scalar product ot two vectors dx and dy,
which after deformation become dx' and dy', a similar argument as the one leading to (2.5)
gives< 21 :
dx'. dy'

= dx. dy + 2e;t dx; dyk

(2.12)

Assuming dx = dx 1 and dy = dx 2 , initially orthogonal, Eq. (2.12), added to the


interpretation of e 11 and E: 2 , gives:
(l - e11 )(l + ed cos (dxJ., dx2) = 2e 12
(2.13)

'.)

.-

Assuming small deformations:


cos
.)

(dx~. dx2) =cos

(i- ou) ~

012

(2.1~)

and (2.13) leads to :

:1

012 = 2e 12

(2.15)

Thus the non-diagonal elements characterize the change in angle between two basic
vectors.
As for any symmetrical tensor, the strain tensor has real eigenvectors. The directions
corresponding to these eigenvectors are called the principal strain directions. These
principal directions are orthogonal (property of eigenvectors) and remain so throughout
the deformation, since, in the reference system built on these directions, the strain tensor is
diagonal. In this reference system, the diagonal terms that we note e1 , e11 and e111 represent
the linear dilatations in the principal directions, and are thus called the principal strains.

e
s

e
r
(2) Equation (2.3) shows that :;;.-= strain tensor ~ defmes a bilinear form such that:
c:(dx. dy)

...,.j

= l/2(dx' . dy' - dx . d~ '

The elementary volume, built on the principal directions, is d"'- = dx 1 dx 11 dx 111 and is
transformed into:

~;

52

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

d't"'

The volumetric strain

= (1 + e 1)(1 + e 11 )(1 + e 111 ) d't"

(.2.16)

e. to the nearest second order, is therefore:


8 = tr B = B1 + Bu + B111

12.17),

The trace of the strain tensor is a tensorial invariant.


Owing to defmition (2.7), we therefore have:

e=

.;

(.2.18)

div u

Hence assuming small deformations, the volumetric strain corresponds to the


displacement divergence.

2.1.2 Stress tensor and equilibrium equations


If a body is deformed under the action of external forces, elementary forces, called
stresses, are generated to oppose this deformation. More speciftcally, let us consider a
point M in a deformed solid, and subdivide an elementary cube (Fig. 2.2).
z

z
ayz

axz

~I

dz

J-t::=::...;;.;.;._-x
J

dx
I

azx

Fig. 2.2 Stress tensor. Defmition of stresses applied to the faces of an


elementary cube dx dy d:.

The contiguous parts of the body exert elementary surface forces on the faces of this
cube. The j'h component of the force applied to the face whose normal is the ;h direction is
denoted u 1i. The series of (uii) constitutes a tensor called the stress tensor 131 :
q

qJCJC

Uyx

Uxy

Uyy

Uz:x)
Uz:y

Uxz:

Uyz

O'z:z

12.19)

(3) As defmed here, the tensor is the contravariant representative, whose components should be denoted u"" ...
In Cartesian coordinates, however, the contravariant and covariant representatives of a tensor merge and we
adopt the notation u,.,. or u".

'

j
---------------------------

53

WAVE PROPAGATION 1:-J SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

Due to the tensorial character ofthe stresses (Mandel, 1974), the i'b component F of the
w tten:

force applied to a face whose normal is defmed by the unit vee


F;

= u;ini

(2.20)

If the quantity F;n;. which corresponds to the projection of this force on the normal, is
positive, this represents a tension, and. if it is negative, a compression. Projections in the
{ plane of the face (such as u;i for j i) are called shear stresses.
Under the action of external forces, a stress f1eld develops within the solid. The f1eld
must satisfy the local equilibrium. This represents the case in which volumetric forces are
absent. Let us now write the equilibrium of an elementary cube (Fig. 2.3) subjected in the
dynamic case to inertia forces - pu; dx 1 dx 2 dx 3 where pis the density. In the 1 direction
this gives:

f
t

dx 2 dx 3

uu
-

t'
I

(u 21

+ 0'21

+ u2 1.2

dx 3 dx 1 + u 31 dx 1 dx 2 - (0' 11 + 0' 11 , 1 dx 1 ) dx 2 dx 3
dx 2 ) dx 1 dx 3 - (0' 31 + u 31 , 3 dx 3 ) dx 2 dx 1 = pu; dx 1 dx 2 dx 3

(221)

Hence:
O'u.1

+ a21.2 + u3,.3 =

(2.22)

pu;

with the corresponding equations for the remaining directions 141


1122+ 1122,2 dx2
1121

x2

0 23 + 11 23,2

+ 0 21.2 dx2

dx2

11 12+ 11 12,1

dxt

~ uu+ott,1 dx1

dx2
11 13+ 0 13,3 dx3

dx1
0

22

L--------:-----x,
)(3

Fig. 2.3 Equilibrium of an elementary cube (after Fung, Foundations of solid


mechanics, p. 65. 1965. Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ).

(4) Note that, as it has been defmed. this stress tensor relates to the present (i.e. deformed) geometry. Strictly
speaking, the equilibrium equations are all related to this geometry. However, assuming small deformations or,
more precisely, small displacements, the initial and present geometries can be merged in writing this equilibrium.

I
I

_..,1

54

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATL"RATED POROUS MEDIA

The equilibrium of the moments shows that, in the usual case without volumetric
distribution of moments, the stress tensor is also symmetrical:

= (jji

(fi)

(2.23)

.i
i'

~"
~

!l

This symmetry allows us to write the equilibrium equations in the form:

= piii

uii.i

(2.24)

Since the stress tensor is symmetrical, a principal reference system can be deftned at each
point in which the stress tensor is diagonal. The diagonal terms u 1, uii and um are called
the principal stresses.

2.1.3

Constitutive law of linear elasticity

Equilibrium equations alone are inadequate to solve a given problem, because only
three differential equations are available for nine unknowns (six stresses and three
displacemc:nts). The constituent material is thus involved by its constitutive equation,
which links stresses and strains. The simplest equation is the equation of linear elasticity:
=

(fij

(2.25)

cijklekl

This equation is the simplest for the case of reversible behavior. In fact, it corresponds to a
linear response around an equilibrium state.
Owing to the symmetries of the strain and stress tensors, the tensor Ci111 necessarily
satisftes:
ciJ'"

= cjikl = cii'"

(2.26)

Furthermore, we obviously have:


cijkl

= c"lii

(u;1e;1

= uk,ek1)

(2.27)

This reduces the number of components of the tensor of elasticity Ciikl to 21 in the
general case. For the isotropic case, that is to say when all stress directions are equivalent,
only two constants are required, and Hooke's law is obtained:
uii = ),

tr

e bii

+ 2p. eii

(2.28)

where A. and p. are called Lame's coefftcients, J.l is the shear modulus, and the term Jii is
the Kronecker's delta:
Jij = 0
bij = 1

i=Fj
i=j

(2.29)

The inverse Hooke's law is alternatively written:


1+ v
e-.11 = -E-

11

E tr u tJ 11..

q .. - -

(2.30)

where E and v are Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, respectively such that:

55

WAVE PROPAGATION (]'; SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

). = (1 + v)(1-2v)'

J1

= 2(1 + v)

or

(2.31)
v=

3). + 2p
E = J1 ----:--). + J1

1.

2(). +pi"

The quantities introduced all have a simple physical meaning. In a simple compression
(tension) experiment, where only one stress is non zero (for example u 11 = u, the other
u;i = 0), it is easily concluded from (2.30) that:

I..

'I

''I

e22 = e33 = -

= Ee 11
t;i

l' 11 ,

=0

(2.32)

ifi#:j

Hence E characterizes the strain in the direction of the applied stress, while v
characterizes the relative extension in the orthogonal directions. This is represented in
Fig. 2.4 for a unit cube.

:ll

'!

a 11 =a

,c l

1i
I
I
!

alE=

En

, ....

,'

/
+t
I

)-.

--,..,.
,

v , ,J

,.. ,

-- -- -

_____ ..J.. ....


I

_,-''

e22.,-w 11

Fig. 1.4 Interpretation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio.

Let us now conduct a pure shear experiment, in other words an experiment where, for
example, u 12 = u 21 = t, with all the other stresses being equal to zero. Equation (2.30)
immediately gives:
21

12

1+ v
= ~:

= 2p'

other

~:iJ =

(2.33)

The corresponding deformation is an angular distorsion.


It has been shown that the tra~e of the strain tensor represented the volumetric strain 8.
Taking the trace of the two members of Eq. (2.281. we obtain:

2p) e = K8
31 tr u = ('I. + 3

.... 4

(2.34)

56

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

Equation (2.34) thus linearly relates the mean hydrostatic pressure< 5l (1/3 tr u) to the
volumetric strain. K is called the bulk modulus.
In conclusion to this very brief review, note that elastic behavior may be introduced by
assuming the existence of a strain potential 'V(eiJ). For an infmitesi~al strain de;j the
deformation work is by defmition:

av

(2.35)

d'V = - deiJ
OB;j

and the stresses are thus identifted with:

~~

av

(2.36)

0"=081j

IJ

In the case of small deformations, this potential can be linearized around a reference
state that is assumed to be free of prestresses by only using the quadratic terms, and
assuming isotropy, the potential Eq. (2.28) is written:
2'V = (). + 2J.L)(tr e) 2 + 2J.L(tr e2 - (tr e) 2 )
(2.37)
The potential is positive for any deformation, and thus imposes:

tl:t:
''

i
81
i

2J.l
A.+-~0
{

J.l~O

or

1
-l<v~-

-~ I

(2.38)

E~O

This was evident from the previous interpretation of the different coefftcients.

2.1.4 Linear elasticity and rock mechanics


2.1.4.1

J;
iii

Jl
I

''

Linear elasticity

The elastic constitutive law [Eq. (2.25)] is an equation between present-time values. In
other words, the materials have no chronological memory. This is obviously due to the
reversible, elastic behavior ofthe material. The question arises whether this reversible, and
possibly isotropic, linear behavior applies to rocks.
Figure 2.5 shows the main phases of the behavior of a rock during a simple compression
test along axis ox 1
An examination of Fig. 2.5 shows that characteristic stress values determine the
behavior of a rock in a compression test. For stresses less than o1, thereis a crack closure
phase. This phase is elastic (reversible) since no cracks are created. However. the
stress/strain relationship is not linear (see Ftg. 2.5) at the macroscopic scale. In fact, the
material tends to stiffen due to the closure of cn:.cks at the microscopic scale, and this
closure is reversible. Yet the degree of crack closure depends on its orientation in relation
to the applied stress direction. The deformation of rocks. whose complexity was discussed

, ,

(5) This denomination is due to the fact that (tr u)/3 = - p for a body subjected to hydrostatic pressure p.

.J

57

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

a,

a,
1
.~

Unstable crack growth

"I

fj

a2 =a3 :o

M
a 1

Stable crack growth

CriCk initiltion

---------------------.q- ,, __ _
CriCkclosure

:f!

J!

.,

...

t:

;11

; I
!

,,

Str1in

Fig. l.5 Main phases in the behavior of a rock during a simple compression
test (after Panet, 1976).

tl

e1

in the f1rst Chapter, has no a priori reason to be a linear function of stress in the crack
closure phase.
A linear elastic phase occurs for u 1 varying between o1 and uf, when the crack closure
phase has been achieved. For stresses from o{ to u{-.,.a stable crack propagation phase
occurs. This phase is not reversible since cracks are created, and the material retains the
memory of this new cracking. These different phases are clearly exhibited in the curves
showing the volumetric strain 8 = 8 1 + 2t3 or transverse dilatation 8 3 as a function of u 1
lreversible only between 0 and o{ and linear only between o1 and o{). Unstable crack
propagation occurs above u{-, followed by fracture when u = uf'. The more homogeneous
the material, the closer of is to uf'.
By using Eqs. (2.30) to (2.~). the different curves help to determine Young's modulus E,
the bulk modulus K, Poisson's ratio v, and the shear modulus p.. Some experimental values
at atmospheric pressure taken from Angenheister (1982) are given in Table 2.1:
TABLE

2.1

EXA~IPLES OF ELAmC MODUU FOR DIFFERENT ROCK lYPES

(from Angenheister, 1982)

Westerly granite ..................................


Tholeitic basalt. ..................................
Solenhofen limestone (dry) .........................
Ottawa sandstone (dry) ............................
-

.....

-- -

K
(GPa)

(GPa)

Jl.

E
(GPa)

19.8
59.6
53.2
0.52

18.8
31.9
25.4
0.54

43.0
81.2
65.8
1.20

0.14
0.27
0.29
0.11

58

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

The lithostatic pressure of in situ rocks generally lies. between 11~ and 11f. The slight
variation in stress L111 due to the propagation of a wave is always such that 11 1 + L111 < 11f.
In fact. Winkler (personal correspondence, 1979) showed that the strain amplitude L1e of
conventional seismic sources (artificial or natural) was Jess than 10- 6 in the far field (i.e.
approximately two wavelengths from the source). Given the stress/strain relationship, the
corresponding variation L111 is thus less than 1 bar (0.1 MPa).
Hence. by ignoring the effect of strain rate, it may be considered that elastic behavior
can reasonably be adopted for the problem of wave propagation. This leaves the problem
of the linearity or non-linearity of this behavior according to whether 11 1 , the experimental
compression, is lower than or greater than cG
Considering the minimum value of L111, the approximation of the non-linear curve 11 1 (e 1 )
by its tangent to the ordinate 11 1 appears to be perfectly justified 16 l. The remaining problem
is now that the different elastic moduli for a stress 11 1 < cG in the laboratory are not those
in situ (lithostatic pressure, 11 1 > cG). This explains the need for pressurized tests in the
laboratory.
It must be stated that the experiments described above are only static experiments (zero
frequency). The time dependence of the constitutive law for a given stress is a fundamental
factor in the dynamic measurements discussed in this work. This dependence will be dealt
with in subsequent Chapters.

2.1.4.2

Rock mechanics and effective moduli

In the foregoing Section, the rock was considered to be a homogeneous material with
given elastic moduli (see for example Table 2.1). In fact, as we have pointed out on several
occasions, a rock is an aggregate of solid elements between which the pores may or may
not be saturated with liquid. Each one of the constituents (s.olid and liquid) of the rock is
associated with different moduli. The shape of the pores is the most important property
determining the bulk elastic properties of a rock. It is easy to see why a .. spherical'' pore
will be more resistant to a uniaxial stress than a .. flat" pore or microcrack (see Chapter 5
for experimental examples).
For a given mineralogical composition, the .. bulk" value of the elastic moduli and the
effective value reflect the type and shape ofinclusions and pores in the sample analyzed. An
abundant literature exists concerning the effect of inclusions on the elastic properties of
solids. Eshelby (1957), Kuster and Toksaz (1974) dealt with the general problem of an
ellipsoidal elastic inclusion. Walsh (1965 and 1969) and Wu (1966) tackled the problem of
heterogeneities in the form of ellipsoidal cracks, and the results obtained offered a
satisfactory way to reproduce the behavior of rocks under pressure (see Section 5.1.1.1).
O'Connell and Budiansky (1974) and Budiansky and O'Connell (1976) resumed the same
type of investigation, using a self-consistent method: the effective modulus is obtained by
an implicit equation, with the pores already assumed to be included in an effective
medium. Finally, Mavko and Nur (1978) discuss inclusions of a more random shape.

;.I

'i I

-'!

; i

tl

f:

IJ,
> I
;J \

,,

_,- i\

~{

(6) Note that, in a homogeneous linear elastic medium (no defects and invariable elastic constants), the relative
variation in wave velocity as a function of applied stress is totally negligible (the relative variation is comparable
to the deformation created by the stress. Marigo, 1981). In a rock, however, the only signiftcant factor is the
closure of the cracks.

....
---------

------

''

W.... \"E PROPAGATION IN SATI:RATEO POROUS MEDIA

59

The theoretical developments associated with the determination of effective moduli aE


use the same type of assumption, namely that each inclusion (gas or liquid) is a closed
system. Hence the result is independent of the permeability of the medium.
Biot's theory. which we shall discuss in Section 2.2, accounts for the permeability effects..
providing a so-called open system. Hence the theory of effective moduli is not a specifiC
case ofBiot's theory. but a different way of dealing with theoretical problems. For a liquic
inclusion (saturated rock) and a gaseous inclusion (dry rock), it is possible to determine
values of effective bulk moduli, but these two moduli are in general not linked by a
relationship such as Gassmann's equation (see Section 2.2.2.2).
The theory of effective moduli must therefore be used with caution when dealing with
any process in which permeability plays an important role.

.;,
\';

i'

2.1.5 Wave propagation in an isotropic linear elastic medium


2.1.5.1

Wnes in a 3D space

By introducing (2.7) into the constitutive equation (2.28) and then the result into the
equilibrium equations {2.24), the following equations of motion are obtained:

{). + 21-') grad div u -

11 curl curl u

== pi

(2.391

Let us now consider irrotational movements (curl u = 0) defmed by a potential iP such


that:
(2.4(11

u =grad 4>
This equation introduced into (2.39) gives 171 :
J724>

~~ c}S

(2.411

V,.=e: 2~-~y
1

(2.4:1

Equation (2.41) defmes waves propagating at the velocity V,..


These are called dilatational waves (or compressional waves) because they concern the
propagation of volumetric strain. By applying the Laplacian operator J7 2 to Eq. (2.39) fc>r
u satisfying (2.40), and using Eq. (2.18), we actually obtain:
2

V 8

= ~~ iJ

(2.431

These waves are also called P waves, where P corresponds to primary, because these aT!
the fastest waves likely to propagate in an isotropic linear elastic medium.
Let us now consider motion defmed by a vector potential , such that:
u = curl ,

(7t ~ote that div grad~= 17 2 ~. hence div.

...4

=8 = r

(2.~'

60

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

;I

These movements correspond to motion without a volume change or equivolumetric


motion, because:
(2.45)
8 = div curl 'I' = 0

J
}

Introducing (2.44) into (2.39) gives:


(2.46)

172'1' = __; "'


Vs
1

(2.47)

Vs = (JJ./p)2

'

Equation (2.46) defmes waves propagating at the velocity V5 . These are called shear
waves. They are also called S waves, where S stands for secondary, because they are slower
than the P waves.
Note that the ratio V~/V~ can be written as a function of Poisson's ratio v in the form:
v~

'<

,2(1- v)

v~ =\.1 - 2v
I

Now, studying the motion of material particles due to the propagation of the wave, by
using the change in variables:

=t- V

(lx

+ my + nz)
(2.48)

1
P= t + V (lx + my + nz)
(1

with

+ m2 + n2

and noting that, for any function F(a,

= 1,

= Vp

or

Vs

I
F ,x =-(Fp-F'
v .
"'

F = F,p +F.

P>:

we obtain that a solution of (2.41) and (2.46) of the type F(a,

etc.

(2.49)

P> will verify:

4F,,.1 =0

(2.50)

where F = 4' or '1'. When integrated, this equation implies that:


F=

f(r-

lx + my + nz)

lx + my + nz)
+g ( r+---===v--

(2.51)

For f1xed t, F is constant for the plane lx + my + nz = constant. Hence the waves
defmed by (2.51) are plane waves whose wave fronts are planes lx +my + nz =constant.
For F = 4', Eqs. (2.40) and (2.51) show that the particle motion takes place
perpendicular to the wave fronts. The wave polarization is called longitudinal.
For F = '1', Eqs. (2.44) and (2.51) show that the particle motion takes place in the planes
constituting the wave fronts. This polarization is called transverse.
These results, obtained for plane waves, are actually generally applicable to any wave
fronts (see Appendix 2.1). Polarization is either normal to the wave front for P waves, or in

.J
~~--

61

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

the tangent plane for S waves. This is why P waves and S waves are also called longitudinal
and transverse waves respectively.
At this point, we have assumed that the medium is isotropic (see Table 2.2 for relations
between different elastic parameters). in other words one whose properties are identical in
all directions. This is not generally valid as the properties of a rock are often anisotropic.
The study of wave propagation in the most general linear elastic medium, thus satisfying
(2.25) and not (2.28), calls for a development other than the one carried out in this Chapter.
This development is given in Appendix 2.1.

'

'~

2.1.5.2

1 D wave equation (elastic case)

Let us consider a rod element of constant cross-section, lying between sections I(x) and
l"(x + dx) and bounded by the surface a..r, with the latter free of load (see Fig. 2.6).

l
;f
~

6I

z
f

'-

~'

~
::::1_

l:(udxl

~n +a,,..,

xx

Fig. 2.6

Bar element.

Let us now examine the propagation of disturbances corresponding to ftelds of uniaxial


~tresses along the ox axis and uniforin in cross-section. These ftelds are therefore defmed

by a single stress uxx. The dynamic equilibrium of the element gives rise to the equation of
motion:
ti)CJC,J<

(2.52)

= pii

where u is the displacement along ox.


For a uniaxial stress fteld, it has been shown [see Eq. (2.32)] that:
(2.53a)

tl"" = Etxx = Eu,x


71

= Su = -

V""

Sij

= 0

if

i =F j

(2.53b)

Equation (2.53), introduced into (2.52), then gives:


I

..

u,%% = v~ u

(2.54)

VE=l

(2.55)

where

'
.....

F.

2)

3
-------

3R~ +I

9pV~R~

3K(I - 2v)

v = (Rf - 2) = (3R~ - 2) = 2(3R~ - 1)


(Rf - I) (3R~ + I)
(3R~ + I)

'

4 8
pV,.--V

( 2

3(1 - 2v)

..

Jl 1(1

2/1(1 + v)

(I t-v)(l-2v)

2(1 + v)
2v)

).

31 + 2J1
Jl~
K-A.
9K-3K- A.
9KJ1
3K + 11

3v

). I+ v

EJ1
3(3J1- )

A.+ 2J1/3

TAIII.I'

2.2

2v
;>,.

p(V~- 2V~)

(I + v)(l - 2v)

3K ~--l+v
F.v

I' I

E- 2J1
Jl-----3J1- E
3K -E
3K-9K-E

K- 2Jt/3

A.

).

See below

3K-E
6K

Ef(2Jt)- l

2(3K 1- 11)

3K- A.
3K- 211

2).

-I'

,,'~.i.

--~

------

(I + v)(l - 2v)

(1- 1')

I- v
3K --l+v

2 - 2v
21
I' I

).---

4J1- E
Jt3J1- E
3K + E
3
K 9K-E

K + 4tt/3

3K-

A.+ 2J1

A.
--2(1 + Jl)

pV~

-2
-{IV p

H: Young's modulus
v : Poisson's ratio
). : Lame's constant
V,.
K
2
2
R = -V., R2 = -V2' Rl
p :density
S
(I S

K : hulk modulus
JJ : shear modulus

(NuR, personal correspondence)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF AN ISOTROPIC BODY

--

. -2 + 2v
1\

I - 21

:!1
---

21'

,-..p~r;.,.--.,.'

----------

2 + 21'

JK

).

3KE
9K -E

J(K- A.)/2

pV~ = J1

.:.r-~--,'!

----~-----~-

r
'
i
!:.

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

63

Equation (2.54) corresponds to longitudinal waves (without shear) with velocity 1'&,
where E stands for extension. Note that, in comparison with an infinite three-dimensional
medium, in which this type of wave propagates at velocity V,. [see Eq. (2.42)], we have:

Vi

. v; =

(l

+ v)(l

- .2v)
1- ,.

(2.56)

Note that this elementary theory ignores the inertial effects induced in the oy and oz
directions by transverse deformations (2.53b). Hence the three-dimensional equilibrium
equations (2.24) along these directions cannot be satisfted assuming a uniaxial stress fteld.
In the case of sufftciently low frequencies (large wavelengths in comparison with the
transverse dimensions), these inertia effects remain negligible, and Eq. (2.54) can be
accepted as a fust approximation.

''

t
2.2 WAVE PROPAGATION
IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA: BlOT'S THEORY

i
At this point we have only considered single-phase (solids) media. We shall now extend
the study to fluid-saturated porous media. To do this, we shall present Biot's model and its
experimental confumation by Plona. This will help us to identify an attenuation
mechanism for compressional waves.
In dealing with the problem of acoustic wa'l'e propagation in saturated porous media for
dynamic analysis of the subsurface, two approaches are possible:
The ftrst approach draws on homogenization processes, which help to pass from
microscopic laws to macroscopic laws. The term microscopic is used here to apply to laws
governing mechanisms at the scale of the heterogeneity (of porosity in our case), whereas
macroscopic laws refer to a scale related to the heterogeneous medium concerned,
identifted as representative of the mechanisms investigated. So far as we are concerned
here, this scale is in fact the measurement scale (see Section 1.5). In these preliminary
approach methods, our discussion will be limited, and the reader can refer to the works of
Suquet (1982) and Andrieux (1983) for a more extensive review.
Briefly, we shall note that two homogenization methods essentially exist. One of them is
based on an averaging process: a microscopic problem is fmt resolved at the level of an
elementary cell containing an isolated heterogeneity (a fluid-ftlled channel in our case).
From the solution to this elementary problem, we then infer the mean value on the cell of
the quantity analyzed (stresses, strains, energies or relative flow velocity) as a function of
the macroscopic value imposed at the cell boundary (strains, stresses or velocities). The
actual heterogeneous medium is then replaced by a ftctitious homogeneous medium. The
response of the latter to an imposed force is the mean value previously calculated. The
function linking them depends spatially on the geometric and mechanical parameters of
the heterogeneities existing in the actual medium. This method is quite effective for low
and medium concentrations of heterogeneities, for which cell-to-cell interaction processes

''"'

l.

:'

..

64

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

can be ignored. This procedure was used in particular by Biot ( 1956 b) outside the
framework of the theory that we shall present here, to characterize the flow of a fluid in a
porous medium.
The second homogenization method relies on the assumption of periodic repetition of
the microscopic heterogeneous structure, imposing the periodicity of the solutions. By
making this spatial period tend towards zero with respect to the macroscopic scale (small
parameter asymptotic method, Bensoussan et al., 1978), the form of the macroscopic laws
is obtained. This method otTers the advantage of mathematical rigor, its systematic aspect,
and its absence of concentration limitations. It has been used successfully in recent years
(Lhy and Sanchez-Palencia, 1977, Levy, 1979)for the problem of saturated porous media.
In parti~ular, it h~l~d. to generalize ~ar~ts law in ~on-steady-state con~itions. The
assumption of penodicity may appear hm1tmg, but th1s method seems to Withstand the
comparison with experiments conducted in random media (see Suquet, 1982). The
drawback is that it furnishes only the form of the macroscopic laws, unlike the method
based on average procedure which can provide analytical estimates within its applicability
limits for geometries with simple heterogeneities.

i
fJ

The second approach consists in deliberately ignoring the microscopic level and
assuming that the concepts and principles of continuum mechanics (existence of potentials
and stationary principles in particular) can be applied to measurable macroscopic values.
This older approach is discussed by Biot (1956a, 1962) for problems concerning our
subject. Strictly speaking, it is only justified a posteriori by the agreement of the results that
it provides with those obtained by the above homogenization method.
Despite its more heuristic appearance, we have decided to present the results
concerning porous media through this macroscopic approach, which has more physically
realistic assumptions. In the ftrst part, we shall discuss those assumptions on which it is
based. In the second part, after defining the strain potential and stresses and the
dissipation pseudo-potential and kinetic energy, we shall derive the equations of
movement using Hamilton's principle.
In a third part, we shall examine the propagation of waves, their velocities and
attenuations. We will also discuss the existence of a second compressional, or slow, wave,
in addition to the standard compressional and shear waves. We shall then see the extent to
which the mechanisms identified play a significant role, and the experimental and
theoretical developments that they suggest.

2.2.1

Assumptions

The f1rst assumption states that the wavelength is large in comparison with the
dimensions of the macroscopic elementary voluflle. This assumption, which is normally
always satisfied in geophysical applications, is required to make a description of the
processes analyzed by the tools of continuum mechanics. Hence the wavelength is large in
comparison with the dimension of the elementary channels where microscopic flow
occurs. It can then be shown that the stress distribution in the fluid is nearly hydrostatic,
although viscosity plays a major role in the flow (Mandel, 1950).

...
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

rf

t
Jf

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

65

The second assumption is that of small displacements both for the fluid and solid
phases. This assumption is fully justified, as the strains in seismic studies (laboratory or
field) are less than l0- 6 Hence if u; is the ;th component of the mean macroscopic
displacement, the components of the macroscopic strain tensor can be written to the
nearest second order:
ll;i =

,i

~t

2 (u;.i + uj,;)

(2.57)

The third assumption is that the liquid phase is continuous. Thus the matrix consists of
the solid phase and disconnected pores. In the following discussion, the porosity under
consideration is that of the channels in which the flow occurs. With respect to this
porosity, which we assume to be isotropic and uniform, and which we denote cJ>, the
medium is assumed to be fully saturated.
Let U be the mean displacement of the continuous liquid phase contained in the
macroscopic element. The elementary macroscopic flow rate dO through an area dS with
a normal n and per unit time is given by:
dO=

w. D dS

= c~><iJ- u)

(2.58)

where a dot denotes a derivative with respect to time. The vector wis the filtration velocity
vector. Note that, for any macroscopic volume 0 with a boundary S, we have:

w n dS =

The local increase in fluid content

div w dO

is given by:

=- div w

(2.59)

(2.60)

The fourth assumption concerns the matrix which is assumed to be elastic and isotropic,
with the understanding that the theory can be extended to the anisotropic elastic case.
Hence all the mechanisms of viscous origin related to the matrix (such as those due to the
presence of fluid in the disconnected pores) will not be dealt with. For the description of
these mechanisms, the reader can refer to the works of Walsh (1969) and Budiansky and
O'Connell (1976), or even the more formal work of Biot (1962). The anisotropic case was
examined in a general theoretical manner by Biot and Willis (1957).
The fmal assumption concerns the absence of any coupling and, in particular, the
absence of thermomechanical coupling. Note however that this coupling has been
discussed by Biot ( 1977).

......

66

2~2.2

2.2.2.1

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

Equations of movement
Strain potential and stresses

Since the perturbation caused by wave propagation is a rapid phenomenon, the process
is adiabatic and, from the general concepts of fluid mechanics, it is reasonable to
presume (see, for example, Mandel, 1974) the existence of an internal volumetric potential
V, such that its differential represents the deformation work in an infmitesimal
macroscopic transformation. The previous assumptions give rise to the fact that the
potential can only depend on the components ofthe strain tensor eii and on the increase in
fluid content e. These variables are normal variables, and for any infmitesimal
transformation defmed by the increments deu, d~. we have:

av

d\1 = oeij deij

av

+a[ de

'i

(2.61)

where the summation, as below, applies to the repeated subscripts.


The first term of the second member of (2.61) corresponds to the elementary
deformation work at ftxed fluid content, and the second term to the work associated with
the increase in fluid content in a transformation at ftxed macroscopic deformation. Hence
it is reasonable to defme a macroscopic stress tensor a and a mean pressure in the fluid p
by:

cv

Uij

= C~ ..
I)

(2.62)

cv
P =

ce

>

Assuming small disturbances, the expansion of V can be limited to the quadratic terms
(see Section 2.1.3). The assumption of isotropy implies that this expansion only involves
(for example see Germain, 1973) the flfSt two invariants of strain tensor 11 = tr e and
12 = 2(tr (8 2 ) - In, as well as the variation of fluid content One can therefore write:

e.

2V

= (A.I + 2p)lf + pi 2 -

2PMI 1

e+ M e

(2.63)

For P= ~ = 0, the single-phase case is obtained [see (2.37)].


The justiftcation of the form selected for the different coefficients will appear
subsequently. The "positive defmite" character of the quadratic fomt associated with V,
as a function of e;i and also implies (Biot, 1962):

e.

p>O

i. 1 -P 2 M+~p>O

M>O

(2.64)

From Eqs. (2.62), it can be inferred that:


uii = ).1 tr

p = M (<) . = {
I)

---,------

01

Jii + 2p E:ii - PM ~bii

p tr 8 + e)
if
if

i"#j
i=j

(2.65)
~\

--,--2

WAVE PROPAGAtiON IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

67

which can be alternatively placed in the form:

+ 2p. eii -

aii = i. 0 tr e ~ii

f3P~ii

(2.66)

e =-p+f3tre
M

where i. 0 = i, 1 - /3 2 M. The interpretation of the different coefficients is thus


straightforward.
The coefficient Jl. is the classic shear modulus. As the fluid does not respond to the shear
forces, it corresponds to a shear experiment for a system indifferently closed or open. The
coefficient i.1 is the second Lame coefficient in the case of a closed system, in other words
for constant water content [ { = 0 in (2.65)]. Hence it is linked to the elastic constants of
the matrix and also to the Ouid compressibility. The coefftcient ),0 is its homologue for an
open system [p = 0 in (2.66)].
Coefficient M is the pressure to be exerted on the fluid to increase the fluid content of a
unit value at isovolumetric macroscopic strain [tr e = 0 in (2.65)]. Coefftcient f3 quantiftes
the proportion due to the variation in fluid content in the apparent macroscopic
volumetric strain tre for an open system [p = 0 in (2.66)]. It is therefore linked not only to
porosity but also to the geometry of the channels where flow occurs. Biot and Willis (1957)
have discussed the experimental determination of these coefficients.

2.2.2.2

Gassmann's equation and Biot's theory

Let us introduce the closed or saturated K 1 and open or dry K 0 bulk moduli as a
function of the Lame parameters already defmed :

+ J Jl.

(2.67)

2
.
K o=l.o+3JJ.

(2.68)

KI =

l.f

It is interesting to relate the four parameters {3, M, K 0 and K 1 , which are not
independent (K 0 = K 1 - {3 2 M), and the bulk moduli of the fluid K 11 and the solid
skeleton K .
Let us ftrst consider an experiment at zero pressure in the fluid, so that p = 0, and at
imposed macroscopic hydrostatic pressure in the sample, so that - (tr a)/3 = u. From
Eq. (2.66) and the previous considerations, it can be inferred that the actual strain is:
tr e - {

= (1 -

f3) tr e =

(1 -

/3)Ko

(2.69)

In the fmal analysis, this strain is merely the strain of the solid and hence equal to

- afK . This gives:


K 0 = K.(1 -

/3)

(2.70)

Let us now consider a second experiment in which the mean macroscopic hydrostatic
pressure - (tr a)/3 = p is also the pressure prevailing in the fluid. From Eqs. (2.66) and
(2. 70), it can be inferred that:
(2.71)
- p = K, tr E

68

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

Recalling that

eis [Eq. (2.60)]:


.; = -

cp div (U -- u) =

- <P div U

+ cp

tr

t:

(2.72}

and using (2.66), we obtain:

cp div U

..!!... = M

cp) tr t:

- ({J -

(2.73)

It is also known that, under the assumption of small displacements, the defmition of K 11
yields:

(2.74)

- p = K 11 div U

Replacing in Eq. (2. 73) div U and tr e by their values as a function of p [Eqs. (2. 74) and
(2.71)], we fmd:

{3-cp

cp

-=--+M

K,

(2.75)

K 1,

Equations (2.70), (2.75) and the equation:


K 0 = K 1 - {3 2 M

(2.76)

give us K 1 as a function of K 0 , K 1 , and K,:

Kf

1]

cp [ K,- K 11 + K,- K 0

:0 [~. -:IJ + ~. [ ~. - ~]

(2.77)

This equation is known as Gassmann's equation ( 1951 ). Gassmann obtained it directly by


considerations of elementary elasticity, without requiring the use of p and M. The reader
can refer to White (1983 b). It should be emphasized. however, that it is implicitly
understood that the porosity is uniform throughout the sample.
Note that Eqs. (2.70), (2.75) and (2.77) are quite compatible with limit cases. For a solid
medium corresponding to P = cp = 0, the expected values K 1 = K. = K 0 and M -+ oo
are obtained. For a fluid medium corresponding toP= cp = 1, we obtain K 0 = 0 and
KI=Kit=M.

We have stated that a fluid medium corresponds to P= 1 and K 1 = K 11 = M ( = ).1


because J.1. = 0). These equalities can help to understand the significance of the
displacements U and u. In order for a medium to be a fluid. the macroscopic stresses given
by (2.65) must be identified with - pbii hence:
().1 - {JM)

tr t: =

M~({J-

II

(2.78)

Since this must be satisfied whatever the local increase in fluid content eand whatever the
apparent macroscopic volumetric strain tr t: , the previously mentioned equalities are
obtained. P = 1 and i.1 = M. The value of P = 1 introduced in (2.65), jointly with (2.58)
and (2.601, where cp = 1 and tr e = div u, then leads to:
- p = M di\' U

(2.79)

----------------------

1
2

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROt.:S MEDIA

69

which corresponds to the equation of perfect fluid behavior, for small displacements,
where M is the fluid bulk modulus. This helps to understand why U, the average fluid
displacement, is not identifted with the macroscopic displacement u, when the medium is
totally fluid. In fact, ifU were equal to u, the rise in water content would be~== Oand(2.78)
would only yield ).1 = (JM. Thus (J would not ncecessarily be equal to 1 and one could not
obtain (2. 79). In fact. u is the macroscopic average on the reference geometric element
considered, while U is an average of the displacement oi the fluid contained in this element
and of the fluid which has left or has entered it 18 l.
Simultaneously, in the general case, u is not the average displacement of the skeleton,
but the average, on the reference geometric element, oi the displacement of the fluid part
and of the skeleton part.

2.2.2.3

Dissipation pseudo-potential

Dissipations are assumed to result only from the relative fluid/matrix movement. In the
neighborhood of equilibrium, it can be stated that the flow vector wand the associated
force X are linked by a linear equation such as:

w1 =

:KiJXJ

(2.80)

Onsager's principle, based on microscopic considerations of symmetry, also stipulates


that the tensor :K = (:Kii) is symmetrical. Based on (280), a dissipation pseudo-potential
[)can be introduced (for example see Germain, 1973),which is a positive defmitequadratic
form of representative matrix -!"- 1 , such that:
1r .

[]) =- w:K- 1 w

Xi=

ao
ow,

(2.81a)
(2.81b)

The term pseudo-potential, due to Eq. (2.81b), recalls that the concept is only justified in
the vicinity of thermodynamic equilibrium. In the isotropic case, the tensor :K - 1 is
proportional to unity (-!" - 1 = :Kl) and the previous equations become :
1 .2
[) = 2: Wi
1 .

--w,
X ,:K

(2.82a)
(2.82b)

Darcy's classic law can be recognized in Eq. (2.82b) if :K is identified with the hydraulic
permeability of the medium and force X with the opposite of the pressure gradient. As
shown below, this identification is only possible in steady~state conditions.

(8) This difficulty stems from the fact that the macroscopic des."7iption is a priori Lagrangian, whereas that
concerning the fluid is Eulerian. Nevertheless only small displacemnts are considered for the solid and fluid and
the two descriptions are equivalent.

70

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROt:S MEDIA

2.2.2.4

Kinetic energy

Since the wavelength A is assumed to be large in comparison with the dimensions of the
macroscopic elementary volume dQ (i.e. dQ - / 3 and l, .1 ~ 1), one can restrict the
expansion of the volumetric density C of kinetic energy to the quadratic terms:
2C = p,ii;U; + 2p.,,..U;Ii;

+ p,..li';li;

{.2.83)

The absence of terms such as w;wi is due to the assumed isotropy. The specific case in
which no overall movement occurs (i.e. w = 0) serves to identify p., with the average
density in Eq. (2.83):
p.,

= p = (1- c/J)p, + </Jp1

{2.84)

where p. and p1 are the matrix and fluid densities respectively. The terms Puw and p,.. will be
identif1ed subsequently.

2.2.2.5

Equations of movement

Let l be the volumetric Lagrangian density deftned by:


12.85)

D..=C-\1

Hamilton's principle (for example, see Achenbach, 1973) ~tipulates that, among all the
possible paths between any two points in time t 1 and t 2 , the one that prevails will be the
one that makes stationary the integral over time and space of the Lagrangian density and
of the work ofthe dissipated forces, where the latter are derived from a (pseudo)-potential.
Ifl depends on the parameters q;, i]; and qi,i and the potential of dissipative forces UJ on i]; . . the variational calculus reflects this condition by the classic Euler equations:

a aL a aa.. cL aiD
--+----+-=0
at aq_l

axj aqi,j

cq;

oiJ;

12.86)

where q1 = u1 or w; in our case. The application of (2.86), by using the expressions of ID


(2.81a), C and V (2.83) and (2.63), leads to the equations of movement:
uli.i =

- P.i

pii;

+ p.,..,w;

1
= P.,wul- + p,..w;- + .)('

(.2.87a)
.

W;

(.2.87b)

These equations serve to identify the parameters Puw and Pw If there is no average
relative fluid movement with respect to the overall macroscopic movement (i.e. w = 0): the
f1rst equation is reduced to the equation of movement in a continuous medium (see Section
2.1.2), while the second must be reduced to the equation of movement in a fluid. thus
Puw = p1 . Now if the fluid is at rest (w = - </Ju). the second equation is reduced to:
- P.1 = (p,- Pwcf>)ii;-; il;

--

~-

- - -

-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

12.88)

t
'~

r
I

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED I'()ROUS MEDIA

71

This shows that, if overall acceleration occurs. ~ force must be exerted on the fluid to
prevent its average displacement. For its inertial rart, this coupling force is:

(p 1 -

p,..</>)iif

(2.89)

To describe this coupling effect, similar to the qtass effect added in the analysis of the
movement of an obstacle in a fluid, it is usual tO introduce a parameter a called the
tortuosity parameter 191 such that:
a

12.90)

Pw=;pP!
I

One must necessarily have:


a~

(2.91)

1
I

because the coupling force (1 - a)p1 ii1 must o~viously be opposed to the overall
acceleration. This condition (2.91) ensures the n~n-negative character of the quadratic
form associated by (2.83) with the kinetic ener*y density C. Like parameter {J, the
tortuosity a is related not only to porosity but alsd to the geometry of the medium where
the flow occurs. Hence the equation relating a to 4> ~s not biunivocal. Note, however. that a
must tend toward 1 as <P tends towards 1, the medium being reduced to a fluid (zero
coupling). We must stress the fact that the way in '{t'hich this limiting case is reached does
not only depend upon the way <P tends towards 1, ~ut especially upon the geometry of the
porous medium. Thus a coefficient a approachin~ 1 does not necessarily mean that the
medium is close to a fluid. On the other hand, a ptust tend towards infmity as 9 tends
towards zero, as the fluid mass becomes too lqw to oppose the overall mo,ement.
Berryman (1980) investigated the case of solid splterical particles in a fluid. Making an
analogy with the foregoing added mass, he prop<j>sed:
a

1[1 i:]

= l ;j; +

(2.92)

As already observed, the equation linking a w1th <P is not biunivocal and Eq. (2.92)
relates only to the geometry analyzed. Other au hors (Archie, 1942, Johnson and Sen,
1981) related tortuosity a to the concept of form. tion factor F(c/J) by the equation:
a=

F(c/J)c/J,

(2.93)

+ p 1 ii~ + p,.l\i)

(2.94)

Equation (2.87b) is thus written:


wi

=-

f(P.i

As previously noted, it is only in the case of st~ady flow ii = w = 0 that Eq. (~.94) is
identif1ed with the classic Darcy's law. In the unstdady case, inertial effects are added and
the comparison of (2.94) with (2.80) shows that the force associated with w1 is:
Xi= - (P.I + P!iii 1+ p,.l\\)

(2.95)

(9) This tortuosity related to a dynamic process is differenl in principle from that defmed in Secuon 1.4.1,
which is only related to the description of the porous mediuiil In reality, these two quantities are of the same
order of magnitude, because the same geometric characteristjc is involved.

72

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

Hence it should be noted that, even in a case of a zero pressure gradient, a fluid flow can be
generated by inertial forces alone.
It is customary to derive the classic Darcy's law (in steady-state conditions) from the
Navier-Stokes microscopic equations for a fluid of viscosity '7, by making an analogy with
Poiseuille's 'law (Mandel. 1950). This gives rise to the expression of the hydraulic
permeability or mobility in the form:
K

f='1

(2.96)

where " the absolute permeability, depends only on the geometry of the porous medium.
Note however that, as it appears here, Darcy's law only results from considerations of
linearity in the vicinity of equilibrium. Hence, as already pointed out (Mat heron, 1967), the
linear character of Darcy's law, obtained by the standard procedure mentioned above,
actually only results from the linear character of the Navier-Stokes equations for flows at
sufficiently low velocity. Only the form (2.96) of f involves the law of linear viscous
behavior which these equations imply.
To conclude, this law in the form of(2.94), as noted in the introduction, can be obtained
by a rigorous homogenization method, once again based on the validity of the NavierStokes equations, but in this case in unsteady-state conditions. Moreo,er, this method
shows that for wavelengths that are large only in comparison with the dimensions of the
elementary flow channels, and no longer in comparison with the dimensions of the
macroscopic element, as required in the method developed here, the permeability is no
longer absolute, but related to the frequency of the wave which generates the flow.
Previously this result had been qualitatively found by Biot (1956 b).

2.2.3

Wave propagation

The introduction of the equations of stresses as a function of displacements u and U in


Eq. (2.87) yields the equations of motion in the form:

+ 211) grad div u + Y grad div U - 11 curl curl u


= P11 ii + P12 0 + b(u- iJ}
Ygrad div u + R grad div U = p 12 ii + P:z 2 0- b(u- VJ
(i.

(2.97a)
(2.97b)

in which we noted :

i.
R
P12

+ Mcp(cp- 2P) = l 0 + M(P- c/J) 1 Y=


= Mcp 2 , p 11 = p + cpp1(a- 2)

i.1

= tPPJ(1- a),

P22

= acppf,

.\lcfJ(P- </>)

(2.97c)

cp2

=f

Note that Eqs. (2.97) can be written for the limit cases of the perfect fluid and the solid.
In fact, if the medium is a perfect fluid, the set of parameters to be considered is
cp = P=a= 1, i.1 = M and 11 = b = 0 (%-+ + Xi, '1 = 01. Equation (2.97a) disappears,
and Eq. (2.97b) gives the dynamic equation of perfect fluids under the assumption of small
displacements:
M grad div u = p 1 0
(2.98)

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

73

Note also that Eq. (2.97a) disappears naturally and not by assuming U = u (see Section 2.2.2.1 ).
Now, if the medium is solid, letting P = (jJ = 0, a -. + oo, Eq. (2.97b) then gi\es:

,o =- a<fJp1 ii + a<fJp1 ( ) - b(u- tJ)

(2.99)

~I

while Eq. (2.97a) gives:

~I

Equation (2.100) is clearly the equation of the dynamics of elastic solids, since the second
member is cancelled owing to (2.99). Note that this cancellation takes place independently
of the manner in which tortuosity tends to infmity and permeability to 0, since the
equations are not related to these asymptotic behaviors.
Moreover, if decoupling occurs (see Section 2.2.4), P= <P and hence r = 0, coupling
between the movements only effectively occurs by inertial effects (a ::F 1) and permeability
effects (Jf' ::F oo ).

11

ij

(A. 1 + 2J.L)graddivu- J.LCurlcurlu- p,.ii

2.2.3.1

=a<fJp ii- a<fJp


1

1 ()

+ b(u- lJ)

12.100)

Existence of a slow P wave

Let us f1rst examine the case without dissipation (b = 0) and let us consider waves such .
that:

(Uu)

= (grad 4>1) = ad cJ)


grad 4> 2
gr

12.101)

These waves correspond to dilatational waves (P waves) that are irrotational


(curl u =curl U = 0). By introducing (2.101) in (2.97) with b = 0, the following equation
is obtained for the potential vector:

R172cJ) - MiD =

12.102)

where R and M are the rigidity and mass matrices respectively:

"""

"""

R =
"""

(A. + 2J.L
Y

Y) M = (Ptt P12)
"""
P12 P22

12.103)

As the matrix R - l M is positive defmite and symmetrical, it has two real positive
eigenvalues which we denote V~, and V~ . In the eigenvector reference system, Eq. 12.102)
can then be written :

J72cJ)* -

_I 0)
(
v~.

_1_

iD = o

12.104)

o v2P2

where cJ)* is determined from cJ) by the change in reference system.


We can identify here two equations of decoupled waves, corresponding to the two Pwave velocities Vr, and Vp 2 , and to the two characteristic movements defmed by the
eigenvectors of R - t M. It can be shown (Biot, 1956a) that one of the characteristic
movements corresponds to a movement in which overall and fluid displacements are in
phase, and the second to a movement in which the displacements are out of phase. The

74

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

wave corresponding to the latter case is called the slow wave or the wave of the second
kind. This terminology derives from the fact that the associated velocity Vp,, as shown
below, is much lower than the velocity Vp, of the inphase movement waves, called waves
of the f1rst kind. These waves correspond to classic P-waves, with which they merge in the
absence of fluid.
Now let us consider the shear waves (S waves) or isovolumetric waves
(div u = div U = 0) such that:
u) =(curl 'I' 1 ) = curl 'I'
(U
curl '1' 2

(2.105)

Equation (2.105), introduced into (2.97), leads to the equations:


2

17 'I' 1

'I' = _
where velocity

Vs

is given by:

Vs

vz1 'I' 1 =
s

(P12)'1'1

(2.106)

P22

=( ~ P12)i
P11

(2.107)

P22

Since the fluid does not respond to shear forces, it only influences the shear wave
through inertial effects. Its movement is evidently in phase with the overall movement [see
(2.106) where P121P22 ~ 0].
We have only discussed the isotropic case here. For the non-isotropic case, the results
naturally extend as follows: along the principal anisotropy directions if a compressional
wave exists in the purely elastic case, two compressional waves, one slow and one
standard, must be considered within the framework ofBiot's theory. From the qualitative
standpoint, the shear waves are altered in the same way as in the isotropic case, in
accordance \\ith the processes that we shall now discuss.

2.2.3.2

Wave velocities and attenuations

Let us now consider the general case with dissipative effects (b =F 0). Introducing (2.101)
into (2.97), we obtain:
R 17 2 $ = A cj,

where

+ Mii>

(2.108)

is the damping matrix given by:

A=(_:-:)

(2.109)

Let us examine the case of plane harmonic P waves propagating in the x direction, such
that:
~~>1
~~>2

= 4> 10 exp [i(kx- wt)]


= 4> 20 exp [i(kx- wt)]

(2.110)

I
I

T
I

WAVE PROPAOATION.IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

75

where cf> 10 and c1>;z 0 are constants, andw and k are the angular frequency and wave
number respectively. The introduction ofthese equations into (2.108) gives a system of two
equations for cf> 1 0 and cf> 20 The Kramer's determinant of this homogeneous system must
be zero in order for cf> 10 and cf> 20 to have non-zero values. This leads to an equation
linking k with w. This equation allows two solutions k,., and k,. 2 , which correspond to the
flfSt and second kind P waves previously discussed, and which are now complex owing to
attenuation effects:
k,.,(w) = Re k,.,(w)

+ i Im

k,.,(w)

(2.111)

Introduced into (2.110), these equations show that the imaginary part is the attenuation coefficient a.,., such that the corresponding wave amplitude is proportional to
exp (- :x,.,x). while the real part is related to the velocity v,.,:
(Re k,.,(w)) V,.,(w)

=w

(2.112)

The same procedure can be followed for the shear wave.


Figures 2.7 to 2.12 show the curves relative to these calculations. The P and S wave
velocities are normalized respectively by v,. and Vs whose expressions are:
1

V,.=C'I~2J.Ly
Vs

(~t

(2.113)
(2.114)

These expressions correspond to the velocities of the P and S waves if no relative


movement occurs between the fluid and the overall movement (closed system). These are
reference -velocities corresponding-to the limit velocities of the farst kind P wave and the S
wave, wlie~ the frequency tends towards zero. Effectively, within this quasi-static limit, the
effects of inertia contrast and dissipative effects become negligible.
The frequencies are normalized by a characteristic frequency fc which depends on the
ftltering medium :
<P
!.=<
21tpf:ll

(2.115)

The attenuation coeffacients are normalized for the compressional and shear waves
respectively by :

21t/c

a,.=--

v,.

21t/c

(2.116)

as=--

Vs

The curves in Fags. 2.7 to 2.12 represent the relative variations of velocities and
attenuations for the three wave types, with a constant ratio of fluid bulk modulus to solid
bulk modulus (i.e. K 11 / K. = constant) equal to 0.06. This value corresponds to a watersaturated siliceous matrix (Wyllie et al., 1963). We varied the ratio ofthe open system bulk
modulus to the solid bulk modulus (i.e. K 0 / K. = 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9). The broken, solid and
dotted line curves correspond respecti\'ely to the porosities <P = 30, 20 and 10%. The

76

1.0006

WAVE

PROPAG.-\T!O~

r-

Fig. 2.7 Velocity of P1 waves of


the fvst kind vs. frequency for
different values of K 0 K. (0.3, 0.6
and 0.9) and different porosities
(10%. 20% and 30%).

Porosit~'ll.

10
-20

1.()()()4

vi'

H- --I 30

I"!' SATL:RATED POROUS !\lEOlA

.6~.

Vp

v
1.0002

1.0000 I

se; !1?.7:':':':'

.03

.12

.09

.06

.15

f/fc

l PorosityT ~ %
.0010 Li ......

I 10

......

j20

- - I 30

~- .9
K - .6

,,

.9

ap1
p

"

,-

a/

.0006

;', .3
, , 2~
.6/77

Fig. 2.8 Attenuation of P1 waves


of the f1rst kind vs. frequency for
different values of K 0 iK, (0.3, 0.6
and 0.9) and different porosities
(10%, 201o and 30% ).

...
... ,_. ~'.9~
-

.0002

.03

.06

.09
t/fc

.12

.15

77

WAVE PROPAGA110N IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

.20 , . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

Fig. 1.9 Velocity of P2 waves of


the seeond kind cslow waves) vs.
frequency for different values of
K 0 ! K, (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9) and
different porosities (10%, 20%
and 30%).

~
I

.15

Vp2

.10

Vp

.05

.00~----~------L------~------~----~

.00

.03

.09

.06

.12

.15

f/fc

.6

.9

1 1

.6

.6

.9

1 1 1

.6

.3

.5

.4

ap2

ap

.3

.2

Fig.l.lO Attenuation of P2 waves


of the second kind (slow waves)
vs. frequency for different values
of K 0 /K, (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9) and
different porosities (10%, 20%
and 30%).

.1

,.......... I
-----

20
30

.0

.oo

.03

.06

.09
f/fc

.12

.15

78

I. p~~~s-i~~ .I

1.006 ~

Fig. 2.11 Velocity of shear S


waves vs. frequency for different
values of K 0 /K, (0.3. 0.6 and 0.9)
and different porosities (10%,
20%, 30%).

9'>%
10

20
1.004

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

~------I

30

Vs
V 5 1ol

Ko

Forany - Ks

1.002

.,.
,.,. .- "'

_,-'

_,

.,""

""

.--'

... -

1.000
.00

.03

.06

.09

.15

.12

fife

.006 ~------------------------------------~
Porosity

.005

10
20
30

.004

erg

as

.003

.002

Fig. 2.12 Attenuation of shear S


waves vs. frequency for different
values of K 0 /K, (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9)
and different porosities ( 10%,
20%, and 30%).

For any

_.... ____ .,..._,_-"":""..............,

.001

;'

....

.000
.00

..

Ko
Ks

.03

.06

.09
fife

.12

.15

T
I
'Cl

'

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATuRATED POROUS MEDIA

79

remaining parameters of the theory are inferred from the above by the equations of
Gassmann (2. 70), (2. 75) and (2. 77) for M, fJ and K 1 , and by Berryman's equation (2.92) for
tortuosity.

().0\

For the three wave types, the velocity can be observed to rise with increasing frequency.
This is explained by the fact that the inertial forces increase simultaneously. Indeed, these
inertial forces being different for the fluid and the solid part, they generate a differential
movement between the fluid and the fluid/solid combination due to permeability effects
(Darcy's law). It implies that the overall movement defmed by u involves less fluid,
whatever the type of wave considered. Hence as the mass involved in overall movement
declines progressively with increasing frequency, the velocity increases with frequency.
However, the differential movement thus facilitated by the increase in frequency causes
increasing dissipation. This dissipation is proportional to the square of the angular
frequency. For the three waves, this means increasing attenuation with frequency. Note
also the more highly attenuated character of the slow wave in comparison with the other
two (see scales), a characteristic that also limits the increase in velocity V,., corresponding
to the high frequencies. This leads us to the following paradoxical situation: the more the
phenomenon might tend to occur due to the velocity increasing as the frequency increases,
the more this phenomenon would be attenuated.

l"t~

l~

15

.I

From the general standpoint, note also that permeability only affects the abscissa scale,
normalized by frequency f. defmed by Eq. (2.115). More speciftcally, it can be shown
numerically that, for commonly used fluids (water, glycerine, kerosene), it is the
parameter ,, and hence the viscosity, that is mainly involved, independent of the density
or bulk modulus K 11 . As the permeability~ = K/'1 approaches 0 (or towards infmity), the
frequency f. tends inversely towards infmity (or towards 0). The rise in the curves with
increasing frequency on an absolute scale is accordingly less (or more) pronounced. This
agrees with the physicalevidence: the lower (of ~igher) the.~rmeability, the less (or more)
are the differential movements (fluid,'matrix) privileged and the less (or more) Biofs effects
are pronounced. Once again, however, a paradoxical situation results: the lower the
viscosity 'I and hence the higher the permeability ~.the greater the attenuation. This is
fairly easy to understand, because the lower the viscosity, the more the differential
movement may be pronounced (i.e. less fluid is involved in the overall movement) and
hence wis greater and the dissipation given by (2. 72a) (but tempered by the inverse of ~)
increases. Actually, therefore, there is no para<lox, because Biot's theory takes into
account only the dissipation due to mean differential movements (i.e. those characterized
by w) and not those due to absolute movements of the fluid (i.e. those characterized by U).
The latter becomes preponderant at sufficiently high frequencies, but cannot be taken into
account by the theory developed here, which is limited to the low frequencies (i.e.
f < 0.15/.). For rocks, this shows the need to stipulate the order of magnitude of f. (see
Table 2.3).
It may be observed for water that the frequency f. is extremely variable (30 kHz to
l GHz) but nevertheless always remains very high. However, the curves in Figs. 2.9 and
2.10 show that the slow wave effect can be neglected if the source frequency f is less than
0.15/. (velocity v,., is close to zero!). Hence it is necessary to have a frequency .f. that is
sufftciently low for the slow wave to have some noticeable effect in an infmite medium. The
influence on the interfaces is discussed in Chapter 6.

80

WAVE PROPAGATION I]'; SATURATED POROCS MEDIA


TABLE 2.3
SoME VALVES OF BlOTS CHARACTERISTIC FREQL"ESCY

Fontainebleau sandstonem ..
Fontainebleau sandstone''' ..
Tight sand m . ..............
Cordova Cream limcstonel2l .
Sintercd glass 131

Characteristic frequency
Porosity IPermeabili t y
{mD)
(%)

Water

Normal oil

Heavy oil

80 MHz
30kHz
1 GHz
4.5 MHz
42kHz

800 to 4000 MHz


300 to 1500kHz
10 to 50 GHz
45 to 230 MHz
420 to 2100 kHz

8 to 400Hz
3 to 15 MHz
100 to 500 GHz
450 to 2 300 MHz
4.2 to 21 MHz

'I= I cP) 141 ('1= 10to50cP)(41 ('I= IOOto500cP)( 41

5
20
8
24.5
28.3

to-
1000
2 10- 2
9
1000

(1) Bourbie and Zinszner (1985).


(2) Carmichael (1982).
(3) Plona and Johnson (1980).
(4) Viscosity 'I is expressed in ccntipoiscs (1 cP = 1 mPa . s).

A glance at the situation depicted in the table tends to show that the very porous
Fontainebleau sandstone and sintered glass display the same behavior concerning slow
waves. In fact, the slow wave is also sensitive to the pore radius through the skin effect. This
fact will be discussed in the experimental veriftcation in the next Section.
The curves in Figs. 2. 7 to 2.12 also serve to analyze the influence of the ratio K 0 / K. and
of porosity </J. For the shear wave velocity l'5, since the fluid only responds to shear forces
through viscous effects, the ratio K 0 /K, has no influence. Porosity through the effect of
tortuosity plays a major role. Indeed this effect declines with increasing porosity (see
Berryman's equation). Hence, at a constant ratio f/fc, velocity Vs increases with </J, and
the mass added by the tortuosity effect (see Eq. 2.90) decreases by the same order of
magnitude.

P 1 and P2 wave results can ftrst be considered at constant porosity. At rising K 0 / K, and
constant frequency, the ftrst kind wave velocity Vr, increases, whereas that of the second
kind decreases. This is explained by the fact that the increase in K 0 / K, at constant porosity
corresponds to a pore network in which the elementary pores statistically have an
increasingly lower aspect ratio (i.e. ratio of the smallest length to the largest). The fluid is
accordingly more difftcult to extract at zero pressure (see defmition of p = 1 - K 0 f K,). At
a given frequency, this results in a rising apparent bulk modulus for movements in phase
and hence a velocity Vr, that increases with K 0 /K,. For the same reasons, differential
movements out of phase between the fluid and the matrix are increasingly disadvantaged
with increasing K 0 / K,, and the curves corresponding to the second kind wave velocity Vp 2
have an opposite behavior with respect to Vr, curves. On the other hand, for both wave
types, as the ratio K 0 /K. increases, the fluid mass not involved in the overall movement
decreases. Inertial effects then increase the phase differences and hence attenuation
increases with rising K 0 fK .
Now let us consider the situation at constant K 0 /K, and increasing porosity </J. Since
K 0 /K, is constant, the aspect ratio remains constant, but, as the porosity rises, K 0 and
thus K, are assumed to increase in absolute value (as well as K '" since the curves
correspond to constant K 1 ,;K.). Since K, rises, the qualitative effects are the same as those
described above, since the apparent bulk modulus increases from one curve to the other as

-----

'

~
!
I
.

'

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

81

a function of porosity. Note also that, as for the shear wave, the tortuosity effects decrease
with porosity (less mass added). This merely reinforces the effects discussed above, albeit
slightly (see shear wave).
A number of considerations can already be drawn from the previous analysis to identify
the existence of this slow wave experimentally. It is ftrst necessary for the system to be open
and for the permeability to be sufftciently high (low viscosity) for average fluid movements
relative to the matrix modeled by this theory to be possible, and for the slow wave to be
able to propagate at sufftcient velocities. A critical description of an experiment in which
this slow wave was identified (Piona, 1982) is given in Section 2.2.6.
A fmal remark concerns behavior at low frequencies. In this range, the term Mi:b,
proportional to jl, can be ignored in comparison with the term A$, which is
proportional to f. Equation (2.108) is thus reduced to:
V2 $ = R - 1 A$

where

R
-

-1

Knowing that Cl = (

(R + y

- (i.

+ 2p)R -

:J

(2.117)

-R- y )
i. + 2p + y

Y - Y- i. - 2p

(2.118)

and substracting the two equations for cP 1 and cP 2 obtained

from (2.117), one obtains :


C 0 V 2 (cP 1

cPz) =

<P1-

cPz

(2.119)

where we noted :

+ 2p)R - Y2 -JlM
_ .v
i. + 2!1 + 2 l' + R

_ (i.
C o-

A.0
i. I

+ 2p
+ 2p

+
+ 4f3p

_ .v K 0 4/3p
-JlM__;;---:-':-:~
KI

(2.120)

Considering the equations relating pressure p, displacements u and U, and


potentials cP 1 and cP 2 , Eq. (2.119) can also be written:

CoVzp = p

(2.121)

Thus at low frequency the slow wave corresponds to a diffusive type of propagation
mode, governed by the scalar diffusion equation (2.121) for pressure with a hydraulic
diffusivity coefficient CD. This remark is due to Chandler and Johnson (1981), who
showed that the analysis of Rice and Clearly ( 1976) was also included in the theory of Biot.
This is even more remarkable because Rice and Cleary introduced the fluid bulk modulus
separately from the equation of state of the fluid, whereas Biot's theory treats the matrix .
and fluid on the same level from the outset.

2.2.4 Biot's theory and Terzaghi's law


For the case of total saturation. Terzaghi's law is frequently used in geotechnics. This
law breaks down the macroscopic or total stresses qii into so-called effective stresses

at.

82

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

which are the stresses exerted on the solid skeleton, and into hydrostatic stresses - pi>ii
which are the stresses pre\"ailing in the fluid, so that:
(2.122)
(jjj =
pi>jj

at -

Accordingly, one may well ask what are the connections between Biot's theory and
Terzaghi's law. If an experiment is performed at zero pressure (p = 0), the total stress
tensor is identif1ed with that of the effective stresses. Equation (2.66) then gives:
p = 0

tr

at= 3K

tr

(2.123)

For low porosities (c/> < .20%), by an elementary theory of effective moduli, it is
moreover easy to show that:
(2.124)
p=O
tr
= 3K,(1 - </J) tr 8

at

where K, is the matrix bulk modulus. From (2.124) and (2.123):


K 0 = K,(l- c/>)

(2.125)

It is now possible to use Gassmann's equation (2.77) and Eqs. (2.70) and (2.75) to
obtain:

f3

= c/>

K1

= K,(1- c/>) + K 11 c/>

(2.126)

K,z

i\1 = c/>

Using (2.122) and (2.1261 and Biofs equation (2.65), the following general identity is
obtained:
(2.127a)
tr afi = 3(1 - </J)[K, tr 8 + p]
p = - K 11 div U

(2.127b)

Thus Terzaghi's law is more restrictive than Biot's theory, since Eqs. (2.126) reveal the
presumably additive character of the bulk moduli. In a closed system, the rheological
model attached to the saturated porous medium in relation to compressibility effects
consists of two springs in parallel, with. constants K,(1- </J) and K 11 cj>, concerning the
respective contributions of the skeleton and the fluid. In an open system, only the skeleton
participates (spring with constant K,(l :.___ c/>) = K 0 ), while the share accounted for by the
increase in fluid content in the apparent macroscopic deformation is cf> tr 8 ({3 = cf>). This
assumption of additivity, which is implicit in Terzaghi's law, leads to a decoupling between
the fluid behavior law (2.127b) and that of the skeleton (2.127a). To evaluate the effective
stresses, it is therefore assumed that the medium consists exclusively of the solid skeleton,
leading to the average pressure K. tr e. The pressure effect is subtracted and the result
multiplied by the factor (1 - c/>) representing the effective volumetric proportion of solid
skeleton (2.127a). The fluid behavior law (2.127) involves only the volumetric strain of the
fluid, div U, which corresponds to the above decoupling. Note here that the strain tensor 8
concerns the average or macroscopic displacement on the solid/fluid combination (e is not
related to the solid part alone). Moreo,er, Biot's theory concerns only small disturbances,
and in (2.127) 8 is assumed to be small, as well as U, which is a Lagrangian quantity.

_,

;f'

.
t

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATIJRATED POROUS MEDIA

The introduction of equations (2.126) in (2.97c) gives by (2.1041:

)2
1

v. = (
p,

).0

+ 2Jl

p.(l - t/>)

i;,~

(2.128)

Vp, =

"

83

(~;'Y

where the effects of inertial coupling due to tortuosity (a = 1) are ignored, together with
any dissipation process. With these assumptions, it is clear that the wave of the ftrst kind
involves only the matrix and occurs at zero pressure (open system). while the wave of the
second kind concerns only the fluid (~i = 0).
This is perfectly understandable, since Terzaghi's law, which is mainly reflected by the
assumption fJ = 4> in relation to Biot's theory, assumes a priori that the action of the fluid
can be considered as an external action exerted on the matrix or solid skeleton. The
equation (2.122) inserted in (2.87a) for steady state conditions therefore leads to:

~at
cxi

_ OX;
op = o

(2.129)

and the action of the fluid on the solid skeleton is reflected by imaginary volumetric forces
of intensity - grad p.
It should also be noted that, with the implicit assumption ofTerzaghi's law (fJ = t/>), if
the fluid bulk modulus is much lower than that of the solid skeleton (K 11 ~ K 0 ), and if
tortuosity effects are taken into account and viscosity effects ignored, the wave velocities
are given by:
1

i.0 + 2Jl

V. _ [

p.(l - t/>)

P, -

Vp

>

+ tf>p1 (1 -a

=[KJ,J
ap

Vs =

p.(l- t/>)

Jl

+ t/>pf(l- a

>J
Jl

(2.130)

The equations (2.130) can hence lead to an experimental estimation of tortuosity, if a


sound choice is made of the saturating fluid (low compressibility and low viscosity).
As we have shown, assuming small displacements both in the solid part and in the fluid
part, Terzaghi's law applies within a more restricted set of assumptions than Biot's theory.
As we know, however, the central value ofTerzaghi's law lies elsewhere and concerns flow
problems. In fact, the decoupling assumption helps to analyze substantial fluid
movements (flow in an earth dam, for example) independently of small strains of the solid
skeleton. To do this, the pressure f1eld in the fluid is determined by Darcy's law (where
gravity effects may be accounted for), and the law of conservation of mass (101 for the fluid
which, in this type of calculation, is usually assumed to be incompressible (div U = O)uu.
110) Note that the laws of conservation of mass in Biot's theory are automatically satisfted to the nearest
second order, since displacements are assumed to be small.
I 11) In this case, U becomes a Eulerian quantity (fmite transformation), and (2.1~7b), which is only valid for
small displacements, no longer holds and is replaced by Darcys law.

84

WA\"E PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

By reinserting the pressure fteld thus determined in (2.129) (in which gravity forces are
taken into account). we can obtain the equilibrium equations for the solid part alone, with
considerable latitude in selecting the constitutive law.
Hence, apart from the Eqs. (2.130), which are interesting for the determination of
tortuosity, the respecti,e values ofBiot's theory and Terzaghi's law are not concerned with
the same ftelds of application, and these theories are complementary rather than
competitive.

2.2.5

Geerstma-Smit equations

As we have shown. the correct solution for the ftrst kind wave velocity within the
framework of Biot's theory is relatively easy to obtain, but not very practical for any actual
application. Nevertheless, we have pointed out (Table 2.2) the high values of critical
frequencies fc for commonly encountered rocks. This makes it possible to obtain an
approximate solution for the velocities by developing the second order equations in f !fc
(Geerstma and Smit, 1961):

vzp,

v!, +
=

v(!c)
f

0-

(2.131)

v; + v~(~)

where 1-'0 and V.., are the zero frequency and infmite frequency velocities respectively
within Biot's theor'y'"presented here (low frequency hypothesis).
By implicitly using Gassmann's equation (2.77), these authors obtain the following
expressions for V0 and Vx :

).!..

V0 = (

4 z
Kf+-Jl
3
[see Eq. (2.113)]
p

Voc=(p.(l-cf>)+~p,-ll-a- )

(2.132)

[ K, + J" +

)(

t/>-a -1 + 1 - Ks
- I1
Pt
K

)])y

_K(l_2cf>a-

'
K

(I - K:- ~) K, + K''

(2.133)

where K 1 is giYen by Gassmann's equation (2.77) and p = (1- cf>)p. + <J>p1 .


It should be noted forthwith that, if tortuosity a is infmite, Eq.t2.133) is reduced to Eq.
(2.1321. because there is no longer any relative movement of the fluid and solid (infmite

"""

----~--~-------

2
__

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

85

inertial coupling). and hence no permeability effect. Note also that Eq. (2.133) is reduced to
Eqs. (2.130) using the assumptions:

'

Ko

1- K =

t/J,

K 11 ~ K 0

which have precisely been used to state (2.130).

lj
'f i

I
-~

'"""

2.2.6
2.2.6.1

Experimental verifiCation
Qualitative aspects of Biot's model

We have just described a method for modeling wave propagation in a saturated porous
medium. The model presented reveals the existence of three propagation waves within
such a medium, in other words two compressional waves and one shear wave. The
particular feature and main interest of this model reside in the prediction of the second
compressional wave, or slow wave. In fact, this slow wave does not exist in a classic solid
and isotropic medium. Hence it is essential to prove the validity of Biot's theory to identify
the existence of such a slow wave experimentally. We shall ftrst describe the qualitative
procedure that enabled Plona (1980) to verify this theory experimentally, and then go on
to the results obtained.
A saturated porous medium is a medium formed by the interpenetration of two phases.
One of them is the solid phase and constitutes the matrix of the material concerned, and
the second is the liquid phase, constituting the saturating fluid. This interpenetration can
occur in t'to different ways, shown schematically in Fig. 2.13 (Plona, 1982). In one of the
two cases (Fig. 2.13a), a discontinuity exists in the liquid phase, consisting of a group of
disconnected pores. with continuity of the solid phase. In the second case (Fig. 2.13b), both
the liquid and solid phases are continuous. Two types of wave (a compressional wave and
a shear wave) can propagate in an isotropic solid, while only a single type of wave, a
compressional wa,e, can propagate in a liquid. Since a saturated porous medium consists
of two phases, one solid and the second liquid, it therefore appears logical to be able to
observe three waves, namely two compressional waves and one shear wave. For this to be
true, it is necessary for the liquid and solid phases to be continuous. In this way the waves
can propagate within a given phase. This means that the porous medium must be of the
second type described above (Fig. 2.13b). In fact, every natural porous medium possesses
both types of porosity (disconnected and connected~ so that the liquid that participates in
the motion of the slow wave is merely the fraction of liquid contained in the connected
porosity. Finally, it is important to realize that the coarse image by which one considers
that, among the two compressional waves, one moves within the liquid and the second in
the solid, is false. In fact, the porous medium is a material constituted of a solid and a liquid
phase coupled together. A more accurate image can be derived by representing the sample
as a system of two springs whose eigen vibrations consist of one vibration in phase and one
vibration out of phase. These two types of motion have been modeled and discussed
previously in Section 2.2. This remark will enable us to understand more clearly the
necessary conditions for the observation of a progressive slow wave. If the liquid is not

86

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

2
~

t.

Fig. 2.13 Schematic diagrams of porous media.


a. The fluid phase (white) is discontinuous, the solid phase (cross-hatched) is
continuous.
b. The fluid and solid phases are continuous.
(after Plona. 1982 IEEE, New York, NY).

viscous, no viscous coupling force occurs at the liquid/solid interface, while, by contrast, if
the liquid is very viscous, a substantial coupling exists, preventing differential liquid/solid
movement. This clearly shows the importance of the viscosity of the interstitial fluid.
Furthermore, as we well know, the intensity of the viscous coupling force depends on the
incident wave frequency. At infmite frequency, a viscous fluid acts as if it had no viscosity,
whereas at low frequency even low viscosity can give rise to substantial coupling. In fact,
considering the intensity of this viscous force, it can be observed that it decreases rapidly
"ith increasing distance from the liquid/solid interface (Fig. 2.14). Moreover. this effect
can be characterized by a skin depth d3 This skin depth:

{2i1
.J-;;;;

d =

(2.134)

is proportional to the square root of the viscosity and inversely proportional to the square
root of the frequency and of the fluid density. This clearly shows that the propagation of
the slow wave becomes even more observable as the fluid viscosity decreases and the wave
frequency increases. The density term in (2.134) is there to remind us of the inertial
problems of setting any mass in motion. Hence it is very important for the observation of
Biot mechanisms and for a given sample that this depth d. should be much smaller than
the average acces radius of the pores.

"'

WAVE PROPAOA110N IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

!I

j:

'l
't.

FLUID-

,, I

SOLID-

t<O
Fluid
at rest

f:

!l

Wall set
in motion

t>o
,

Tr-ient motion
of the fluid

Fig. 1.14 Fluid velocity proCde due to sudden movement of the walls of the
capillary tube.

In sandstones, for example, the average access radius is relatively large, about l to 5 pm
for permeabilities ranging from a few mD to 100 mD. This implies that, for an ultrasonic
experiment, using water as the saturating fluid, the skin depth d. is about 0.5 to l pm. The
ratio of skin depth to access radius is hence too high to be able to observe the slow wave
directly, as the viscous effects at the fluid/matrix interface have prevailed over the
possibilities of fluid/matrix motion out of phase. This means that the slow wave must be
observed indirectly, for instance by analyzing the changes in signature undergone by the
different recorded signals.
In brief, we have shown that the following properties are required for the observation of
a progressive slow wave(l2):

t, ,r

'libli.

th ...

itt;

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

l(

"-.

eet

Continuity of liquid and solid phases, open system.


High frequency content of the incident wave.
Low saturating fluid viscosity (high hydraulic permeability).
High saturating fluid density Oess important).
High pore size and pore access radius, high absolute permeability.

For a clear observation of the two movements described above (in phase and out of
phase), the difference in velocities between fluid and solid must be high enough to ensure
signifacant separation between the two movements. Consequently, it is important to have
a fluid that is much more compressible than the solid matrix.

:v

a{\,

l t

lV 6

tiar

87

~~~~

(12) The term progressive is used here in opposition to diffusive .

....

~~

88

2.2.6.2

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

Experimental results

Having made these preliminary remarks, Plona's experiment appears simple. In effect,
to observe the slow wave, it is necessary to allow fluid and solid movements, and thus to
transmit and record the waves far from the solid. This means avoiding bonding the
transducers to the sample, which would prevent the recording of the slow wave. The
experiment is conducted in a water-filled tank (Plona, 1980, 1982) (Fig. 2.15) and the angle
of incidence of the signal emitted with respect to the porous medium may vary to observe

Shear wave

Compressional

waves in water
A

i 0

I Receiver I

Fig. :us Diagram showing mode conversions and refractions at the different
interfaces: the reflected waves are not indicated (after Plona and Johnson.
~ 1980 IEEE, New York, NY).
the angular dependence of the process. The transducers employed have a central
frequency of 2.25 MHz. The velocities of the different waves are measured with an
accuracy of 3%. Figure 2.16 (Plona, 1982) shows the results obtained with a sample of
sintered glass of porosity <P = 28%. The diagram in Fig. 2.16a corresponds to the
recording made at normal incidence. At this incidence, only the compressional waves are
generated at the different interfaces between isotropic media. Pulse A corresponds to the
direct arrival, and pulses C, E and G correspond to multiple arrivals (due to multiple
reflections within the sample). Arrivals D and F are new arrivals not observed in a nonporous solid. Arrival D corresponds to the direct arrival of the slow wave. The difference
in arrival time between pulses D and F corresponds to the difference in arrival time
between A and C, C and E, or E and G. Hence arrival F is the first multiple reflection, but
with conversion of the slow wave to a standard compressional wave. This clearly shows us
that the slow wave is compressional (this occurs at normal incidence and the only waves
existing are compressional), and that the slow wave/standard compressional wave
conversion exists. The lower diagram of Fig. 2.16b corresponds to a recording made at
non-normal incidence. In this case the angle of incidence is smaller than the first critical
angle defmed by:

(}~ =

SID

vw

-1 _ _

Vp,

(2.135)

~,

r
ll

89

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

W-'er

Sample

0: 0

1"'~1 m4t.
A

11 1

A:OirctP 1 C, E. G: multiples

W-'tr

0: Oirct stow wave


F: Convertld WIVe

Sampl--+---,r0

(b)

e< ep
c

--- Slow mode


__ Normet mode

....

..A o.A
50 mY

_;,.I

' '
I

A: Dirct P 1 wave
8: Oirct S wave
0: Oirct slow wave
5ps

Fig. 2.16 Signals recorded at different angles of incidence for a material made
of sintered glass spheres.
L 6 = 0". b. 0 < 6 < ~ (after Plona and Johnson. 1980 IEEE, New
York, NY).

: ~

where
V.., = sound velocity in water,
Vp, = f1rst kind P1 wave velocity in the sample.
Three arrivals are observed, whereas, in the case of a non-porous solid, only two would
have been observed. Arrival A is the standard compressional wave, arrival B is the shear
wave, and arrival D is the slow wave. Figure 2.17 (Plona, 1980) shows the variation in
recordings as a function of angle of incidence. Fig. 2.17a and b resume Fig. 2.16. The
recording in Fig. 2.17c was made with an angle of incidence() between the two critical
angles related to the P1 and S waves, that is to say:
where

O:

o: < () < (P,

(2.136)

. - 1:..
_
0: =SID
Js

(2.137)

is given by (2.135) and:

where V5 is the shear wave velocity in the sample.

lij

90

WAVE PROPAGATIO!' IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

As observed, there is no longer a transmitted standard compressional wave. However,


the S wave and the slow wave continue to be transmitted. If the angle of incidence(} is
progressively increased, until it exceeds the critical value 0:. Fig. 2.17d is obtained, in
which a single arrival is observed, namely the slow waYe. Finally, it has not been possible
to cause the slow wave to disappear: no critical angle exists for the slow wave, since its
velocity is lower than that of water [see for example the approximate formula (2.130)].
(a)
I

: !

L.

,.;

~~

9 =0

iI

I
i
I

ofo<o:

C 0

mIMIll
B

d)

9'<c 9

\
I

i
50mV\

L___,__

A
IV l

.!_L.-

5 .__

Fig. l.l7 Signals recorded after propagation in the water/porous solid/water


system for different angles of incidence (sintered glass).

= 00. b. 0 < 8 <


1980).

a. 8

Of:' c.

< 8<

Of

d. lfi: < 8 < 90" (after Plona,

Plona's results were obtained using various types of porous material. Figure 2.18
(Plona, 1982) offers a glance at the different materials used. The ftrst class of materials
consists of different sintered materials I steel, titanium, Inconel). The second class includes
ceramics produced by different manufacturers (Coors, 3M, Filtros). These ceramics are
normally used as ftltration materials. The third class comprises materials manufactured by
Plona in the Schlumberger laboratories at Ridgefteld. They are sintered glasses whose

--------- -----

i1. l

'1:.'

Sintered glass
beads # 1
beads # 2
beads # 3
3 \f-55
3 \f-40
Coors
Porous steel
Porous titanium
Porous lnconel
Filtros # 1

tP

v,.,

Ys

v,..

28.3
18.5
10.5
34.5
30.0
41.5
48.0
41.0
36.0
40.0

50
20
10

4.05
4.84
5.15
2.76
2.91
3.95
2.74
2.72
2.12
4.65

2.37
2.93
2.97
1.41
1.62
2.16
1.54
1.79
1.15
2.91

1.04
0.82
0.58
0.91
0.96
0.96
0.92
0.91
0.93
0.94

55
40

55
20
30
90
60

...,.

91

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

=porosity,
= average pore size (IUJI),
I j. = fast compressional velocity (krn/s),
Is =shear velocity (km/s).
lj., =slow compressional velocity (km/s),

ll>

Fig. 2.18 List of the different porous materials analyzed (after Plona. 1982
IEEE, New York, NY).

porosity can be varied. Figure 2.18 shows that all these porous materials display a
behavior of the type described by Biot. The slow wave is always slower than the wave
propagating in the saturating liquid, which is water in this case. The amplitude of the
measured slow wave may be very high. Figure 2.19 provides an example of a seismogram
recorded in a sintered steel with a grain size of20 ~tm. But~ we have seen, the amplitude
also depends on the ratio of the wavelength ofthe signal transmitted to the pore size, or, in
fact. for the materials analyzed, to the grain size. Figure 2.20 highlights this effect. To do
this. the frequency - and hence the wavelength - of the transmitted signal is kept
constant, while the pore size varies. In Figure 2.20a, the pore size is 15 ~tm. Considering
th..: ~kin depth [see Eq. (2.134)], a value of about half a micron is found. already
accounting for a significant fraction of the pore size. Thus an incipient viscous effect and a
tortuosity effect are observable (see the beginning of Chapter 2: as <P tends towards 0, a
tends towards infmity~ which prevent a non-negligible part ofthe fluid from moving out of
phase with the solid. The slow wave is hence less energetic. By contrast, in Fig. 2.20b, the
amplitude of the slow wave is high. The wavelength/pore size ratio is virtually ideal, and
the viscous effect at the wall is slight and scattering is negligible. In Fig. 2.20c, the pore size
is 175 J!m, while the wavelength for the standard compressional wave is about.! mm. The
substantial scattering ofthis wave obliterates any possibility of observing the other modes.
Another interesting study is the measurement of the variation of the three velocities
obtained as a function of the porosity of the medium concerned. Figure 2.21 gives the
results obtained on sintered glass spheres. It can be seen that the standard compressional
and shear velocities increase with decreasing porosity. This is easy to understand: the
medium becomes increasingly rigid and the P1 and S velocity tend towards the velocity in
the non-porous solid. The mechanism is reversed for the slow wave: a decrease in slow
wave velocity is observed with decreasing porosity. Measurements could only be

il'l

92

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

~lmtt!.
8

Fig. 1.19 Refracted arrivals at


non-normal incidence for 20 J.LII1
sintered steel (after Plona and
Johnson. 1980 IEEE, 1\ew
York, NY).

A:

Normal P1 wave

B:

S wave

0: Slowwave

n~.\tt=
A

I'" I~
A

lcl

- r\\ !A. ~

50 mv

2 (L

Fig. 2.20 Refracted arrivals at


non-normal incidence for 3 \1:
samples (after Plona and Johnson, 1980. 1980 IEEE, 1\ew
York, NY).
.
a. Pore size 15 j.lm, weak slow
wave.
b. Pore size 55 j.lffi, energetic slow
wave.
c. Pore size 175 j.lm, scattering:
no slow wave.

pedormed with porosities greater than 10%, but a theoretical extension to the value 0 was
obtained on the curve. Since the slow wave is due to the presence of a liquid inside a porous
medium, it is perfectly logical for its velocity to tend towards 0 with decreasing porosity (a
tends towards infmity as 4> tends towards 0).
The experiments described here concern artiftcial materials other than rocks. As we
have alrea4y emphasized, owing to the pore size of a usual rock, it is very difficult, if not
impossible, with usual fluids (such as water) to have a slow wave propagating within a
porous medium, and the slow wave is generally attenuated immediately. Experiments are
currently being conducted by Plona and Johnson and their colleagues to develop a
technique to resolve this problem. The general principle consists in using liquid helium II,
whose viscosity is zero, as the saturating fluid. The preliminary results obtained in these
conditions have revealed the existence of a slow wave in a rock.
The use of liquid helium as the saturating fluid is extremely interesting for two main
reasons. Johnson (1980) showed that the slow wave mechanism was actually the

~'f:

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

93

generalization of the fourth acoustic wave in superfluid helium II. Moreover, with this
material (i.e. negligible viscosity and fluid compressibility ~ matrix compressibility),
Biot's expressions for the velocities are simplifted and are given by Eq. (2.130), assuming
the applicability of Terzaghi's law (see Johnson and Plona, 1982).
Hence it is possible to measure tortuosity a by using superfluid helium. for which the
above equations are valid to the nearest 0.01% (Johnson et al., 1982). Johnson eta/. f 1982)
also showed that these equations are valid to within 10% for water-saturated sintered
glass.
Incidentally, this parameter can be related to other types of measurements, such as the
refractive index of the fourth wave of a superfluid He II (Johnson and Sen, 19811 or the
electrical conductivity or the formation factor (Johnson et al.. 1982).
6

Fused glaa beads

::!!.
~

l!

2
200m\D

_,,1..---'"


Slow wave

Ol,,~

10

20

30
Porosity (%I

40

50

Fig. 2.21 Measured velocities ofP, Sand slow waves vs. porosity for samples
of sintered glass, The P ~ave and S wave velocities in solid glass are 5.69 and
3.46 km/s respectively (after Plona. 1982 IEEE, New York, NY1.

In conclusion, Plona demonstrated the existence of a slow wave very close to the one
predicted by Biot's theory. He showed that this wave could only exist as a propagation
wa,e if the following conditions were satisfted:
(a) Continuity of the solid and liquid phases (i.e. possibility of differential fluid and
liquid motion).
(b) Sufftciently high incident wave frequency and sufl'lciently low fluid viscosity (i.e.
weak wave attenuation mechanism).
(c) Incident wavelength sufl'lciently large in comparison with pore size to avoid
scattering, while the pore size must be adequate to avoid viscous effects at the wall
(skin depth effect).
(d) Very different fluid and solid bulk moduli in order to separate clearly the two
compressional waves.
Moreover, Plona and Johnson (Eq. (2.130)] revealed the possibility of employing
approximate equations to determine the different velocities in the saturated porous
medium. The equations make use of tortuosity a characterizing the geometry of a porous
medium.

...

94

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

2.3 CONCLUSION
We have considered a theory modeling wave propagation in saturated porous media.
This theory, whose experimental conftrmation has been discussed above. identifted a
number of mechanisms related to the presence of fluids and the permeability of the
medium. It has been shown that these mechanisms occur to a signiftcant extent in the case
of high mobilities and frequencies. The usual permeabilities and viscosities are generally
inadequate to cause them to appear. The frequencies at which the mechanisms described
are invoked tend to be too high (see Table 2.3) to apply the theory, since it is restricted to
wavelengths that are large in comparison with the dimensions of the flow channels where
ftltration occurs.
For a wave propagating in an infmite two-phase medium (i.e. one which does not
encounter" boundary conditions). wave attenuation should be looked for in the absolute
local motion of the fluid, and no longer in the motion ofthe fluid with respect to the matrix,
although certain experimental results (for example Morlier and Sarda, 1971) appear to
demonstrate a relationship between permeability and attenuation. Note for the time being
the theoretical work of Datta (1975), Mavko and Nur (1979) and Walsh (1976) who deal
with these problems, which we shall discuss in detail in the subsequent Chapters. Howe,er,
it must be observed that, in these processes, the entire fluid part is involved, both the fluid
found in the disconnected porosity and the fluid in the connected porosity. In addition,
contrary to the framework ofBiot's theory, these mechanisms occur throughout the whole
saturation range.
One may well question the practical interest of Biot's theory for the study of wave
propagation in an infmite medium. However, for the problems in which boundary
conditions are imposed on the flows, pressures and displacements, the phenomena
identifted by Biot's theory, which are mainly related to pressure gradients, must play a
major role. These include the important problems of seismic reflection at interfaces, and
the problems related to surface waves in sonic logging. Geerstma and Smit (1961) made a
theoretical analysis of the problem ofreflection, and showed that a slow wave was always
generated at the interface. This slow wave may account for a non-negligible portion of the
total energy, although, due to its attenuation, it is not generally observable. Rosenbaum
(1974) pointed out the importance of the role of permeability on the attenuation of
Stoneley waves at the interface of a saturated porous medium and a fluid, in the plane case
and in the case of guided waves in wells. These studies will be discussed in Chapter 6,
which will demonstrate the necessity of a careful analysis of wave propagation for seismic
applications.
Biot's theory also justifies certain general considerations. The assumptions of this
theory include the notion of scale related to wavelength and hence to frequency. The
seismic profiles correspond to low frequencies ( ~ 50 Hz), while sonic logging corresponds
to higher frequencies (~ 10 to 20kHz). In all cases, it is considered that these wa,es
propagate in homogeneous and generally isotropic and stratifted media. In nature, the
media that the wave travels through are porous, inhomogeneous, and anisotropic to
varying degrees. The use of exact laws of propagation should allow a better understanding
of the complexity of these media, so that data can be available on their petrophysical
properties and their fluid content. Strictly speaking, these exact laws do not exist. From a

r
;'l
~'

.j,:. '-

'

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

95

practical point of view, the laws used must always be chosen according to the specif1c
problem investigated (boundary conditions, geometries) to the tool employed
(frequencies, wavelengths, energy), and to the parameters to be quantif1ed (water content.
permeability, porosity).
'
One may be tempted to complicate a model such as Biot's model (for example, by
introducing the viscoelasticity of the matrix) to clarify a number of measurements. In our
opinion, this complication is extremely liable to be prolonged indefmitely, without any
hope of success. In fact, the complexity of the porous medium (see Chapter 1) is such that it
is totally unrealistic to try to construct a general model for porous media. On the other
hand, it is necessary to account for in situ conditions and for the frequency range to be
investigated to adapt the theory to the problem at hand. To each problem corresponds a
different theory, which relies on a specific physical parameter to yield an observable effect.
In the laboratory, it is essential to press forward with a qualitative phenomenological
analysis of the problems (which is the preponderant effect in a given experiment?). an
adjustment of simple models to the experiment, and a suff1cient number of measurements to
acquire statistical knowledge that is virtually "rock type., by "rock type ... As we have
already stressed on several occasions, for the time being, the complexity of the natural
media under consideration dashes any hopes of a unique theory based on continuum
mechanics.
However, in the beginning of this Chapter, we pointed out that, for a given physical
phenomenon, a porous medium could be replaced by an equivalent homogeneous
medium with very specif1c properties. In other words, the porous medium is no longer
considered with its complexity, and only the result of its interaction with a given physical
phenomenon is important. This sets the stage for a new trend in investigating porous
media, which may fmally lead to a clear understanding of certain observed mechanisms.
For problems of acoustic propagation, and for certain types of process, the rock can be
replaced by a homogeneous and linear viscoelastic medium. The study of this type of
medium will be discussed in the next Chapter.

Appendix 2.1

WAVE PROPAGATION
IN A NON-ISOTROPIC ELASTIC MEDIUM
The introduction of(2.7) into the constitutive law (2.25) of a linear elastic medium, and
the result of this introduction in the equilibrium equations (2.24) gives:
cijkluj.kl

= pii;

(2A.ll

For isotropic media satisfying (2.28), Eq. (2A.l) is merely Eq. (2.39) set in another form.
Let us now consider a wave front of unit normal vector n and normal velocity V at
geometric point M belonging to this front. If f(xt, t) is the equation of the wave front, note
that V is defmed by :

96

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

-j

V=

(2A.2)

[~ u:">2Tand thus represents the velocity of a geometric point moving on the normal n between
time t, when it coincides with M, and a later time t + dt.
Let us now consider acceleration waves, characterized by a jump A of the acceleration
vector when crossing the geometric surface representing the wave front. We shall set:
[ii~c]

= Ale

(2A.3)

where(] represents the ..jump" operator and consists in determining the difference in the
quantity on either side of the wave front. If the second partial derivatives with respect to
time satisfy (2A.3), we know that the second partial derivatives with respect to a space
variable and to another space variable or to time must satisfy the equations of kinematic
compatibility stated by Hadamard (1949). These equations are:
n"n'

[ U~cl]=-A.
2
1

}.

U~c=
}.

nt

--A.
v 1

(2A.4)

If the second derivatives of a quantity satisfy an equation, their discontinuities or jumps


must satisfy the same equation when crossing the wave front. By applying the jump
operator [] to Eq. (2A.l ), and taking account of (2A.3) and (2A.4), we obtain:
AljAi-pV 2 A;=0

(2A.5)

Alj = C;"i'n"n'

(2A:6)

where (Alj) is defmed by :

This represents the acoustic tensor relative to direction n considered. This acoustic tensor
is symmetrical and the associated quadratic form is positive defmite. Consequently, the
endomorphism associated with the acoustic tensor has three mutually orthogonal
eigenvectors associated with the positive eigenvalues A1 = p Vj (J = 1, 2, 3) satisfying:
det (Alj - A 1 <5;) = 0

(2A.7)

Hence, at any point of a wave front, three mutually perpendicular polarization


directions exist, and each is associated with a velocity V,. These directions display a
complex dependence on the direction n concerned, through the associated acoustic tensor
defmed by (2A.6).
In the isotropic case, Eq. (2.28) leads to:

i.<5;i<5"' + J1(<5;"<5i, + <5u<5j,)

(2A.8)

The introduction of (2A.8) into (2A.6) and (2A.5) yields:


(A. + J1){D A)n + (/1 - p V 2)A = 0

(2A.9)

cii"'

This equation is satisf1ed either ifn and A are colinear, or if their respective coefficients are
zero. The former case corresponds to longitudinal waves. In fact, by setting A = An, which
corresponds to a longitudinal polarization, we have:
P

v; = i. + 211

(2A.l O)

..,....-

----------

------------------

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

97

The second case corresponds to transverse waves. The transverse polarization n . A = 0


thus leads to :
pV~ = Jl

(2A.ll)

The results found for harmonic plane waves, concerning polarizations in an isotropic
elastic medium (see Section 2.1.5), are hence valid for any shape of wave front.
In the most general anisotropic case, in which the tensor Ciitl displays no particular
symmetry apart from the natural symmetries (2.26) and (2.27), the characteristic
polarization directions are normally random and depend continuously on the vector n. It
is only if the material exhibits certain additional particular symmetries that certain
polarization directions are preferential.
Let us thus consider a case of standard anisotropy which is the orthotropy'of revolution
(or transverse anisotropy). Let us assume for the purpose that the orthotropy axis is
parallel to the physical direction OxJ. This means that all the directions are equivalent in
plane (Ox 1 , Ox 2). In this case, it can be shown that, ofthe 21 independent components for
tensor cij/d in the general case (see Section 2.1.3), only five independent components
remain, which are C 1111 = C 2222 , CJJJJ C 1122 , C 22 JJ = CuJJ C 1313 = C 2J 2J The
remaining components that are not inferred from natural symmetries (2.26) and (2.27) are
zero, except C 1212 given by:
1
(2A.l2)
Cu12 = 2 (Cuu- Cuu)
Considering (2A.6) in the case of the orthotropy of revolution, it is easy to see that two
types oflongitudinal wave and two types of transverse wave can propagate. To begin with,
when n = nJ is oriented along the orthotropic axis OxJ, a longitudinal wave (A= LlnJ)
with velocity .jC 3333 /p and two transverse waves (A. nJ = 0) with velocity jC1313 /p
= JC 2J 23 /p are seen. Subsequently, if n belongs to the plane normal to the ortbotropy
axis(n. nJ = O),alongitudinalwave(A == Lln)ofvelocityjC 1111 /p == JC 2222 /pandtwo
transverse waves, one polarized along nJ(A =An) with velocity jC 1313 /p = jC2323 /p
identical to the f1rst type of transverse wave, and the second polarized in the plane normal
to the orthotropy axis (A= Lin x n3 ) with velocity
12 ufp. Finally, the four
independent velocities are:

JC

P waves:

Vr==/

n= n3
A= Lin

n . n3 = 0

Vp=/=FF

(2A.l3)

S waves:

A. n =0

n = n3
n . n3 = 0,
n . n3

= 0.

rc;;;;

A n = 0 } Vs == [C;;;; ==
A=LinJ
~p ~p

A = Lin

OJ

J's = ~

T
'

wave propagation
and vibration effects
in viscoelastic med1a
(unidimensional)

INTRODUCTION
We have shown in the previous Chapter that the average motion of the fluid with
respect to an elastic matrix led to invoking a dissipative mechanism and hence to wave
attenuation. However, we showed that, apart from the case in which boundary conditions
are involved, this mechanism could be considered as negligible in most cases. The cause of
dissipation is to be found in the absolute local motion of the particles, both solid and liquid.
This Chapter is devoted to the mechanical modeling of this phenomenon by the
introduction of viscoelastic models. It is not intended to provide orders of magnitude of
the parameters that we shall introduce (which can be found in Chapter 5), nor to discuss
the relevance of these models concerning the behavior of rocks at the passage of a wave.
We again consider the medium to be homogeneous. In other words, the models
developed take account, from a macroscopic standpoint (that of the measurement), of the
average dissipation on a representative volume of fluid and solid, without drawing a
distinction between the share accounted for by the fluid and that relating to the solid. The
fme analysis (microscopic) will be dealt with from a qualitative standpoint in Chapter 5.
The motion considered here is hence the average macroscopic displacement u of the
fluid/matrix combination introduced in the previous Chapter.
In Chapter 2, for the matrix itself, we considered a rigorously elastic constitutive
equation; in other words the material has no strain memory. This is the simplest case. Real
materials, and rocks in particular, macroscopically display irreversibilities of behavior:
they dissipate energy when subjected to deformation.
This dissipation, apart from the Biot type of mechanism (Chapter 2), stems from many
sources. The most probable mechanisms involved for rocks are discussed in Chapter 5.
They include capillary forces, thermal effects, intergranular friction, and local fluid
movements. These microscopic, irreversible effects are therefore numerous and complex,

100

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

and any macroscopic model (in the sense intended here) that would attempt to
describe them fully, even if available, would be of extreme complexity and of very limited
scope. Consequently, we shall only consider the simplest models here, namely linear
viscoelastic models. In fact, as we shall show in Chapter 5, these models are well suited for
the description of a broad class of dissipative processes, resulting from rapid, smallamplitude variations in strain due to waves that propagate in rocks. These models require
the knowledge not only of the present stress and strain values, but also of past values, and
are therefore called memory models. To investigate and quantify these effects in actual
materials, it is essential to understand what is generally called their delayed behavior. In
this way, the time effects, particularly those associated with strain and stress velocities, are
introduced quite naturally.
The following study is deliberately restricted to uniaxial or unidimensional behavior of
the materials that we will examine. The reader interested in an exposition of the general
case can refer to several works (Fliigge, 1975, Christensen, 1982, Salen.;on, 1983).

3.1

DELAYED BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS

The experimental study of the behavior of materials as a function of time can be


undertaken by two main types of test: creep tests and relaxation tests .

3.1.1

Creep tests

In this type of test, the sample, previously at rest, is subjected to a constant load a 0 from
time t 0 An analysis is made of the variation with time of the strain e(t), or its equivalent,
the creep function f(t) defmed by:
e(t)
= f(t, t 0 ; a 0 )
ao

(3.1)

In the following analysis, we shall consider only materials whose properties do not vary
with time (non-aging materials). For the wave propagation experiments dealt with here,
this assumption can be accepted without restriction in view of the measurement time scale
(i.e. wave passage time). Under this assumption, the function f depends only on the
interval t - t 0 and (3.1) becomes:
e(t)

ao

= f(t - t 0 ;

a0)

(3.2)

Figure 3.1 shows a standard creep experiment. The loading time sequence consists in the
application of a given stress a 0 which is kept constant for the time interval (t0 , t 1 ) during
which no additional stress is applied. The strain response is shown schematically in
Fig. 3.lb. At time t 0 , an instantaneous strain e0 is usually observed such that:

I
I

WAVE PROPAGATIOl' IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

ao

101

(3.3)

eo=Mo

where M 0 is the instantaneous elastic modulus (Young's, shear, bulk, depending on the
experiment). After t 0 , the strain increases with imposed load, giving rise to creep. This is
the phase that determines the function f defmed by (3.1). At time t 1 , when the stress is
e

Creep

p
-----1,
=-~~---~-~ -----_1:::

ao ~---

--

to

t 1

to

tl

(a) Stress

(b) Strain

Fig. 3.1

Standard creep test.

removed, an instantaneous unloading occurs such that, if e(tl) is the strain just before
unloading. and e(t just after, we have:

Lie

= e(tn -

e(tl)

=-

e0

(3.4)

Equation (3.4) is only true because the material is assumed to be non-aging (if not,
Lie :;C - e0 ). After time ti, the strain continues to decrease, leading to recovery. This
recovery may be partial, in which case the strain tends to residual non-zero strain e~ (see
for example Maxwell's model, Fig. 3.10a), or may be total, in which case e00 = 0 (see for
example Voigt's model, Fig. 3.10b).

3.1.2 Relaxation tests


In this second type of test, the experiment consists in imposing a constant strain e0 on a
sample initially at rest, from time t 0 The stress a(t), required to produce this strain, is then
analyzed as a function of time. This is equivalent to analyzing the so-called relaxation
function r(t) which, assuming the materials are non-aging, is defmed by:
a(t)

Bo

= r(t -

t 0 ; e0 )

(3.5)

Figure 3.2 shows a standard relaxation test.


To produce a strain e0 at time t 0 instantaneously, a load a0 must be applied
instantaneously. After t 0 , to maintain the same strain e0 , it can be seen that the required
stress decreases, because stress relaxation occurs. If zero strain is wanted after time t 1 , it is

102

WAVE PROPAGATION IN \-ISCOELASTIC MEDIA

Relaxation

oo
Eo

1--0

0 to

(tl -,

rOto--~

a.,

tl

1----

O(ttl

(al Strain

(bl Stress

Fig. 3.2 Standard relaxation test.

necessary to apply an instantaneous jump Au in the stress to be imposed, which, for a nonaging material, is .Ju = - u 0 . Subsequently, the stress to be imposed becomes increasingly
low, and tends to a non-zero stress value (partial stress cancellation) or tend to zero (total
stress cancellation).

3.2

LINEAR VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR

Equations (3.1) and (3.5) only assume the non-aging character of the viscoelastic
constitutive law. In addition, linearity consists in assuming that the creep function f and
relaxation function rare independent of u 0 and e0 , namely:

= u 0 f(t- t 0 )
u(t) = e0 r(t - t 0 )

e(t)

(3.6a)
(3.6b)

Equations (3.6a) and (3.6b) help to obtain the law oflinear viscoelastic behavior for any
loading history. In fact, linearity implies Boltzmann's superposition "principle" which
states that the effects can be added. This gives:
e(t) =

'f
'f

du

f(t - r) -d dr
r

- :o

u(t) =

-x:

r(t- rl

de

dr

+ ~ f(t- r;)(Au);

(3.7a)

+~

r(t- rJ(Ae);

(3.7b)

Equations (3.7a) and (3.7b) state that the history of stress u (or strain e) can be
considered as the superposition ofinfmitesimal steps du(r)[or de(r)] and fmite steps (Au);
[or (Ae)J at time r;. The term step means that the quantity involved is imposed and then

~
3

WAVE PROPAGATIOS IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

103

kept constant from time t considered. One can then formally write the Eqs. (3.7) more
briefly in the form :
e(t) =

'I
'I

da
f(t - r) -d dr
r

-:r:

a(t) =

r(t - r)

-::c

de

dr

(3.8a)

(3.8b)

where the integrals and derivatives are implicitly understood in the sense of
distributionsu 1 This convention for derivatives and integrals is always presumed in the
following discussion. Moreover, in accordance with geophysics convention, we shall use
Eq. (3.8b) and not Eq. (3.8a), although these equations are obviously equivalent.
Causality implies that stress a(t) will not be influenced by the future of the strain (i.e. by
e(r) for r > t). Equation (3.8b) can then be rewritten in the form :
a(t) =

_,

d
r(t - r) de dr

-x

(3.9)

't

where it is presumed that, because of causality:


r(T) = 0

for r < 0

(3.10)

Deducing (3.9) from (3.7b) may appear somewhat artificial. However, the introduction
of the formalism of distribution and the constraint of causality is extremely useful in
dealing with discontinuities and for using the Fourier transform instead of the Laplace
transform in applications to dynamics, as we shall show subsequently. Integrating by parts
(in the sense of distributions, both on rand e) and assuming that e(r) = 0 fou < - t 0 [i.e.
e(- oo) = 0), (3.9) and (3.10) yield the equation:
+oo

u(t)

= _x

m(t - r)e(T) dT

(3.11)

where
dr
dT

m=-

(3.12)

Equation (3.11) shows that a is written in the form of a convolution product (again in the
sense of distributions) that we shall denote more briefly:

a= me

(1) A discontinuity .1/ at timer; for the function f corresponds to a Dirac mass Jfo(rdf/dr, if the latter is considered as a distribution.

(3.13)

tJ for the derivative

104

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

3.3 DYNAMICS OF UNIDIMENSIONAL


LINEAR VISCOELASTIC MEDIA,
FIRST CONCEPTS OF THE QUALITY FACTOR Q
3.3.1

Complex modulus

Let us consider the Fourier transform F(w) of a function f(t) defmed by 121 :
F(ro) =

Conversely:
f(t) =

+:c

21
1t

(3.14a)

f(t) exp (- iwt) dt

_
00

+X>

(3.l4b)

F(w) exp (iwt) dro

-:10

The use of the Fourier transform in viscoelasticity problems is quite convenient because
we know that the Fourier transform of a convolution product is the product of the Fourier
transforms. Hence, by applying the Fourier transform to Eq. (3.13), we obtain:
(3.15)

I(w) = M(w)E(w)

where M(w), the Fourier transform of m(t), is called the complex modulus. M(w) can be
separated into its real and imaginary parts:
M(ro) = MR(w)

+ iM1(w)

(3.16)

For a linear elastic medium. Eq. (3.13) is nothing other than Hooke's law, which is
written:
(3.17)
u= M0 e
This shows that a linear elastic medium satisfies :
m(t)

= M 0 t5(t), MR = M 0 , M, = 0

(3.18)

where t5(t) is the Dirac function.


Equations (3.16) and (3.18) suggest that the imaginary part M 1(ro) characterizes the
dissipation of viscoelastic models, while the real part MR(w) is associated with the
instantaneous response (at angular frequency w). The following Chapters
therefore
develop the study of this complex modulus. Before dealing with the unidimensional
problem, it should be noted that the three-dimensional (isotropic) generalization of (3.9)
is:
+::c [
d
de; .. ]
(3.19)
uii(t) = _"' J.(t- t) dr (tr e) t5ij + 2f.,l(t - t) d;J dt

will

giving rise to the defmition of complex Lame coefficients.


(2) A capital letter denotes the Fourier transform ofthe function considered: F for f, M form, :E for u, E for e
etc. This transform is understood in the sense of distributions. Hence the Fourier transform of a harmonic
distribution: exp (iw 0 t) is 2m5(w- w 0 1(see Eq. (3.14b)]. However, this transform does not exist in the sense of
ordinary functions.

r
I
I

105

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

3.3.2 Harmonic problems


Let us assume that a strain e(t) is imposed on a sample such that( 31 :
e(t) =em exp (iw 0 t)

(3.20a)

Inserting (3.20a) in (3.13) and taking the Fourier transform of the equation obtained
yields:
I"(w)

= emM(wo)27tb(w- Wo)

(3.20b)

where the Fourier transform of exp (iw0 t) is 2nb(w- w0 )(see footnote in Section 3.3.1).
Equation (3.20b) can alternatively be written in the form:
I"(w)

= 2ne'" IMI exp [iq>(w0 )]b(w- w0 )

(3.21)

where the phase (/) and the modulus IMI satisfy:


.\f.(wo)
tan q>(w0 ) = \1 ( ); MR = IMI cos

q>;

.
M 1 = IMI sm

q>

(3.22)

R Wo

To return to the time domain, it is necessary to take the inverse Fourier transform of
Eq. (3.20b). The real stress a(t) is the real part of the expression obtained. The inverse
transform (3.14b) then gives rise to:

(3.23a)

a(t) = Re [e'"M(w 0 ) exp (iw0 r)]


1

a(t)

= Re { e'"[Mi(w0 ) + Mf(w0 )]2 exp


1

a(t) = e..,[Mi.(w 0 )

[i(w 0 t

+ Mf(w0 )]2 cos (w0 t + q>)

+ q>)]}

(3.23b)
(3.23c)

In the harmonic problem. stress and strain are hence out of phase by a quantity q>
directly related to the viscosity of the medium. This viscosity therefore causes a lag
between response and excitation in the steady-state problem defmed by (3.20a). As the
angular frequency w 0 tends towards 0, the influence of viscosity becomes lesser and the
static limit(41 is obtained by (3.22) and (3.23):

a= e..,MR(O)

(3.24)

Equation (3.24) should be compared with (3.17). Hence it is natural to associate.


the viscoelastic behavior examined with the elastic behavior defmed by modulus
MR(O) = M 0 , called the relaxed modulus. However, it is very important to stress that this

(3) The complex notation is e'ident: the physical quantity is the real pan of the complex quantity
e(t) = , cos w 0 t. This will always be understood in the following discussion, if not mentioned.
(41 Note here that, since the inenia terms are ignored in principle (sample of negligible mass). the term static
means that the time is suiTiciently long (pulsation w;;; 1/r very small) for relaxation at imposed strain e., to be
complete, and MR(O) is merely the relaxed modulus (Section 3.4.1).

106

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

in no way prejudges the elastic energy (reversible) that can be stored by the viscoelastic
material analyzed for a motion defmed by (3.20a) and (3.23 ). Thus it is not because:
a ( t,

= 2mr
roo ;

1, ... )

= 0,
e(t,)

= e.,.MR(w 0 )

(3.25)

=o

that it can be stated that the elastic energy at times t .. is equal to e!MR/2. The evaluation of
this energy can only be undertaken with additional data about the '1 iscoelastic behavior
analyzed. This could, for example, be the case of the rheological models that we shall
examine in Section 3.4.1.
Let us now consider the energy dissipated over a period. This energy is written:
LIW

!: ae dt

(3.26)

since the elastic energy is reversible over a period T = 2n 'w 0 . Considering that the
quantities concerned in (3.26) are real, one obtains from (3.20a) and (3.23):
Ll W = ne!M 1(w 0 )

(3.27)

The energy dissipated per period is hence directly proportional to the imaginary part of
the complex modulus. Note that defmition (3.26) shows that Ll W can be measured by the
area of the closed curve described in the plane [e(t), a(t)] during a period. Eliminating
the time between (3.20a) and (3.23), it can be shown that this curve is an ellipse (Fig. 3.3). In
the plane related to dimensionless coordinates (e(t)/e ... , a(t)/em IMI ), the main axes of the
ellipse are plotted by the major and minor bisectors. The ratio of the half-axes is
1/tan 2 ({J/2, the major axis being plotted by the major bisector and equivalent to
2 cos 2 qJ/2.
CJ (t)

Fig. 3.3 Stress-strain cycle in the plane (e(t)/em. u(t)/tmiMI).

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELAmC MEDIA

In the elastic case, the ellipse is reduced to the major axis because, in this case, lf'
IMI = MR. The intersection of the ellipse with the major axis is given by:

e = e,.. cos lf'/2,

107

= 0 and

u = IMI e,. cos lf'/2

The fact that A W depends on the frequency is characteristic of viscous behavior,


because this implies that the power dissipated depends on the strain velocities which are
proportional to w. For instance, in the case of dry friction, which depends only on the
limiting stress, this dependence disappears.
In conciusion, we must stress that, for harmonic problems, the expressions of phase
shift qJ (3.22) and of dissipated power (3.27) depend only on the data of the complex
modulus.

3.3.3 Wave propagation


3.3.3.1

Wave propagation and attenuation

In dynamics, the unidimensional equilibrium equation is written (Section 2.1.5.2):


(3.28)

u.x = pii

The introduction of the behavior Eq. (3.13) into (3.28) gives the equation of
unidimensional waves in linear viscoelasticity by replacing e by oujox. This gives:
13.29)

mu.xx = pii

Let us now consider a displacement of the form :


u(x, t) = u0 exp [i(w 0 r- k*x)]

(3.30a)

In this expression k* is a priori a complex quantity and Eq. (3.30a) can also be written:
u(x, t)

= u0 exp [- :x(w0 )x] exp

[i(w 0 t - kx)]

(3.30b)

with k* = k- icx, where k and ex are real quantities.


A solution such as (3.30b) thus corresponds to a traveling wave with attenuation :~(w0)
at angular frequency w 0 We fmally obtain the equation:
k 0 V0

= k(w 0 ) V(w 0 ) =

w0

13.31)

where k and V are the wave number and phase velocity respectively at angular frequency
Wo.

The introduction of Eq. (3.30b) into Eq. (3.29) and the derivation of the Fourier
transform of the result obtained gives:
- (MR

+ iM 1)(k- icx)2 + pw'f, = 0

13.32)

By separating Eq. (3.32) into the real and imaginary parts, the following two equalities are
obtained:
k

= Wo

/P(IMI + MR)
21MI2

(3.33a)

108

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

oc

p(IMI- M.J

= Wo

(3.33b)

21MI 2

where IMI =(Mi. + Mf}2.


Assuming weak viscoelastic effects, i.e. M 1 ~ MR, Eqs. (3.31) and (3.33) lead us to:
V(w 0 ) =

JMR~wo)

2oc

(3.33c)

M1

(3.33d)

-;:= MR

Thus the wave's phase velocity at angular frequency w 0 is given (to the nearest second
order) by the same equation as in elasticity, if care has been taken to replace M 0 [refer to
(3.17)] by MR(w 0 ). Moreover, the ratio M.JMR is again observed to appear in the
expression of attenuation deriving from the dissipati,e character of viscoelasticity.

3.3.3.2

Variation in time of a free wave packet: group velocity


and phase velocity

Let us begin by analyzing in the elastic case the qualitative behavior of u(x, t) for a very
simple specific case: u(x, t) corresponds to the superposition of three waves of amplitudes
Ak
Ak
u(k 0 ), lf2u(k 0 ), 1 '2u(k 0 ), and of respective wave numbers k 0 , k 0 - 2 and k 0 + 2

(angular frequencies. w
u(x, t)

= u(k0 )

0,

w0

Aw
T

and

Wo

Aw) :
T

exp [- i(k 0 x- w 0 t)]

+~exp[ -{(k

0 -

~k)x-(w0 -A;)t]]

+~ exp [- {(k, + ~nx

= u(k 0 ) [ 1 +cos ( x Ak
2

Aw)] exp [- .

- tT

1(k 0 x- w 0 t)]

-('"

+ ~;)r]J}
(3.34)

Let us firSt consider the initial timet = 0. In this case, the modulus lu(x, 0)1 is maximum
at x = 0 because, for this value, the three waves are in phase and interfere constructively
(Fig. 3.4). As we deviate from the value x = 0, the waves mutually go out of phase, causing
a modulation oflu(x, 0)1 which decreases the amplitude away from x = 0. The interference
becomes completely destructive when the phase difference between exp (ik 0 x) and
exp [i(k 0
Ak/2)x] is equal to nand lu(x, 0)1 = 0 at x = Ax/2 where Ax is given by:

AxAk

= 4n

(3.35)

This equation indicates that the width Ax of the function lu(x, 0)1 (distance between two
successive zeros) increases with decreasing Ak. In a more general manner, for a signal

109

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

I
!

II

ko+~
2
ko

ko-T

llx

-T

Fig. 3.4 Example of the composition of three waves. The result is given on the
lower curve [see Eq. (3.34)] (after Cohen-Tannoudji et al., Mecanique
quantique. 1977, Hermann, Paris).

whose spectrum is different from 0 over a band Ak or .1w, this means that the narrower the
band, the more spread out the wave "packet".
Let us now consider a later time. Equation (3.34) shows that the maximum of lu(x, t)l,
which was found at x = 0 at time t = 0, is now at the point :

XM

Aw

(3.36)

Ak t

and not at point x = (w 0 fk 0 )t = V0 t. The physical origin of this result appears in Fig. 3.5.
Part (a) of this ftgure represents the position at time t = 0 of three adjacent maxima (1), (2)

Ak
ko+T
ko
Ak
ko--
2

1,,)
1(1)
1(1)

1(2)
1(2)
1(2)

1(1)

1(3)

1(1)

1(3)

1(1)

1(3)

1(2)
1(2)
1(2)

1(3)
1(3)
1(3)

(a)

(b)

xM(O)

xJt(t)

Fig. 3..5 Constructive interference effects: group velocity concept (after


Cohen-Tannoudji et al., Mecanique quantique. 1977, Hermann. Paris).

IIO

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

and (3) for each of the real parts ofthe three waves. The maxima identified by subscript (2)
coincide at x = 0, and constructively interfere and therefore correspond to the peak
ju(x, 0)!. In the case of Fig. 3.5, where the velocity increases with k (the most frequent case),
the maxima (3) of each wave merge. After a certain time interval, the situation shown
schematically in Fig. 3.5b is thus obtained: the maxima with subscript (3) coincide and
give the position of the maximum xM(t) oflu(x, t)l. One can therefore clearly see in Fig. 3.5
that xM(t) is not equal to V0(t) but is given by Eq. (3.36).
In the more general case in which the signal corresponds to a Fourier spectrum of
amplitude U (k), varying slowly with k and being non-zero over a narrow band centered at
k 0 the center of the corresponding wave packet can be obtained in a similar way by the socalled stationary phase method. Without going into mathematical details, which are
unnecessary here, the displacement in the time domain is actually given by the transform
[Eq. (3.14b)]:
u(x, t) =

;1t J_+oooo ["{k) exp [i[kx -

w(k)t] dk

(3.37)

Since U(k) is assumed to vary slightly. the most significant contribution to the signal
corresponds to constructive interferences in time t at position x. or, for a properly
stationary phase:

(3.38)

ck [kx - w(k)t]iko = 0

Hence for:
XM

= V,(ko)t;

V,(ko)

= dw
dk

(3.39)

ko

where V, is the group velocity of the wave packet centered at k 0 and corresponds to the
velocity at the peak value.
One may well question the relevance ofthe foregoing remarks for the viscoelastic state.
The quantity U(k) is transformed into U(k) exp [- cx(k)x]. To apply the method of the
stationary phase, it is necessary for this quantity, U(k) exp [- cx(k)x]. to vary slightly in
the frequency band considered. This condition is satisfied if the value of cx~k) is small, an
assumption that has been experimentally justified for most rocks (see Section 5.1.2). In this
case, the foregoing argument leading to 13.39) is valid. If not, no conclusions can be drawn
without additional data.
Note however that it is the interference effects that led to the concept of group velocity.
The group velocity V,(k 0 ) is different from the phase velocity V0 when the phase velocity is
frequency-dependent. The medium is then stated to be dispersive. In elastic media, the
interferences leading to a dispersive character are of geometric origin and are generally
produced by multiple reflection effects (wave guides). Hence, in an infmite homogeneous
elastic medium, w 0 is always equal to k 0 V0 , the group velocity coincides with the phase
velocity, and the frequency content of a given signal does not change. For an infmite
homogeneous viscoelastic medium, this does not apply, because of dispersion due to
intrinsic dissipation. The group velocity does not coincide with the phase velocity, and,

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

111

when a wave is no longer monochromatic, but centered around an angular frequency w 0 ,


the signal peak propagates at the group velocity, hence:

V, = dw
dk

I=

V(ko)

lo

+ ko dV
dk

(3.40a)

ko

or

_!_ __
1 __ ~dvl

V,-

V(w 0 1

V 2 (w 0 ) dw

(3.40b)
wo

As a rule. in an elastic medium in which dispersion is due to interferences of geometric


origin (wave guides, Rayleigh waves), the group velocity decreases with frequency (its
minimum is called the Airy phase velocity). When the group velocity decreases with
frequency. dispersion is said to be normal. If not, it is said to be inverse. In a viscoelastic
medium in which dispersion is of intrinsic origin, the phase velocity usually increases with
frequency. and dispersion is therefore inverse( 51 Note however that the concept of group
velocity, obtained by the stationary phase method, imposes a minimum propagation
distance for the wave to be grouped in packets. Before this minimum distance is obtained,
this concept is irrelevant. In a viscoelastic medium, owing to the preferential attenuation of
the high frequencies, for relatively high attenuations this grouping in packets may not
necessarily occur, and the notion of group velocity no longer makes sense. Hence the
velocity given by the arrival time does not correspond to an easily identified velocity. This
problem will be examined in the next Chapter.
The foregoing defmition of group velocity is based on a kinematic reasoning. For a wave
propagating in a homogeneous linear elastic medium, it can be shown, by applying the
Hamilton principle used in the previous Chapter (see for example Eringen and Suhubi.
1975, Achenbach, 1973), that the group velocity is also the energy propagation velocity.
i.e.:
V

= (P)

(IHI)

>.

(P
(V+C)

(3.41)

where P is the power per unit area, and IHI the total energy density (sum of the kinetic
energy C and elastic energy V), while the notation ( ) indicates that the average is taken
over a period

T(()

tr

dt). In the unidimensional case, (3.41) would be written:

( uu '>
vg = (lf2pu2)

~,(1 '2u~)

(3.421

On the other hand, since the stationarity principle of the Lagrangian C - \ no longer
applies to viscoelastic media due to dissipation, the energy propagation velocity of a
narrow-band centered signal is neither the group velocity nor the phase velocity. In the
two- or three-dimensional case, for a pure monochromatic wave (i.e. no interference
effects) that is not homogeneous (planes of equal phase not parallel to planes of equal
amplitude. see Chapter 6). the energy propagation velocity once again is neither the group

(5) An example is the case of Biot's media of the previous Chapter.

112

WAVE PROPAGATIO!'< IN VISCOEL...STJ(' MEDIA

velocity [i.e. defmed by (3.40)] nor the phase velocity. Only in infmite homogeneous linear
viscoelastic media do homogeneous monochromatic waves (as always satisfied in
unidimensional conditions) have an energy propagation ,elocity equal to the phase
velocity (Borcherdt, 1973).
From the experimental standpoint, with respect to rocks in an infmite medium where no
interference effects occur (as dispersion of geometric origin is obYiously possible in
viscoelastic media), one must consider the relative importance of the concept of group
velocity.
Since attenuations are often such that the parameter "1. is small (low or medium
attenuations), dispersion of intrinsic origin is also low, and the group and phase velocities
may be merged as a ftrst approximation. Moreover, ifthe ray path for a given experiment is
short, signiftcant dispersion, in effect, has no time to occur. Using Eq. (3.30b), the
attenuation of a monochromatic wave can be obtained by:
1 dA
d
oc = - - - = - - - (In A) 16 '
A dxM
dx.\1

(3.43a)

or
a:= _ _
1 _ I n A(x.\1,)
x.\1 2

xM,

for x.\1, < x.v,

A(x.\1,)

(3.43b)

where A is the wave amplitude, and x.v xM, and x.v, different observation positions.
For a wave packet, the general concept of attenuation cannot be extracted from the
dispersion effects discussed above. For moderate attenuations. however, Eqs. (3.43a)
and (3.43b) can be appplied, taking the signal peak value equal to A. The attenuation
determined can then be considered as the attenuation at the central frequency of the signal.

3.3.4 Quality factor, prelill)inary notions


The importance of the breakdown of the complex modulus into real and imaginary
parts has already been discussed. It is now possible to defme a quality factor Q which
quantitatively characterizes the dissipation of the medium by:
Q(CJ) = MR(w)
M,(CJ)

(3.44)

Note that this defmition involves only the complex modulus. It also applies to any
medium modeled by linear viscoelasticity, although it does not draw on any particular
viscoelastic model like those which we shall examine in the next Section (Section 3.4). The
quality factor is dimensionless. Since the imaginary part of the modulus is zero for a nondissipative elastic medium, the factor Q is infmite. By contrast. a zero quality factor implies
an infmitely attenuating medium, without any transmission quality.

(6) The unit of attenuation is the neper per unit length. :x can also be expressed in dB unit lengtl:. and one can
write:
%dB ur:it len,C:

= 8.686

2:~p

unit 1entth

WAVE PROPAGATION II' VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

II3

Note that deftnition (3.44) is intrinsic and makes no reference to experiments which lead
to its measurement, experiments which will be examined subsequently.
For the most general linear viscoelastic medium, the developments in the foregoing
sections enable Q to be related to other apparent parameters. The factor Q is fust related to
the phase shift cp(w) between stress and strain measured on a sample subjected to a
harmonic excitation [see Eq. (3.221]:
Q(w) = tan q>(w)
l
Q(w) = cp(w)

Q~ l

(3.45a)
(3.45b)

By (3.33a) and (3.33b), it is also shown that attenuation at angular frequency w 0 is


related to Q by:

~-1
a=l;,J2 Jl+ 1
~

Wo

(3.46at

Q2

or alternatively

Q = w0

[t _cx ~~]
2

2aV0

w0

(3.46bl

For Q ~ 1, these equations are written:


Q ~ Wo = rcfo
2cxV0 aV0

(3.46cl

B = 2nC""'"

(3.471

Let us consider the value:


LIC""'"

where C....," and LIC""'" are respectively the maximum kinetic energy and the decrease in
this energy over a wavelength A. C sing (3.30b), it can easily be shown that:
B = 2r.[l - exp (- 2aA)] - l

(3.48al

B = 2rc{ 1- exp (- 4n(ji+Q2- Q)]} -1

(3.48bl

which can also be written :

and for small cx(Q

1), we therefore have:


B~Q

(3.491

114

3.3.5

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

Example of application of viscoelastic modeling


to porous media

Porous media and rocks will be examined in the light of the viscoelastic models and
discussed in the following Chapters. However, we should like to present here an example
in which the macroscopic origin of viscoelastic modeling can be explained
microscopically. To do this, let us consider a medium in which the porosity consists of
spherical cavities of radius r, isolated from each other (Fig. 3.6).
DiffriCted wave

,"::/
--

""'

o,
,_,,
1

...

' _,

_..... I

.,- .....

.....

- .....
0\I

...
I

I
' .....

-'
lo'
I

'

'

..... I

,-

l(

-,/

'o,
'.... _........

(p) . . -.. ,
I,0
__ \

Source

...

2r

I
I

0\I

' _....

....

""'

Receiver

Fig. 3.6 Schematic porous medium consisting of spherical cavities in a


homogeneous matrix.

Let us now assume that an incident P wave (see Chapter 2) propagates in this medium.
The P and S wave velocities of the medium corresponding to the supposedly elastic matrix
are denoted Vr and J--S. The incident wave is expressed by:
u

= u 0 exp

[i(kx - rot)]

(3.50)

where kVp = w. The incident power per unit area is written:


P0

= Uxxu

(3.51)

Stress u xx is determined from (3.50) by:


q xx =

(A

+ 2J-t)U,x

(3.52)

where A. and J-1 are the Lame constants (see Chapter 2).
The average incident power over a period, defmed by:
2"

POv =

27t

Jol"' P

dt

(3.53)

can then be written from (3.50), (3.51) and (3.52):

POv =

~ (A. + 2J-t)wku~

(3.54)

liS

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

When the incident wave meets a spherical cavity, an elementary scattering process
occurs. The scattered wave is the superposition of two waves, an S wave and a P wave. This
scattered wave radiates energy in all directions, and this energy is subtracted from the
incident wave energy. The latter is accordingly attenuated. To quantify the elementary
scattered power, it is customary to introduce the notion of scattering cross-section SE
which is the ratio of the average power scattered over a period to the average incident
power per unit area. Hence it has the dimensions of an area.
Many authors have investigated scattering effects by inclusions. Ying and Truell ( 1956)
in particular determined the expression of the scattering cross-section for a spherical
cavity. If the incident wavelength is large in comparison with the cavity radius r, they
found:
SE = gkr6 m
(3.55)
If the spherical cavities are sufficiently distant from each other, i.e. if the number of
spherical cavities n per unit volume is small (in practice, if the porosity is lower than 20%),
it can be considered that no interactions occur between the scattered waves (no
interference, and no multiscattering effects). The scattering cross-sections can then be
added (see for example Waterman and Truell, 1961). This additivity of scattering crosssections allows the approximation to the f1rst order of multiple scattering to be made (see
for example Ishimaru, 1978). In this approximation. it is considered that the direct wave is
no longer the incident wave defmed by (3.50), but a wave attenuated by the elementary
scatterers on the path already traveled. More specifically, consider a direct wave of
average power P"v per unit area. In the volume dx d}' dz, the number of spherical cavities is
ii dx dy dz. By defmition of the scattering cross-sections and from the principle of their
additivity, the average power lost - dP"r by the direct wave on a path dx satisfies:
- dP"v dy dz = iiSEP"c dx dy dz
(3.56)
from which, by integration:
P"v

= POv exp (- 2cxx),

= u0 exp (- cxx) exp [i(kx -

rot)]

(3.57)

where attenuation oc is:


1 -s
oc=2nE

(3.58)

Equation (3.33d) and the definition of the quality factor Q (3.44) then give rise to:

Q-t = iiSE
k

(3.59)

(7) The precise value of the coeiT!cient g is:

41t

g=9

[ 3+ 40

(V.)s

2+32
Vs

nfVrYl

-2(vJ +3(vJ +16C,J


3 Vr

2 Vr

Vr

4]

If the wavelength is no longer large compared with the cavity radius, the expression of SE differs from (355t and
the frequency-dependence to the fourth power disappears.

116

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

Hence, when the elementary microscopic process corresponds to scattering effects,


Eq. (3.57) shows that a viscoelastic effect occurs macroscopically. However, the limits of
the analysis should be noted forthwith, apart from the limitation on porosity mentioned
above. Equation (3.55) corresponds to the so-called Rayleigh approximation or long-wave
approximation. It assumes that the wavelength A, defmed by:
2n
Vp
A=-=-

(3.60)

is large compared with the inclusion radius, or more precisely:

kr < 0.1

(3.61)

An example of a radius of 1 J1. and a P wave velocity of 5000 m/s lead to a frequency limit
fc of about 4 MHz, a limit that is generally an order of magnitude or more above
applications of classic seismics (fteld or laboratory). Moreover, ncan be approximated by
the expression :

cP

n = r3

(3.62)

where is the porosity. This consists in isolating the cavities in the tangent spheres of
radius R = r/ 1 ' 3 Combining (3.55) and (3.59) this gives:

Q- 1

c/Jgk3r3

(3.63)

Equation (3.63) shows that Q- 1 is proportional to the cube of the frequency, and also to
the cube of the cavity radius. Hence, at the seismic to ultrasonic frequencies, scattering
processes are negligible. They only become important at the very high frequencies.
Emphasis must be placed on the fact that it would be misleading (or useless) to attempt
to reverse the law of viscoelastic behavior defmed by (3.63) in the time domain.
Apart from the high frequency limit fc of the analysis, other dissipative mechanisms with
far more importaJ.l,t effects occur in the low frequency ranges (i.e. f ~ fc), where scattering
processes are negligible. Thus, if the cavities are ftlled with a fluid, it is the viscosity of the
fluid that plays the most important role in dissipation. Walsh (1969) pointed out that a
fluid inclusion in a homogeneous matrix satisfactorily obeys the standard model
developed in Section 3.4.1. The central angular frequency c.o, [see (3.76)] is then equal to
ep.f'f, where e is the aspect ratio< 81 ofthe fluid-ftlled cavity, '7 the viscosity of the fluid, and J1.
the shear modulus of the matrix. Other authors investigated the problem of wave
propagation for a concentration of cavities ftlled with viscous fluids (in particular Datta,
1975). While these investigations are in themselves interesting in attempting to relate
macroscopic viscous models to microscopic effects whose physical origin is clearly
understood, they are nevertheless limited, because the experimental conftrmations are not
conclusive. This is due to the fact that many other dissipation processes occur. They are
analyzed in Chapter 5.

(8) The aspect ratio is the ratio of the two extreme dimensions of the inclusion: for a sphere this is l, for an
ellipsoid with a major axis a and minor axis c. this is cfa and e ~ l.

.,-

:I

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTlC MEDIA

117

3.4 IMPORTANT VISCOELASTIC MODELS


3.4.1

Rheological models, new defmitions of the quality factor

Rheological models are often used for theoretical support in describing uniaxial
behavior which displays dissipative effects of viscous origin. We shall show their general
interest later. These rheological (viscous) models consist of networks of two elementary
models, the spring and the dash-pot shown in Fig. 3.7.
11

IINIIIIN

(a)

a=Ee

(b)

Fig. 3.7 Elementary linear viscoelastic models.


a. Spring b. Dash-pot.

If the force acting on the element is denoted by a and t denotes its extension, the
equations of beha\ior are:

For the spring:


a= Et

(3.64)

,t

(3.65)

For the dash-pot:


t1

In its simplest form, this equation represents a linear and viscous behavior which
linearly relates the force (or stress) t1 exerted on the element to the extension rate (or strain
rate) e to which the element is subjected.
We shall now examine the case of a commonly used model, the so-called u standard" or
Zener model, shown in Fig. 3.8.1f t 0 and t 1 are the extensions (strains) of the two springs,
using Eqs. (3.64) and (3.65) one obtains:

e = t 0 + e1
a= Eoto
a= Ettt +'let

(3.66)

Eo

11

Fig. 3.8 Standard or Zener model.

118

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

where is the total strain of the model. It is then easy to deduce from (3.66) the equation:

a+ r'X)a

= E 0 r 00

e+ E

00

(3.67)

where we have set:


1:
cc

'I

(3.68)

-=-++ E 1 Eoo
E0 E 1

E0

The parameter r is called the characteristic relaxation time as it is representative of an


experiment in which the strain is imposed [ d~:fdt = 0 in (3.67)] and in which the relaxation
of the stress (to be imposed) to maintain this strain is observed (see Section 3.1.2). The
parameter Eoo is the delayed elastic modulus; after an infmite time interval, it linearly
relates the stress and strain (a= t = 0). On the other hand, 0 is the instantaneous
modulus. It can then be shown that the solution of (3.67) can be written:
X>

a(t) =

0
r(t - r) -d dr

-oo

(3.69)

1:

where the expression of r(t) is given by:


r(t)

= E + (E0

r(t)

=0

00

E aol exp ( - r

~)

~0

(3.70)

t < 0

The function r(t) is hence the relaxation function of the standard model, which had been
defmed in general by Eqs. (3.5) and (3.6b). Proceeding as in Section 3.2, one can determine
from (3.69):
a(t)

+oo

= _

with

m(t - r)~:(r) dr

(3.71)

00

.
dr
m=dt

(3.72)

(3.70) and (3.72) can then be used to obtain the complex modulus relative to the Zener
model:
M(w)

= M0

1+r 00 r 0 w 2

2
00

+ zM 0 w

r 0 -r,

1 + ! 200 W

(3.73)

where we have set:

Eo _ !!_ M 0 = E-r_

to = r :c E

E1'

(3.74)

00

The complex modulus .\f(w) tends towards M 0 = 00 as w tends towards 0. M 0 is then


called the relaxed modulus. Motion has become infmitely slow, and the dash-pot does not
play a role (t = 0); the Zener model (Fig. 3.8) behaves like two springs in series E 0 and E 1 ,
or a single spring with a constant E'XJ defmed by (3.68). If the angular frequency tends
towards infmity, the complex modulus tends towards M oc = E0 As motion becomes very
fast (t = oo ), the dash-pot blocks the movement ofthe springE 1 and only spring E0 reacts.

tr
d

~~

119

WAVE PROPAGATIOS IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

The quality factor is determined from the defmition (3.44) and Eq. (3.73) by:

Q=

1 + t:/0 t 0 ci
0(t 0 -

(3.75)

,,J

The maximum 1/Q representing maximum dissipativity is obtained for the central
angular frequency rom:
w

0.76)

= .ytot:r:
~

and is therefore
1/Q(ro,.,)=

to- tao
~

2-y t 0 t

(3.77)

00

Figure 3.9 gives the variations of Q and MR(ro) as a function of angular frequency ro.

.------..----r-----.----.----....-----.

1.1

0.16

,.0_,._

2-;r;;:;:..

~MRP(w)

1.0

0.12

0.9

0.08

a-1

0.04

0.8
1

""'m ==

-;:r;;;:
I

0.7

-=r=

-3

-2

I
-1

I
I

7't:

Angular frequency (log IClllt)

Fig. 3.9 Three-parameter solid (Standard) model.

The Zener model represents the network of three elements. Two other simpler models
are defmed by the limit cases. One of them is the Kelvin-Voigt model, obtained for
E0 ~ oo. This is the prototype of solid rheological models, because the delayed elastic
modulus Eoo is non-zero. The second is the Maxwell model, obtained for 1 ~ 0. This is
the prototype of fluid models. because the delayed elastic modulus tends towards 0; in
other words the delayed strain is infmite and the material "flows" indefmitely (see
Fig. 3.10).

i~

120

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

~~
;I I

'I

Eo

1-f

If-IN

I
lal

Time

.E~

'I

::!:J---

I!

en

El

~=I I

I
Time

Fig. 3.10

lbl

Maxwell (a) and Kelvin-Voigt (b) models and their creep functions.

The Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt models are very important because it can be shown
(Mandel, 1966) that any linear viscoelastic solid can be represented by a series network of
Kelvin-Voigt models and a spring (constant M 00 ), representing the instantaneous
elasticity (Fig. 3.11 ), or in an equivalent manner by a parallel network of Maxwell models
and a spring (constant M 0 ) representing the delayed elasticity. If the representation by
Kelvin-Voigt models is adopted, in a similar manner to (3.66), this gives the equations:
II

e = e0

=M

00

e0

i= 1

(3.78a)

e1

= E 1e1 + rue1

(3.78b)

For elements in series, the inverse of the resulting complex modulus is the sum of the
inverses of the complex moduli of the elements. For the Kelvin-Voigt model, (3.78a) leads
to:
MkJJ) = E1 + i'71w

(3.79)

Hence the complex modulus satisftes:


1

= - + : LM-(w)
M(w) M""
1

(3.80)

For harmonic problems, it has been shown (Section 3.3.2) that, for a harmonic strain
e = e,. cos wt, the stress is written :

u=

Bm

lMl cos (wt + qJ)

(3.811

ir
3

121

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

llj

llj-1

111

-1

M_

E1

eo

----+
Ej-1

Ei

Mj

e1

Ej

ei-1

Fig. 3.11 Representation of a linear viscoelastic solid using Kelvin-Voigt


models.

The introduction of (3.81) in (3.78b) gives:


IMI

+ cp- cp1)

e1 =e.., IMJI cos (c.ot


IMI

e0 = e.., -

Moo

(3.82)

+ cp)

cos (c.ot

where we have set:

+ iM1;

M = IMI exp (icp) = MR

(3.83)

M 1 = IM11 exp (icp1)

The elastic energy at time t is written:

_1
1
\1-2 M:ceo

2
+ "1
4- 2 E1e1

(3.84)

Hence from (3.82):


2

_ 1 2
2 [cos (c.ot + cp)
\1 - 2 e.., IMI
Mao

"

1
+ 7' IMl

cos (c.ot

+ cp -

(3.85)

cp1)

From (3.80) and (3.83) it can be inferred that:

. .

IMI (cos cp -Ism cp) =

"

."

'IJc.o

1
MCC) + 7'1Ml-'
7'1Ml

(3.86)

Equations (3. 79), (3.85) and (3.86) then lead successively to:

\1

=~

2 [IMI
4 e... M QO

"

+ L...j

IMI 1 cos 2(c.ot + cp) IMI 2


IMJ1 2 +
M QO
2

IMI~ cos 2(c.ot


+ ~ IM
2 1

~ e2[cos 2c.ot Re ( Mao+ Ei MJ


V =- e!Mo + 4
M

1 e!MR
\1 = 4

[(M2
M2)
Moo + MJ
1

cp1)

(3.87a)

(M2 + EJ M2)]
Mf

20Jt 1m M

-SID

+ 41 e! Re

+ cp -

exp (2ic.ot)

(3.87b)
(3.87c)

122

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

From (3.80) we obtain:


1 eM

1 oMj

- = IM~-ow
M2 cw
J

(3.88)

Hence with (3.79):


oM
OW

M2

~! 2

w - =I - 2
j Mj

i'1jW

=Ij -Mj2 (Mj- Ej)

(3.891

Equations (3.89) and (3.80) then lead to:


2
M2
M2
M2
E-M
oM
1
M=-+
I-=-+
I-2-+wM oo
i Mi
Moo
ow
1 Mi

(3.90)

Finally this equation introduced into (3.87c) gives the following expression for elastic
energy:

W=

~ e!MR + ~ e! Re [ (M- w ~~) exp (2iwt)J

{3.91)

This expression had already been obtained by Bland (1960) and by O'Connell and
Budiansky (1978), but in a less direct manner. Equation (3.91) gives the maximum elastic
energy W""'" in the form :

wmax = 41 e! {

M R+

[r\ M R- w eM
CWR)

oM ) -p:}
J
2

+ ( M, -

w aw'

(3.92)

Thus, as stressed in Section 3.3.2, the maximum elastic energy, contrary to a classic error
which consists in treating it as 1/2e!MR, depends in the general case on the real and
imaginary parts of the modulus and their derivatives. Based on (3.91), however, the
average elastic energy Wau is written very simply in the form:
Wa., =

f
T
1

2Jt

T=c;-

\1 dt =

4 e!MR

(3.93)

This is valid in the general case of viscoelastic models assuming a discrete breakdown as in
Fig. 3.11. Since the energy dissipated per cycle is (see Section 3.3.2):
JW

= ne!M1

(3.94)

Eqs. (3.93) and (3.94) immediately lead to a new defmition of Q:

Q = 4nWa.,
AW

(3.95)

In the general case of a rheological model, Q can therefore only be defmed from the
average elastic energy and not from the maximum elastic energy. Nevertheless, this is
possible for low and medium attenuations (Q > 10). In fact, the quantities MR and M 1, the
real and imaginary parts of the complex modulus, are related, through their very
defmition, by the Kramers-Kronig integrals (Nowick and Berry, 1972). These
relationships are linear, and it can be shown that, if M 1 = 0, then oMRfow = 0 (see
Appendix 3.1). This result can be understood by noting that the existence of an attenuation

wr-

il

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

123

in a material (M1 :f:- 0) imposes the existence of a velocity dispersion [V = V(w) or what is
equivalent MR = M~,(w)]. The functions M,(w) and c.\I.Rfow therefore display equivalent
asymptotic behavior when attenuation becomes low:
Q > lO ou M,

MR

<=>

oMR)
( M,. ow ~ MR

(3.96)

Accordingly we have:

Q > lO

\/,.." ~ 2 e,.MR

(3.97)

which is valid for only low dissipations, contrary to (3.95). Hence in the case of low
attenuations, an approximate expression of the quality factor is:

2n\/,.." Q 1
Q ~ LtW ;
~

(3.98)

However, the demonstrations that led to (3.95) and (3.98) concern viscoelastic materials
for which the representation by Kelvin-Voigt models corresponds to the discrete
breakdown of Fig. 3.11. The term discrete does not imply that the elements are fmite in
number, but that their characteristics E1 and 'IJ are isolated values on the positive real axis.
The creep spectrum is said to be discrete and the material is said to have a short memory,
because only the present stress and strain time derivatives are involved in the constitutive
equation [see for example Eq. (3.67)]. If this is not the case, the representation by
rheological modeling loses its value, since in particular, Eqs. (3.95) and (3.98) can no
longer be demonstrated (although often accepted) because the discrete summation (3.84)
of the energies by means of hidden parameters such as the strains e0 and e1 is no longer
possible. The material is said to have a long memory, because all the past stress and strain
values are involved in the constitutive equation which is available only in the form of a
convolution product. To overcome this problem and to account for experimental
observations that will be discussed, we can therefore, as in the following Section, defme
the model directly using the qu.ality factor, rather than infer it a priori from a rheological
model. The value of these models (for Constant or Nearly Gonstant Q) is obvious at the
operational level, but it must be kept in mind that. in this new defmition, we lose the
advantage of an explanation of apparent macroscopic behavior by hidden parameters, an
explanation that leads to the development of rheological models.

3.4.2 Models defmed from the quality factor


3.4.2.1 NCQ model (Nearly Constant Q)
Certain experimental results (for example, Murphy, 1982, Spencer, 1981) have shown
that the quality factor remains constant over wide frequency ranges. The idea of Liu eta/.,
(1976) was hence to construct a mathematical model for which Q would be nearly
constant, by direct superposition of Zener models, all having the same relaxed modulus
M 0 but with different central angular frequencies [see (3.76)]. This yields the frequency
dependence for 1/Q and velocity as shown in Fig. 3.12.

..~I
124

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

~I

10' 8

0.01

1/0

10 4

10'4

0.005

0
4.8

v
(km/sl

4.7

Phase velocity

4.6

4.5
10' 4

10'.

10 4
Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 3.12 Typical dispersion relations for the inverse of the quality factor and
velocity for the NCQ model (after Liu et al., 1976).

The same result is obtained if the Zener model superposition is no longer discrete but
continuous (Liu et al., 1976). The NCQ modc;l's dispersion equation is then:
V(wl) ~ 1 + _1_ In col
V(co2)
1tQ
w2

(3.99)

Other authors have reached this conclusion mathematically by assuming Q is independent


offrequency over a wide band (Azimi et al., 1968, Strick, 1970). Lomnitz ( 1957) also arrived
at the same result by using an experimental creep law of the form:
0
t<O
(3.100)
f(t) = 1 + q In (1 + td)
{
NCQ
Mo
t ~ 0

where q, d and M 0 are experimental constants.


3.4.2.2

CQ model (Constant Q)

The naturally following mathematical step consists of building a model with Q strictly
independent of w. This model was derived by Kjartansson (1979). The practical advantage
of this CQ model in comparison with the NCQ models is clear. For the NCQ models, the
dispersion relations and the frequency dependence of the quality factor are merely
approximate relations, valid only for quality factors over 30. Moreover, the NCQ models
all imply the introduction of a parameter related in some way or other to the frequency
band over which Q is constant. The width and cutoff frequency of this band appear to be
perfectly arbitrary, and the physical implications of this cutoff frequency vary according to
the models (Lomnitz, 1957, Futterman, 1962, Strick, 1967, Liu et al., 1976). The Constant
Q model is very simple mathematically, and is completely specif1ed by two parameters,

.;;r3

125

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

namely the wave phase velocity at a reference frequency and the value of Q. The creep
function used by Kjartansson ( 1979) has the following form :

0
f(t) =
CQ

t~O

1
M_rtl

-1-

?v\ Co)

27

(3.101)

t~O

where r is the classic gamma function (see, for example, Abramovitz and Stegun, 1972)
and M 0 is the modulus of the complex modulus at the reference angular frequency
w 0 = 2n/t0
This creep function has already been analyzed by Bland ( 1960). It implies that the
complex modulus is:
2

iw )
M(w) = M 0 ( Wo

2
Y=

w
M 0 I Wo

1 Y exp

[i1t}' sgn (w)]

9
1 )

(3.102)

The quality factor Q is then given by:


1
- = tan (1tf')

(3.103)

Figure 3.13 shows the behavior ofthe creep function vs. time for the Constant Q model.
It is interesting to note the absence of instantaneous elastic strain for this model, unlike the
previous Lomnitz model (1957).
Let us examine the form and properties of the impulse response of this model. To
analyze the impulse response amounts to examining how a Dirac delta function c5(t) is
propagated:
(3.104)

u = u0 c5(t)

This pulse is emitted at a reference abscissa x 0 in a medium satisfying the wave equation
(3.29). Since the plane wave solution is exp (-ax) exp [iw(r- xfV)], the Fourier
transform of the impulse response (after a travel distance x) is:
H(w) = u0 exp (- tXX) exp (- iw

~)

(3.105)

For the Constant Q model, it is shown using (3.33), (3.102) and (3.103) that:
ex = tan

~ sgn (w) ; ' ~ = Vo


(~oy
Vo =

I: r

(3.106)

....!...:.---'--

cos

1t}'

hence the function H(w).

(9) The sgn () function is the function which yields the sign of the quantity inside the parentheses.

126

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

0= 10

0=1
1.2
3

-!

-8 1.1
-~

-~
~ 2

c.

..

-~

"

u;

II)

.9
.8

10
Time

1.002

"B

1.01

1.001

'a.

10

0= 1000

0=100

c
;;

Time

1.02

c.

.999
.998

.98
0

10

10

Time

Time

Fig. 3.13 Creep function oftheConstant Q model (after Kjartansson.


1979 AGU).

The impulse response h(t) is then the inverse Fourier transform of H(w). This response is
shown in Fig. 3.14for a unit pulse(u 0 = !)emitted at x 0 t 0 = QV0 as a function of time tft 0
[see (3.101)].
An important property of the impulse response is i

(X )t"=""Y

1
TocLfoc-oc
-

V0

(3.107)

where T is the wave travel time for distance x, A the signal width, and A its maximum
amplitude. This relation can be written:
T
A= b(Q) Q

(3.108)

where the function b(Q) depends on Q.


It can be shown (K.jartansson, 1979) that b(Q) is virtually constant for Q > 20, which
allows the development of a measuring technique for Q called the measurement of the
signal width or measurement of rise time (see Chapter 4).
To compare the Constant Q model with the NCQ models, the creep function (3.101) can
be written in the form :

{~) = Mor(! + ly) exp [ 2y InC:)J

~-----

-------~~--~--

(3.109)

127

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

0.6r-----;:----------,
0=1

i' "

0.4

II~

0.2

o'

10
Time

..i

0.4

!c

0.2
01....---'-...L.--===~---L..J

105

100

______ ,

10

,,

15

20

0.6r--------------,

0=100

95

1:

Time

0.6 r - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

Oc 10

i
!G 0.2~'

0.41

0.2~
0

110
Time

0= 1000

995

II::=--

1000

1005

II

1 010
Time

Fig. 3.14 Impulse response for the Constant Q model (after Kjartansson.
(C) 1979 AGU).

Assuming that
expansion:

is small (i.e. Q > 10), /(t) can be approximated by its ftrst order
CQ

~~) ~ Mor(~ + 2y) [ 1 + 2y ln r:]

(3.110a)

1(1 + 2y) = 1 - 2yf3 to the fust order

(3.110b)

Moreover:
where

p is the Euler constant:


f3 ;;;;: 0.57721 (Abramovitz and Stegun. 1972)

(3.110c)

~~) ~ ~0 [1 + 2{1n (:J + P]] = ~ 0 [1 + 2y In rrJ

(3.111)

and hence

In the Lomnitz equation (3.100), the quantity d. inverse of a time, is very large in
comparison with the time resolution of the experiment. Therefore 1 + td ~ td, which
when introduced into (3.1001, implies that:
1
/(t) ~ -M (1
NCQ

which is clearly of the same form as /(t).


CQ

+ q In td)

(3.112)

128

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

The same thing may be observed by starting with the dispersion equation (3.106):

v=

Vo

I:J' ~ vo(l ;J
+yIn

(3.113)

in which Eq. (3.99) can also be recognized.


The Constant Q model is hence the same as the NCQ model for quality factors greater
than 10. This is not surprising. The Constant Q model is a limit of the NCQ model
constructed from an inftnite set of Zener models. The Constant Q model offers the
advantage of being easy to use in various situations, due to the frequency independence
of Q. Physically, however, its validity is not generally greater than that of any other
models.

3.5 VIBRATIONS
IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA
3.5.1

Traveling waves and vibrations

Let us consider a cylindrical rod of an attenuating material, of length l, initially at rest


and ftee at both ends. For a short instant, let us now impose a force at the end x = 0. for
example by an impact, and receive the signal at the other end x = l. The recorded signal is
shown in Fig. 3.15.
A series of pulses at intervals Tis fust observed. These different arrivals repeat the shape
of the ftrst pulse, but their amplitude decreases and their duration lengthens with
increasing distance from the original instant. A damped sinusoid of pseudo-period T
gradually appears. This signifies the transition from unsteady state conditions to damped
vibrations or pseudo-steady state conditions.
The equations of the problem are the unidimensional wave equation (Section 2.1.5.2),
for an elastic medium, which is recalled here :

u.xx

1 ..

(3.114)

=Vi u

where VE is the extension wave velocity and the boundary conditions:


u.x(O, t) = f(t); f(t) = 0
u.x(l, t) = 0

t<0

(3.115)

where f(t) is the force exerted at extremity x = 0, normalized by the product ES


(E Young's modulus, S rod cross-section). Since the derivative u,x also satisftes the wave
equation, the analysis will be based on this quantity. By making a change in variables:
X

Zt = t -

VE

z2

= t + VE

(3.116)

~
3

129

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

0.4ms

.........

I
I

I
I

I
: T .:. T --+--'--~

1 ms

...........
Fig. 3.15 Experimental signal recorded at x = I. The source is a short pulse at
the origin. The sample is a Plexiglas rod. The top recording is a magniftcation
of the frrst milliseconds of the bottom one.

the wave equation then becomes:


(3.117)

u,x%1%2

This equation implies that the general form of the solution of the wave equation is:

u,.,(x, t)

= t/l(t-

;J

+ q>(t +

;J

(3.118)

The function t/1 corresponds to a wave propagating in the direction of increasing x, while
the function q> corresponds to a wave propagating in the direction of decreasing x. These
functions thus correspond to the successive reflections occurring at both ends of the bar (at
x = 0 for t/1, and x = I for q>). More precisely, it can be shown (Courant and Hilbert, 1962,
for example) that the solution to (3.114) and (3.115) is:
00

X )
u,.,(x,t)=f ( t - -

vE

+L

-f

2nl)
(
v

2nl)]
v

X - - - +f t -X- - t+

vE

(3.119)

The f1rst term represents the propagation of the signal imposed at x = 0, while the second
and t~rd terms correspond to the nh reflections at the ends x = I and x = 0. The
beginning of the signal in Fig. 3.15 thus corresponds to the successive reflections of the
original pulse. In relation to (3.119), however, established for an elastic case, the dissipative
processes deform the signal in two ways: on the one hand, energy is lost, and the peak

130

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

amplitude decreases, and on the other, the signal spreads due to the dispersive character of
the waves (i.e. the velocity depends on the frequency). This spreading corresponds to the
one observed for a Dirac delta function and a CQ model in paragraph 3.4.2.2.
The question arises how to interpret the later appearance of the damped sinusoid. Letus
particularize the function f by a brief excitation modeled by a Dirac 15(t). Equation (3.119)
then gives:

( VEX) + L

u.x(x,t)=b t - -

<r.

X -2n/)
-b ( t +
- +b ( t -X- -2n!'J]
(3.120)

VE

n;!

VE

VE

VE

Taking the Fourier transform [Eq. (3.14)] of this equation, we obtain:


GO

U,x(x, k*) = exp (- ik*x)

(exp [- ik*(x + 2nl)]- exp [ik*(x- 2nl)])

(3.121)

n;l

where k*, the wave number, is given by: k* VE = w. The equation can be expressed
alternatively in the form :
:X:

U,..,(x, k*) = 2i exp (- ik*l) sin k*(l - x)

exp (- 2ik*lp)

(3.122)

p;O

which, taking the sum of the geometric progression, leads to:


U ' x(x, k*) =

sin k*(l- x)
. , .,
[1 - exp (- 2ik*lp)], p
Stn .

-+

+ oc

The integration of this equation gives:


u (x, k*) = ucolt + uincolt

(3.123)

(3.124)

where
ucolt =cos k*(l- x)

k* sin k*l
lncolt _ _

exp (- 2ik*lp) cos k*(l- x) for P -+


k* sin k*l

+ 00

(3.125)

The term ucoll is the coherent part of the signal representing the contribution of
constructive interferences of the reflections to the general signal. The incoherent
part uincolt, however, has no limit. Its phase is random, except precisely at frequencies such
that:
k* _ mn
I

(3.126)

m-~

At these frequencies, ucolt tends towards infmity. This fmally gives the schematic spectrum
in Fig. 3.16, whose irregularity results from the contribution of uincolt which varies at each
reflection.

Equation (3.123) corresponds to the non-dissipative elastic case. If one considers a


viscoelastic attenuating medium, the wave number becomes complex (Section 3.3.3.1):
k*

= k- ia

a> 0

(3.127)

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTie MEDIA

131

1-

-!

.~

..

Q.

~
i5

),

.J."-

w,

____, '-"'3

"'2

Angular frequency

Fig. 3.16 Schematic diagram of the spectrum in the elastic case for any
point x.

When introduced in (3.123), this expression shows that the incoherent part now tends
towards 0, and we obtain:

u = ucoh = cos k(l -

x)

k sin kl

(3.128)

Hence, in the viscoelastic case, U has a limit whatever the frequency, with local maxima at
frequencies close to:

w,

m1t

k, = VE(w,) = -,-

m = 1, 2...

(3.129)

For sufficiently low attenuations, the velocity Vt:(w) can be considered as independent of
the frequency, and the Eqs. (3.129) give the local maxima to the nearest second order. After
a sufficient number of reflections, the signal is mainly composed of damped sinusoids of
angular frequencies w,.. As a rule, attenuation increases with frequency, and the
contributions of the sinusoids to displacement disappear sooner for larger values of m. The
results are shown schematically by the spectra in Fig. 3.17.
Note that the period T in Fig. 3.15 is simply 21t/w 1 = 21/Vt:, a time which clearly
corresponds to a round-trip of the transient wave, and explains the spacing Tofthe pulses
of the ftrst part of the signal.
One can thus qualitatively explain the experimental result in Fig. 3.15: the original
signal propagates, is reflected successively at the ends, and, due to dissipative effects,
decreases in amplitude. Only the frequencies corresponding to W 111 contribute significantly
to the signal, because they correspond to constructive (in phase) interferences of the
different reflections, and thus give a signal with a sufftciently high amplitude to be able to
propagate without being attenuated too rapidly. To directly attempt to derive the pseudosteady state asymptotic solution requires making a modal analysis ofthe system, in other
words ignoring the transient conditions and developing the solution on the normal modes

132

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

defmed by the characteristic angular frequencies w,. This modal analysis will be examined
in the next Section.

a
=a
~
E
~

".
i5

"'t

"',

"'2

Angular frequency

Fig. 3.17 Schematic diagram of successive spectra (p .1') in the viscoelastic


case.

3.5.2 Modal analysis


3.5.2.1

Normal modes

Let us consider an elastic rod and determine the standing waves of angular frequency w
which may be established therein. The corresponding displacement can be taken in the
form:
u(x, t) = Re [u(x) exp (iwt)]
(3.130)
The introduction of (3.130) in (3.114) gives:

u,xx

+ k2 u =

k =

(I)

VE

(3.131)

The solution is straightforward:


u(x) = A sin kx

+ B cos

kx

To obtain the asymptotic solution for a bar free at both ends, it is necessary to satisfy the
boundary conditions:
or

u,..,(x = 0 or x = l, t) = 0

(3.132)

A=O, sinkl=O

(3.133)

leading to the characteristic angular frequencies (or eigenvalues) and to the normal
modes:
.
mn
mn
mnx
k, = - -, w, = - - VE, u,(x) =cos - -,
m = 1, 2...
(3.134)
1
1
1

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

133

which are precisely the angular frequencies ro, discussed in the previous Section which
correspond to constructive interferences.
The term .. normal modes" arises from the fact that these modes are mutually
orthogonal, in the sense of the integral scalar product:
(2/l) J:u,u" dx = {

m :F n
m=n

(3.135)

This orthogonality means that the inertial forces in modem, proportional to w!u,, do
not contribute to the displacements u" of mode n :F m.
Let us now consider a viscoelastic bar subjected to linear external excitation p(x, r). The
equation of motion is (Section 3.3.3.1):

a2 u

m(r) * ax2 (x, r) = pii -

s1 p(x, t)

(3.136)

where Sis the cross-section of the bar. By applying the Fourier transform we obtain:
d2U

M(ro) dx 2 (x, ro)

pw 2 U-

=-

S P(x, ro)

(3.137)

Let us now consider the associated elastic bar defmed by the modulus M(w) = M(O) = M 0
1

and the velocity VE = (.\10 / p)2. Let us break down the solution of the viscoelastic problem
to the normal modes of this associated elastic bar :
U=

L a,(w)u,(x)

(3.138)

"'
where u..,(x) is defmed by (3.134). We multiply (3.138) by u" and integrate. The
orthogonality of the normal modes (3.135) gives the following as the expression for the
generalized coordinate a,.(ro):

ff

U(x, w)u, dx

a.,.(ro) =

(3.139)

u! dx

By similarly multiplying (3.137) by u., and integrating, we obtain:


M(wl

2
ddxU
2 u., dx = - pw

1
Uu.., d~ - S

Pu., dx

(3.140a)

Integrating by parts and taking account of boundary conditions (3.132), we obtain:


M(w)

u dx
U ddx;'

+ pw2

1
Uu., dx = - S

Pu., dx

(3.140b)

The normal modes satisfy:


d2u
~-"'
dx 2

2
+ w.,
v2

u,. = 0

(3.141)

134

W.WE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

Equations (3.138) and (3.139) introduced into (3.140) thus give:


1

a,.(w)

P(x, w)u,.(x) dx

(3.142)

= R,. [M(w)/M0 ]w!- w 2

where
R,. = pS

f u! dx

(3.143)

For the extension modes examined here, R,. = p Sl/2. However, we shall leave R,. aside,
because the previous developments remain valid for other types of vibration (bending,
torsion, etc.) which do not necessarily satisfy R,. = constant. These other types of
vibration will be analyzed experimentally in the next Chapter.

3.5.2.2

Forced vibrations and free vibrations

Let us ftrst consider a harmonic excitation of angular frequency ro 0 exerted at point x 0


P(x, w)

= 27tP0 b(x- x 0 )b(w- w0 )

(3.144)

By (3.138) and (3.142), the response is:


r _
'- -

L..

.. = 1

27tP0

u,.(x 0 )u,.(x)

~( _
)
u W
Wo

R,.w, M(ro)/M 0 -ro fw,.

(3.145)

By introducing M(w) = .\fR(w) + i.\11(w) into (3.145) and inverting the expression, we
obtain the time domain expression. where we have formally replaced w 0 by w:
U (X,

t)

~
1

.,-;;: 1

u,.(x 0 )u,.(x) cos (wt - ({),.)

P0

-2

R,.w,. [(MR/M0

w 2 /w!) 2

(3.146)

+ (MJIM0 ) 2]2

where the phase difference ({),. is given by :


MJIM 0
tan({),.= MR/Mo- w 2 /w!

(3.147)

Let us now consider free vibrations, obtained by an impact. The excitation, assumed to be
exerted at x = 0, is thus:

= P0 b(x)b(t)
P(x, w) = P0 b(x)

p(x, t)

(3.148)

Equation (3.148) introduced into (3.142) with (3.138) leads to:

U=

L _!l_

u,.(O)u,.(x) .

,. R,.w! M(ro)/M 0

w 2 fw!

(3.149)

Without any additional assumption about M(w), it is impossible to proceed further. Let us
therefore consider the case in which damping is slight. In this case, in the vicinity of an
angular frequency w,., one can write:
(f) ::: (1)'" '

M(w)

MR(ro,.)[1

+ 2ie,.J

(3.150)

r
I

I~

WAVE PROPAGATION

135

VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

where ~ ... is the reduced damping defmed by:

2e .. ~ .\.f,(w.,.)

(3.151)

.\.f~~.(w.,.)

Due to the slight damping, the maxima of(3.149) are clearly separated, and it is possible to
invert (3.149) in the time domain:

u(x, r) =

m:l

RPo

2
mWm

u..(O)u.,.(x) exp (-

e. . w.,.t) sin co,..t

(3.152)

This equation corresponds to the qualitative result of the experiment in Section 3.5.1.

3.5.3 Defmitions of the quality factor using vibrations


When dealing with vibration methods, the quality factor can be defmed using
Eqs. (3.146) and (3.152). Let us fust consider free vibrations in the case ofs1ight damping
(Q ~ 1). By filtering, each term of the series in Eq. (3.146) can be isolated, and each of term
then corresponds to a damped sinusoid (Fig. 3.18). The logarithmic decrement b., is then
defmed as the logarithm of the ratio of two successive maxima, or as the logarithm of the
ratio of two displacements, for a time interval equal to a pseudo-period:
f> ... =In

u(t)
u(t

+ 2nfw...

(3.153)

by (3.151) and (3.152):


1
Q(w...) ~ 2e ...

-!

Tm=211/W

.-1

1[

= b,.

Q~1

u ltol- ~mwm(t-tol

Llto+T I /

~mf

Fig. 3.18 _ Damped sinusoid corresponding to the mth characteristic frequency


[Eq. (3.152)].

(3.154)

136

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

For slight damping, the quality factor is thus related simply to reduced damping and to the
logarithmic decrement. The quality factor is obtained in the vicinity of the characteristic
angular frequency Wm
In the case of the impact experiment previously described, the first characteristic
frequency is the ohly one to make a significant contribution [factor 1/w! in (3.152)]. Hence
only Q(wd can be determined. To obtain the quality factor at higher frequencies by the
logarithmic decrement, it is preferable fJCSt to subject the bar to forced excitations near the
desired angular frequency wm, and then interrupt the excitation. The free vibrations then
occur at the desired angular frequency given the adequate initial conditions.
Let us now consider the case offorced vibrations. Each term of the series (3.146) can be
placed in the form:
Po

u..,(x, t) = - R
2 cos (wt - rpm)A..,u,.(x)u,.(x 0 )

,.w,.

(3.155)

where A.., is the amplitude term:


1

A,.=

[(Ma/M0

(3.156)

w 2 /w!} 2 + (M.fM 0 ) 2 ]2

Assuming slight damping (Q ~ 1), we know from the Kramers-Kronig relations that
Ma ~ M 0 (see Section 3.4.1 and Appendix 3.1) and the amplitude term is reduced to:
1

A,.~

[(1 -

(3.157)

w2 /w;.) 2 + (MJ!Ma) 2]2

Assuming slight damping (Q ~ 1), the contributions corresponding to each characteristic


angular frequency are clearly separated, which means that if the exciting angular
frequency is close to an angular frequency w..,, only the term A,. has a significant
contribution in the series (3.146). Figure 3.19 thus shows the influence of modes 2 to 5 on
the response with excitation close to the flfst characteristic frequency in the case of a
slightly attenuating material Q =50 and strongly attenuating material Q = 3. For the
case of Q = 50, it is apparent that the higher harmonics can be totally ignored, but this
becomes less valid for higher frequency or lower Q (Fig. 3.20).
Assuming Q ~ 1, one can then proceed with a classic measurement of the quality factor,
called the frequency sweep. Let us determine two angular frequencies w 1 and wu (see
Fig. 3.21) such that:

A!(Wr)
A!(Wu)
=
w..,
w,.
=

A (1)

(3.158)

We can then show that:

Q~

w,.
wu - w 1

= w.., = _1_

A..,w

2e,

Q~ 1

(3.159)

where A,w = wu- w 1 quantifies the spectrum width and rises with increased damping.

----- ----------------------------

137

WAVE PROPAG.... TION II' VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

0.4

0.2

ol

I
1000

. "'

:r

1500

=:e'

2000

2500
Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 3.19 Contribution of harmonics 2 to 5 to the shape ofthc f1rst harmonic.


The model used is the Constant Q model. The modulus M 0 is 5 GPa, the
reference angular frequency is 1000 s- 1 The density of the material is
2.5 gjcm 3 , and the sample length is ..W em.

F---;----=w- I
3000

'

1
3500

'

J
4000

F.-quency (Hzl

Fig. 3.20 Contribution of harmonics 1, 3, 4 and 5 to the shape of the second


harmonic. The parameters of the model are the same as in Fig. 3.19.

The measurement of the phase difference between excitation and displacement offers
another means to determine ru1 and wu. In fact, for MR;;;; M 0 , the expression of tan cp.,.
(3.147) immediately shows that:
tan cp.,(w 11 ) = -tan cp,..(ru1) = 1

(3.160)

The excitation and the response show a phase difference of :: 14.


In the case of rheological models. we have shown in Section 3.4.1 how the factor Q
could be defmed from the energy dissipated over a cycle and the average or maximum
elastic energy involved during a cycle. These defmitions apply to an experiment in which
the excitation is the stress and the strain is the response (i.e. no inertia terms, sample
dimensions negligible). One may well ask whether this applies to a rod in which the
dimensions are no longer negligible.

I
I

138

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA


A({l)

a= 011 _n

AM(O}

VV2AM(0}

n,
Fig. 3.21

n=-

"'m

nu

Principle of the measurement of Q by frequency sweep.

To answer this question we consider the assumption by which damping is sufficiently


slight for the response to be given by (3.155), when excitation occurs near the angular
frequency w,. Owing to the conservation of energy, the dissipated energy A W is the energy
furnished to the system during a cycle, because the elastic energy (reversible) is totally
restored at the end of the cycle. The dissipated energy, for the case of excitation giYen by
(3.144), can be written:

-; f
2"

AW =

du

(3.161)

P0 dt"' (x 0 , t) dt

The introduction of Eq. (3.155) for u,(x0 , t) into the foregoing equation gives:
Ll W

1tP~

u!(x0 ) sin cp,.

,.w,. [(MR/M0 -

(3.162)

ru 2 /ru!) 2 + (M1/M 0 ) 2 ]2

For rheological models, the average elastic energy V,., in the case of slight damping, for
which MR ~ M 0 , can be written from (3.93) in the form:

V,.,=4M
1 0

f'

s!dx

(3.163)

where s, is the maximum deformation at point x, namely:


s,. = max ou,(x, t)

OX

Introducing the expression of s,., taken from (3.155), in (3.163), and substituting the
expression ofsin cp, deduced from (3.141), we obtain, after a few calculations:
47tV,..,

Q ::::-LIW

Q~

(3.164)

~------

--

------~-

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

139

I
I

This shows that the local expression (3.95) can be generally applied to the resonant bar
with the difference that Eq. (3.164) for the resonant bar is valid only for dampings such
that Q ~ 1, whereas (3.95) was valid assuming rheological models alone. Simultaneously,
it can be shown that:
27tV""'.x

Q ~ AW

Q~ 1

(3.165)

where \1 ""'x is the maximum energy.

3.6 CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING THE QUALITY FACTOR


AND FINAL REMARKS
Table 3.1 shows all the ways to deftne or approximate the expression of the quality
factor Q, whose reference defmition is M .. 1M 1, and notes which experiments underlie these
defmitions. Each of the experimental techniques (resonance or propagation mechanisms
using standing or traveling waves) allows the direct or indirect measurement of a speciftc
quality factor Q. In fact, every value of the quality factor Q = (M .. I M 1) is associated with
the type of excitation analyzed, and hence with the elastic modulus concerned. A bar in
extension allows the measurement of QE = E~./E., where E =E.. + iE1 is the complex
Young's modulus. A measurement performed on shear waves allows the measurement of
Q5 = JLRIJL~o where JL = Jl1. + ip1 is the complex shear modulus. We can also defme Q.c
= Ka/ K 1, where K = K .. + iK1 is the complex bulk modulus even if a direct experimental
measurement seems ditTtcult to realize. Winkler and Nur (1979) showed that, for slight
attenuations (i.e. by ignoring the products ofthe imaginary parts of the elastic moduli) and
by using the correspondence principle (Fung, 1965) (i.e. by replacing the relations between
real terms of Table 2.2 by the same relations but in complex terms), it is possible to obtain
simple relations between Qp, Q5, QE and Q.c:
(1 - v)(l - 2v)
1 + v 2v(2 - v)
Qp
=~Qs
3
1 - 2v 2(v + 1)
-=--+---:-

QE

QK

1+ v

3(1- v)
~= Qp

Qs

(3.166)

2(1 - 2v)
Qs

The Poisson's ratio vis obtained from the velocities by the equation:
v=

v~ - 2 v~
2
2 =
2(Vp- V 5 )

Vi -

2 v~
2
2Vs

(3.167)

TABLE
SUMMARY OF QUALITY FA<-TOR

Parameters
concerned

Ct,

w,

tiC.,.,., C...,... A, et

Propagation

Propagation
Harmonic excitation on sample

Vav tiW
Harmonic excitation on resonant
bar

\!max tiW

Harmonic excitation on sample

DEFINITIONS

Viscoelastic
models

Sections

All

3.3.4

Q ~ 2etV

All

3.3.4

Q ~ 2nC..,..
LICmax

All

3.3.4

Q ~ 4nVa
LIW

Rheological

AnyQ

Q~l

I
Q=tan cp

Q~-

Q =-~(I- C(2~)
2etV
w2

Possible experiments
Harmonic excitation on sample

cp

3.1
(Q = M,jM1)

c_..

--=(1-exp [-2etA])-

Lie_..

4nV
=---

tiW

cp

(I)

3.4.1

3.5.3

2nV max
-- tiW

Q~-

3.4.1
Rheological

Harmonic excitation on resonant


bar
Ll.,w

15.,

'"'

Harmonic excitation on resonant


bar
Free vibrations on resonant bar
Free or harmonic vibrations on
resonant bar

-----------~- ---~~---

35.3
Q~ w,.,

Ll.,w
1t

Q~-

15.,

Q~-

2~ ..

All

3.5.3

All

3.5.3

All

3.5.3

WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

141

where the different velocities are related by


2

V,. =
V2

v:(4 Vi 3Vi-

Vi)

Vi

V~(3V~- 4V~)
v~-

E-

Vi

(3.168)

2
2
4 2
VK=V,.-3Vs

The ratio Q,./Qs can also be written as a function of (V,./V5 ) 2 :

Q,.=
Q5

"''
K

I+ Jill

v~

-2

Vs

(3.169)

Finally, it can be shown that one of the following relations always occurs:

QJt > Q,. > QE > Qs


Q" < Q,. < QE < Q5
Q"

for high V,./Vs ratios (e.g. in dry or totally saturated rocks),


for low V,./Vs ratios (e.g. for partially saturated rocks),

= Q,. = QE = Qs.

3. 7 CONCLUSIONS
In this Chapter we have considered the problem of wave propagation in viscoelastic
media mainly from the phenomenological standpoint.
More speciftcally, experiments (creep, relaxation) ftrst led us to the laws of linear
viscoelastic behavior defmed by the convolution product (3.9). In some cases, it was
possible to obtain a representation of these laws by the rheological models developed in
Section 3.4.1. In most cases, however, the creep and relaxation functions are only
implicitly known through the quality factor Q, and only over limited frequency bands.
Nevertheless, the physical origins of the validity of these different models are not generally
established in an indisputable manner. Note that the use of a linear \iscoelastic model
enabled us to defme the quality factor Q in the form MR/M 1, and to relate the different
ways to defme various quality factors which, a priori cannot be deduCed from each other
by the equations in Table 3.1. Hence, for the linear viscoelastic model. the quality factor
concept is quite independent of the type of experiment concerned, and is an intrinsic
parameter of the medium. For linear non-viscoelastic models, the defmitions of Table 3.1
normally allow a characterization of various damping effects rather than one damping
effect. Thus Biot's theory clearly leads to the notion of attenuation ex in propagation, and
hence to a quality factor (c.o/2cxV), and yet this quality factor is not equivalent to the one
that could be determined by an experiment with a resonant bar (White, 1983). From the
practical standpoint, the "quality factor" parameters obtained by experiment can
subsequently be compared with each other in the light of the assumption of linear

142

WAVE PROP:\GATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

viscoelastic behavior. It is clear that this is merely a model that may not necessarily
represent reality. Laboratory experiments nevertheless show that, as a ftrst
approximation, this model is satisfactory and can serve to analyze field problems, for
example.
The many causes of dissipation, and their relative preponderance according to the
frequency range analyzed, normally preclude any attempts to make a too sophisticated
defmition of a complex modulus. and hence a factor Q (and even more the creep and
relaxation functions), by refming the models developed in this Chapter. The procedure
required can be identif1ed clearly. It proceeds from a dual standpoint. experimental and
theoretical. From the experimental standpoint, it consists of analyzing the variations of
the quality factor for each type of rock, which appears to be the most interesting quantity
to measure, apart from velocities, as a function ofvarious parameters (frequency, porosity,
water content, etc.), for which care has been taken, as much as possible, to isolate these
effects in an ad hoc experiment.
From the theoretical standpoint, it consists of a careful study to understand the major
physical effects responsible for the observed attenuation at the frequency studied. This
makes it possible to model the processes, or rather represent them by viscoelastic models
such as those developed in this Chapter. These models thus appear more as working tools
rather than as an end in themselves. Adapted to the rocks analyzed, they can therefore
provide guidance for a mathematical modeling of the processes involved, not only at the
level of the laboratory sample, but at the level of f1eld seismics. We shall discuss these
points in their various aspects in the subsequent Chapters.

Appendix 3.1

THE KRAMERS-KRONIG RELATIONS


It has been shown in Section 3.2 that:
u(t)

+JC

= _cc

m(t - r)e(r) dr

(3A.l)

where m is the derivative in the sense of distributions of the relaxation function r:


dr
m = dt

with r(r) = 0, r < 0, r(O+) = r0

(3A.2)

Since the complex modulus is the Fourier transform of min the sense of distributions:
+or:: dr
M(w) = MR(w) + i.\11(w) =
d exp (- iwt) dt
(3A.3)

-0::

the expressions (3A.2) give:


MR(w) = r 0

M1(w)

=-

+[

f
-

+:x:
Xl

o::dr
-d cos wt dt
0::

..!... sin CJt dt


dt

(3A.4)

--3

WAVE PROP:\GATION IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA

143

since the discontinuity of the relaxation function rat t = 0 is a Dirac delta function r 0 c5(t)
for its derivative, considered in the sense of distributions. In (3A.4), unlike (3A.3), we deal
with integrals of ordinary functions. Similarly, one can introduce (see Section 3.3.2) a
function such that :
~>+ao

e(t) =

df

j(t - t)O'(t) dr

.. -:o

By introducing the Fourier transform J(w) = la(w)


Eqs. (3A.4), we obtain:
Ja(w) == io

f
f

+ao

+ iJ1(w)

simultaneously in the

df

-d cos wt dt
t

-ao

+:o

J 1(w) = -

(3A.5)

j=dt

(3A.6)

df

-d sin wt dt
t

-X)

Note that Eqs. (3A.l) and (3A.5) require that:


J(w)M(w) = 1
Hence in particular :
J(oc).\f(oc) = J 00 M 00 =jor0 = 1
J(O).\f(O) = 1 0 Mo =j 00 r 00 = 1

,_

(3A.7)

In fact, we know (see, for example, Sections 3.2 and 3.4.1) that the instantaneous or
unrelaxed modulus r 0 = r(t -+ o+) and the delayed or relaxed modulus r x = r(t -+ oo)
correspond respectively to the moduli Mao (inf10ite angular frequency) and M 0 (zero
angular frequency) in the Fourier domain. By eliminating the relaxation and creep
functions between (3A.4) and (3A.6), we obtain (see, for example, Nowick and Berry, 1972)
the so-called Kramers-Kronig relations:
1

2w
M aW
( ) = Mo+-

2
M 1(w) =n:

la(w)

J 1(w)

n:

ao

1t

00

M 1() d
-----

(Ma() - Mo)

1 +2 .
= v.YJao
1t 0

'w
= :_

i"' (

00

J()

Mao

2 - ( l )

1 )
la()--

(l)

2
OC

wl -

.-

(l)

(3A.9)

- 2d
--

(3A.8)

where the integrals are taken as principal values. Thus with Eq. (3A.8), one can show that,
if M 1 = 0, then Ma(w) = M 0 is a constant.

---

.....1
1.

<

<':1

;;,1~

1.

.").-,~f~H

~-..,.

~,J

.,;,

4
experimental techniques for
measuring velocties and attenuations
'-

INTRODUCTION

, __
"--

.....

'-

The prnioul Chapter attempted to show that the concepts of velocity and attenuation
were complex, even at the lewl of their dcf'mitiou. We have stressod that eac;h of these
definitions stemmed from a different experimental technique, and that. mathematically,
the deftnitions could be coqsidered to be equivalent for low or medium attenuations. This
statement is true from the mathematical standpoint: in other words, for each experiment,
each measuriag metftOCI was idealized formodeliil;.ln fact. the many interference effects,
or, more simply. experimental dift'tculties encountered, mean that the measured quantity is
not exactly the one anticipated or that it contains a substantial error. For instance, the
l'DC81UleiDCIIIt of aueauatioa :M quilc d6cult. ovea ita the laboratory. It is nec:enary to
extract tho.._ we WMl ftoiD . aWitolt.,..:of illlelfenuas-~ ~
multiple nleclioM. ........ etc.)wlaoletl'ccts MOIRORI or less foraeeable and imply
the aeed lor ~ This llmlals tlae impoetaace. of a souad knowledp of
expcriJnoaaalteeluaiquaforiiWUUriaavelocityandaueauaboaforaaoocJ undentancliDJ
oldie reliability- ~ oftbe .... aad to he able to GOmpue various sots of uta
found in tlac literature.
Three maia caM&oria o(.meuuremata can. be dist~: .
(a) Measurements us~ travolioa waVes.
(b) Measurements usin& vibratiaa systems.
(c) Measumnents usia& stress/strain curves which are distinguished from the second
catqory, althoup it uses an cquivttent ~~tation system.
For each~ we shall examine tbteom:ctions to be applied to the raw data;

146

TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING VELOCITIES AND ATTENUATIOJI;S

4.1 MEASUREMENTS
'USING WAVE PROPAGATION
4.1.1 Difficulties
Measuring methods using travdiag. waves are especialLy interesting because, by
defmition, the mechanisms involved are propagation processes.~imilar to those of seismic
exploration. Naturally, for laboratory measurements, the frequency range is totally
different (around I MHz) as compared with the frequencies used in the fteld (50 Hz in
seismics and 10kHz in logging) (see Ftg. 4.1). The wavelengths are hence quite different,
and the mechanisms responsible for the deformation of ultrasonic and seismic signals are
not necessarily the same. Furthermore, the velocity dispersion processes associated with
the presence of attenuations become significant. Exploration geophysicists are thoroughly
familiar with the problems encoun~.in tryW, to ~late a seismic section to a sonic
log (Goetz er al., 1979). The extrapolation of the results obtained in the laboratory to the
fteld is therefore a difficult problem.
e.mq.,
I

10'1

100
SEISMIC

~it- 4.l

lchoiiiiUI.... , .....,..

EJqltoq1ioft

I
10

,'o;
ACOuSTIC

. ;I

tal ..

1o-

l.illiloreiDry

I
101

~,

10"

ULTRASOtiiC

.FUQUCDCf.~ of ~.~ur-.cn&L,

NeverthelesstJaemetllodsthat\Vemddcscrib'eareWOtrllall)ta,..blctof'llllet__..
aswellaslaboratorylifnals.lnthe'fieli.a.--Gfeft'ectstlfstwebotltdle.,.....tioft
and shape of tksipal itself. For scillllic prGpaptkm, tile naaitt ditcuuciee .
from the
ignorance of the distance traveled by dlle wave. 11lil waw.ce.uinlfdtlftnot follow the
straipt ray path generally 8JIUM, 'but rather a eutVeCl path~ to''thc
prOifeSSive variation in the acoustic pMpertiesoftlte formationsaw:ouatered. Moreover,
even if straight ray paths are assumed, the depth of the different interfaeet is unknoWb. At
best, if the multiple refteiOM have been elinlllrated cort11atly. one may determine the
travel time to the different interfaces. The int~~l vel~y ~t~~n two i~terfaces is then
determined by the maximum likelihood enctgy metftod. Fin-~:Y, iq ~g,J seismics, the
existence of a poorly-known weatb~ :z:one (WZ), w~icb, .is iDJwnioaen~us and .
attenuating, further adds to the djfftCul~ in ~Cnninins the vel()Qty. In brief, it is
assumed that we can distinguish variatiOnS of 1'Yo to 2o/o on seismic velocities, but that the
absolute value of these velocities .is only known widaill 100.4. As lot acoustic loging, the
formations encountered by the propaptins wave are better known, but mechanisms such
as wave scattering at the fractures may give rise to errors in the velocity (e.s. cycle
skipping). In the case of very high attenuations, the signal received may be very weak and
the velocity measurement very disturbed. We shall be discussing a laboratory example
below.

.ra

...

"'

'

----T
-..__..-

-/

'~'

I
- }t"I
I

I
-

l'l!dfNtQul!s POl( ~~AMD1A'I"n!NUATroNs

147

We have jUst descrit'Jed some- of the dilfle'bltiet eac6Untered in the fteld in the
measurement of velocity; Hence itisdear that the~t ofattftuationwiHbe ~
motedift1cvltlto adlieft.lnfact, tile attenuation ofbtlerest to us is the tnrrlPISic attenuation

of the medium, namely that relafe(Hoflle interadion between the wave and the porous
medium and its saturating flui~ u opposed to the extrinsic attenuation. which depends
on the geometry of the beds and on the source (scattering. internal multiples. geometric
divergence, etc.). In the fteld, in fact,the simple propagation of the wave in the rock
formation is modified by,pttering. and by internal multiples that constitute energy losses
unrelated to the lois dUe 'to the iM1uticity c:Jf tfN,media tl"''fetsecl. It is~ difficult to
correct these drects (Schoenberger and Levin. 1974~ ~is why reliable attenuation
measurements in the freld are taken either in well-known aDdllomoseneohs regions, using
well-to-weU propap~a. for cupaple. or by .~JeCOI'diaas obtained ia.t.he wella and by
~rial siinaJa that have. travclo4 . . . .._t.patbs. A second major source of
dilf~eulty is tbe ~of~
ItisacocraUY NIUDlCd that the initial
wave.ftoJ&til~whereK.U.:r.it~~tnJir~ Tbismattcris welllaaown
to sipal pr~l .ptb~ w~ to ~ tlaeir nKX)rdiags for seomctric
diver~, apply a U.. Am!diooio r' (~here /l. f!l Oaad ~the t ~nPectcd
for a spboric:al wave. The ~- tbc qJIJDCrical value of the factor , remains
CJDpirical..AAotllef ~of problems io ~a. .ualio~ais4be biahnoise level in.

di-..or

scisaait~ TM~of-.iad~~oot~lyrclatcdtotbe
desired~ For~plc.iathe~,..U~ica,~wavcs(pstudo-RayJeiab or

Stoneley) could constitute .. noise" if one were interested in the refracted S arrival. This
rapid description of the processes involved in the deformation of the signal points out the
extreme difr)tUky obtainina meaain,.ul resUlts in the raeld.

or

--

,_

With rupect to laboratoryJDeUurements, some of the problems mentioned above c:an


be eliminated. To
the ..-lium analyzed is well(!) known, the interfaces deftned,
and the ray paths relat~ely clc8r, pftll'llly yieldina accurate Velocity measurements
("itbin J'!. ~ Yet a 4iftlculty arilea ila ,..._.,accurately the dme or the.Jirst arrival in
an atteJtuatina ~ Weshall.,....i~~~~t ttu.l.~ in detaiHt~ the next Sec:tion. As for
attenuatioa meuumpenta, multiple reflections-.cl iatcrference arrivals can be eliminated
1 MHz (for ccntimctric
(e.a. by usia& samples of *'*tuate size). For~
saqaples), however, the lfODletric ~vcrpnce effect. ~Y ~important, and, as a rule,
operations are conducted at discanoes &om the ICtUfCC JUch that the emitted wave is
vi11UAUy a plaac wave. the raaJe Qt. this wOrk\fta iet~l de.pends on the site of the
transducer, tho waveleaath emitted, and the distance between the emission and
obsavatioapeints. In this zone, sinoetlle wave front is virtuaUy planar it is assumed that
the amplitude decay of the displaeement due to the anclasticity of the medium is
exponential.

beam "'tb,

leas....._

'-._.../

If the wavelenath becomes comparable to the transducer diameter, diffraction may


occur. The correction required can nonnaUy only be made empirically (Trudl et al., 1969).
Another problem, typical of laboratory propaption measurements, concerns coupling
problems betweeaubettaasctucer AJMlthe sample(ltt6 a the reprodUcibility oflossts due
to'coupliaJ). Mete ....-. tbe frelllim 1b8UW tolwd'empirically (Truell n al., 1969).
when -~ tllvdw.l ift ultrasollic measurements, the
Finally, O'WiOJ to
samPles must haw :pr!11efy parallt1 Skies. This l'loblem ft5 ilrestiaatcd experimentally
by Truell atld Oates (1963), wllo' shM.red th-.'\he ~of imperfect paraiWism

th..,

,_

148

TECH:"lQl:ES FOR ME!,SUIUN(i

VELOClT~ AND-~TIENUATIOl"S

depended on the inverse of the quali.Ut ~r ofthe ~rial used. and on the frequency
employed. A lars,c; part of~ diff:ul~ listed abQvct can be .solved experimentally.
Ne,ertheless, attenuation measuremc:a.ts by wav pr9DQ&tiOO remain a ~ult matter,
albeit easy to design and implemeat. The reliability of!~ methods and the acx:uracy of
the measurements of the quality factor are at bc;lt .10%.

4.1.2 1\-leasuremeat prbaciples _.


4.1.2.1

~xpe~

tecltaiques

,Ai

Velocity m_easantaeats

As shown in the prtvious Chapter, ~ion 3,.3.3.2, tfwrfne8SUI'enlent of velocity in an


attenuating medium by means of tile
Y a X/t (where j and r are the travel
distance and propagation tinie respectively) jives usi hmriOgelleous qdantity for velocity,
but one that has no particular phyliead'signifrcance for t~signal analyt.ed. Contrary to the
measurement of the distance x, Wbidl is nQnllally acetrrate anct easy to make, the
measurement of time r is ditrteult becau_, a l*tje number'offac:tors add to the inaccuracy,
such as length. shape and repett'tion rate of the etecttk:at pulse, 1he break of the emitted
wave (directly related to the rise time 11etifted in Fig. 4: 12), the cbarteteristics of the
rertiver system. and \-herransducet aditl'fttstenill'l ~ A nUmber oft~ problems
can be etiminated by using a reference *ftlple witll welMmoWil acoustic pioperties.

eetuatidtl

.1~

~.

-1

t"'

t
0 .........

. ."'

,. '" .

?'lf'

-1

T-. ..).

0.5
-!

.......,.._.(MHZ)

Fig. 4.2 Signal in time (left) and in the frequency domain (right) used for the
model.
.,
i~.
i

J-

'

Nevertheless. the p:oblem.. ~~ with wa~ riso .time JDoasurcmenu r"mains


uQSQlved. Let us consider two ~pies. <JiS~Yin& ~ant Q ~ypc behavior, with the
saUJevelocity 1'(, = 3500 rn/s.at~y fo*SO&kNJ,cfiffcnntquality{aqtors(Q == 10
and Q == 100)~-lnd the ~ thic~~ (40 mm), ia wJUc:h t1le sipal ahown in Fi 4.2 is
propagated. this signal is conteNd at 500 kHz witb a passband of 200 .to 800 kHz.

;;,--

'-'

"-----'
"-../

..

~Mix.M_.,ItiYI~IitlMfli'WlMSAf.f*"'*tllliS

Note also that, for the Constant

'-

Q 1\,lQde~. d1e phase velocity is pven ))y:

v-

'-

Vo(;;y

i' =- tan- 1

'----

'-'--

._.,-

'"-../

'-

,_

"--'"

'-

(4.2)

7t

'-

(4.1)

with

'-~

'-

149

The greatest dicrence in phase velocity for the two samples is therefore obtained at the
maximum sipikaftt bquency. Frequencies lbove t0 /2n propapte faster in tile more
attenuatina . mediUm (Q 10) than in the less tenuatina medium
(Q 100). The ()ppOJite occurs rot frequencies below m0 /2x. The lipal, which bu
traveled throUJh dMUDOCiiUDl orquality factor Q 10 hence anivesbefore the ODe that bu
traveled tbrouah the medium or quality factor Q ... 100. and will be wider. This is lhowu in
Fig. 4.3. To~~~~UU~Wdae~illpropapU. tiiDcbotwecn tbc twosipall.and hence
the dilenmce in propaptioo velocity, it is necessary to set a level bdCMV which it is
impossible to distinpish the signal from the noise. H this level is set at 1/o, the relative
differeDce ill velocitic$ is 4.2%. whereas if the level is set at 4.%. tbis difference is .-educed to
1.7%. l'bis~ is obsetft'Me on actual slPIJs,lll<l it iS verj dftkult tomeasUR
the velodty accurately on a sipil that is
ttiptly noisy(-~. 4.5).1t....., also be
observed that the first
'ofeaCil tlte two sfaaals do not correspotr<! 'to the same
average frtqycmcy. After propaaa~~n, in,lact, .~ liaftali display a diffemrt spectrum

amvaiS

(FiJ. 4.4).

or

even

~--~~--~----~~----~----~_.----~~

Ju

oI

1.1 h2>r

'-

''-

-G.I

~'-

'~

-1.'
0

'

"'

tO .

..

15

20
TiiM (Ia)

'-

life. 43

Sipali recGrdedafter p~ itta,COMtat Q thateial. their


maximal amplitude being nonnalu.d ten.

'---

'
150

TiCMNIQUES FOR MtiASURJNG Va,OCITIES AND .4 TIENUATIONS

0.5

--

----

Initial signll

"

0100

(l_~"-

~,

'

0.6

Ffc. itA

F~CMtfal

Spectrum of sipals recorded after propaptioll in a constallt Q

material.

Hence ia the~ of Q == 100. ~Jlc farst ~v~ cop-esJX>nds to an averaae frequency ro 1


higher than the a~ frequency Wa l,)f tJie second aiTival in the case of Q == 10 : The
contri.,utipn of the frequ.cncy co, ha$ ~smaller than the,averase nqtse. This makes it
very difticult to C<?~~e velodty ~sur~entS _obtained-for a given s&inple, whose

"

quality factor has varied (for example, by changins the saturatiot\). For average
attenuations (Q ~ 10 to 20~ an .. error" of the foregoing type of about l% can be t!xpected
due to the technique employed.
Nevertheless, the determination of propaption time remains the. CISSential problem.
Figure 4.5 shows an exnmee~ple. TJte actual signal emitted has propagated through

II

"
o.s
0

.,
- -----------

I
I
I

.....

-O.S ..

-1

51'S

_,

Time ~Psi

Actual 'lilaal tta.t lw ;W.voled throUJh 40 DlJP of FontaineiNeau


sandstone with a measured Q ;; 2.

Fil- 4.5

"

.-,

"

'_,

,--

~--~--~------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------_J

'-

..

'~
"--'

~~~...-.-~~~

1$1

a sample of Fontainebleau sandstone with a quality factor Q ~ 2. The uncertainty on the


starting location of the ftrst arrival is about 1 p.s. while tbe travel time is aboqt 22 ps,
makin& a relative error of So/o.
.
Hcacc it can be considered t"-j&Jae ~aventiolaal ~~ bcrc to measure
velocities yields velocity values with an uncertainty of about l to 2% according to the
attenUation~ the material in~tipted: :

Yet 1llCUIJ'femcftts ttrat are~ more pllysic:allynteanla&fUI (phase \'elocity) and more
accUrate can be perfOrmed by develepins a -spedftcsy*'in
\'dt)'cities (see, for example,

for

Trueftdal.,I969);Wewillbritflyd~prepolidbyRoaezaadBader(t984)

for the measutement of phase telodtieS in l . .(sie'flla. '4.6). A moaochromatic wave is


emitted in two different liquids, a non-attenuatiq reference liquid wit1r lmoWII wlocity
and the test sample. As a ftrst approximation, the velocity cliftierencc A Y is related to the
difference in propaption time At. This difference in propaption time is meesurcd by a
calibrated Pbuc analyzcrusins the
tM- ....... Scattering and
tempeqlWR6etJ ~rtm.lly aqlipblc sinee-.... ~.-..- llellfc>r the sipal
piopaptins in the refcftace liquid and ~n the_tcst ,..pic. Fiaally, this technique requires
the emission of- lipals having prcc:Uc frequCnc:y Control to eliminate attenuation etrects.
The velocities are measured with
accuracy of about l.S crn/s.

cere..........

-~

an

~-

Acot.dc

'-

lftllliftlltlniiA

..-.

ChlnMIA

'-'

,._

cl'nlctor

........

'--

, .. ,,

'-._/

"---

'-

'-

4.l.a.2 AWrlfir.,... ...- '


Two main techniques are used to analyze wave propaption in an attenuatina medium:
pu)IMcho methods and tra~ssion m~tlloda. n.Jmere~ principles are the same, but
tbat application reveals differences in det,Ut .
,
-

hJu-luJ metlunJs
In pulse-echo methods, the sipal emittec;l by a''pie:~XN~Iectrie-ayltal bonded to the
1
sample underaocs muffipte refleCtiotls at. t~ ~
~plane
the
attenuation is determined from the ~ 1Un&ifkude o( two sutcessive multiple
retlec:tions :
.. .
L

ittt41'face.

'-

.-.l..tn(~)
.
2L
r

'-'

\_

~~

;,

'

wa

(4.3)

__________

'
lS2

TECKNfQUESFOR twt!AtiURDrGV!Lotmi!S' AN'DATI'ENUATIOMS

where
L = sample length,
A 1 = spectral amplitude of a multiple reflection,
A 2 = spectral amplitUde of the next trmltiple refleCtiOn.

,. '
,

Note that, as we showed in Section 3.3.3.2, thisequan~~ valid only for tl:te QaSC of an
atteo.uation that isJtQ~ t091alp"'and ~a m~odlr.o~tiC siB~.~ PlCthod 8$SWDCS
negligible losses. at the, d~ intc!f{ac;cs. e~i~y the. tr~/bOod/sample
interfac:es. ~ver, iUS4UI.QOS~ ~t l<.ls~ a conditio~t r_.y rcalizcd for
e~riJneats without any ~~ ~ FF1o 4:7 S:ehematically s~ws the
experimcatal setup.
~
-,

SLm:::I=~~I

.>

f.
l

-~
.'

l
J

'

'

Fla. 4.7 Diagram of a pulse-echo ex~ with q'*tz tr~uc:cr.


'
.:~.- :\ "~
'.'c:. :::-.. :..
.
/ ' -\,, ..,->~:.- ; -. . ~- "
This method raises an McJi!fOpa( ~- .,t ia......... id ri.ake Q1casurcments on
hiply attenuating samples, be<:ause all tile energy, .bsc)rbed in t"' paths inside the
~pi~, 1'tle solution is to reduce the loo.llb of the sample. It is also . . . .., ~e lure

1i. .

'tted
.. by theFinally
transducer.
propaga
.. tioo dit~'nam
. ely
thatthickness
thew.aveol the
th'
sample.
one ID\IIIt
e ~that:tbe
rcftec:ti.S
on the edges
of
the sample res.W..,~.&MCMCU.Vff\;'1 it
. ,:" ftoalbe.toua:e arri"-,arv.*
direct signal, 01' have negligible energy'm Com
it. Tliis problem is in fact fairly
difticult to solve, and involves the theory of bounaecl ~- The interested reader can
refer _to HostCD and ~mP,fJ (l~f4~ . ; , . ~v. ,.d .
. . ;r ,1.. ,
.
W10kler and Plona (1982) used a Jllodirtcation of'dlis technique; Tbaii' ~pd consisted
in comparing the reflections obtained at the two interfaces formed by a fnt bUffer and the
top of the sample, and a second buffer and the bottom ofthe sample (Fig. 4.8~ The overall
system could then be placed in a hip-pressure ce1f. for dffs setup, attenuation is Jiwn
by.:
enu.

I.

.
F
tt~.Yt J4(f) '
2' .
oc = 2L ln IR 12 (w)l :A'(ro) tt - R, 1{~)lt

(4.4)

where
L
== Jength of ~e,~
.. ,
...
A(w).. A'(co) oo;,~~t~ of tpe tw~ ~1ons tQ be a>m~d.
~1 2 (w)
= retlcct4oa ~t 1'1 ~rftce 1/2.
R23 (w)
== reflection codttcicnt at interface 2/3.

It should be noted in Eq. (4.4) tha~ tbC ~tion coefficients depend on freq~y. This
is due to the anelastic character of' tlie materials concerned (see Section 6.2). Various
--..

-,

'\

.......

[. :

.:

ns

~1~
'9L61 "sRWpwdwd .S) ~ ~ liDW ~,...'*!P 3!-11~ (:) pue q ._6.t "I!.:J)
as1l:) J(W UJ laAtaJ pn JOU!1D511~ ,qtuilii~ . ....., lUOJP.P OIAl lOJ J)Op.JOOQJ
SfHI!I oql lupedQIO:) ~rp UOf,lRQll1t amttOQl. Ol a{qiJIOd l! Ia~ INJ. .lpOJCl

af.J1f , , 1IUOJ a1lp ~~r. .... ~~ ;.trr~J ut.~*-"~~~,.,.,


IMU~lct~t! ..-ftlt~Rt~WtJPftMJ~'IJCM111f~

lft,Pl') pn ~ ~~saoo~~ ui1lllb fPfi ~N 'M6t


'D!WfU?ft) poJ 1'3!JPU!fA3 8 .8f ~
OJ BJ~ ~.a. pJtDUal DA81A IK(l
pua . _ . " ' Q! 'lw.A ~ llf.dar~
~ 'Mt "1!.:1 uJ ~q!lftlla
p:llappao3 :Kl 08:) atefuan :M{l JO sap!5 ~ql UIOlJ SUO!P'IJN pUlr ~ QJ U1lql lsaf
IJ' l(d1llal 01(1)0~ Mil 86t "~!.:1 UJ (n.\p:.t pn JOUJUII'Wl) UO!'~ Ja)t\p5U11Jl pue

Pm"'.

sr.-...

ms:.rcfiiawforttlg.~~-~---A**-*.tlJO-'tw
aqiao ,.nq~ub,sdlaoii.Mt1'.fq ~~IJ,..._,,.....WMM.f~ fJUO*~
(Mip,q.,,...,., ~),.,.., ...,.,....,.l 'q
.

uOflvnuaue
~ :M{l JO tuauwnsam JO .(:)e.Jn:X)y
~a~dum__.,..., .........._,UWJ~'fqfnod aa suo~~ saovpaJUJ
JU~:,)JP.patp Jlt su~oo lu!Jdno:) puw iUJl:,)ll1tOS ft1pi\I~OO~ lsnm suo~

lOJ o/e01 tnoqe pue %1 Jnoqe SJ D!JJ."''(aA

~)l:lel'

--+k-...---tt
I
I

~.1--~.....-

I
I

:
l ..._ ,

-.-.~-~~~~~~~
.... AIICidJ--ov-

~~~----~====r

TECH~"IQt;'t!S l'<t 'MEASURTNG VELOCITtES :"ND .4 TTNUATIONS

154

Tarif, 1986). In fact. for all transmission methods, one of the most reliable techniques for
obtaining the atten~tion from the recorded signals consists in comparing the spectral
~lUnplitudes at dift'~ren.t frequencies. Because attenuation implie5 a preferential loss of the
h(gft" f~quencies. a change in the total spectrum will therefo~ occur. The spectral
amplitude of a wave can be written (Ward and Toksoi, 19711:

(4.5)

.4(/. Xo) Ill= Gx0 A,(/) exp [- 2(/lxo]

.,

where
G

= coefficient including effects of ~ometri(: divergence,

x0

= distance traveled,

transmission and reflection,


rx(f)

A,(f)

= attenuation coeft'tciettt.
= receiYer response.

The ratio of spec:;tral amptit~<tes for two different distances is therefore written:
A 1(f, Xt)

In
It is also

A2

(f

'x2

) = rx(f)[x 2

x 1]

G1

(4.6)

+ ln -G
;

,.

tnowa tbac.,at the intorclel' in a:-ol:


.

1tf'
rx(f) = Q(f) V

-...

(4.7)

of

For a given source, the width of tM! 'frequency speCtn0n the transmitted signal is
rela~ivelytitnited~ so1bt~ft em lSt ~!Mto be iftd:epend'eM el'fteqBeftCY. WC shall
pro\ide an expet'bnetrtal jdifie:atift Ofttfisiamtmpt'ioe itt Chaplet S; 'Bquation (4.6) is
theref'ote' writtea:'
', " '

.... -+U
x,> (x
A2(f, :cJ), ,Qf
;1C

.,,

The term

In

GV~

is

1 .... :

~~v + 118 ~

G:

-'

(4.8)

in~ ~ f~ for a s-plierical ~- ActuaRy,

experitnentat.UU~ts co~ tilt validity of'this bjpottiesis m'liiaJtl111tteftuating


samples. The quality faCtor Q'~is therefon~dbtaiMd~ me8suriDg tht Slope of the curve.:

. g(ft-~ tf;(/, ~!)

:r.

. ,

'

.4:2(/....~:2)

The same method. stiahtly modified, was applied successfully by Tok50z et al. (1979),
(Fig. 4.10). They comp8ted the spectra obtained for a reference sample and the studied
sample, both samples being of the same length and geometry.
These spectral comparison ~niqueJ are routinel~ employed.in, the laboratory and in
the fteld. They require a signal as uncontaminated as possible by otkr arrivals. Here also,
if the studied material is highly attenuating, the signal recorded after propagation widens,
the frequency content decreases, and the attenuation measurement becomes less accurate.
In Fig. 4.11, the signal width is 3 J.lS for a Q of 200 and 9 J.lS for a Q of 3.5 after propagation
through a Co~t QIJ}e<iilJPL ~-t4e si&JuU-~~ ~oo,wide. .reRcc:tion~ oa the edges of
the sample.and multiple reflectioas<COntaminatc the tail.ofthesipal reccivf. Mo~over,
the signal amplitude becomes very low at hith attenuation, and backgroU1ld noise then

.,

/''\

..-..,

---.

:;;,----~
'-.../,

~'t'dlt-ill.iSiJ1IIMI~~--

!
c

''-

.I
i

'-

.5

' .... ..... __

'-

'---'

.,__
~

lJ

1St'

s-w-

1.0t II

"
::

o.n: v\

.5

I I 'I

"--

I
I

I
I

ot

I
I

...

s-w-

1.0

0.5

1.5

,_.Mf!CY CMHzl

Fr~CMHtl

'---

'--

1.0

Fit. Ut Example of attenuation measurcmenta by spectral ratio in Navajo


sandstone (after Tok.Oz ettd., 1979).

"---"----'
'--

'--

'-'-~

___,
''--'

betomes annoyina. For sliJhdy attcnuatina materials, the spectral ratio method is
inaccurate, since the llope of the rclfC$Sion JUte if _toot~.
the main diftic:ulties or
these measurements lD the laboratory aacltb the faelchrites &OIIil eouplina problems. In
the field. another difficulty may arise ftOaa CIODtamiaatioD by iaterferina tipals in
borehola:,H...-ver,the major ~ty,~_ .,_$PDCIJalJ&tio tectmique..arisea
with pometMdiYfflllalll
.-,~--J\on-planar
wave fronts. Corrections arc therefore Dledecl for ablolutc 0 measun:meots. These
corrections are lbeoretically siJDple, bat involw: tedious c:aJculationa. Papadakis (1976)
computed these types of correction for bomopoeousliquid media and his mults do
not seem to tit the data for solid materials (Tarif. 1986). Hence. the abtolute accurac:y of Q
measurements Jiven in Table 4.1 must'- iaterpreted cautiously, especiaUy for hip Q
values.
It is also important~ mention d)e tilJC
-~Uf: bued on an empirical equation of
Gladwin and Stacey (19741:

o.e.or

pr..._ ..........................

'-

'--

- f -

'--
~

where Q can vary in SJ*le but

tnne

to +

r:

c {r l

d~Jl41K . . . . on

wave rl5c
'(5ee FiJ. 4.12),
travel time,
t 0 , C two constafttl de.,..._t ea tbo ...._

T
'---

'--

--.
'--

ck -

--

frequency and

.(4.9)

156

TECN~E,S Fell MEASUIUNG

VELOCITIES AND ATTENUAl;IONS

02IDO

--~
fi
i I I I\
I

<

-~.5b

_,I

...

I
5

I
10

'

I
15

I
20

Tlmo Clal

OU

I Or----__}
-OJ
.

.:.u

~i'

!,,1

e',~i:.,"f'c~-

I"

-'-'

Tlm!l""'

:.

~.
in
of
dift'emlt attenuation and' for. tlle>illiM'flli&ilt siltill ~ Q IIIIOdllt;

.fla. .f.tl Synthetic Jipak rec&ded afWi

m a

teria
ls.

""
?

l'uu4.t
0RDEil OF MAG~1Tt:'DE OF ACCURACY OS THE MEASUllEMENT OF Q BY SPECTilAL RATIOS

....

.fQ.'Q (%)
Remark

>

}()00.0

SOOAI

Signal prac- Weak sipal


tically unobservable because hillhl
- y
attenuated

so
10 to 20%

Preferential

operf.tint
range

100

;;; SO%

>SO%

The slope of the spectral ratio on


'flllicb Q dcpl'llds il Vf6Y low,
and itsI determination is :
inaccurate

very inaccurate
~

.--.

""
'"

'-------,---------------------------------~--~--~---

.,

"---~

;4

:II!CDIN,...,,_..

.....,'""!!I~llttp_.~~~

IS?

-'-----'

"--'

I
Tm.
~

Fie- 4.11 Possible ddtnition of the rise time of-a signal.


'---"

~-

Kjartansson (1979), showed that a similar theoretical equation could be derived for the
Constant (2 model (i.e: a quality 'factor independont off~) and for a Dirac pulse,
namely:
T'
Q =C(4.10)
T

'---....-"---

where
T' = pseudo-period of the wave,
C ;:; constant (for a Jivcn source).
As a aeneral nlle for BllJ, source, Eq. (4.9) remains empirical. In general, the timeintegrated form of the cquatieo is used :
.
T
,T ""' To + C Q
(4.11)

---'----'

-----

Blair and Spathis (1982). showed thaf...guantity To is a flUlCtiOft of the source, but
cannot be relate4 simply to its rise time,t nil: ~o-constant C is a sliptly variable
function of Q (f~ Q > 20) and alsO depends on,_. source (Blair and Spatbis, 1982).
Stewart, 1984, theoretically calculated Eq. (4.11) for a llarae number of artificial sources
(window, Dirac, and intermediate sources). and showed that. the constant C could vary
from 2 for a Heaviside funcmon to 0.~ for a Dirac delta rui.ction.
Hence, assuming a relationship ofthc.type~.11) between rise time and quality factor, an
attenuation measurement c:an be obtained from the rise time, if the values of the
constantl --r 0 and Care lalowllbya-tlpetimatoaa rd'erelltl sample. Uafortunatcly, the
relationship betWeen- me time and- quality -Mfer it not as simple as Eq. (4.11) implies.
Figures 4.13 and 4.14 show a synthetic example (Tarif and Bourbie, 1986). The
relationship between r and Q is clearly a one-to-one correspondc~ and approximately
ill die slope C aM ill the ordinate intetolpl (t 0 ) with
linear, but a chaaae
dccrcasit'lg Q :
T
Q < IS t ~ o.G7l + 8.295 Q

oecun

Q > ~s r

"-..-

=o.tS6 + oJs7 QT

158

TECHNIQL"ES FOR ME.,Sl"Rf:SG VELOCITIES' AND -' lTENL" ATIONS

f
=i 0.5
.1

c)l

'rd

----.,

10

F~IMHzl

TimtU&sl

Fi&- .C.U A theomical reference .,aiJOill used -in FiJ. 4.14. The central
frequency is 1.35 MHz. Time domain signal (left I. Frequency domain (right).

""'

11.8
~

1J1.2

= 0.114 +0.311 T

a:

, ,.-o~+o:~1e 0

"'

..
0

:r

3
"

,.,.., tlmlfQ .,., ' '

~-

;s

Fit- 41.C Rise time t~t as a f..... of T/IJ. The diffenma rise times
computed using the Constant Q~ aD4 the signal of fig. 4.13.

In practice-; this makes the applieatioa of th4: method di~uk. It becomes necessary to
know the entire cur1e t = t(Q) to be really able to obtain an absolute value oti Q in all
cases. Naturally it is always possible to compare the quality factor Q for two
measurements : the greater the rise time, the greater the attenuation.
Tarifand Bourbie(l986) point out a possible solution to this problem. They show that
the curvet= t(Q) can be simulated point by point using a Constant Q model. and that
~

"'

~~-------------------------------------------

.,
-"' '

-:;rr--

_D ci_\-..~......:v-....,

...___~

I
'--../

'--../

'-.....-

'--.__/

,_/
''-

'-'

'~

,__
~'

TECH~JQ~FOR ~~~l.ko Vi&!tiES ~ti ATTENtJAilONs c:=:::;;

159

this simulati9n is el~y comparable to ':the true curve, the essential point bcins tha't the
initial souni in the simUlation m~t bC as close as possible to the soul'<lC used in the
experiment. In the field. a Jood kno.1edF of the IOUI'<lC is often difticult to obtain.
Nevertheless, in the case ofacoustiC 10J8ihg tOots with several transmitters and receivefs: it
is always possible to usc, for example, t~ arriY~al corresponding to the shortest offset as a
soul'<lC sipal. In this case, the attenuati<ms observed are related the attenuation the
ref'erenc:c olfset.
,
It is also important to Stipulate that t~ numerical measurement of ri5e time depends
coasiderably on the sipal/noise ratio. Hen<:e it is ,esSelltial to smooth the, first quarter
period uaed to measure rise time. It appatrs that smoothing by a fd'th
polynomial is
adequate (Tarif and Bourbie, 1986). Figure 4.15 compares the rise time and spectral ratio
methods for laboratory samples of Fontainebleau sandstone.

to

or

desree

_/

--

1.8
1.4

'-.._/

~~

11.2

.!
a:

'--'

.8
~

.8

'-

...

'-

'-

""'

..

Comparison between spectral ratio and ri$e ,tbk methods to


c;alc:ulate (2. Measurements of Q by the spcc:tra) ratio technique are taken
from Bout. . and Zinszner, 198~.
,

'~

Fie- 415

'~

'-

Trwet*-/Q . .

'---'

It is oblervable that both ;mtt~ are more or less .valent. tn fact, the abscissa
(value of Q) of the pobtJ in
4.t'$1S o~taineC;l ~y lilc;aiuriDJ tbupec:tral ratio, whereas
the ordinate (t) is aleasured on the reCorded sipaJ. A one-t~ ~pondcnce is
obtained between t aDd T /Q which can be approximated by the straiaht line:

r...

t-

0.451

+ 0.208 Q

""-

Note that for high values of Q (Q > SO) both methods are equally inaccurate. This is
because, at a Jive:n sampliaa rate, the rise time is too coanely sampled to measure slight
attenuation. Similarly, the slope of the spectral ratio is very low, and it is therefore diflicult
to make an accurate measurement, as we have already noted.
For values of Q < SO. the accuraey of both measurements appears to be more or less
identical. However for large attenuations, the rise time method, which utilizes only the ftrst
'-'

'-'
~'

'--'

'---

,_

160

TECHNIQL'ES FOil MEASURING VE!pCITIES AND ATTENUATIONS

quarter period, is much less subject to the pro~ of jnterfering signals that may influence
the spectral ratio method.. I~ must be. kept iq ..Und that a quarter period may not be
representative of, the frequency content of si,aluUs several periods in leilgth. Hence, the rise
time analysis before and after propaption ~)' not accurately measure the signal as a
whole. One physically unrealistic example is :sh'en in Fia. 4.16, in which the rise time
decreases after propaption throuah an ~tte~uating m~um. As a rule; however, the
situation is much more favorable. Let us recall that, as for the spectral ratio technique,
aeometric diffraction (irregular wave fronts ~ue tp the fQ1ite size of transducers and
samples) remains a concemfor rise time measurements (Tarit 1986). Finally, in the fi~ld, it
appears that the application of the rise tune ptcthOd. yields better results than spectral
ratios (Arditty et al., 198.2).

---,

------

'

,, .cJH l

.----.

j:

A 1\
vo

>:,

"

''-',-.i_{+...

,,,.

,_

"

Fia- (.16 Schematic example of a sipa1 before and after propagation in an

at-.atiaa<JDOCtium.
The frequency range for the application of these techniques(wave propaption) depends
. on the type of cxpelinlent ~oncemed In the 1d, the freqUFncies used are around a few
kHz for well seism.ks. and a f'eW dozeJ'l.lt~ for cpnvepJioliil seismia,. In the laboratory, the
sources are generally piezoelectric trU5d~ aod their trequ~llCY content is about
500 i:Hz to S MHz. . .
.
.
.

"

. ---......_,

-._

""'\

'

-...;p-

..

-~~

'J

'-.._/

ft!alf--~~

l61

4.2 MEASUilEMENTS VSJNG;\1BitATING SYSI'BMS.


(STANDING'WAVES)
'-

'-"

1'hese meth()ds have- OR1y becD used ia the laboratory.

4.2.1
~

'--'

'

Diffacaldes

As for propaption methods, we shaH fint dalya the dift'tculties of application of these
measurements from the aeneral standpoint. The main handicap of these methods results
from the fact that, by their very clefmition. they involve standing waves. whereas the only
waves anaJtaed in the ftetd ..-........ aws. It may prove dift'teuk te apply the results
obtained for standing waves to traveling waves. espcfcially for attenuation measurements.
Nevmhllea,tlte J*Yious.a.pter lhowedaat it asf!OIIible torelaw
two. t)!pCS of
meatOfelllent eM a
if &be attenua&ioll was aot too
great.
In practice, many ..iftt~M'fem~Ge" ll&tltl illaybee.,citidby ,_...... vet. For-example.
in a poNMtatwated
..._....._. Wbta1i1ataayaiw rile tor..-a,.W~DCDtsofthe
pen~ fluid ilt reletion to dae skeletal lluae or liot typo. aovemeats (W!Ute, 1983) w:~
influence the intrinsiC' at11eoalioa.Htt nt(IIIM Section-4.2.3.2). However, it is
customary to operate at frequencia of about 1 to 10 kHz, which happen to be near the
frequency of acoustic louinJ. It is .V.~ to operate at much lower frequencies near
SO liz which will be of interest in . . . . stta4ies.

t._

bidioul ...,_,__.rod

--
"----'

'--

"-~'-....-

.i"'

4.2.2,. ~ ....~..
Two methods of measurement are discuAed, one \ISing forced vibl'atiou and the other
Ulia1 free vibrations. For free oscillationl, the sample il vibrated at one of its NSOnant
frequencies for a short period of time. ~s the ~t of the decay in
displacement amplitHe for,~succeuin )I!ICUdo-perioda, as ~ showed in Chapter 3
(Fig. 3.18), aives the value of attenuation u a function of the logarithmic decrement or the
quality futor Q:
,}c
.. ,

1C .

A2

'IC

~:In-;;

",

where A 1 and A 2 are the signal amplitudes for two consecutive oscillations. Assuming that
the displacement amplitude decay isexp (-Ill), which is reasonable for attenuations that
are not larp (see Section 3.$.3), one call also write:

Q-::,: -:
'-....-

...__,.

'-

(4.12)

(4.13)

162

T~tQUES

FOR MEASURING YELOCm5 AHD ATTE!!Ilh\TIONS

As we have stressed above, the use of free oscillations to measure.attenuation is only


feasible if the sample. Is oxcdled at o~ of its~. freq~ In general, if the
excitation frequency is dift'erecat from. ~. . ., :the ~ance frequencies, the signal
amplitude is too small to obtain a reliable measurement. Vibration at the resonant
frequency allows for a measurement of velocity [see Eq. (4.14)].
The second experimental technique involves fomcd O$CilatiQOs. TIM tat sample is
subjected to a continuous sinusoidal force of predetermined frequency. The sample is in
the form of a rod with a diameter much smaller (if possible) than its length. The frequencies
at which the bar resonates depends on the elastic properties of the test material and on the
length L of the rod. The relationship between these parameters is pven by the equation:
'

,;.,

''

2L/

Y=Af-....;.;......
.
n

.-

(4.14)

. (.

-~)

- IP\

ror exteasionat modes v. - v. - ..;; and me.r ~ _v- ~ -, 'VI'f

In this equation,

J.,.

'

<

f is the ~-- f'reqacnc.y, A is die -viwatioft, waveliRt'h. E the

Y~smod'ulus,ptheshearlbOd..,,.aa,lhttbe~Theterm~exteaeional

mode" means that the rod is subjected to a longitudinal extension/compression force. The
term .,.shear JBOde" mea~~~ that the roclit subjec&ed te a shear Ioree.
For the ftfturahnode-(the 1'0d issetJ.jeded m lMDdi.q.foroe). the ~-vo no
lORBer equidilcMt.l'hc-tnPII8t. . :wlbcity is tllM of..lbe extouional w~ aJ14l,.&he
frequeneyfvelecity relationship is .Wen t., SdniiDer al. (1~.7~: : .

. ,. , _; -~<-.
-~
Y

27t1Jf

:;;. ,', -{J =-. -"fPFr

1111 .......;2'

J;,

'<,

~-

::.

(4.15)

where

R, =-= radius of gyration,

= resonance frequency,

m - a constant depending on the order of the rcsonabc::C ~and, rttt~e.:rn:e boundaty


condiUt>Qs. C<lWll to:
. . . 13!
.for=l .
, . . 7.8J. for n 2
:L
,;;.
for rta: 3
(Pietett,' tMJ)

,. ..,.,.

To obtain the attenuation value with forced oscillations, whatever the mode anafyzed,
the frequency spectrum is scanned in or4tr to d~be the resonance peak entirely (see
Fig. 3.21), and the value of Q is thea given by one of the equations of Section 3.5, for
example; .
(t)

Q=~

(4.16)

where co is the resonance angular frequency and Aw the width of the resonance peak of the
displacement at 1/.j2 times the maximum height of this peak.

..--..

..._.-....._

....

'

~~T ..
'------'
"-...--"

~frbjl~~,--~~

lli3

4.2.3 Experimeatal setups


The experimental setups for harmonic: cxqtatbl of a rock sample can be divided into
two main categories. pendulums and resonant krs.

'"-../

'-

4.2.3.1

Pendulums

The farst category has been used for many years tor rocks (e.g. Pesclnick and
Outerbridge. 1961 ). The experiment consists or subjleting a vertically suspended rock bar
to a harmonic excitation, with a hip ..,... ofillatia mass, possibly attached to the
lower end to increase the resonance period of the system (the sample{mertia-mass
combination) (tee FiJ. 4.17). ~To avoid plal'inB tile 8l1llple uacler tellsion, some
experimenters balance the sample(mcrtia-mass ~bination by a co1111ler'WeiJht acting
through a pulley by \\'bich alterations of the vibration of the system are avoided. Two
vibration modes are possible, the torsional mode and tbe bcndina mode. In the torsional
mode, tbe fundamental resonance frequency oftbe ovenllsystcm is in~ly proportional
to the square root of the system's moment of inertia:

1-ft
"-../

"----'

where I is tbe moment of polar inertia, and~ is a torsioa constant. The moment of inertia
and torsion constant are related to tbe cbaracteristicdimcuioas oftbe sample (length and
diameter). The veloclty is measured by means of the fi&i.4itY modulus which, for a
cylindrical rod clamped atone end and free at the otbcr one ~b Land diameter d, is:

'~

3.

'-

The

Sl21L 2

,~

"-'

(4.17)

p=

'~

(4.18)

measured~ v= .jiiiP is the phase ~It the ...... frequency f.

A$ we previously pointed out, the resoftiMI'. .. . , cap be deaeucd bJ incccuina


- inertia of the system. This system penDfts'it'Nit ....... at ~ low frequencies

( < 10- 2 Hz), and is rlbt normally used for frequllltildl. . lhaft tO Hz. Theexprasion

for the resonancefrequencyoftbebendinl . . . . . . . . . . . . .~~oftbe

"'--'

system is aaueb more corpplicatcd and theafeN will 1lOt t.e tiveft. The mtensted reader
can refer to the work'ofSehreibcr et al. (1973~
In cOildusion, the use of pendulums is relatively cas)', and ODe oftJae oftlJ dift'aculties

consists ofminimilina all tile encrJY losses other tbaa._.OCI.WIIiiaam the rock. It is also
possible to use small salftples and to make meuurements at ~ low frequencies.
However, the current trend leans more to the use of the resonant bar technique, which we
shall examine in detail below.

'---'
'-._,

__
-...'---'

'-~

"--"

4.2.3.2

Resonant bar

As we have just emphasized, thiS it aarretldy tbi Molt' widely used experimental setup
today. The experiment consists in subjectiq a rock bar,ltept horizontal either by supports
or by suspensions (Fig. 4.18), to a harmonic excitation.

164

TECH:-.<IQl:ES

fO~. r,I~Sl:RING

VELOCITlES AND.-\TTNl:A TIOSS

'

"
Rkiii!IPfe

Lgemoment
of inertia

. ?J

Simplified

dilaru1

(by

sz:ti
pc~n

tTtm$111ission and 4ZUIU,UJI4""by

La..nns
from

Sf:lsmit

waves: r(lt/imiM,

WJUtc. C 1965.McGraw HilL SY).

----..

0
I
I

----..

f
.

~/~

I
I
I

fi

2~. 4,
7

R.
:Rockllllllllt
A W1 W2 : We9!tund Inertia erm
c
::Air- coli
' J
:: l'ivoc tnd IIIPIIbire

ROCI<Mftlllle

~-c.n. ...............

.
SWe~encll*l.....-.

Soriile clamp

.(b)

: Light source

:!Minor

:Scale

(c)

b. and c. Actual diagram (after Peselnick and Outerbridge.

Fia- 4.17

1961 AGU).

T~on ~ndulwns.

-~

'
'-------,-------------------------------------------~------

...

---

(.'

. .

.'

..............
piii.(IJu..........., It! JMIW -.met UOPwtPP n R
OSIIIIW:) ~uq ~dW!S. 'sUO!...WUlJ IAOf.puw 1110!11lf1PIO INJ JO ;no ttp 10.:1
i6J't '1!.:1 all) IUOpWffFISO poo.IOJ 'PfA\ J0 (~"J ...S ~ J Act J*!W!I I! fwul!s
a~pu -n) SUO!PJIIPSO aq 11)J4l ~
lflt{f110 -u -,a o-.ocJc1o a.p
Ol ~Uoq )(1!1' p:llS lfiWS V .<q p;ortpu! PJaiJ aJfllupft~ Aq 11J S! IUOUD08fdi!Q
"Jltq ~JJO pua pol~X~;~l OJ popuoq I! ~dlf1RUS.i 's!1P op 0~ i6L6l 'laJlf'I'!A\) p;ISft

'*" aq

*' _,

AI~

5! UQPWl~Xa 3p't~ 'q?Ol J0.:1 "UOJtlnl-.lflltls.(JM qp lfW!JaPRU

,JO sprpw JOJ ~'lSD ~(U.Q AIJBJaUaJ ~ SlaOJn,ps ~ JAOf Na~&~Jnq ~ 3fl8l'OJJP
JO (S~6J 'lUVH,O ~~Ul '.\quqn0J. ~~l.a!'i .(q palp~ aq 8'1:) IUOfl11.J'l!A ~'1.1

Q
w:;;..===~-;~~-=----_-7,1
Ii

1~

---

166

TECHNIQUES FOR MEAS\HUNG. VEL<)CffiES AND ATTESUATIONS

As we have shown, the fundamental resonance frequency is given by:

J=2L

(4.19)

where
V = wave phase \'elocity.

= bar length.

.---.,

For a given sample, it is possible to alter the resonance frequen.:y by changing the length
ofthe bar. As we have s,bown. three~ ~n be excited: the lolljitudinal mode (the rod is
subjected to a t.ensioa}c:olnprcssion ~~.~ torsio~;tatmoc,te ud the bendina mode. The
loagitudinaland headina modes cmable the tnC!MUrement of Y ouaa's modultll E thrOUJh
velocity"=

fp.an,dthe~rrespoudin,a'l\la"lityfactor.~(seeSection 3.6~ The torsion

mode enables the measuremat of the shear modulus (p) lhroup velocity Vs, and quality
factor Qs. The values v,. and Q,. are calculated from the measured vatue1 using the
equations in SectiQIJ 3.6. A. aumbor 9( "'""'ectiOJIJ must be applied to the rcsoaaace
frequency values to obtain absolute volecity ~t$. By usia& the uniclimcasional
wave equation, we have ignored the inertial effects in transverse directions, and we must
correct for lateral extension. Strictly speaking, it is necessary to analyze the bar in three
dimensions. These calculations show tht a ratio of wavelength to bar diameter
determines the mapitude of the eo~TCCtion to be made to a.efrequency and modulus
values. Equations and charts oftbese corrections can be foun4 Uitpinner and Tefft ( 1961)
and in Schreiber er ol. ( 1973). A .. slenderness" ratio of 10 (length diameter) issuflkient for
these corrections to be negUgible for harmonicS or a -..atively to~.- order. The samples can
also be jacketed for tests under ,pressuwe aMt "M a $"'en saturatiod, a jacketing which
requires further e>.~ti~~ (Ga~r: ~! oiJ 964 and Winkkr. 1979). In the laboratory, it
is difl'acult to analyze samples ~ tbiJJJ nt .lo~ and consequently to 10 down to
frequencies lower than SOO Hz. Trttmq~JJ97'1) l'CCOIIUnended the use of the addition of
end masses &o efl'cdively lower tbe frequency by chaftliQg the momeet of iaedia and only
slightly alter the fiaidity of the S)'Jtem. This apin requires specihc corrcc:tioas (Birch and
Bancroft, 1938). To study variation :::=nifal PfOperties as a function ofexcitation
frequency, it is necessary to analya b .
. of a hilh order. However, these harmonics
interfere with each other and tbe inftuence o( one harinonic on its neighbors can be
observed to increase as its order rises and (2 decreascis. He~. the resonance peak, which
was previously symmetrical, becomes asymnietrlcal (FiJ, 4.2C)t.
It may be observed that the effect is m~able (as)'Dlltl~ri4:&1 peak) iftbc quality factor
is less than or equal to 10.
Other corrections must be mde when working with rock samples To begin with,
differential movements may exist between the;fluid and solid in a saturated sample (see
Biot's theory, Chapter 2). Ia a resonan,t bar, f&teral exteasion processes are capable of
generating these movements (W..ite, lft3). f.ig.are 4.21 illustrates a test to identify this
phenomenon. The attenuation and veloctlyirl a homogeneous bar of Vosges sandstone of
porosity 22% and permeability close to 100 mD were measured accurately as a function of
saturation (solid curve). This bar was then cut lonjatUdinally into four plates. These plates
were then bonded together and a very thin aluminum foil inserted between them to

'

'

.-~

~.

_,

.---.,

'"''
~

OOl ,

...

.....
01.

. ..
t"L

-t-..............,...

I'L

................
00&

01

01.

"'

l
I

01

OS
0
OOL OOO &

OSL
~

JO

-.n

,.,.l}lallatll:) lOJ~ ~qlftu


tttt .toJ .-.r OOUtiUOIU , . ac~etts _... 'lt4
lZMt ..,.....,~

~lllml JMIOI*

P:~::r:~:..,.....r~....,..~~...,....,.;.::;:.-.,.

L91

168

TECHNIQUES FOR MEA.WJJNO Vf&LOCITlaAND ATTENUATIONS

guarantee total impermeability from one plate to another. The attenuation and velocity
were then measured on this foliated bat (dotted curve). The lensth and diameter of both
bars (homogeneous and foliated) were the same. It may he observed that the attenuation at
very high saturations(> 85%) has~ by 35/o, whereas for saturations less than
80%, the decrease is only 17%. Certain problems were added to the measurement, such as
rigidiftcation (and hence an increase in velocity) of the bar due to~the introduction of the
. aluminum foil Nevertheless, this result appears to ascribe some importance to the Biot
process in this type of experiment, with high water saturation (i.e. high relative
permeability).
One must also note that a rock is not a truly homopneous ()bject, and the velocity and
attenuation measurCd using the ~~91= peak may not necesSarily be indicative of the
average velocity and attenuation Of tllC'sample.
Figure 4.22 shows the manrement taba 011 sample oonsistiq of a piece of
aluminum and a piece of plexipas oftbetame''fenath bonded tOfetber. The velocity and
attenuation measured on the ftrst harmonic are very close to the velocity and attenuation
of plexiglas alone.
It is therefore essential to have samplefas homogeneous as possible, a criterion of
homogeneity being tlae regularity of the frequency distance bet~een resonance peaks.
(

3045

I
10.5
~

12040

;I

I Jl
o~.L
...,
3GIIIt

I
I ~
I!

c.:.

1020

- .. ':A

, _ _ (Hal

,.., ,..,

181100

Fig. 4.ll Experimental recording of resonance peaks vs. frequency for a twoelement bar (aluminumfplexipas).

Another problem related to measurements on rock samples isthenon-linearity of the Qstrain relationship. If ~ deformation caused by excitation is excessive, the Q-strain
relationship becomes non-liflear and ~g: iatriuically different from fteld studies far
from the source (see next_ Chapter)..Fisure 4.~3 sh()WS one example of the change in a
resonance peak at high amplitude of deformation. 'Qais ch8Jlle shows the dependence of
velocity and quality factor on t)ac."tr,ain &JQPlitude (Fig. 4.24).
The resonance bar method, as well as the pendulum method (see paragr. 4.2.3.1~ is
reliable and matively easy to it'rlJ'le.-t. Aceuraoy oliM meaatare111ientd ~ iS between 5
and 10% for Q leSs tllan 1~. P'orlmver uenuations(fl > tOO;forft.amPle), the accuracy
declines. In the extreme case, for metal~ (or Which Q is nearly infinite ( > 10,000), the

......,

.........

........ lOU 1! pmpita 'Jwq laftOIOJ ~l pn '=trn<*U


~ Ol ~!S$0dd. Apl\lJ!A~i! l!'((' > ()) ......WIH .tfltl!q 1! 1lltlp1ll MpJ! uA~
suo!ltm~l n II""' n la!l~ so:~ot > JOj 'At {lftOqV pta ot < ~O.J
tnoq

D .;.,o

Z'

: lUOJP3D 1!~ S!'P UJ top!OOJM ~~'(ON& ~(I'A A1pop\ MpJO hwlft038 ~tt.L

-.sGf tm)!lftd1 llqlO

. ptJW UO!}V!PWJ JO S~ ~ Ol Ullm)WA pUll ~npuoo ~

ptnoqs lDW!JadX:J

(6L61

'nwu..A\ nt.JW) apt\)!fdunt U!'J.QI


... IJO!I.IOI U! UO!fii'Gallll . .
.<lpopl JO ~ n't 'lu

{ZHt kluenbai:J

..----.,

i.

'

'"""
'"""'-

-'

--.

..

'"""

"

,..-..,
-~'""'

170

TECHNIQUES

FO~

MEASURING VELOCITIES AND ATTENUATIONS

""'

4.3 MlTHODS USING


STRESS/STRAIN CURVES
These methods ~e qtJite silnilar to lhe foregoing. since the types of excitation are the
same. As we have already stated above(see Fig. 3.3), the ener&flosS per oscillation cycle
can be measured directly from the hysteresis of the stress/strain carves for different loading
and unloading cycles far from the reSonance of the system (Gordon and Davis, 1968.
McKavanagh and Stacey, 1974). The U$C ofthis method by these authors has been limited
to torsion experiments and uniaxial stresses. The major diffu:ulty is that the adaptation of
this method to small strains requires very high measu~t aa:Uracy. To obtain a
reliable numerical value, it is necessary to achieve excollent repeatability of the excitation
stress function.
The value of the quality factor Q is then pven by the equation:
4nV.,.

Q == L1W

"'
-,
~.

~-

(4.20)

where V.., is the average energy stored during a loading cycle and L1 W is the energy
dissipated per loading cycle.
Spem:er ( 1981) (Fig. 4.25) directly measured the phase difference between stress and
strain at even higher frequencies and lower strains~ For the phase difference measurement,
the quality"fact()r is given by:
I
QtanqJ

"'
',

"'
.......,

(4.21)

The velocity is obtained by measurilll the elastif; modulus relating stress and strain. The
ratio between stress all4l stnllti lives tlie uttplitude of Young's modulus (dilatation waves)

from which the velocity is determined (Spencet, 1981):

V=!J

with

lui = lEI tel

(4.22)

"'

I ,,
1,

In this equation, p is the tkosity, u the st~ and e the strain.


This velocity Y is, slisll_.Y lower than the phase velocity:

21EI 2

""'

V.==
,

~[lEI+

a]

[see Eqs. (3.31) and (3.33a)]

(4.23)

Here also, an accurate representation of the sinusoidal excitation funetion is aecessary.


These rnethods are relatiVely diff'JC'illt to implement, given the accuracy required for the
small strains involved (s <' to-). lltetrequency range for seismic applicatiOn spans from
a few Ht to a few dozen Hz(and eVeri a few hundred Hz for the Spencer apparatus). The
accuracy of measurements reported by Spencer is le5s than s;o for values of Q'of about 20.
Accuracies of 1 to 2% can be expected for velocity measurements though error increases
in the case of rigid materials. In this type of experiment, it is essential to operate far from
the resonance frequency.

'-

_!

'
----..

~,,

-,
"""""''"'
--.,

'---'-,_~

TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING VELOCI'f1t!S ANn ATtENUATIONS

171

"-

.,

SECTION THROUGH
THE LABORATORY APPARATUS
A.ftoclc$1111111e
B.,__......._,

-,_~

C. m.lace:ment ltlnlduclr

D. Elaltromtldl...-. Jbaker
E. Shaker uble
F. Tllble extender

G. Tlble -.-nsfon
H. S1llel billet
.
I. 8aetam _ . .

J.

T.. tndplate .

K. Cleinping ri. .
L. Filllurefortlla~

'-~

........_..tubbar,...

M. Flelcllle

'-

~....,_,

\..../

F ... 4.15 Diaaram Of a pendulum


t"or measumnents Of phase differ
ence between strefi .aed strain
(ifter Spencer. C 1981 AGU).

'-..._/

'~

-~

'---

4.4' CONCLUSIONS

'-.../

"--'
~

'--

"~

____.

The many ttclmiques for measuring attenuatioa are dift'acult to ~pltmcnt, both in the
fteld and jn tile laboratory, and the accuracy or.-.ul11ment is atncrallY not very high.
Moreover, Che freqt;ICilcy range uied in these methods varies, as well as the type of wave
involved (ltalldina or travelins waves). Velocities, however, can be measured quite
accurately (a f%1 Neyerthelcss,.tlteJypc of V41locity IMUure4 (phase velocity. group
velocity) -.aries from one technique to another, and the analysis of velocity dispersion is
only feasible for atandina-wave experiments in which the phase velocity is measured
directly. For propaption experimejts, any accurate mcasvmnent of velocity require$ its
own experimentat setlp, since systelnS for the sim\lltaneous measurement of velocity and
attenuation arc not suffiCiently acanate for both parameters. The. main results are.
summariied in Table 4.2.

"-

"-

'-
~

...._)

r
TABLE

4.2

MeTHODS FoR MP.ASURtNu veuJCtTII'.S AND ATTI!NUATtoNs. SuM~ARY

Field of application.

Type or method

Method

r.eid

Laboratory

Standinj wavel
. Vibration
..

Ease or
implementution

Pendulum

LF, a rew Hz

No

esonant bar

a''tHz 10kHz
..

No

DkHz to S MHz

No('l)

~::.

..

Puhc...M:1.0

Fairly easy

thue.wcity

Fairly easy

Pbue~y

Easy

Oill'erent from follow- Rcnection amplitude


ratio or spectral ratio
ing velocities
phase

~~

...

...,,<

...
~

-,,,

Tfll vCiina wavea

&rOUP
..,.,

Trasll!li111illut:

S)(l kHz to

5 MHz SeismM:at

well-to- Very easy


well
In wells tt a"h kHz

"

'

..

tT-

.. dift'elilnoe

Di~

cycle

A rew Hz to a few No
dozen Hz

l"luhc:

) ' )
)

mumncnt Up to 400Hz
ofphuc

---

OlciJIionl
I forCed . ..
free

"'

prttpqa

Dilerent &em follow- Spectral ratio. Rise


ingvcl~

No

'

..

time

.phue

.poup:'
>"-.J

.:~11oft

-Stl'fl!l/ftrain

Oscillations
foR:ed
free

lion

....

"Pr~tien

Measuring
tcchftiquc

Measured
velocity

propaga

'

Dift'R:Uk

- phase velocity

Di5sipated 'energy

Difftcult

- phase velocity

Phase difference
t1 -I:

)'

i
J

---------------- -----

(continued)

Reliability

Stras/strain
Plwe
difl'erence

Suwr.tARY

Reliability
and acx:uracy
oaQ

and accuraq

Method

oilY

Corrections

Remarks

Yes
0.5% ifQ > 20
I %ifQ<20

Yes

Yes
0.5% ifQ> 20
l%ifQ<20
1 ifQ< 3

Yes
Yes but tabulated
... 5%ifQ < IOOanciQ > 3

PuJie.eeho

2 .. 3% depeadiq 08 Q.
ReliabiB if Q aot too low.
ltelatiw meesrementJ
more HOCUratc

Coupliaa problema'''
imply uareliatlility.
Accuracy > 10 %.
Relatie ntea!Mtremenl5
more ~KX-'Ufllte

Many and empirical =


difFICUlt

With buffers, possibility of


study under pressure and
better reliability

Traft~~millsion

I to 2 ~. depeftdina on Q.
ltdiable if Q > 10

Unreliable 111 > 1o-1.


Accuracy depends on Q

Many and empirical =


dill'lcull

In the f~eld, ri5C time appc:11rs to he better

,,_,.cycle

YCII
lto 2

s to 10 ;.

YCII

Sliafll

YCII

Sliaht if
accurate

Standing wave~~
Vibration
lt.esollant bar

Travelifta waves
Propaption

(((\

Menioos FOtt MEASURING VELOCmES AND ATTl!NUATJONs.

Pendulum

((,

--------

TABLE 4.2

Type of method

~.

Direct meuurement Yes


lto2%
ofplwe

II) The aa:ui'IICy values

Yes but tabulated

Torsion. bendina
Low frequency measure-

- S ;. iCQ < lOOancl Q > 3

ments

5%forQ~20

ai\lefl for YtltltlltJflio: prOfl"plion MCthoola refer mtJf'C to

Blues

if

Torsioa, bending
Low frequency measurements

system

very Fur from resona~nce


Torsion and uniaxial stras

system

very Far from resonance


Extensional
s <to-'

accurate

ul' rcprodlleibility, sitK:c it ill very dill'oc:ult lu ublain 1he nhnlull: value nl Q.

/i,}.:.;.!>"':!.:f. .. y:f~i' {!~I ~:!_JJ:jr'[_"f~"'

'---"

'-

'--

''---'

WcNe

propagation in porous media

resu~s

and mechanisms

''---

'

'---'

~J

'-

"
~

INTROOOCI'ION
We have 10 far ill&roduced a number oftlleorctieai(Cbapters 2 ud 3) and experimental
(Cbapter 4) toelseaabliaa usto raodelaad raNK dal lllllduaaioal propcrtios of porous
media. We also dlowed iD Chapler 1 that to .,..U of~ JMdia in the absolute IOMC
wu relatively ........... A timple conaeptsucrh-tltat of porosity must be split up ialo .
a large number of categories.
In this Chapter, we have decided to begin by .,..,..... a mambcr of result$ of acoustic
measurements in the laboratory by hiahliahtina the influence of a number of important
parameters. Usina this qualitative knowledp, we shall then try to understand the
mechanisms responsible for the process~~~.-.-.. deal with 'tile inverse
problem, that is to say in situ measurements for which the unknowns are the properties of
the propaptiaa media. We shall show how certain lderatuq aauks cu be used and
provide some of the most widely employed CRJpirk:al ~~ns.
'

j"

"

'-

'-'--.-'

'-

"-

----,___.
___.
-"~

'-,...

'--

5.J RESULts ANn 1\li'.CIU.NISMS


.
IN THE LABORATORY
The earliest syltematic meuurements or variatioM In the acotlltic properties of rocks
appeaftld in die 1950(twos. At thetime, muy f1JIIrl1llis,illduditla Wyllie, GfiJory and

Gantner, inYeltiptedthe variations in the wlocitiet

or...... waves in porous media as

a funcrioll of such pltl'lltftetert a porosity, aturat.ion aild prasuro. 'f'hey also cleak with
the problems raised by the measurement of intrinsic attenuation. At the same time, Nafe
and Drake hepn anatp.ina ~tics. in 09IU RQOI' lledimcnts. with a partic;ular focus on
the preblem of colllf)IClion. This type or ......... ~ down ia dae 19(i()s. but similar
ia~iJations were revived in the early t91Gsby_ re~ inchtdina Domenico and
Nur, whose studies of variatiOns of velOCity as i fUnction of prdSure, saturation and

176

RESULTS AND MECHAI'ISMS

interstitial fluid viscosity are well-known. At the present time. many areas draw on the
knowledge of velocities and, though more rarely, of attenuations. These include many
subjects in civil engineering and geophysics. Concerns and motivations are different in
each of these areas: they involve the analysis of thermal mechanisms for geothermal
energy, high pressure, high temperature and time measurements for nuclear energy, zero
pressure measurements in soil mechanics, and quality control of concrete for construction.
Yet the primary area for research on velocities and attenuations remains petroleum
geophysics. The considerable growth and the pioneering role played by the petroleum
laboratories arc nat rally grounded on the fundamental importance of seistnic reflection
surveys for petroleu exploration, and on acoustic logging in wells. This also explains
s, and especially sandstones (whose importance as reservoirs is well
why sedimentary r
known), offered the ost popular area for experimental research. In the following pages,
we shall try to avoid estricting ourselves to experimental curves available for sandstones.
pointed out that few investigations dealing with carbonate rocks,
However, it must
clays and shales exis in the literature. One must realize that the results presented concern
clearly defmed samp es, and that these~rnalts.can only be extrapolated to other samples
with all due precaut ons.
We shall fust examine the results obtained by velocity investigations, which will enable
us to highlight a number of
trellds. We shall thea demonstrate the difftculty of
deflfting a siftlle "WJocitY'parameter oharactcri:re the bdha,ior of a giWil sample. We
shall then go on to ~ts of afteiR'Ja!Wn. The interpretation of theBe resUlts by
means of physical -meciNMtsms will follOw. FiftaDy ,..., ,shall take the .tewpoint el the
investigator and develop some empirical laws for velocities and attenuatioDI and give
their limitations, for various. in~.

'""'

-~.

'""'

.v

S.l.t
5.1.1.1

Velocities_. Jlllllt es

Rocks in the earth's crust are srib,;ect't6 high stresses. To understand the processes
observed, it is therefore essential to understand the role of pressure on acoustic
parameters. To begin with, we shall examine the effects of different types of pressure on
velocity, namely confming pressure Pc (pressure to which the sample is subjected), pore
pressure Pp (pressure of tJte. flp1.4. i.,nsia.F the por~~ and the differ~ntial or effective
pressure" Pefl ( = p ._ pP)fH. We Wilt~ ~bow the e1fes'Ct of a uniaxial stress.

a. Effective pressure
Figures 5.1 and 5.2 aivo a ~"r of c~amplcs of V.Jriati<ms of velocity. vs. eft"octive
pressure for -ry and satwatcd. 5JUQ'II ~ experiments were made by ultral9ftic
methods. In every ~.aa i~_in v~ocity ~s with increasina etrectivc pressure,

--..

...__

-.

but this increase-dcpends.svb!;~ly ~n~ type of rock co~oed. PractialUy no


(1) The eft'e<:tive Strc:IS is normaRy ~ U the stress to which the $01id skeleton is SUbjected, i.e. the
difl'eftllee betWeen the lithostatiC streu-...ct tk l)'drostetic prtSsure. This is derivWII from nrza,m.._ law
diKUSSed in Scetion 2.2.4. At rule, tlais ~vc ~trcacaa be trtatca u tile differealial pressure, Wbic:h is~
diffefCJl<:e between confmins pressure. and the. ~re press!'re (see ~ ur and B~ :rice. 1971).

~---

-"

""

......

- T

\.....'-'

...............

v,

-;

l4

::!

js

l:

Vs

Vs

100
2110
300
EffectiM ,....,. CMhl

408

2a.--....a......---'--......1'--...J
0

(a)
7

Webnlck 'dolomite

i::!
'-c~

'-

fs
...
>

'--'

108
200
300
Efhctivt ..,_.. CMhl
1iI'Oytrlrutt
.

v,
8

Vp

J.

--

~ 3

.,..

400

(I)

"

...

I>

I -----'-

S.t.

Sat. llld dry

vs
~,

100
200
EffMtlve ,.._.. fMPal
5

\_

300
(a)

!3

Sat. lftd dry

l&

Vp

'~

......_,,_..,.. .,

I>

.,, .,....:..,__ .:.,

3"-----.,a.----'----..J

'4

s.t.ll'id dry

0
'-

10
20
30
Effectlwe.,....,. CMPtl

'

40

<')

vs
___.__

2
0

100

200

Effective,_,,. {Mhl
Fit.~~ J~UCDQ; of poreaape o ~14fttivc prure ~hips
(after Nur and Murphy, edited by lrutin and Hsieh, 1981 and Nur, personal
correspondence).
a. Microcracked rocks (ultrasonic measurements).
Ia. Massillon sandstone (resonant bar), Solcnhofen- limestone (ultrasonic
measurements).
'-

-.___

4
Pierre shtle

Sit.

~'...

.~

........ "'

.,.,.

..

",..P Dry

_......-o--.......... - .. _-o Dry

~s.t.

Vs

110

100

150

&ftec:tlve pressunt (Mh)

Ch..k
3.5

sw

=306%

~~~~-==;-1~

::::;

10

seo

3
}-,

,"1,<

fu
>

$w

10 .
40
20

80

~to

100_ _ _..___ _ _
1.5 .__
0

10

~..-

_ _ _;r..;,;.;_ _ _L---.....J

20
30
Effective ,..._,. IMflll

40

Fia. 5.2 Velocity/etTec:tive pressure relationships for Pierre shale (after


Tosaya. 1982) and chalk (after Greaory. 1976} (ultrasonic measureinents).

"

i".'.

,...~u~,

~:.f.i

h'L~.

~~-{11,

J;;~ ;<:t..,n;,

h~: :Y~:r~en~

._.~

'----'

'-

~.

'-

179

increase occurs in Solenhofcn limestone, whereas cbc P wave vcloacy rises from 4 to
6 km/s for dry Westerly granite. 1'he iftereue in I' waw wlocily vs. eectiYe 9fC8IUie is
much smaller for a saturated sample than tot a dry ....,te.. and tbis applies to all the
samples in Fia. 5.1. On the other hand, the shear waw veloCity is vinually unaffected by
the presence of water in the medium. Also observable is the existence of a maximum
pressure above which the Velocity reriWns constant Howewr in Piem shale (FiJ. 5.2), no
plateau can be obSetwd at maximum pressure applied:
The samples shown in Fij. 5.1 are 6lirfy weU4cnowtt porous media (see Chapter 1).
Granites, dolomite and Bedford limestone are well known for their essentially microctack
porosity. Solenhofen limestone and MusiiJon S8ftdttone, however; exhibit a pore apace
consistina of pores with aspect ra1irGI dOle to t.mc~~ we call ~spherical" porosity, aad
cracts are uncommon. The samples in Fit. 5.2 display c:oniJ)Iel pen apaoea, eitber
because of the presence of clays or due to the pbysicc:M:hemical sensitivity of the c:alcite
making up the chalk.
Til~ Fig. S.l shows-that the effect ofeonftaiq ~is direCtly related to the number
of cracks (two-dimensional pores whid'r tend to desteuily) existinJ in the sample. Denis
et al. (1979) measured the ultrasonic velodties of dry samples at atmospheric pressure and
succeeded in calculatiag a fraeturina index (eontinuity illdex). Fiptt 5.3 illustrates the

'-

'-

~A'MI)~

'--~

'--

''-,_...-

0.&

'-'

o.

"---

~
Yo

0.1

0.2
'--'

'--'

0.1

Crack~ tX tO~ol
"--"

F'IJ. 5.3

Influence of microcrack porosity on tbe velocity/effective pressure


relationship (compressional wave) (ultrasoaic: measurcmettts) Iafter Nur and
Murphy, edited by Brulin and Hsieh, 1981)..

--'----'
''-.--

Vo = velocity at atmospberic: pressure,


V1 == velocity at 1 OPa,

&V- V1

V0

0, Oak. aJl ~tone; FO,, duqitt; Jl~.. 9!~.ap; TO, Tro~ sranitc; WD,
Webatuclt. dolomtte; WG, Welterly JfU'ife: "'-' "Stone Jranitt: CO, Casc:o
Jl.

,_,....-..../

gnmfte.

'-.-

'-~
'----'

180

~LTS.

AND MECHANISMS

extent. of fracture porosity by the inc~ia velocity ,with ~~The .ordinate in the
diagram represents the normalizl0d4i&rcnce bctw,eeothe compressional velocity without
pnssure and that uader a prcuurc of 1 .PPa for dry samples: the ,greater the number of
crackS; dto more the velocity. v.aric$ with pressure.
As already noted, the P~rrc
~pies used in FiJ. 5.l display a different velocity
function dllan Fis. 5.1. The~ RlateJu as a fuiKltion ofp~ure, which represents the
closure of its .. last" crack for the ~pic ;~nc::emod. is not oluervcd for this rock at
120 MPa. In fact, Jones and Waoa (l981) .obMfvcd this phe1lome.non continuing up to
0.4 GPL It is possible. &Nt tbc .~ in velocity as a function of pressure shows. in
addition to thccontinuousdosurcofthc ~a.:ks,.an aJipment of the day crystals in
the miDimwa shear streaJtb plueflosaya, 1982)-;aa.Jk. tlae$CCOnd examplein Fia. 5.2. is
very c:omplicated ~ the stnacture 8f ~ material ~ ac:cordiq to the pressure
applied (creep). We shall .net 10 .into
detail for Qjthcr Pierre shale or chalk.
assuming that the variation in velocity versus pressure are only important if the strw:ture
of the material iavestiptedis aot GMqcct itq:venibly: by the ~L For clays as well
as c:balk, tbore is goect reason. to s~ :At~ in the CUfVe of velocity vs. cft"~ive

-.le.

'

furtlaer

pr.essurc. .

We have mown that the increase in velocity with prasure resultS from tbc closure of the
cracks, and that this closure is reflected by a greater rigidity of the material under pressure
(i.e. an increase in the correspondins elastic modulus~ In fact, it must be remembered that
any velocity V can be expressed in the form:

v=

Jo/;

(5.1)
~.

where M is the elastic modulus, aad p the density, and that, consequently, at constant p,
an increase in elastic modulus implies
in velocity. The behavior of cracks and pores
under confmina pressure was modeled by Walsh (1965, 1969) and Wu (1966) for a pore or
crack included in a matrix. The equations ~ by K, the bulk modulus. and p., the
shear modulus of the rock for the dry sample are- the follo\\illl:

arise

(t + !.)e ,
_!_ (1 + !.) ,

_!_ == _1
K K1

.!_

JJ

(S.2)
(5.3)

JJJ

where K 1 and p 1 are tbe solid moduli, e the aspect ratio oftbe pore or crack (e = 1 for a
sphere, e ~ 1 for a crack), tj) the porosity, and A and B are constants depending on the
characteristics of the medium an4 close to 1.
For the saturated sample:
1
1
.
(5.4)
K ~ K; (l + A'tj))

.!_
JJ

~ _!_
P1

(1 + !.),e
B'

(5.5)

where .A.' llDd I!" arc consta~ts deP.eqdrw on K 1 and Jlt ($D4 ft,U.id bulk .modulus for A')
and close to l.lt can be seen that, if e = t, the eff'ect of the pore on the moduli is negliJible

-.,

'-'-

r
f. ;
~

'
!

-- .. ,. 'lti!Siiii$ ~ MCt4ANiiMS '

f8l

to-

2, the effect on
for low porosities (about the order ofmasnitude of ). However, i(e ==
the bulk modulus of the dry sample isconsiderable. On the other hand, it is nepgible for a
saturater.i sample. For a livcn sample, it i$ necessa11 to integrate the effects of type (5.2) to
(S.S) for all the pores and cracks. The more pressure is applied. the more cracks are closed
and the less the moduli are altered.
EquatiOns (5.:zrn,~s.S,.als9 bclp to understand the di8'ercn<lc in ~havior between a dry
and a saturated sample. At a Biven paasure, a dry sample is less rigid than a satufated
sample. For a saturated sample, in flct, the compressibility of water resists the pressure
and increases the elastic modulus. At pressures over a certain threshold, however, for
which the velOCity is constant, the effects of water and air become equivalent. This
thresbol4pasurc is obviously not the same for water and air. Ia tbccucohhear waves,
which do not propagate in liquids, the addition of water in the sample implies practically
no chanp, and the velocities are the same for dry and saturated samples, subject to density
effects.Satuntedsamplesdisplay.tiptlylowerveloeitiesthalldrysamplea[~eeEq. (S.t)].
On the othet hand, Pierre shale (Fia. 5:2) exhibits silftilar;.,..Wor whoa .._lulry and
saturated. This may be due to the compressibility,ofthe clay minerals. Nevertheless, dry
measurements must bc~dered with some circumspection. The samples Were dried at
SO'"C under vacuum tor- months, and this coulct ha~ altered their characteristics.
Using the foreaoing curves;one.can calculate the variations ofthe PoiiSOJJ't ratio with
effective pressure. One example is pven in Fia. 5.4 for Berea sandstone. Note the
eMrcmely low values (which may evell be negative) for dry rocks at low pressure, and the .
abnormally high values for saturated rocks.

"'

oine

0.35.,_,.

;..

.... lllldllone

A Dry
DW....,ppO
W..,pctoMPa

20

...,

to'

- ..

10

ffwtlw ......... ......, '

lnftuenc:e of saturatina fluid_.~ pressure on Poilsn' nttio


of Berea sandstone Iafter Nur and Murphy, edited by Brulin and Hsicll,
1981).

Ftc- 5.4

... hN,....,. . . etlll/itlilll~


The resulti hi Fijs. S:,, S.~ .~ 5. 7 ~w clearly that the important parameter
controlling velocity is the. .ivc pressure. tletail, it is observed that, at a pven effective
pressure, the higher the pore pressure (i.e. the higher the confaaing pressure), the higher the

In

4.0

4:0

MassiHon undstone

''~

~ 3 ~

Vp

>

.1::

'
....

Pc80MI'I _,

~
Vs

1~.:,:...__ _

1.5

..

13.0
f

~ 2.5

2.oL,.

...

v,

2.5

"s

2.0

1.5 '--_ _......_ _ __...._

20

40
60
lttectM.,.... ....,

80

20

_,.._~-------''-'

..........

40

60

60

5.0

3.8

4.5

v,

3.4

.,p...,

4.0

13.2

St ,._, SlndttoM

Ys

13.0

13.5

>

>

2.8

3.0

Vs

2.5

2.8

.J.l

L
20

40

60

..,~o

80

20

Effective ..,._. MPa

40

60

110

Effective .,.._. MPa

FJa. 5.5 y.locity/efl'ective pressure relaUQRSh,ips for cases of zero pore pressure
(p., ... ()) ana '(l()Ditant confaning pressure
(p, = 80 MPa) (ultrasonic measurements)
(after Jonea; 1983).

,;,

...... ....._
4

~Pett=Pc

13.5
~

PeffilinMJita
Peff=21 MPe

Peft14r.'IPI .
Peff=7 MPa

3
Peff=O

.
0

20

40

80

Confining pressure (MPal

~;

fitJ 5.6 "prnionat ,..w velocities in

aetea ..-ollC VJ. ~fipjq~te and


eltective p-cssure (ultr&sonic measurements)
(after Wjftie er lll., 19$8).

,_.,-"

J
4

3.8 . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

...

-a

13.4

,, .. ,

3.5

Pp""41 MP

.-,=o

i<It
1

---~

v,

Drv

""_,.,. t

I.

--4

1.1L

Pp = 0

p,1MP

"

100

,,41 ...

lu

O.IL-.._ _,_____...__ _..__

Pp =41 MP

,,-,1 w.

-a
Ju
fJA,

"p,=41MP

50

1:.
,.

2.5

12

32

..

, , .. 1 . ..

__..~

21

150

Cclnflnlnt,...,,. ......""

50
7t

IH.ctlw.....-MP8

l'frl. 5.7 lducace of port .,-JPlHmd ceafiiUoa pressure OJI ~ io


Piette .... (ultrascmic inebu~ (aflfl' Tosaya, 198~. ". _
,

'~

velocii1(FJ8. 5.S). Y the d~betweeo Ute vdocity~ ~ut"ewrves for the


cases of zero pore pnsaure aDd constant confanina pn:aa.e is very sliaht, and in many
cases lies within thcacwracy ol the ox~t. Fi~Urcs $.6_11l4 S.7 show the increase in
velocity II a fuilction of codaina 'fhiSUN for dilrereat..- presiUl'CS. The general
conclusions are the _
.....
ofelfective pressure. It is
also ~ that, at a pven con(apina ~ure. the vclec:it)' is.~ for flow pore
pressure ia cc:qpariiOft witla a IU~ .,.,. ~
~-~ tbe increase in
velOcity wida dKtive prcuure.
"
""
From a 4I'JIIIitaeiw tiewpeint, ads JK.a.llble dlat t~~e~cliPt iDctcale in velocity
correspondiaJ to hiP pore pRSSures with a pven effecti\ie .....re can Mtelated to the
correspondiftl increase in confming pressure, which slipdy increases the riJidity of the
matrix and hence the velocity of the medium.

......_,.....,_,_.fllaalion
1'bi:

c.

. , _ , - . . . . . . . .,_..~

The uriatioasofvelocity as a fuactic.aof"Miexial'ltn:ls_..doscly 4opeadeQt OD two


parameten:tlle rau.G'thisltals tofhefaih,....,...ofdle...aplcaadthedirec:tioaof
application ol&he atfeU in relldiDD.*the-lWOPI. . . . cliaetiaa 1oftbe waws analpled.ln

fact,dependialoo th&mapliUickof*cllHII~.._ theesistiqcr~ks aredosod


(low stress) or new cracks arc created (high stress).

184

RESUI..'R A!'fD M6CHANISMS


0

VN
1~

------------------

'

Fig. SJia 11\ftuonce of a uniuialatress on P and S velocities ill a sample of


Westerly granite (after Lockner~ al. C 1977 AGU).
Left: schematic view Gl' ~xperimJntal setup.
Right: normalized velocities as a function of failure strength.

a!WII

uf
4.4

25
20
,,

4.2

tO

4.8

'
sv
3:1F-._

SH

3.t

30

:::4.015
~.8 L

o
<;.

3.1

-~

L-.a..

..

::: &

,.... .,.,
;-...................,...............
j_

~d

~~
2.7~::
:?;-;;tee;:

-,,c

td '.to!

to

F.. UJ .. V~I~ty ~&Jopyill4~ oll.~Jranitesampk bl a uniaxial


sttesr. n.e stm~tsapPHed mtt.ra~D ft'. The SH wave ts polarized

perpendicular to the stress direction for any 8. The SY '&ve is polarilled in


. tile pine coaeainiaatbe:*- direetion<(aftcr Nur an4 Murphy, edited by
8Nlia aDd IUiola. 1"1).

At low stresses, the cracks perpendicular to the stress are closed preferentially, inducing
a clear anisotropy in the sample. In Fig. 5.8a, at stresses lower than half of the failure
strength of the Westerly granite investigated, the Wteeity inereases (closure of the crack-s).
It then drops sharply at high stressel. . . .mt ef craeks). The velocities are lllClUUrCid in a
direction perpendicular to the streala As. Ub, byeon.tnst, the wlocities are measured
in all the direeticms afid.at IDlJICh ..._. lttelacS (pndudias any aution of cradcs). The
anisotropy induced by the uniaxiAl sUms is dearly shown by the diffe~WJCC in velocity
measurements in each direction.

----Stereoscopic setup
PAV, qJ= 6%

sw

100%

sw

100%

() 1 Atm.Press : 5 MPa

(m/s}

1Cl0qo

5400

I 5435
20

32
500/).m

z 220,

qJ_= 3.8%

(5"

Atm.Press. 5 MPa I

(m~sl 4358

1001o

172

14800
84
I

Fig. 5.9 SEM photographs of two pore casts of low-porosity Fontainebleau


sandstones obtained by the technique described in Chapter I (after Bourbie
and Zinszner, 19851.

186

. t-

RESULTS AND MECHANISMS

..V~ONfflii-Dry

GN1SS-0ry

..,. ...............

-~
.\:~_ _

~6

f)t
14

(J

'

~~-

o i~ ~tl Unudalt

.L'AtiliaU.

Oil ~iatioft; l L........


'

;;'a ,

'

tl ,

....,..... ~~"
.40 .: .

'

'

'.:,'.~~:....:w
.,,

' .,

Cal

...........

1110

er-------~------~----~~

.-,.~~

Sw100%
3
Vp4SO

.-v,4fSo

_v33

l::':!.
~

i>

v22 = Vn
v21

L:.'-:

v,3 =V31

't

2 0I

"~

..

'

)!rf.J .. J'il .. lioJ

....

Aaother~~-.pp&~~~ un~~~tC,.,of~~pvcn in
S.9. N-~--

DIn twoF~iaiD-~~able

po~ a~&fti:Jilatk:al chediiltry (99.9%q~;w.r.. ......... by


F"

ultrasonic methods at a central frequency of 500 kHz with and without uniaxial stress of
SO MPa. The velocities and atteauations behaved differently under the effect of the
uniaxial stress, and the velocities are quite different for the two samples.
Figure 5.9 allows a qualitative explanation. The pore casts (see Chapter l) are also quite
different. In addition to a "three-dimensional" porosity, one of the two samples (Z220)
shows abundant grain boundaries that act like cracks. At zero stress, these cracks make

r'

,,~-

'- f~t

'.

"
"--

atsOl'tt'AMY' r.M.if..\t...MiP'

18?

the skeleton compressible, hence the low \elocity (and high attenuation). The application
<t

"-.;!!"

of a uniaxial stnsspartly dotes the cracks (those perpendicular to the stress direction) and
the velocity riles substntially.
These induced anisotropies arc naturally quite dierent froiJl the intrinsic velocity
anisotropies frequently observed ill rocks. three examples of which are given in Fig. 5.1 0.

'-'
'-

5.1.1.2 Velocities aad saturatiells

"--

Natural porous media are always saturated with fluids and the influence of these fluids
on acoustic propertia is essential. We will prescnt farst the effect of water/air saturation,
and then ao on to the other saturating fluids, cmphasizittg the role of the viscosity of these
fluids.

'-

'-

"-'- '-

"--
"-

s.t.ndi011
As already shown (fi&- S, 1 for ~x~ple). velogty measurements arc quite different for
dry"< 21 or 100% lablrated samples. Fipre 5.11 gives aa eumple of velocity
measurements venus pressure for dry, partially. and fully saturated Massillon sandstone.
For P waves at partial saturation, the velocity is lower than the .. dry" velocity, which is
lower than the velocity at l<XWe sataratiOn. The qualitative explanation is simple : for P

L,

'-

Masillon undrtone

'-.._-

Dry .

...

Fullyut.

Dry

;:!a

''--'

I I I I I

'
-~;n'
'._/

''-

"--

0
0

10

20

30

Efflctlve pressure IMPel

l'fl. Ul Veloeity/W*f .......UOD relatioubip ia M...won u.adrltonc 'VI.


coalaainc,...... (~
~~\at et Ill.. 1910).
waves uad. f9f sp~ wr~ t~ onq.eflc:Qt d~ t~
in.trod~o~ of water jnto the dry
sample is a density inc,rease lq~DJto a~~ in velocity
Eq. (5.1)]. By eontrast,
when COIIJI),tele sat\aratio,a is ~ me '~. become more' difftcult to compreis,

t'he

(2) Ccmlictirallie Ulbltuib ~aallle lCim ..dry .. Pfe\-ails amoq the cfilerent tUdlots. 'For sOme. tlae
t.n. ... , .ellfllidlto.....,yeliMditMMIIJ(I.e. ,;m tbe,.....4f......_ifa dae rock.lldlol1lld ia _,...

aobcric

we,..un

..,._IICIC:!ItfCiiq
oo~. For~ "Po~ ~,UIIdv VICIIUIL As
llaow
further on in this Section, the water adsorbed plays a fundamental rote on the velocities (and attenuations). This
ambipity or te!'JftinolOI)' may explain certain apparent c:ontradictions in the variOus experimental results.

._.,

-~,

188

RESULTS Al'll) MECHANISMS

,.......-...........

1-

-'"'

11.5 -1311Hz

8 3
~

40

20

......,_._
:Ia

eo

..............
.,, "''

2~--~~--~----

100

80

.......,.....__
.-:a.

2
~ ~.,

1.8
'111.8

l~

VE 15911-1187 Hzl

~o-o--o--o-o

11

tto ......1

1.4

-~

Ju
::>

v5 1315 . eu Hd

w-..aw.tionl"l

v 5 13115-385 Hzl

Ve 1571 847Hz)

L...

------

0.8

....~

to

...

~~

40

~eo

ro

80

',

W.... ldlrlltion I,. I

till .

Fla. !.ll Velocity/water saturatiob relatic.-hip fot different materials


(resonant bar).
Curve (IJ) after Bourbie and Zinszner, 1985.
Curves (a) and (e) after Murphy, 1982.

increasing the velecity..F:or S waves, it may be ummed that the liquid bas M effect on
velocities and that the eft'eet observed is exd~rvely a density effect; For granite, the
experiments ofNur and ~urphy (FiJ~ 5.12) show that the "dry" velocity is lower than the
velocity at partial saturatfop, which iS lo\11er than 't~ velocity 100"/o saturation. In this
case, the porosity is too low for the density effect t<fhie greater thatt the matrix stiffening
effect Figure 5.13 summarizes scbematicillly(this result (at ultrasonic frequencies).
Figure 5.12 shows the variations of velocity as a function of saturation for different types
ofrock. The measurements were taken at afroospheric pr~u,e andJlsina the resonant
bar. The frequencies employed wcce ~* i to lO,kHz: The difcrent satwatioa levls
were achieved by drying. For sandst()ne, ~ dry" velocity cart'tle ~ to be hiJher than
all the other velocities.
.
.

at

"'
~

'-'~

,-

~ -~

'-- !

'119

Nr 111UmiGn (S)
100

50

Pc!l35MPa

'-'--

'-'-....

'-

'---'

10.<f<21'A

'---'
'-'-~

'---'

'-

'-'

.............. "',
!10

100

~" behavior of l'lltlocitY .a a Juacqon of wa~r


saturation for c:ontOiidated lediments 8ncl a-~ ~.of 35 MPa
(alter Greaory. 1976).
.

Ffa. U3

'-'
'--

''-...-

With rcsptet to puita. ~ty JDa'lllll with utur.U.n for satuutions above
20o/.. For all dterects..._., tho.,.,.,wa~;~ it virtQily~t of water
satutatioa tlftor the &au. tNds 2%. ~_Nutilio,n ~aadAoao, ~ ia very porous. a
sliabt demucl in velocitil,a iJ observed dC to, &be densilJ effect~ JSq. (5.1)].
Ia dba,orous saacilloae.lor r~a& bar~ Umilarbebavioris observed
to daat clel4.:ribe4 by .Gfesory (1976).1or ~-waves (Fi&- S.l3) :even if the
loqitudinal v~ia Fil- S.l2 aretonsional veloeiQaaad aot P wave vcloQtic$(~
QMptcr4).
ltilntativelycuyto,apltliatbtbelaavlorof~ia . . . .iUoa-.saadstoneforwater
saturations .t 2 to 100~. From the qualitative standpoint, in fact, the clastic modulus
is iadependent of saturatioD for saturation froua 2 to 95%, 'ililereas the density
(p = (1 - fl)p. + t;p1 S. p. is the dtrtsity of the solid, p1 the density of the liquid, S..,
water saturation)ibcreases with saturation, leadin.s to a slipt decrease in velocity. At total
' ~aturatioa. dae water ~ tends to . . _ the material (for lonlitudinal
wavet).aad thewtocityrisa.:For Sftftlnoluidcectooeun, asw U.C altudystated.

"

......

(3) 1k dality of aid aelfiafHe ill .oaapariloll.with dlole of the hid and solid.
'-

190

&ESVLTS AND MECHANISMS

Gassmann's equation [see Section 2.2.2.2, Eq. (2.77)] serves to quantify this type of
process. In the case of total saturation, this equation can obviously be adapted by
replacing the fluid bulk modulus by:
1
1
l
/(=(1-S,..)K+S ... K
(5.6)
/It

/1

<H,

/H) and Silanoi ions

..

flz

where K 11 , and K 111 are the bulk moduli of the two fluids, and S,.. is the saturation with
fluid 2. This presumes that one of the two fluids (fluid 1) is totally included in the second
(fluid 2).
The use of Eqs. (2.77) and (5.6) jives a behavior similaT to that observed for Massillon
sandstone at water saturations of 2 to 100%. In fact, these equations constitute the zerofrequency approximation of the eqvationsdeveloped by Biot (sec Chapter 2, Eq. (2132)].
For measurements taken at ultrasonic frequencies (sec Fig. 5.13 for example), the
application of Eq. (2.132) does not ,yield a very good result (sec Fig. 5.14a~
In Fig. 5.14b, Domenico (1976), uses the Geerstma-Smit .. high frequency" equation
[see Section 2.2.5, Eq. (2.133)] in which be varies the tortuosity parameter from 1 to
inftnity. The result is not better than itt the case of Fig. 5.14a. Various reasons can be
postulated for the disagreement. To begin with, the equation used does not account for
permeability effects, and, at a jiven tonuosity, the permeability effect is negli@ible only if
f/1. is greater than 5 (Gecrstma, 1961). Possibly even more important is the fact that this
equation presumes a por~ity uniformly distributed throughout the sample, and that any
gas is totally included in the fluid. In fact, partial saturation of the sample is not uniform
(see for example Bourbie and Zinszner,1984). Gas may~ occur in a partly continuous
form, in which case the sample is truly three-phase and requires a more sophisticated Biot
theory (Brutsaert, 1964). Even so, the non-uniformity makes analysis difftcult. The
Geerstma-SIIlit equations are interestJna to describe overilt1 behavior, but are defmitely
not intended for systematic use.,

Note that neither Gassmann's nor the Geerstma-Smit equations help to explain the
behavior of velocities at low saturation and at frequencies in the neishborhood of 1 kHz
(Fig. 5.12). To explain tbe~ble ftrilltion in velOCity at very lew sataration, Oark
er at. (1980)invokedehydrati0ft ndstifreftins Of day miaerals that are in~tact with the
grains. This explanation is ~. tieeause a velocity variation df'!M same type
was observed 1ft porous glss (\tycOt) and in sand (Hardin et al., 1963). materials
from which clay mitlenils are afMieiftt. Two mechanisms may explain the behavior of
velocities at very low saturation. To 1e8in with, the surface ora quartz snriD possesses a
suffteient negative ~to ioni!e the tltinftlm ofwater covering ittParts, 1984). HelrlCe it
appears that the pore surface of all sands and sandstones is hydroxylated. A doUble,
charged layer is fOrmed betWeen the wateniht Ole silicate SUffiCe (Fig. 5'. ts and Murphy,
1982b) with. molecules of water

'

6
'si/

'si/

-~

.The .

hydropn bonds between the surflce b)!droxyls ...amoleeulcs of water are broken which
leads toaclissipatioD.ofentrl)'(teeSeeticm S.U.lb; Tittl8anlldll.,19B0,5peaccr.1981),
and the free surface energy, namely the work required to produce an increase in free
surface area, is decreased by the breakaae of these bonds. The. adsorbed water also exerts a
signiftcant effect in reducina this free energy(Murphy, 1982 b). The twofold deereate in free

'
~

'
~

~fi'J.jfj; ~~

t9t'

ju

~j

'- s*..
~-

.tij

1.1 , ....

1-

.~

,,_:,,.

8
~

20

~;

. ..

JO

100

.....

'

......,...Vp I

4.

-.~'

fu~

'

','

f Coltlpulllll

.,_"'*

v,

.I

'

waw UQ1r11!on I"I

''

181

,,
'---

--

Fie- 5.14 Com.Puison of velocities - ur...... calatl&ted Ia wandlt~ ~


computatioa . . . a........ ..,..., [100
Eq. (2.132)). J.iaht, computation usiils Riot's
theory [see Eq. (2.133)]. In this latter case a
denotes the tortuosity (after Domenico,
1976).
.

10

so

- t

s
- tt'

10

--~

eo
w.... _.....,",

JO

.,

too

tbl .
~_;

or the material and


hence a 16.-er wlocit;'. A 1eeOftd catqOry of fofcft 1My explaitl tOck beltavior at low
satutation; aamely ca'pilatyforees. lk-rele ofcapi~Wyfot'Ch itmati'Vely well blown for
uDCODSOlidated tedimentl. A schematic aad qualitative examplcjs .provided by a pile of
dry sand to which wawis ~ually ..... Tt.-elttllllplc is only a qualitatiw4escription
and cetramly cannot be usld as a proof, sitiCC muay parameters are not taken into
enerJY(adsor~ 'iltld elc!Ctrochemieal) implies 'JI'e*fcomptiance

'-

'-

.,__._.,.

,,,.

.......

.,._........

PiJ. 5.15 ~~orWUitadtorbedonsramsotiilica(lfter


Murphy, 1982b).

192

R~UL~

ANQ MECQANISMS

consideration, such as the adhesive forces between the grains. Initially, the sand is dry and
the solid skeleton non-rigid: velocity is therefore.low. As soon as a small amount of water
is added, capillary forces act between the grain.,
the solid skeleton exhibits greater
rigidity. By adding water further, these forces disappear and the apparent rigidity (and
hence velocity) decreases and then becomes virtually ~t until high saturation. At
high saturation, the incompressibility of the flui4 itself plays a role and the velocity again
rises. The qualitative variation in velocity in theund pile is hence dosely comparable to
the variation observed in laboratory experimonts on rock samples (see for example
Fig. 5.12) except for "infmitesimal" saturationsf'very dry.. to .. dry"). In lalldstones, a
capillary mechanism of the type d~~ abowe is therefore plausible, as the capillary
preesure at low saturation guarantees better cohesion of the material.
FiaaUy, it should be noted that ttae ~ ~-~ PJ:OPQIICCI (cbemiRI boPds and
capillary forces) are both related to the speCifiC surface atea of the porous medium, and we
shaD show that this remark raises a; problem for attenualiott at low saturation.
Ia conclusion, for dry rocks (saturation less than 2%); substantial variatiort in velocity is
observed, which can be explained by a decrease in the
sui:f'a6e energy, resulting from
the combination of a variation in capillary pressure and an adsorption mechanism. In all
cases, we have seen that the~ ofvelocitl on saturation,-is v~y Jliabt, both for P
waves and for S waves. aa4b water saturatiOIIS bonreea >10 ed 90%. Couoq._.tly,
velocities are not aood indicators of the quantity ef ... pniiMlDt in .... pons.

aoo

tree

b.

Ty~ ofm~~ratig fluid

The type of saturating fluid influences the acoustic wave velOcity. if only because of
the compressibility of the fluid. An example of this variation in velocity is given in
tippee. tbcftuidv~y.(andhcnce
Fig. 5.16. ~urthermorc,u is*-t.IJ ~-...
its temperature) intl'4Cqa:s tbl: v~ cyeo _,o thafl !be ~ type of aaturatina
fluid. This is wby ~~Y}tcuapcf.'ture relat~ are diseuiiCMl in the aext Sef;tion.

in.,.

........
... .--,..

---

......

~._~--._~~~~~--._--~-----.

.,

if~

~................

i:
0

,, .. 3 ...

Pp3MI'

Yp

aoc

~.12PC

tSOOC
0

10

20

,_,-3 ...

'1,
'

30

40

50 0

2S0e

0
-~

~ '~
o tSOOC

10

20

250C
1250C

-, ISOOC
30

40

50 0

10

30

40

50

DiffemltW ,...,. IMh)

Fia- 5.16 lnfluenee of temperature on P wave velocitJ -in Venezuelan sands


Jor dim:rc~saturJlliD& flWds (ultruonK: ~relDClltJ) (~ Tosayt. et Ill.,
1985).

;:--

---s

':.

"

JIIUIIfl AN~

193

'-

5.1.1.3 Veloddes and te.,enawes


The burial of rocks in sedimentary basins implies that tl\eY are not only subject to
pressure e&cts, but also to temperature effccts;' Tile 'averap temperature Jl'lldient in the
crust is around 1-c per lO m of ICdiments. Weshall tirst discuss the ~effect in
the broad sense, and then go on to the proble!Jas associated with the chanp in viscosity,
and then ftnaUy deal with problems of phase chanp under the efrect of temperature.
'----"

'-"--._..-

a.

Tempa'tlt,.e

Velocity varies slightly with temperature. For example, the velocity in distilled water
increases by 11o as the temperature rises from 10 to IOOOC (Kaye and Laby, 1973) and the
velocity in quartz decreues by 0.4% as the temperatures varies by IOO"C (Carmicbacl,
Vol. Ill, 1984). This shows that temperature exerts a very slight intrinsic eft'ect on velocity.
In fact, a number ofextrinsic factors cause the velocity to vary with temperature, and these
indude di&renees in compressibility between the clitferen.t matrix dameatl aad banc:e
dierences in pressure, chanps in the viscotity of tlie'tauttatHra fluid, and phase cbangcs.

.......

'---'

~'~

........

1...
Ju~
1-

.o ...
'--

'~

'-

'--

f1l. 5.17.

'-

'-'-../

'---"

_......

?iF

..........

_.

. . ___.:

,::po-_..,. '
~p '
~-~-!_
Wet

1Clo

--- '

c:.tlnlnt......,. CW.)

'

400

1100

Compressio.
Col
aaJ ~tics vs. temperature in Water.ly puitc.

Compariloa hetwccD dry aDd satwated cues for different confaaiaa


pnuurea (ultatoDic _,utemeota) (after Nur, .1980).

For lowporosityroeks such as pauite and pbbro (FiS. 5;17) the decrease in velocity
with temperature is nearly alwaytieu than 5% for a tcmpanture inaeasc of about lOO'C
(Carmicblcl. Vol. II, 1912). F . , . 5.18 and S.l9 o&r a nuaber of...,... of velocity
variations with temperatUI'f'for Jaip porOiity sandstones. It may be observed that, for dry
and water-saturated ..-tones, vciOClity ~with risina temperature. The~
in velocity observed in Fig. S.19d 'at partial~,:._. from aa irrewnible
structund chanFin the r9'k, ~ aJlwn VfltY clearly by the hytt~ f.ucpt in this
specific
the deeroale ia 'ftlleaity is .-ery fairly slipt. For a tempcratu(e rise of
lOO"C, the velocity varies by a maxiuium ota fC'fl perwnt anoon as the confuainapn~~SUre
is~
.
obecnred in sandltoncs ._, ~ be explained by the dilremn
Velocity
thermal expansion ~ts betwcea the~ COilstQ,nts of the solid, wbich include
clays and .,artz.

case.

vanalioris

~-~

3CJCIIDc

4000C

3.5

_Fit- 5.18 P and S wave velocities vs.

Vp

temperature in brine-saturated Boise sandstone (u_ltrasonic measurements) (after TiMUi, 1917).


.. . .

J...- cr--o_o_O.....C.....a....,.

.......
~-.sa'

13.2& ...
~

I!
.2

il

.........~~

;;:

s.

'---...o.

13

~1.75-

,.

Vs

(.)

&

eo

40

20

US

10 100 l20 140-

Fia. 5.19 Variations in velocities in Berea


sandstone vs. temperature.
a. Dry Berea sandatone (ultrasonic measurements) (alter Mobarek, 1971).
b. c. Fully saturated Berea sandstone
(resonant bar) (.rter Jones, 1983).
d. Partially water saturated Berea sandstone (resonant bar) (after Jones, 1983).

Temper.cu,. C0c1

""'-;,:.

........._

)1,.
3.8

3.6

J3.4
I
I

w..rlllVt'atMI

1.80

J.,.

'

it . '

'ii
... J

p,=4.5MPa

...............

~'c-10Mh

.:l

3.2

20

-_..

4&

(al

~~

rflna.

.....

10

1.2

>

r-..

220C 0.95 cp

&aC'C

jl.~.I:C'

e . IMat 0.34cp
6

_PpO.SM,_

lei

120

I
I

1.8

1.4

100

2.2t'

:I

2.0

Ju
J

10

T....,.cur.t'cl
. Pp"'Pc O.SMPa

...... ..,...

20

eo

40

(b)

A.

Ve

10

itooc o.aq,
15

Confining prwan (M.-.1

20

20
(dl

40

60

10

100

T.....,...,. lOCI

140

~.

"-'~

'---'
'---"
~

'-'-../

'--

"~
~

---

(~'

RI!SUL1i

AMI)

"--

""'-

~-'.

195

ViSCfl6ity ofs,..-, /11M


lnvestiptions on velocity variations as a function of saturating fluid viscosity are
conducted by varying the fluid viscosity by heatina the sample. Velocity variations in
solids as a function of temperature~ ftellilible, and. as the variation in velocity of the
fluid as a function oftemperatu,re is small in comparison with that orthe viscosity, raising
the temperature is equivalent to observiq velocity variations with viscosity. For glycerol,
for example, from - 77 to + 100"C, the viscosity decreases by ten orders of magnitude,
while its compressibility only varies by a factor of 3 (Nur and Simmons. 1969~
Figures 5.20 and 5.21 provide a number ofexamples. In Barre granite or very low porosity
Bedford limestone, and in the sandstone samples, a rise in velocity is observed with
increasins vi$cosity for saturatins fluids sudl as pycerol and oil. In the case of water
(Fig. 5.21) the velocity is inclepenc:lcet of temperature to within measurement accuracy,
and the viscosity of water is virtually invariable in the interval concerned (in comparison
with that of oil). The biJher the saturation of the medium with viscous liquid, the Jllore
important the vitcolity Clffoct (Fip. 5.20 and 5.21),
1be slisht variation of voloc.ity in the fluid, as opposed to the high variation of velocity
of saturated rock with tanperature (20 to 60%) shows that the etrect observed is clearly
that of viscosity. From a tbeoretical staadpoiat, Walsh (1969) de-velopedqs. (5.4) and
(5.5), assDmins that the inclusion .CODSickred was 'riiCDIII. To .do this, he replaced the
ricliaity ot the fluid phue by korf,_ wJlere is the anplar frequency and 'I the viscosity. He
fouad tbat the cectivo shear mocJulus I' is liven by:

b.

1 + (CO'f/1Jlo) 2
p l'o l'oll't + ((J)'f/tl'o)'-

(5.1)

'-../

'~

"-"

while the bulk modulus K varies sliptly.ln this equation Jlo is the relaxed shear modulus
(at c :1:: 0) equal to the solid modutus, 1'1 the relaxed modulus oftbe composite, and e the
aspect ratio of the iaclusion. This shows that an inclusion of viscous ftuid in this model
behaves approximately like a standard (or bner) model (tee Ctlaptcl' 3). Qualitatively,
increasins the temperature is equivaltnl to loweriq the fluid viscosity, and thus. reduces
the rigidity of the material and its velocity.

VISCosity etrects are still noduli)' W1dentood, and recent investiptions. especially those
of Nur et al. (1984) may laelp te clarify thee results. Hence, we will leave tbe subject for
future discussion.
c.

'-...-

'--

~~

'-~

"---'

'-"
'---"

r~MM,cJi.,ge

The ftnal effect on the viscosity variation fl a phue chanae, either by vaporization or by
solidiftcation. Timur{1968) observed an increue in velocity in water-saturated rock when
the water fr'*(tee Fia- .5.22). Spetzler; and Andenon(l.)eblierved a wide variation in P
and S wave velocities when partial meltins bepn. Experiments due to DeVilbiss (1980)
and Tosaya et al. (1985) on different types of rock show a signifant increase in velocity at
the water-steam transition staae (Fia. 5.22).
_

This effeet lw beea oblervtd to be stroapr in lou porous and less permeable materials
(e.g. Jranite), than ill porousend permeable materials (e.J. -sandstone). It is possible that
the specifac behavior ~compact materials result from a non-uniform distribution of the
of the pru. cha.nac.ln low ~rmeability media and for relatively
pore pressure at the

Bedford irnest-

1.0

t.O

Vp

o. -

0.7

J!.u

-
J

0.8.

Vs

0.8

' j

-2

Log v~ lpoiMI

(a)

10

2.5 ~---------------..,
1Qil" GivaN~

~0

G.7

P-6

- - - IO"Giyowol

-- o.v-...

2.25

v,

>

1.5

---........... :: -. a
-~

-20

20

II

,._,.,_. Varia~ in velocity vs. ,;scosity


in JIJarol
amples.
L Normalized. P addS wave vel.x:ities in
1ledfenl liDI!IstOtle (ultrasonic :nasun:-

rated

~~Nur,l~.

Ia. Nonuatized shear modulus in Barre


J,ranite and Bedford limestone (ultra-

some measufements) (after Nur. 1980}.


c. S wave velddty in Boile saadstoae for

1.25

(e)

Lot~--

f')

,,

-80 -60

-2

-4

2
1.75

80

80

100

various glycerol saturations

TemperatureiOcl

~~esoaant

'"-

bar} (after Nur et al., 1984).


~

1<.-Riw ....
3.6

'
V..,..,....oil ....

p.JOW..

'10.W.
u
----.

3.2

1 3

II

2.8

100Sell

.....

f
J ~J

-.....::

...101* lr
50% oi

10

1 1CIO
flO
~... (fig

-bl'

................. ell
2.4

. . -- ,..,.. ..

2
0

50

100

150

T......-tocl

f.5

.o

lOG

hence

Fig. 5.21 Influence of tempei-ature. (and


of saturating ftuid viscosity)
M P wave velocity in water- and oil-saturated sandstone (ultrasonic
measurements) (after Tosaya et al., 198S).

,_

,_.-

r
_y

y
I

y
y

'

r
:

4.1

,''.:/?U.~

t_P

'I

........,

!'4.8

6Temp./

.. 4.4

4.2

ICI

WATIR

4
~

34

20 tl

11

II

0.

'

~- -1-12-18-20-24-.21

....... t"Q

,.,

1.1

WATER

SftAM

i
!u
1

...............
'0......, ......

&SIIftt ............

. ,M

0.7

Jl'

~u

0.2

0.4

...

..... ..,..,.. ,

0.1

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.8

.. lbl

f1a. 5.22 ltdhaencc ofpbase'ehaqe ohaturatinl fluid on wloclty (ultritonic


measurements).

a. P wave velocity in Berea sandstone (ultrasonic measurements) (after


'----'
'--->

"---

Timur, 1968).

Ia. P and S wave velocities in StPeter and Berea sandstones and Westerly
aranite (ultrasonic measurements) (after DeVilbiss, 1980).

198

RESULTS AND

MECHANIS~S

'

high-frequency waves, the assumption that the pore pressure is not uniform is reasonable.
Finally, the compressional vei9Cities display virtually no variation at the time of the
water/steam transition in samples which are only partially water-saturated (Tosaya eta/.,
1985).

5.1.1.4 Velocities ud frequency


The foregoing Chapters have shdWn that, in attenuating media, velocity is slightly
dependent-on frequency: the media are said to be dispersive. We have compared a large
number or results, without going into details about the frequency used. The frequencies
used for the measurements do vary widely, and, for laboratory experiments, range
approximately from 1 kHz to l MHz.ln Fig. 5.23, we show both ultrasonic and resonant
bar measurements in similar samples. Ia this ftgure, it is not possible to compare directly
the two compressional velocities v,. . d VE. These; velocities correspond to different
boundary conditions but, knowina the Poisson's ratio, are related by Eq. (3.168). For an
average Poisson's ratio (0.2-0.3), J' is smaller than v,. of 5 to 15%. in low to moderately
attenyatin& samples (Sierra White aranitt an4 Fort \ltticMt ~), variations of l 0 to
20% betwcon ultrasonic and resonant bar measurements are oblerved. These variations
can be explained partly using a Constan&Q model (see Fig. 5.24 for granite) and partly
because ultrasonic: measurements have been made under a small uniaxial stress. For the
highly attenuating Massillon sandstone, the difference between ultrasonic and resonant
bar measurements is important and much bigger than the one we would get from a
Constant Q model (see Fig. 5.24)even if 10 to 20%4flhis difference is taken into account
by the effect of uxial stress. A Zener model as discussed previously may reconcile
ultrasonic and resonaJl! bar ~Cifs. This reconciliation problem is an
experimental example of bow diffiCUlt it is to measure a reliable velocity dispersion on a
.
wide frequency ranae.
...
Finally, if a high frequency is used, effects~& to scatterin& are observed (Fig. 5.25,
Winkler, 1983). Velocity then decreases with rising frequeac)C. and this is an extrinsic: effect.
The higher frequencies .~ p~ and llence travel a longer path. The velocity
calculated on the basis of a dircw;t p,tdljs thus artiftcially decreased. By contrast, the lowest
frequencies are only slightly scattered, if at all, and their apparent velocity is the true one.
In conclusion, velocities vary rather slightly with frequency ifattenuation is not high. We
shall show, on the other hand, that variations of attenuation as a function or frequency
may be significantly greater.

I
I

I
I

Ii

5.1.1.5 Velocities and strains


The resulting strain from a passillg \\'ave f. dependent on ttae amplitude of the wave.
Excessive strain may involve sevetalmechanisms liable to alter the elastic properties of the
materials analyzed. Figure S.26 shows the effeCt of,Jttain ampti4Kie on velocity. When this
amplitude exceeds a valueofapprQximatelylO"', tb,e-velocitydecreases, but only slightly.
Moreover, dry material is obsen'~ to display a higher threshold than partially saturated
material, and the dependence ofvelocity on deformation above the threshold is areater in
partially saturated materials. Pressure also has a similar effect. The higher the pressure, the
higher the ,threshold. and the lesser this strain amplitude dependence. Mavko (1979)

-,: ._.'

{ ,(,.,'

~"..Jt~'~~-~ ~

~.~,.dii / ~.(-f

'"' :r

~:.J:J'>

~);

.1li

,j:

1:iUJ) \~!Ji:~~t.:.-hth:-~:Cfi ~-lt"i(:.%S'tr:--,r ')1.-i''-'; .1

.d

~-

"(Z861 '.(qdlnl'( ~l,P) ~um l111JUl!S lOJ (lqi!J111) (ZH~ J11q lU11U~l pu11
.(q palft~ ~!=KJpA JO sUOI!JlldUIO::J rs"lt.!l

(U~(111) spoql~ 3!QOS8ll(n


(~)

CIOl

08

UO!lt..,... *'M
01
Ot>

.,

t'

0&

.......

t1U UO!Itlllltl JePM

0
l:

(ZHll 00Z'") SJ\

l"l:

(ZH ttl 1 LLOll SJ\

Ot>

<

<

c)
CZH toiOl: DLU 31 J\

r
00&

1i'

I ~I UO!ltJftltl *'M

.,

...

tatiiiA tat14MIWIIS,

5
........ "t'IM -.s

001

........- ...... _._...

IZHliOil"'l SJ\

(ZH "Uti 311\

-.-(~)

(ZH!il11)$1\

001

.I

1i'
1"

oao-

o ooo-(ZHII OK "'I clJ\

O.,c& "dllieJ.

~"'-

uopi.IIIPI ......

01

001

,_
0.1'-...J.

""-

IIIIIIIIPWI UIIIUn- WOlf ,

--------------~------~.

tzH1I o!n ..., s"

.. -

o.u._l.
~,

........ UO!Ut\UO:I

200

1.6

2.9

l~~

"i
j

2.&

1.5

SlemWhite.,..,..

Ultr~ ~

27

li
!u

RESL'LTS AND MECtv.NISMS

::!!u

UID"IIJRic

f1.2
l
j'' ~-= I

~-.red

pr.tic:bd

.....,..

6-~-,. ~o-

2.4
100

eo

eo

<!)

1.4

~0

...
0.9

btt

/;'-

1.0

20

40

~
;/C,.,.t

10

.... ..,.tlon "')

20

'

. . . .8Niitone

30 40
Timefhounl

50

eo

70

--,
Fig. 5.14 Influence of frequency on velocities as a function of saturation.
Baaed on the low-frequency velocity ....ta (resonant ber), the ultrasonic
veiQc:iaies are computed with a Constant Q DiCrdel Note that Sierra White
granite appears to display Constant Q behavior contrary to Berea
sandstone. In Berea sandstone, water ~turation is not computed, and only
drying time is given (after De Vtlbiss. 1910).

~.

_.......

4
. . . .11011....._

---Dry<,

..,.cMPal
3.1

........_........

20

"W'

............., ........

-........

f3.8

20 .............

::!!

10-:::.

13A
5

....._,

__..

..............

' ......=::::.........

-..

.....

2.5~

..... 10

3
0

500

1000

1tao

2000

21100

Fr.qu~~~Cy CkHzl

Fit- 5.15

lntl~

of frequency on oomprcuional velocity in dry and

sabN'ated Massillon sandstone (after Winkler. C 1983 AGU).

l
!

iI
i

I
I

.--....
~

I
(1861 "P.SH pu1t U!JIU&
-'q ~u.J '.(qcilnV( puv Jnl'( JatP!)~,i'Ba.p p.,_
UO(I!ftWW "41

_,1JPU111

. . . . . . 1Pl'1 spwno~lm'BW
6L6l ~ ., 111 l~I~A\ nl.J'B) ff!:top.qno!tUOlD pD 900
. nt
.
.
.()~UO~Utf~ ~ ~1t.f
.
.
' :
' JO
'

'* .

...

...............

~.

I
0

-so

'~ftc

i
: .

'

'"'

'~~
(e}

....... 1:

l
j

~--------------------------~--~st

L-Ol
'

~;

..
OLtrl:

ON&

OILZ
' <
''

"'--..vC---.---.-oa----~9~----~
0

- '""

' .WIIfiiN

Oltrt"!

ooa

r---~~----r----------------+~

'-

OLK

202

llESULTS AND MECHANISMS

showed theoretically that the 8{ain-to-sfain friction proc;ess was a threshold mechanism
involving a non-linear relationship between velocity and straia nu- will be discussed
further in Section 5.1.2.5.
To conclude, Winkler's calculations (personal communication) showed that the strain
amplitude of standard' seismic sources was less .than to- in far f~eld for any source
employed (artiftcial or natur~and hence for the range of uses in geophysics, velocity can
be considered to be independent of strain.

II

I
I
I

5.1.1.6 Slmunary
We have shown the following properties concernin& variations in velocity as a function
of physical paramet~rs:
Velocity increases with coafiDia& 1'ft'SSUe aftd differential pressure. The pressure
parameter is the ditTerential or efl'ective pressure, which is equal to the difference between
the conftning pi'CS$ure and the pore plSIIre. Grain contacts and cracks play an essential
role in this increase; hence, for crack-free rocks, velocity is virtually independent of
pressure.
Velocity depends sliahtly on water saturation for two-phase water/air mixtures and
water saturations that are neither too IQW ( < 10%)nor toobiab (> 90%). For dry and
100% saturated samples, velocity increases signiftcantly.
The viscosity of the saturatina fhttd is a parameter that strongly influences velocity.
Velocity increases with viscosity.
The role of temperature is slight. An increase of lOO"C in temperature causes a
decrease in velocity of only a few per cent.
Phase changes of the fluid in a porous medium cause the velocity to vary
substantially.
Velocity depends on frequency ils.JD~liis meditiln; and thus increases slightly
with it.
For the low strain usplitudes used in seismic experiment$, velocity is independent of
strain.

5.1.2 Attenuations: results


We have deliberately decided to present the resultS of attenuation measurements here
without any explanation oftbemecbaains involved, other than descriptive comments. In
fact, if the behavior observed for velocities could be explained, either using models or
qualitatively, it is because the velocities have been,studied and measured for a very long
time. By contrast, attenuations are more ditTtcult to measure. They are far more variable
and the few mechanisms involved ar~ mostly slibject to consid~ble debate. We shall
therefore present the te5ults first, and then~ in Sectipn $.1.3, )Ve 'ShaH try to understand
what causes tbis attenuation by interp.-etation _of the data;

l
f

I
I
I

i'

I
j
I

I
I
I
I

'-../

~r---------------------------~

.'----'

Gqnfte

.,;_ pv

t'~

1- ':

-~r---------------------------~
i~"'t2

..............

'-
20

10

40

.30
\.....-.

20

.., .

Confitllne .....,., CMPel


.

:fr;; f

w~------~------_.------~--------J
0
tiG
wo
ttiG
200
Conflllllle ,._. .......

fbi

~1

Colorldo oil ......

-~

1... :' !::::-

15

~~

tO

I-~

I "
J..

5 0~~----~------~------~~-----J
50
..
110
aoo
Confinilll~twa)

lei

f'il- 5.f7 Influence of confmins pr~ure ~n quality factor.


\ .. Pbue dift'erei!OI ..........~ qat, ,..am~ (after .GOrcloo aa4 .Davis.

C 1968 AGU).
.. Berea sandstone and c. Colorado' shale (ultrasoaic ..-uremcnts). A
clistinetioll is tnade .lle:NIIiin wa plltdel alld ~ to- tile
baldiJt8 (der .Jota&oa adlolcako e,lM ACM.ij.

---..s

lldfonll.__

80
110

a,..
'---

!10

tOO

200

Olfferenliat .,._.IMI'al.

FiJ. 5.28

Influence of pressure on quality factor for Bedford limestone


(ultrasonic measurements). Note the sipiftcant hysteresis, probably due to
the creation of microcracks (after Johnston and Tolts<>z. C 1980 AGU).

-~

204

RESULTS AND MECHANISMS

5.1.2.1

Attenuations and

pre~&Ures

As in the case of velocities. the essential parameter controlling attenuation is the


eft'ective pressure. A decrease in attenuation is normally observed with increasing pressure
for P and S waves (Fig. 5.27). One exception is that of the Colorado shales, in which
attenuation is virtually independent of pressure. Considerable anisotropy is nevertheless
observed.
Also, as for velocity, the be!havior of attenuation as a function of pressure depends
greatly on the presence of microcracks. Figure 5.28 iUustrates this problem. In this
experiment, the Bedford limestone sample undergoes deterioration of its pore network by
the creation of new microcracks. Tile hysteresis curve shows that attenuation is greater in
the presence of microcracks, and when they are able to open. This very important role
played by microcracks is demonstrated in Fig. 5.29, in which the two Fontainebleau
150
120

~
p

~ PAV= 6%

5001&HI

3001-

00'1 =0

90

1p 1110

60

30

..

..

.,~1'1-=l
40

60

80

100

W1ter satur1tion (%)

Fit- 5.29

120

,~.

~=3.8%

cr 1= 0
cr = 5 MPI
1

o -o-, -io

.,.J .....~.. -.....

60

20

0...~
~.4>

240

ecr1 = 5MPa

z 220

Qi

500kHz

o L--'--~--'--~
20

40

60

80

100

W1ter satul'ltlon (%I

Influence or microcticts on attenuation in Fontainebleau

sandstone (same samples as m: Fit- S.9Hafter Bourbie ~nd Ziftii'Zilef, 198S).

sandstones of Fi&- 5~.are aulyzocl feN- atteauaU. hy tlw ultrasoaic thod. As for the
velocities, it can be observfd that the lllDChtollewitlaout pain contalctsil unaffected by the
uniaxial stress, and that its attenuation is very slight By contrast the sandstone with grain
contacts and very high attenuation is very sensitive to the uniaxial stress.

I'

I
I

5.1.2.2 Attenuations aad saturaftoat


a.

Wflter/.U sat,.atiOII

Figure 5.30 gives two examples of variations in attenuation as a function of saturation.


The attenuation of P and S waves is slight fordryrdeka:~efootnote( 2 1 in Section 5.1.1.2a),
but high for partially saturated rocks. Attenuation in sat~ted rocks is intermediate, and
the quality factor Q5 always appear to be lower dlan Q,.-' 100% saturation.
Figure 5.31 shows various types ofvariations in attcnuatil'taas a function of saturation.
These measurements were taken around 1 kHz by the resonant bar technique. For
granite, it may be observed that S wave attenuation increases steadily with water
saturation.

.;,;

..

~,;';~;! ,;:;'.;.:;.~h.'j .~

'--''
'--;,~tr>'

j..J': ~

HIJ<.ifi'\';: 9"i;.~< ~ ..r.~,;;e~?'

-
u..Hion~

MassiUoa..-...(~
bar).~ W'aatJer U!Cl Mur.

eo

40

1000
Op

'-'

1979 AGU).

30

tO

20
EHwtM...-.CMh)

lff20

30

!'
OL-------~------.L------~~----~
0

20

30

EffwttM.,.-CMh)
. ..,

..

70r-------~--------------------~

eo
,..,., sandnDM

50

Dry
Q

25

76

40

tOO

Confilliftl , _ . . (MPal

30

.. Navajo sandstone (ultrasoll\

Nllilliolllldnone
W..UIIntld

measurements) (after Johastoti

aad TobOz.

C 1980 AGU).

so

100
150
Dltt.rantial , _ . .....

--"------"

Fie- 5.30
pressure.

InRuenc:e of saturation on attenuation as a function of effective

20

206

RESULTS AND MECHANISMS

~ r-----------------------------~
- 18.1"

Fontainebleau sandstone
(after JouriMe and Ziasmer.
1985).

320

tt:'-

240

180

(1.5 3kHz)

~1

~-

_..._ ....__../
J
FontliMbleeu~

80

0.

f
I

.,

t,

eo

eo

100

watar uturation C1' I

100
Sierra Wl'ltte granite

.,

._ Sierra White granite (after


Murphy, 1982).

60'

1
40

20

0
0

20

40

80

80

100

.Watar......,..~)

10

r---------------------~----------,
Vyoor porous gl

e. Vycor porous glass (after


Winkler and Nur, 1982).

lfle
0
0

Fit- 5.31 Influence


measurements.

of

saturation

20

on

40
60
Water taturation I" I

attenuation.

Resonant

80

100

bar

-------,--------------------------------------------------------------------

----

'-

:!OT

RI!SUL'TS AND M!CHAMISMS

.........._

'-.

20

o....... ....._,
0 c:-.lno ..,._:

10

15

~
10
0

-----.,
2
3
.--.... volatl..

,,.,.. 5.32 loRuence of slight traces of liquid on


1.5

w.w --...c,.ttto..., ........,


Cal

b.

attenuation (re10out ball.

a. (after Clark et al. C 1980 AGU).


k_ (after Tittmann et al., published by AGU,
19~).

J'ny low stltlll'lllitM: "tlry" rMics (.,.,. ,.,.._ory collllltioiU)


Attenuation is very ~itive to.tbe.presence of~aces ofliquh~ ia the porous medium.

Figure 5.32 provides an iHustration ofthis. AttenUation rises with the addition of liquid.
and increase$ accordina to the type 0( sample. Fiaure 5.32b shows t~ this increase
depellds on the types of fluid present in the porous medium, Fluids consisting of polar
moleeules inc:rease attenuation more substantially than other fluids.

c.

s.tw.n. tee~

Several techniques are available to obtain a Jiven saturation. For a water lair mixture,
for t~xample, the saturated sample can be dried, eeetrifuaed, or depi'CSiurized to introduce
the liquid. All these techniques yield a different distribution of the two ftuids in the porous
medium (sec Fig. S.33bJ. Attenuation measui'CIDWltS depend heavily on the saturation
tecbniques (see FiJ. 5.lla), Ud the attenuation peat shifts or disappears dependin1on the
saturatien technique employed~

5.1.2.3 Atteauadoas aad temperatures

a. ,,...,_.e
Fipres 5.34 and S.35 show a decreaic..il} attCJWation with risinl temperature. This
decrease is much pnter than that of velt'Jtify,. sift<:e attenuatioo varies by a fKtor of S
between 20 aftd 1OOOC (Fig. 5.36}. Tbe eti'Kt Of temperature appears to be less significant at .
partial saturations.
b.

J'isctnity

Chanaes in viscosity of the saturatina ftuid are pnerally obtained by chanses in


temperature. Fiaures 5.37 to 5.39 summarize the results obtained. althoush the
dependence of attenuation on viscosity may be hiJhly complicated in detail (Fig. S.~9a);

50

100

ll; IliA)

200

50

112
250 ~ : Ill

300

.,
10

;..,.,

~t~
#;t
.
.-...;

.~

..

JiG;

157

'

10

~'

..

"

.......

.. . .
..
.

4 p

mm

50

100

150

tm

CENTRIFUGE

(b)

(a)

.......,,,

'

..

"

. ' A "

'\

__

~ti.J., )- :

10
58

117

o Ill

liO

--

. . . . .#)

..

'It.

. .1

-a,

-"' ... ,.

-~:i.:t

~~':_.,,

: f

~-:-,~..:

"'

;.,;. ;.,-7~"'

'#

::....
... ,.......:.,....
,. . ..
.- ~ : ., .......
..!' ........,. ~
., ' ...
,~~
...~.....
....,. '...
.,r.
..,.,.
.,':.....
..
: :.--::

~-

~!'.:.:
-~

,~

-,- ..-.-,,.1

DEPRESSURIZATION

5w"'7~

-~

.....
''7... .., .
.'..........'.....
f!-. ,---::;:
.....
::,.
...... .....
.. ' .
.
~..,, .'.., ..: ','
...
............,. . .

-~
'1-

--;. p .

I
100

100

200

2110

300

I ~150
:ws

~. t , \ if
~ A
.~

;----

.~

... .

90

GENTRfl=UGE

.........atloft '"'

itt

~---~-~<::"'"

DEP.RESSURI%ATION

Sw=SR

... ., . :.:

100

200

2liO

300

Zl

..:

lt. Redrawn SEM photographs. Fluid distributions in the pore space are displayed by epoxy
injection. Air bubbles are shown in black.

a. Ultrasonic measurements.

F'IJ. 5.33 Inftuence or saturation technique on atte~uationjsaturation relationship (after Bourbie

and Zinszner, 1984).

v=:

90

CENTRIFUGE

............... "',

70

DRYING

10

ll!

J>\i
J...

Water-ion"'l

70

DEPRESSURIZATION

I!!

90

100

'\.....~

_,

'~
'-

40

50

P11 0.SMPa

i
40

Pc"'10MPII

"

~30

Pp4.5 . . .

G.IScp
0.52cp
0.34cp
O.cp

~30

~.

20

...
"-

10

fl

tO

_,. I
*IV

20

Etteetiw ..,_,.tMN
'-

f1a. 5.34 Influence

t-

40

'

.,

10

r........,,.eoc,

Pc = PpO.S MPa
''-

40

6 E
e S

.0

lf!l30

~ Ttmf*ature /

E t

s 'r..,..,._'

20

'-

10

10

100

120

t40

.t......... tocl

'-

FiR- 5.36 lnftuem:e of temperature cydcl on attenuation (nsonant


partially saturatlkf 8era samlstcme (after Jones. 1983).

AI

......
,,.,

confming pressures, p, 4.5 MPa and


p~ - 10 MPa (alter Jones, 1983).

50

.,

100

lnftucnc:e of temperature on attenuation (resouant bar) in a water-saturated


Berea sandstone (constant pore and

'---

40

Fia- 5.35.

of temperature on attenuation (raonant bar) in a water-saturated


Berea sandstone. Pore pressure is O.S MPa
(after Jones, 1983).

20

_,.in

120

~.

--..

11

0.5

I~ o
-4

-2

-----

'I

!-~

I
10

...;4

-2

Viscosity

Vilc:osity (Poise log scale)

TO

!Poise- Log 1C81el

Fig. 5.37 Influence ofsaturating Ruid visclosity on attenuation (Barre granite),


The attenuations have been normalized to the atteauadon of the dry sample
(ultrasonic measurements) (after Nur and Simmons, 1969).

'

Fi&- 5.38 Influence

of saturating
fluid viscosity on attenuation.
Bedford limestone (ultrasonic
measurements) (after Nur.
C 1971 AGU).

100

--.

'

1000

-a
10

-4

-2

0
4
2
8
Viscosity !Poise IOf*:elel

10.

140
~==30%

120

'

2-4kHz
Glycwot 11turation 80%

.-100

ipso
Fig. 5.39 Influence of saturating
fluid viscosity (temperature) on
attenuation in a partially
glycerol-saturated Boise sandstone (JCIOnant bar) (after Nur
et al., 1984).

'In
40

.,

20

. o' , ,
-80

,
-20

20

60

,
100

Temperlture (CI

.,

"

'

~-----,--------------------------------~--------------------------~------------------

~T
I
mut~-~,,~~

J2

-"-v..ltlon

1-

11I'
z

2tl

V..-.laoilund

0.11-

1.

.............,......

~I

...._s

13

1.

!1
J

Pc10MPe
Temp.110c

..r I . . ........ ..........

ASelnt ......

lrine awreM

llu

0.4

J,fl
I

I
0

0.2

0.4

0.8

0.1

1.2

1.4

1.8

Pore..-..IMI'al

ol I'
0

11

, __

Pen,_. IMPel

lbl

Fit- !AO lnOuepce of phase ~hange of a saturating fhrid


(waterfsteam) (ultrasonic measurements).
L SandstOPCS and granite (after De Vilbiss. 1980).
._ Venezuela 011 ~d (after Tosoya et til., l98S).

'--

GO

attaauation

The existellCe of one or more attenuation peaks appears to bedeilonstrated clearly by the
results given. These peaks are intrinsic to the liquid itself.
c.

Pluu~ clttllw~

As already discussed. temperature can cause phase changes within the porous medium.
As in the case of velocities, changes in attenuation as a function. of phase ~F of the

saturating ftuici are sigaif~nL Fipre SAO ofers two examples. A wicle. variation in
attenuation is observed at tbe vapor/liquid transition.
These wide variations are only observed on samples that are totally saturated with
liquid. For partially water-saturated samples, these \-ariations are not observed (Tosaya et
al., 1985).

5.1.1.4 AtteautltldM _. ........,.


We have shown that velocities depended sliptly on frequency over a limited frequency
range. On the other hand, attenuation may vary considerably (see Fip. 5.41 to 5.45).
Measurements taken by Gordon and Davis (1968) reveal a slight variation of attenuation
in granites and quartzites at frequencies ranging from 0.6 to 50 mHz. Quality factor peaks

212

llSt;lTS Al\10 MECIJAI'ISMS

Gr.,ite +GIY<*ine

30>oG.,;N
6

Quartzite

~20

~a

10

e-

..,.

QD

tb

COil

,_

10

0.1

100

Frequency (mHzl

Fia. 5.41 Frequency depeJKtence of attenuation. Granite and quartzite (after


Gordon and Davis. <Cl 1968 AGU).

9
Dry a.r.. sandstone

8~

7t-

.. -- 4~~1
s

50

Wet Berea sandstone

""'
-

30

o-:
~ 3J

tp '

;J"O%

-o.,
s

~ 2ti'

E
20

~-

lPc'
=0..5.MPa

aS Pc., 10 MPa

2 ..,. E
S

I
0 .
0

oE
I

. .
I

10

=t
'

Pp
tip .. a5

J .

tip o

Gh

Frequency (kHzl

Fi&~

1tc 10 Wa

5.41 Frequency dependence of a~n.


sandstone (after Winkler and Nur, 1982).

Frequency (kHz)

OfJ; and saturated Berea

"

r
~

125

.;.

100

.oe

t..

"-') )\

Mlllltlon ldltone

75

1
50

'---

':t:~

25

1--::
0
O.Q2

0.1 0.2

20 ~~---'---'---'-=,__
0

10

f'*IUifiCY {kHz)
L

11

tp

Massillon sandstone with different laturatioas.

-- -

12

8
4

,.20 r[-~w--.;_100-,.----_,.;...,J
b. Porous glass (Vycor) with
different saturations.

11

/-...., s

12

//~
F /
E

FiJ. 5.43 Frequency dependence of attenuation (after Murphy, 1982).

'-

-~

Vyoor,poraul ....
I

'

fr~Q~MMY

11

13

15

CkHzl

'--

50
WinptiiWldiUIM lletlltiUd

40

-7kHz
-200kHz

10

~20

'--

10
0
0

10

20
30
40
50
. 5tlllc:IM ...........

eo

10

Y .. 5..u Frequency dependence of attenuation as a function of e8'ectivc


pressure in a saturated Wingate sandstone (after Tittlnann et al. C 1981
AGU).

...

214

RESULTS AND

"l

---

70

MEC'HA~"ISMS

50

,.,.,.,.//\! .--~: '""m~


..... ......
.. ... .0....
T::-
l
......

~]

_~

3D

20

, - . .

eo

40

10

10

100

20

eo

40

w- uturMien I")

10

100

w..., _.,., 1%1

F'JI. 5.45 Frequency dependence of attenuation as a function of saturation.


Massillon sandstone (after Murphy, 1982).

125
MaliliO'I undstone

1()0

---Drv
_:

75

~
50

.,

..,"

25

,., ,/""

""

0.5

1
1.5
F,..-y lltHI)

2.5

Fit- 5.46 Frequency depeD4caae ofatteauation. Scattering effect, Massillon,


sandstone (after Winkler. C 1983 AGU).
----,

r".

....______

-,-

----~-----~~~~-~-~--~~~~-~---~~-~~~~~-----~~---

r
'--'-

---

"----

1 $

'I
)1

~
fl
I
I

....:::::::.

215

arc ob&crvcd for pal1ially and fully aturatcd ~ at t'Nqucndcs in tbe

'---

...a.u AMD MICIIANIDIS

neilkborboocl of S to 10 kHz (appiOXialately the frcqucacies employed ill acoustic


Vyoer porous Jlass also cliapUn--behaicrr timiJat to s*dstones, twnely
atteauation is inllepeftdent of freqUIIM)' for the a., sample. and biPIY dependent on
frequency at around 10 kHz with increasing sample saturation. Figure 5.45 shows that
the position of the attenuation peak as a function of saturation varies with frequency.
Figure 5.44 shows that the difference between _ attenuations at two given frequencies
louin~).

decreases with rising effective press~


At sufficiently high frequencies (in comparison with grain sizeL scattering effects are
observed. as in the case of velocities (Jee Fla. 5.46), and scatterint induces an increase in
attenuation with rising frequency at frequendes ......- daan 1 MHz. The behavior
observed corresponds fairly closely to a scattering-type mechanism (~ion 3.3.3.5,
Sayers, 1981, Winkler, 1983). This mechanism OCICUrs only if the transmitted wavelenith is
comparable to the arain siD (Devaney et al.. 1982). Tbc _<:entral frequency of the scattering
proc:ess is given by:
-L

-~

fD

3(M)!
P.

=R

(5.8)

where

R p-ain radius,
P. = density of the material,
M = elastic modulus of the wave,
and, in the case of sqdstoneS. the fttquencyf.o is around 3 MHz.
5.1~5

AttelmatioM _. ltnias

As we ba"' seen, ~ocities arc independent o(sttam for the strain range observed iR
ppbysics ( < 10- 6 ). Attenuation bebaves silaUrly (Fip. 5.47 to 5.49):
"---'---

(a) For deformations lower than a threshold ' of about 10- 6 Q does not vary with
strain.
(b) The threshold e. increucs with risiaa prcssu~e and decreases with inacuina water
saturation.
(c) For e peater than e., attenuation decreases with risiag pressure and increucs with
incrcasinJ water saturation.
The dependence of attenuation on strain resultia,a from adtreshold.eeot, namely gftinto-&rain friction (Mavko, 1979), appears to be Jlelligible at seismic strains.

'---

Variations in attenuation as a function of the ,various


above can be llimmarized as f'oii<Wts:
'--

'--

'-._.-'

.'--

Physical paraaeters considered

AtteauatiOa decreases db risina efteetive pressure, sinc:e the effects of pore pressure
and conf'taina pressure are not inetependen( The p n oontacts and cracks play an
important role, and their presence causes su\Jitu~ attenuation and considerable
dependence of attenuation on pressure.

100

10

't::=:: :~: . =:.


a-~

~ ~:::
1

-~

~~

f
.

FiJ. 5.47 lnflueru:e of strain amptitude on attenuation of different


rocks and crystals (lonpmdinal
..CUation at 90 kHz) (lfter Oordoa and Davis. C 1961 AGU).

'
~\

"

0.1
~

Quartz single crySUf

0.01

to-&

to-7

to-"

,~

...............,.-s

10-8

..,-3

.----._,

10
- llndstone

Pc1MPa

~
Fig. 5.48 Influence of straia am
plitude on attenuation. Berea
sandstone under different confining and pore pressures (resonant
bar) (after Winkler et al. Cl 1979
Macmillan Journals Ltd~

-o

.....
0.

_ _ _ _ _...,;,.,...,..-:.------ Pc 5 MPa

...,.
Strain amp! itl,lde

50

t e M...mon Sw II S- 70Hz
6 M-illon Sw = 0 S - 1 kHz

40

~o

OttfWII

'~w

o" lltolt tem

1~30

Fie. 5.49 Influence of strain am20


10

r.

o~

~~ i

~ <,.-oo"''

__________._________~._--------L---------~
-7

-8

-s

plitude on attenuation for different saturatiQlls (t~nion pendulwn~ Massillon sandstone (after
Nur and Murphy, edited by
J,ru.lixl and Hsieb. 1981) and
Ottawa sand (alter Stott, 1979).

__

~,

-4

Strain .mplltude (tOil tettel


~

"'

~"-'

rj
I:;

"

- - dqlalds coasidorably <Ill~---~


mixt-.
Ataeauatiollpeab obsmlell depend on tlbs aaturatioD. Tbe fat traces of water

I - '

'~

'--

...,.,.,~ND'~Nars

217

_,oil

or of P*r liquid ia 1tie pomus medium


atteouatioa Spifaatly, and the
atteauetioa of *Y rooks is low. The quality factor Or tcema atwa,s
than Qs at
l 00% saturation. Attenaatioa also depends on the distribution of air bubbles (or of aonwettins Ruici~ within the porous medium.
Rising temperature detrcascs attenuation signiftcantly.
Attenuation is hilblY sensitive 'to the viSCQSity of the saturatins fluid. One or more
attenuation peaks are observed.
Phase cbanps of the fluid cause substantial cbanses in attenuation.
The quality factor depends stronJly on frequency at frequencies dole to tO kHz, and
at f~ ptator tbu l MHz. 1'hc i,avene of the ~uality factor 4isplaJS a peak
arowad lO kHz.
Ia lliaic aptdmeuts, the quality factor is illdependeat of strain amplitude.
Figure S.SO SUlbnlari7.a some l:.l these resUlts for a tjpical* sandstone, Massillon

.-ter

sandstone.

'---'

'--

'--

..... 5;11 . . . .tic reprt~eotation or


aaturatiob (after Murp~ty, 1982).

actcmuation vs. frequency and


5.1.3 A.__:_.lllisms
We aucaeclod in aeasuria& the attenuation)IIII'WIDOtet' eheracterizinathe loss of energy
a ,.._ wave duriJtl ita. propqlltioa du'oulla a &iven materiaL We thus
obsened that this pa,....r, jult like velocity, varied: cxmsiderably and depoDded
strODIIy Oft lecll ~ tetaplntUe udnother physical dfccts. It remains to
undentaJHlho9i thiS loss ofeaeraya:cars. How does tMinteraction between the wave and
underpM by

218

RISVLTS AND MECHANISMS

the porous medium dilsipate enersy tlarough a Joule dfect? What is alae souroe of the
intrinsicaUenuatioa?Which mechaliismsarc N8pOnSiblc under the coaditions that are of
interest to teismic exploration? UDJite velocity, attenuation il still.poorty uaderstood.
and many mochanisms that we dcscftbc in attempting 10 answer diose qwatioos are
merely hypotheses. This. area ofrodc physics is: jn a staa of constant cbansc.
We will ftrst examine the role ofintergranularf'rietion. which was tbefocusofimportant
work in the 1970s (Walsh, 19(4 Jobnston et al., 1979). We lhall then exlnsidcr ~everal
linear mechanisms, distinguishing those that apply to .. dry" rocks (in laboratory
conditions) and those applicable to partially or fUlly saturated rocks.

5.1.3.1 lnterpuutar f~
Recent experimental measurements (Wiftkler et Jil., 1979, Wialcler and Nur, 1982,
Stewart et al., 1983, Murphy, 1982 b, Stoll, 1979) were made at strains ranghlJfrom to-
to to-, and revealed the iadoponcloace of velomy aiJd ~tioa .............. from
strain amplitude, if the ta~r is less than 10- 6 (fjas 5.26 agd 5.47 to 5.49). Moreover, we
have mentioned that Mavko (1979) shows that intergranular friction is a .. non-linear
mechanism with a threshold effect. This mechanism is triggered only if the deformation
amplitude is higher than a given value. Finally, the Winkler and Nur calculations (1982)
also served to show that the strain amplitude in seismic experiments was always less than
10- 6 Hence all these .facts suggest that intergranular friction is not an important
phenomenon in the attenuation of seismic waves.
Yet Figs. 5.26and 5.47 to 5.49 bave-lbotbown.thejmportancc=ofthe presence of water,
even in very small-proportions, in altering both the threshol$1 and the amplitude of
variation in mechanical properties as a fUnction of strain. this implies a sort of lubrication
achieved by the ftrst layers of water 'between the dift'ercnt arams.

5.1.3.2 Att----'mws

f ~dry" ... very d&fatly tU!h ..,. rocks


mq..-fN

The term dry" rock li..a..mat dndear. The fOGies


not totally free of
moisture. In fact, they ate dry~ under laboratory ~ns (atmospheric pressure
and a given humidity) and not rMJP~en f~~~ oven. The degree of water
saturation of a dry" rock hence UCS:~efil-"and a maximum of 0.5%. Typical
experimental results obtained on a Massilli!llandstone with 0 to 10% saturation are
given in Fig. 5.51.
The very low saturation valUQS are o~~ by ~lo.Wing equilibrium to ~ur between
the sample and an atmosphere with a given relative humiditf.. ~ mc:Uurements of
velocity (Fig. 5.12) and attenuation were taken by Murphy (1982) using a resonant bar.
The measurement frequencies are the resonance frequencies of the bar and are therefore
nV/2L(n- orderofresonance,L- bar length, V""' volqe,it,at~Jiequcncy);Tbe
variations in measurement frequency shown in Fig. 5.51 (namely 599/997 Hz and
385/653 Hz) result from the wide variation in wlocity from 0 to 1 " sablratiott (see
Fig. S.12). By exlntrast, the resonanc:e,fnlqueQcy for water satimttio111 of I to 10'/o is
virtually constant; For saturations of 1.5 to 10%; attenuation is constant, whereas for
saturations less thaa 1.5% the variation in attenua:Pon is sipificant. Attenuation rises
from 60to 70% for saturation varyinl'from6%to sligbtly-leDthaa 1%. A peat appears at

~"

/"

'-..---'

'---'

~I

-...

2-19

lOr----------------------------------,

''-'

...

-......--.;.--

10

-,-;
~

''-

50

'-'

E (ti88 917 Hz)

lf940
3D

'-

20

'toL---_.~--~~--~~--~~--~

,10

.... llllntioft ~)
'-

n.. 5.51

Extensional aad sbeat attetauatioos (1000/Q) iD Musillon


sandstont vs. saturation (0 to tG-!.)(after Murphy, 1982). '

'-'

-\_./

1%. 1bis peat pollibly results from the ,,...._..,. depeDdeace of 1000/Q. If ibe
were .taken at coastaat lro.qucac:,, tllc _pe would probably be absent.
However, tbia explaaation requires ~ ~af~PUtioa.
We shall now cumioc a munber of pouible mcd1anisms offering aa qualitative
explaDatioD of attaluatiop behavior at low ~n.
~

DUJoeiJtitM ill parlt


Mason n crt (1910) SlltJest that~ oftbe titieatc surface are set in motion by
tbeacoastitwaw. This is a rather debatable~ sbicetbe leftldl ofdislocatiobs in
quartz and the forc::es rcsistina the dislocatiou involved are such that tbe corresponding
resoaancc &equencics are mudl too high to be excited.
L

'--

'-

....._,

'---

'-'
'-

'--

c,.,._ ,_.

lt. lluMIIP sf
lu shown above for velockjes, the porous surface
all suds and sandstones is
bydroxylated. Tittmann et al. (1980)and SpeDCOf{l981) augcstcd that part of the energy is
diuipated by the bnakagc of hydrolia ~.-.eca tbe . awfagc'h)'droxyls and the
water moleculc:s, thus subJtantially doc:rouiag the fRJC surface encrJY. This attenuation
model is directly depeadent on the specific surface aQa of the porous medium: the greater
the specific area, the
Val~ of,apeciftc area and attenuation in
Vycor (Fig. S.43) and in Massillon sandstone are as~ follows:

or

Ji** . ......,

"-----'

~ate&

Attenuation

(tr/Jf

"--~

'"-----'
~

'-../

Vyoor ............................ .
Mauilloa~ ........-....... .

a :ZOO

10

1000/Q
~

;; 10 to 25

1,.
220

RI!SULD ANI) MECHANISMS

~.

Their incompatibility is easily ob$ervable assuming an attcnuatio~tmecbanism exclusively


at the surface. Hence, to explain Che results iJl Fig. 5.51 exclusively by means of the
breakage of hydrogen bonds is inad~uate. We shall discuss in the next Section one
possibility of explaining the incompatibility observed between speciftc surface area and
attenuation.

C11piOtuy forc~s
We have shown for velocities that in the case of low saturations capillary forces may
play an important role. For attenuation at very low water saturations, part of the energy
dissipated may also result from capillary mechanisms. The mec:banism involved is again
associated with the specifK: lPlfaa: area of the porous medium, and the Vycor/sandstone
problem (see previous paragr.) again appears to arise. In fact, the vlue of attenuation due
to capillary forces depends considerably on the microstructue of the porous medium
(surface roughness, aspect ratio and size of capillary tubes) and the specif1c area per se
plays a minor role.
. Attenuation is hence the combination ofmicrocapillary hysteresis (viscous dissipation
on rough surfaces combined with the breakaac of ch~ bonds) and of mechanisms
linked to the motion of Ouids (-' saturations pater than 1 to 2%).

c.

~.

--"

~.

5.1.3.3 . Atteaaatlea ~~ ._ partially 01' f.,Uy .._.... roc:b


Figure 5.52 shows the variation in attenuatiOn at water saturations ranainJ from 10 to
100%, and concerning the same MassiHoti sail'istone'as in F~ S.St.ne variation -in
extensional measurement frequency results here from a sharp rise in velodty(see Fig. 5.12)
at saturations approaching 100%. The lfteasurement f'requeftcy is hence mually Constant
for all saturations in shear mode, and for saturations ranging from 10 to 95% in
extensional mode.
Fipre 5.52 re~ dlat at~. is coD$idcrabJy affectod bJ water saturation.
ExtcDiional atteauation readies a . . . .\Uil around ~% Aturation, wbile abear

-----..

70

Miitalllon sandstone

2a

80

~.

60

!.!2
"

30
20
10
20

40

60

80

100

Wdlttltiii'Mion~l

Fla. 5.Sl Extenional and sbtar attenuations (1000/Q) in Maalilloo


sandstone va. saturation (10 to 100%) (after Murphy,1982).

"

.,
"

....,

'-../

----,:1

'--

_,

:t

ld!IVlti'

"* tid!a~A. . .

121

attenuation shows a maximum at 100% saturatiqn. Moreover, extensional attenuation

(Qi 1 ) is always greater than shear attenuation (Qi 1 ) except at very JUab saturation
( > 97% ~ Also observable (Fia. s;43) is a wide variation of Qi 1 and Qi 1 as a function of
frequency, with a peak at around 5. kHz. Finally, as we have shown (Fig. 5.4S), the
attenuation peak as a function of saturation varies in position and amplitude with
frequency. These properties (peat at 5 kHz, satur~on, depebdence) arc approximately
independent of the type of rock analyied, or rather, the dcpendetl4:C on the type of rock is
very slight in compari~n with cQnaes in porosity and permeability (see Table 5.1).
We shall review tbct.111eehanisms that arc m01fcommonly used today to explain these
experimental
L

res~tlts.

DUItditHH ;, ,....,,
As discussed above in Section 5.l.3.2a,: tbis mechanism appears to be inadequate.

i!t

b. llrHk"6e of elwlltkld 6ollb .


At high saturations, this medllnism, rolateclto the; spccif'tc surface area of the porous

medium, is undoubtedly nealiJiblc. Moreover, tlle frequency ~ce of attenuation at


around 1 kHz appean to be cHfBcUtt to ezplaip by an ioctelse in the number of broken
chemic::al bonds, as these bonds raoJtate only at Vt:r'J biab {Nquenc:y. The attenuation
peak at hiJh saturation also CiUillOt be ftplaioed by this mechanism. The brcaka1e of
chemical bonds is therefore unacceptable as an attenuation mechanism at high saturation.

--

c. Cqilltlry forces .
At low saturations, the iPfluaiC:e 'O(t;:apillary:forccs was due to a sort of microcapillary

hysteresis. At high saturatio tlia mechanism is heace <*taialy less active, and cannot
possibly explain 'the attenuation pt8k observed (see FiB- S.S2).
'

d.

Tlln11t0-rela..,

An acoustic wave propaptins in a pven me4ium acts by ~poling a sudden change in


stress on the medium coDCel'Did.. Bccause it is a rapid pt~ wave propaption may be
considered a process that is controlled macr~y by t~ adiabatic properties of the
material. Microsc:opically~the ~ is veryheteroaaneeu.. siDce each grain and each
pore with its Ouid respollds adiabatically in accordanco with its own thermomechanical
, properties. The rapid strain variations due. to tbc wave front impose temperature
variations throup thermomecbanical coupliq. These temperature variations are
heteroaeneous due to the heteroaeneity of the microscopic constituants of the porous
medium. Macroscopically, tcnaperatW'! equilibrium' is obtained through thermal
conduction. A tllmnal relaxaticlll.dtus takes'))lace an4 iavolves a phase shift between
macroscopic stress and . strain. &foreovcr, if two phales of the same component
(waterjsteam)~prelent,masatiaasks(vapoj!izatio8/conclensation)takeplacefromone
phase to the other to auaraaU~Q tlermodyuamic equilibrium. This mechanism was
analyzed theoNtjcally by kjart.,.,.... (1919 b); He prtdkted a dcpendctl4:C of attenuation
on saturation and on freQuency. The cenn.t i.laxatfon frequeacy is pven by:

''~

'--"'

hl

h-~

'~-

..__._

....

~~

fg

TAIIU:

5.1

FRF.QIJF.N('Y Df.I'P.NUf.N('E 01' ATI'IINIJATION

Per meP()tosit' ' ability


(%}

Type

of sample

(md)

Maximum
attenuation

....

lnvcstljatcd

rrequency

freq~ncy

"

Bere8 saadsto.ie .......

20

617

2kHz

Berea ....dstone . .. ' ...

20

tooo

2 k,Jfz

Navajo sandstone .....

ll

;;l:O.S kHz

;;. O.$.kHz
'().017 kHz
;;.0.5 kHz

Expc;ri.-entat

conditions

'"

0.4 kHz-3 kHz

4>.4

Reference

kHz~3.5-:.tHz

Jones and N ur, Warer sat IH'ated


(1983)
and Pc aad p, up
to 20 MPa .
Jones and Nur, As &oo-ve
(1983)

Nav sandstone . ..
Spor~ liniestone ...
OWa *!a aruite .....

14

3 Hz-500 Jk

.. -.
3Hz-~ HZ
3 Hz-'OOHJ
3Hz Hz

...

23

737

4to.kUz

JO Hz-tOk~

Perous Blass. (Vycor) ...

28

0.01

7109kHz

1 kHz-f2 'kHz

Barca sandstone .:......

20

500

3 to 6kHz

1kHz-8kHz

Ma.'lllilkm

~~andatonc

From JOnes (1983}.

Spencer, (1981) Saturated (various


Ouidsl
Spencer (1981) Low saturation
Spencer (1981) Water .satura&ecl
Spencer (1981) Wr saturated
Murphy (1982) Vau:illble
satUration
Murphy (1982) Variabtc
saturation
\Vater saturated
Winklcr~d
Nur (1 2)
(10 MPa}

!i

1111

)
)

~r
.._..

-;,

~i

:,
$

h - pore half-width,
D &bermal dift'usivity of the composite material.

In the case of Massillon sandstone, fr is approximately 10kHz. which is close to the


resonance frequency observed (Fig. 5.43). Figure 5.53 Jives the frequency dependence of
attenuation obtained by thermo-elastic effect ill relation to that of the standard model
previously analyzed It may be observed that the thermo-elastic peak is much broader
than the peak of the standard model. This iS normal. because the thermal relaxation
process is a diffusive one. The width of the thermal relaxation peak is incompatible with
the narrowness of the peaks observed on Massillon sandstone (Fig. 5.43). Figure 5.54
shows tl\e variation of attcauation witb saturation. The ~um is obtained around
99% saturation. which docs not correspond to tbc experimental results. Figure 5.55
shows that attenuation increases with rising temperature. However some recent data
reported by Jones (1983) show the opposite behavior. Finally, the thermal relaxation
process fails to explain the caergy ~ obJet ed in shear.
Nevertheless, the foregoing comparisons between theory and experiment must be
adjusted appropriately. In fact, the theory is developed for traveling waves, and the
experiments employed standing waves (resonant bar method). In the present state of our
knowledge. it is diffiCUlt to 8SICSS the scope of this difference. Yet it appears that thermoelastic processes are negligible, at least at temperatures below lOO"C.
CluurKe ;, chellfictll ~llilibriltm
Acoustic plane waves propagating in a liquid generate local variations in temperature
and pressure in the range of 2 l 0- 3oK and 3 l 0 3 Pa ccspectively (ltalsiag, 1975). Any
chemical system in equilibrium subject to sucb a dist\U'bance will fnld its equilibrium
changed in tbe form of a modification of onc.or more of its thermodynatftic constants. This
modiftcation is possible by the passaae Qf individual dlllllleculcs from~ state to another,
aad hence a dissipation of ~IY Thi~ dissipation clqJends on the frequency of the
disturbance transmitted. At high freq~ the chaJliiS are too rapid for the system to
dissipate energy, and at low frequencies the reaction has the time to adapt so as to be
nearly reversible. Thus an attenuation peak will be observed for an intermediate
frequency. The type of chemical reaction propolcd by Schmidt et al. (1986) is the proton
exchange reaction between free water and bound water, and whose resonance frequency is
about a few kHz. It is worthwhile noting that Schmidt also succeeded in modeling the
ditsipation of .tectromapotic waves due to the e~mical reactions. He showed that the
fnqueaty atteuation peak occurred at the same frequeacy as for the acoustic waves if
changes caused by conductivity are ipored. Fipre 5.S6 shows that similar behavior was
observed for clcctromagaetic and aoouatic waves. This model raises two problems: it is a
r~ of the speciflc surface area (see foreaoing Sections) and it fails to explain
variatioas as a t\mction of saturation. Nevenbeless, it helps to explain the behavior of
granite-lit-e rocks as a function of saturation (Fig. S.31b). In this case, attenuation
increascs.with risin1 water saturation. Qualitatively, the porous medium of a aranitic
matcritl coasists essentially of microcracks. The additipn of water to the porous medium,
as satwatioa iacreases, gradually saturates a growing numhcr of crac:ks. The attenuation,
which results from proton exchanges between free water and boWld water, can only
increase as the number of saturated cracks increases, in other words with an increase in

e.

"--'

'-

'--

'..._..

2l3

where

~~
'--

amfl.n iA~-~~

I''
o.sr---~r--------~------~.--------r--------,----,

Fig. 5.53 Comparison


of theoretical attenuations of standard
model aDd thermoelastic dil'uaive model (after Kjartans-

aA

son. 1979b).

01

:=:

.d'::

,
---

~---

71== :=;=--

'

J't
~:

'
t

Ftwquiftey Cwrl

!fJ!
Fit 5.54 Tlleoretical
thermo-elastic ..uenuation vs. saturation and for dilrerent
cfepdls (alter KlartaassoD, tmb~ .

....

8.1

~ flwlian ... "''

Fie- .5.58

Theotetical

t~

attenuation vs. temperature in three watersaturated


These three samples
have aa identical matrix and dil'enmt porosities. The dry velocity is the same
(1 kmfs) and ttac satu-

samples.

lp

rated velocities are 2,


0

200

300

3 and 4 km/s (after


Kjartaasson, 1979 b).

Tempemure C"CI

------~~~--~~-~-~~~~---~---------------'

;;:-

"----'

,_,..,.._~

l2S

''---"

r--r--~-r--~-r--,-~--~~~-

..,..tGHI

tlllli'Os , .. - 2.1 kHz

'-'

50
0

----

40
"----

"--'

'--

<i(

'--"

20
'-

'-

10
'-'

.,

0..___,__....___._ _,__.__....._...._....,.,___.___,
0

-~

'-

'--

'---

,____.'---"
~

100

Comparison of attenuations of e~omaptic and a<:oustic waves


vs. saturation. Massillon sandstoae (after Sclmtidt et til., 19&6).

saturatioa.lil tile case fl FOillaiadlleau saaclstooe(fi&. 5.3la) we fmct one example of the
same ptOCIIII. 'l1!le additionofthltftnUte tOOAI ofwaterftlls the ~fain contacts of the pore
networt.leadilla to a wry apid rile iD attftuatkm. In an interpretative sense, Fis. S.3lb
for aranite is analoaous to the very low saturation behavior of Fontainebleau sandstoJle.
At very low saturations, as we have shown. other attenuation mechanisms are also
invoked (hydroxyl bonds. capillary forces~

Ft.UI/IOU IMrtilll c~
This mechanism, associated with Biot's theory (Chapter 21. accounts for relative
movements of the ftuid and solid. It is a bulk mechanism bic:h, u we haw streaed,
requires a hiahly permeable sample. This theory predicts _a substantial frequcacy
depende~ of attenuation in the ranse 10 to 100kHz for materials such as Massillon
sandstone. At the seismic fiequenclcs and at common permeabilities, the losses predicted
by this ~octet are insisftiftc:ant. Moreover, MOchizuki (1982), recently showed that this
mechanism implied attenuation values that were too low in comparison with the
fortaoina data. The equations of Biot ( 1956) and Mochizuki (1982) show tbat the c:titical
frequeaey ia proportioaa1 to tbe fluid ~ aacl that attenuation clecreaset with tisina
viscosity. Thil result ia in eontradictic,.urith,tbc experimental results of Jones and Nur
(19U) for oumple (FiJ. 5.57).
t

"-

....,_.....

40

Fla- 5.56

\,__..,-"

"----

20

226

RESULTS AND MECHANISMS

ll

(GPIII

~--

615

40

g.

~30r
20
10

0.2

Pc= 10MPa
pp=4.5 MPa

'
0.4 0.6

"

fNqiMncy X

Dyn~~nic

vilclllty (kHr d')

Fia- 551 Attenuation of S waves arid dyl\lmic modulut as a function of the


product of frequency by dynamic viscosity (resonant bar) (after Jones and
Nur. C 1983 AGU).

'

Finally, this model predicts a dependence of the c:cntral frequency on the inverse of
permeability, a dependenc:c that has never been actually observed (see Table 5.1).

~-

re#utltiolt of tM "*''ltiiW p.i4


If the fluid phase is sufl-.ciently viscous. viscous stresses opposed to the motion are added
to pressure. A .unplc cakulatioq (Nur, 1971, \,\'tWa. 1N9} -~ lhows that the
riequcaCies at
a~
oporatioaal arc \"et)' biJb for fluids
such as water, and
for liaht oils. In fact, ~- ~trallrequency of the mechanism is
g.

JrUCOIII

! ,

which

Jiven by:

eva

_mecba.., --ep

f/

Q)e- -

(5.1())

where

e - aspect ratio of the pores,


p .... shcaE modulus of the matrix.
'1 - viscosity of the intentitial fluid. -

For water, cue is about 109 to 1012 Hz in satura1ed -sandstones. However., for rocks in the
state of partial melt, this mechanism may~ important at the seismic frequencies.

._ Rep.djlu
This is the fluid flux between the peaks aad trdups ofa strain wave, or the flux from a
high stress regioll" to a low s&ntss repon ". 'Fhi$mochanism concems a group or several
pores. It depends on the permeability of the rock and the wave amplitude. The transmitted

',

----

=T
""'~.....

'

..........

-....----

227

wave period lllust be or the l8llle order ofmapaudc utho PRBSurcrcluation time for the
mechanism to be siplifacant. MaximutD aatenuation is obtaiaed when the period alld
relaxation time are identical. or for a frequency given by:

y2

I= 4n2Co

(5.11)

where Y is the seismic velocity and C 0 the hydraulic dift'usivity. We have for the hydraulic
diffusivity41 :
CD= KKt,

"

(5.12)

where " is the pcrmeab,ility~ ~-the porQSity, K 11..the bulk moclulus of the fluid and 'I its
viscosity.
-'
For the usual values o(
the
fGftgoia)a
parameters:
._,
:
;

'

I a too ~Hz
'--

This frequCncy is hiper ~l'l t~'one fouo4 in,~ abQve Jne4$Urements. Furthermore, it
depends linearly on the inverse permeability, Wbidl is not experimentally observed (see
Table 5.1). Fipally~ the depeadelieeof'frequcncton\tiscosityiS theinverseotth&t observed
by Jones and Nur (1983){Yaa. SS1). Hence~-~ does not appear appropriate.

or

'-

i. "Stpiln" or "MJf'b/1 "jlllw "


This is allOCher rnedla1dsi'D of~ relauticm, but tile exciting mechanism is external,
the ''squirt"or ''sqvilh"ofthelui4iatllcpotbutcavity. The .. squirt low .. or the "squish
flow" ._...... . . . mvolw:~lieleal1'110tioa d the -fluid -ia the porou cavity with a hiP
Reynolds - Tbis mecllbi it i.Utialiad bJ tbe ,....,.. of the wave. In fact, the
~of the . . .
tate capila., tubea , . _ .... a1ocat pore pre~~ure which
iltl the fluid in -...loa __... lllle ,.,._, 1",_ tllitoMical ~ it 'has boell
deAtonlttated that Ibis t)tpe of metlllanilm'tOUld
by a standard Yitcoelastic
model (a.,ter 3) (MaW. aad Mur, -1979; Pa1altr ldld Tra.totia, 1981, and O'ConneU
aad BlldiMiky, 19'71). The reaent.aperimeatal data efJoaes and Nur(l983)(Fig. 5.57)or
tlloseofSponcler(t98l)a'PPe&Uooodtma;belraWor'oftbeZenertype.ln this model, the
liquid low can Oftly Ufke place iftbc ~is tower tba1l a limit frequellC)' (Murphy,
l982b):

be..,......

'---

Ji .!

f&,

b"-;;

~5.13)

where
b dime~'ofthe fluid dr()P,
K [I - bulk modtd"s or the ftuid,

p1

ftQid density.

(4) c, coeft'tc:ient is actually the one cWmed by Eq. (2.120) if TerzaJhi's hypothesis is made [M ""' K fl{
Eq. (2.126)] and 10 - i.1

'-

228

USULTS AND MCHANIINS

This limit frequency is about l GHz ill sandstollCI and sands. The central relaxation
frequency is given by (Palmer aad Trawma. 1981):
s
/,= K e
(5.14)

.-,

where

e - aspect ratio,
K. =bulk modulus of the skeleton,
'I = fluid viscosity.

For high porosity sandstone, this frequency is about 1 to 10kHz, and the attenuation
amplitude is approximately the S&lDe as that in Massillon sandstone at 500 Hz.
This mechanism thus qualitatively explains tlie frequency dependehce obsei-ved in rock
samples. We shall now examine the clefendence of attenual;ion on saturation. At total
saturation, in compression, the intentitial liq~id offers resistance due to its low
compressibility, and low pressure gradients are aenerated inside the porous medium. The
resulting attenuation is therefore sli&ht By contrast, in s~. the pr~ure gradients
generated are ~ter and the R$ult~ llttelluation is hiaJlef. Henee the result that Qi 1 is
greater than Qi 1 at total saturatio~ (Fi,P. 5.31 aild s.52).
, At partial saturation, the problem is totaUy dift'ereilt. The watjr,as mixture in the pores
is highly compressible, and the extensional attenuation (Qi 1 ) dominates (Q 1 > Qi 1 ).
Also the existence of an attenuation peak as a function of saturation is observed. This peak
occurs in the Massillon sandstone investigated by Murphy,1982, at;a-water satwation of
about 80o/e.lt can al.sobo._.Wi&. S.<W that thepotitioa
peak varies by S% for
frequencies varyina from 570 to -810 Hz. Qualitasi_.,; dais implies a resonance
mechanism "ithiP the intorarama&ar....- At a tivu ~. tbetwo-phuo water/air
mixture dissipates a muiaum or atcriY if iA it _._ too oomPfC'IIIiWe aor too
iac'ompi'CNible. If the pon11 .,._aie too muea W. tha.biiJa ~bility of~ air
prevents any Ouici aetion, 8114 '-tC!C .., enoru 4iltipatioA .ia the caVity. If the pores
conWn too little air, the ~y or tlackwate~. ftllitt.dlc passqc ol the wave,
Attenuation i$ virtuallyiadependeat of UI1Ptatioa. fQr satJtrations from 2to 60% in
Massillon sanc:lttoae (f'ia. S.Sl). From.& to l% ill fact, the JDiQrocacks . . . . .te the
elfect acl gcu.crate a moderate a~. From-2 to fiO%. these JDiercMn.cks are still
saturated and the avcraae attenuatioa temaiDa the 111M On tbo other hand, the larae
pores are not suft'tciently water-saturated for "squish flow" processes to occur. In sintered
glass (Vycor, Fig. 5.31c) which does not possess microcracks, it has been observed that
compressional attenuation consists of a Clearly deftned peak corresponding to a single
family of pore size (the maximum inscribable sphere of Chapter 1).

......

of'_.._

Hence the squirt flow" process appears to partially and qualitatively explain the
attenuation behavior observed. However, no theory i~ ye~ ,.dequate to provide a more
quantitative 'iew of the process. It should therefore come as no surjrlse that, given the
complexity of the porous medium, no single global or local model based on arains and
spherical cavities can be adapted in detail to the fme description of mechanical behavior.
The question remains whether it is necessary to complicate the models used ad infinitum.

j
~

--..

~~T
\_/

ialttif.AWJ~

229

5..1 RESULTS AND'MlCHANisMs CONCERNiNG


IN SITU MEASUREMENTS
5.2.1

Intrecluction

The measurement results that we presented in s.ction S.l Wet"Cobtaincd by &aboratory


experiments. The value of this type of measurement is obvious both for an understanding
of the mechanisms oblerved and for the applicatioll of the results in the fteld. Nevertheless.

"---'

it is essential to be able to measure velOc:ities and atteauations in situ for many pnctical
reasons. For example, the reconsttuction Of tile subsuiface acometry requires the
blowlecfae of velocities in situ. We areiliterested here in the r1ationship between acoustic
measuremelltl ad petrophJiical dwactotistic:t Of in Jitu materials. In fact, considering
the rite in oil prices UftOaJ other factors, the need 'bas arisen in petroleum popb)'lic:s to
determine not only the 'pometry of the beds, l>ut also their lithology, fluid content,
porosity and permeability. Sonic weD louin& ori&fnally intended as a .. simple"
conftrmation of depth for seismic sections, bas been 0.0 to approach those problems due
to its finer depth resolution. It is clear that the in situ mciasurement of acoustic properties is
an inverse problem widt ftiiiPICl to laboratory JRea~UN~DCDts. In the laboratory~ the
petrophysical proportiel(porosity aadpenatabitity.ofthesampleare weD known and She
meuuremeat isintonded to oblerw the wriatioa in acoustic: propertie$ as a fuaction of
physical parameters (twessule. temperatare). Ia the fteld, by contrast, the s;hysical
conditions (pressure, temperature) are relatively well known, and the geopbytic:ilt is
illterestcd in determining the petrophysical cbaraeteristics of the formations from the

.._

'-

'-./.

acoustic properties measured.

The comparison ~ field meuuremera.tl aad laboratory measurements is not an


easy one. It is often tacad witll_problelas such ..- dia~ induced by the temperature
and stress reoond.itioniq of t.bc samplei 1a fac:l.
AOt uusual to ftnd that laboratory
measurements display a lt)'ltereais iadic:itiaa -~. inevcmbiiity of a structural c:banp
durin& a measurement cycle. Tbia mca01 tlaat tlae results obtained cannot be
representative of the behavlot of rocb buried \lDdel' kBOmcten of iediments for millions

'~.

"..i

of years.

'-

ddcb:

.._.
~

'-

But the most important poiD& is &bat the frequencies employed in the laboratory are
often quite different from 'dlele employed in situ, namely about SO Hz for seismic
proapectina and 10 tlb for Well -lolling. The ebaraetoristie waveleftgth in seismic
prospecting is thus quite dilrcrbt from the ~ waYCJenath in the laboratory,
aDd, since the resolution of the measurement is proportional to this wavc:!ength, in situ
meuuremeats tlwt itftelrate fonutioa
that are tarely wUform. Fmally, the
c:onstderlable frequeftcy depeDCieMe of the pt111ill (espeCially attenuation, aee for
example Fit- 5.4Sr~tt ~ direCt uttapdtalten of labOratory rei\llts to the fteld;
Howewr, laboratory ~ ~- the existence of Jimit vahtea for
velockiel ad a~ uader.-(Ap. S.l 'ad J.27foreumple). These limit values
are usually ealklid tetmibal wloch:les . - tltmtdal atte~ntatkms (Wyllie tt al., 1951) and
occur at efrectiw pNIIUI'II of abOUt lOO'M~ ~n1 to sediment thickaeDes in
kilometen.

j
-

~-___,

230

RESULTS AND MECHANiiMS

In practice, and particularly for velocities, users have developed a number of empirical
laws, enabling them to deal with thcr inverse prot)~ they face. We shall examine the
results obtained for velocities, amt theft 'for attenuations, and draw conclusions on the
usefulness of these empirical taws.
-~'

5.2.2 Velocities
::.,;..-...,4

5.2.2.1

Ia situ velodty measunlllelltl


0

""

In seismic prospecting vdocities are determined by intervals, usina the reflections


obtained on a single mirror point. The relative error in the determination or these
velocities is about 1 to 2%, whe~ absolute accuracy is about 10%.1'hese measurements
~ taken with P and S waves . ~ to dle t}rpe of source employed. The reader

--.._

wisbina to familiarize ~If with _seismic re~on measurina techniques can refer for
example to the work of CQrdier (1~83). In wdlloain& the determination of velocity is
standard, as the distance traveled is ac:cura~ly known. The absolute accuracy is very hiah,

about 1%.

-----~

5.2.2.2 Veloclties aad porosity


measure~Detlts

of Wyllie et GL. (1956,. .1958, 1962) reveal a simple relationship


between velocity and porosity (Fip. 5.58, 5.59 and 5.60) for saturated samples under
suft'ldent stress (terminal velocity). aacl of similar mincraiOJical oamposition, naJDCly
sandstones and ICdimentary rocks in this case. Tile equation for P waves is called the
Wyllie equation:

The

1-t;
-==-+-v v, v,.

-,~

(S.lS)

where 4> is the porosity, ~the \'etocity ofJhc qturated rock, ~i the velocity in the fluid, and
V,. the velocity in the rock matrix. This meaDS ~bat, if the type of rock, saturating ftuid and
velocity are kno1m, the porosity can be catculated. The matrix velocities are given below
for three major families of 'fOCks (from Schtmilberaer Co., 1971).

v.
(mfs)

Sandstones .......... ; .......


Limestone& ................... .

Dolomites ................ ,

S488to S950
6!tOO to 1000
7000.to 1925

This extremc.l.y ~pie equat.ioD noaed1eless requires many precautions for its use. The
vcloQties are :quito different at shallow cicptbdrom those aivcn by Eq. (5.15). Fiaurc 5.59
shows that, at biah.poroliUu. thee~~ poiJUadeYiatefrom theaverase.curve (it ia
not possible to apply a suftlcieot stress to~ uoconsolidatod.samplc,s, and the concept of
terminal velocity boc:omes mea~). Fisuro 5.61 dearly shows that, at atmospheric
pressure, the velocities of Fontaiacbleau ~roaes differ substan&ially from the average
velocity (up to 40%). The apP.ication of a uaiuial stress of S MPa reduces tllis deviation
from the average velocity to a maximum of 15 to 20%.

i'

I
I',

~,

'-'-

'i.''"' t,: ~ (

Velocity Cllmltl

3.5

4.6

'~<<I "!

:~

Ytllollty lkmltl

35
110

30

80

25

_60
~

20

~so

g
:

15

40

............

10

e Tripolhl

W-......S
90

.,

Trwel

tm. Clts/ftl

120

110

100

eo

70

QI

5()

110

140

120

100

10

F~&-

1.1'

30

25

!:zo
~

J
~

11
10
6

0 ''

1).2

II

o.a

Poillon's ratio

~.

FJa. 5.60

lS" I
10
40

5.59 Compressional velocity/~rosity


relatioasbip for siliceous rocb UDder
. uniaxial 1tre1s (ultrasonic measurements)
(after WyUie et al, 1958).

'

35

,.,

Trft time Cltslftl

Fig. SSI Compressional velocity/porosity


relationship. Comparison between laboratory measurements and Wyllie's equatioll
(ultrasonic measurements) (after Gre,ory.

1977).

200

110

160

140 , .

J
. . ' ..

'

..

'

I
40

Travel tin. Cltslftl

Experimental ret.tionship. Dear waft veloc:ity and Poisson's ratio


as a function of porosity (ultrasonic measurements) (after Wyllie et Ill., 1962).

232

RESULTS AND !otECHANISMS

5.5

?:

.:
.....

Sw=100%

4.5

500kHZ

3.5
3

20 .:

15

10

30

25

PorCIIity "')

,,. .:1

..

!5

8?: ...5
l

...t

... I

4
3.5

Sw100%

....

500kHz
<..',

u
0

15
20
Porosity I'K. I

10

25

30

Fit- 5.61 Co~~ velocity. porosity relatioubip in Fontainebleau


Sandstone (ulpsonic Dle&surementa) (after Bourbie and Zinszner, 1983).
L Atmospheric ple8SIItC.
ft. S MPa uaiuia1 sttess.

The only intrinsic velocity being teqnina} velocity, it is the only 'one that should be
introduced into an equation such as that of Wyllie. Thu&~ndercompacted materials fail to
satisfy Wyllie's equation. Moreover, it has been pointed Qut that, at very high and very low
porosities, Eq. (5.15) is 'inadequate. Jd,Oy authors have proposed a modified Wyllie
equation, such as Nafe and Drake-(1963) arid more recently Raymer et a/.(1980). The latter
propose the following equatipns :._,
Consolidated rocks:

.<35%

V =(I -

t/>) 2 V,+ tj>V1

(5.16)

Unconsolidated ocean floor sediments:

t/> > 45%

t/>

l-t/>

~::~*""'"?VI"
pv p1 v 1
p.Vr

(5.17)

.,

>"

-....-

1
I

~tt~tliD~~

133

The comparison with Wyllie's equation is given in Fig. 5.62. Figure 5.63 gives a
porosity /velocity Idationship for uncoasolidat61 ocean floor scdimcats, and Fig. 5.64
shows a correlation with experimental data and average regression lines for sandstones,
limestones and dolomites.
To a certain degree, it is therefore possible to relate velocities and porosity in a
biunivocal manner. The extrapolation of porosity from velocity will have to be performed
with precaution, as Eqs. (5.1 5), (5.16) and (5.17) are empirical experimental relationships
and not physical laws.

S.l.l.3 Veloddes aad dentlty


The densities of the materials encountered in ~ry basins vary relatively sliptly
in comparison with velocities. Nate and Drah(t963)nd Gardner er al.(t974) proposed a
relationship between the termiDat P wave velocity for saturated samples and the density.
Figures 5.65 and 5.66 show this experimental relationship.
The curve ~ be approximated by the follo\\ina equa~on:
p- 0.31 V0 25

(5.18)

where
p ==density in aJcm 3 ,
V = velocity in m/s.
Moreover, we know that the density of a given totally saturated material is related to the
densities of the matrix p., of the saturatiq Ruid p1 , and the porosity t/J:

p .. p,(l -

+ tflp,

(5.19)

Equation (5.18) .:an therefore be transformed by means of 4. (5.19) into a Wyllie type
of equation:
(5.20)

V- V( p., Pt)

Wyltie'sequatiea c:u be-expralltdiChcmatically in thefortll V = V(t/J, V,, V1 ) where V,


and Y1 ate tbeiftatrisud ftuictWiotities respectively. Hence Eq. (5.18) involves only the
densities and not the elastic moduH, unlike Wyllic"s equation. It is therefore a less accurate
equation than Wyllie's, and its application is mainly limited to the determination of an
averaae density from the measurement of a terminal velocity.

5.1.2.4 Velodties ud day eonteat


Itcccnt measuten~oents(De Martini et al., 1976, Tosaya and Nur, 1982. and Kowallis et
al., 1983) show that -at.ionsbips exjst for water-saturated samples between
compfessional or sbcar.velociticS,and p<rQSity or clay content. The experimental results
arc given iB Fip. 5.67 an4 ~.68. 11ae relationshipi between
Vs, porosity and
volumetric clay content (c.) are(To.-Ya and Nur, 1982):

v,.,

V,.{km/a) - 2Aca - 8.()(p


J's(km/s) ~,..::.. ~~Jc.- 6.3q,
for a differential pressure of 40 MPa.

+ 5.8
+ 3.7

(5.21)
(5.22)

234

R!:SULTS AND

M~CHANISMS

100'

80

~60

i2

j_40

20

O''"

80

60

..,
I

120

140

,.,
I

180

200

T.....t time (l.cs/ft)

Fig. 5.62

Modifacations ofWyiJies equation proposed by Raymer et al., 1980.

Velocity (kmlsl

100

Fft. $.0

Experimental comparison of travel

time .-d porosity in ocean floor sediments

(after Raymer et al., 1980).

4!

Rt- 1M

Porosity/travel time Nlationship

Cor clil"oreat typeJ oC rock (after Raymer et

C\f
oo/

al.. 1980).

c:4,

Vlloclty lkmls)

% /O
oolacD

7.5 8.5

," I

3.5

2.5

,,

... -----.
--

4o

e~

i3G
~

40~----~----._----~----~
180
110
200

210

Travel time (la/ft)

4.5

so~~~~~T-~---,-----r------~----~

0/0 0

'
o

u s

l~

... ,

.,..

~ le1Urftld

. , ...

cv,, 100 mlsl

10
0
40

50

80

70

80
90
100
Travel tm. fj.q(ft)

110

120

130

140

....,7

--- ,, --

-"~- ~-

f1a. 5.65

~ Compreuional velocity/
daiJity rdatioaabip iD various
sedimcau (after Na(c and Drake.

C 1963 Wiley ~Dterscieacle).

'
I

i:!!.
-~

I
3

"'~----

1~--------------_.--------------~
1
2
3

llulkchNity
7

14

f.

....
'

2.5

..... " ' Compreuional veiotJM.y/


density reJatioDibip for clift'ilpat
types rock (after Gardner et Ill;

1.5

or

1974).

1.1

2.4

2.1

lulk IMnlltv (log ....l

'-._..

2.8

6r-------------------~

3.5

Vs

Vp

P-eff 40 MPI

6.5

Pett=40MPa

s.-too"

s.-=100"

.>/.

4.5

"jj
~
2
3.5

31

Jh.

20

40

'

80

1.5 1

'

80

20

40

"\

60

CIIY content ('\ vol.)

Cliy content '" vol.l

(a)

(b)-

'

80

Fia. 5.67 Velocity clay content relationship as a funetion cl porosity for


saturated samples.
L Compressional velocity (after Tosaya and Nur. C 1982 AGU).
b. Shear velocity (after Tosaya., 1982).

v,.
PctOMh

0"
4 .............

.f

10

11

'20
POI'OIIty

Fft. 5.68

"'J

25

30

Compressional velocity 'clay content relationship as a function of


porosityfor dry samples (after Kowallis et al. C 1983 AGU).

'-'-

USULTS

AND~

237

These eqations allow a better estanation of porosities if the velocities aaa tbe ~verage
day C01ltent kaowa. They olwioully depend on the differeatial. preuure applied.
Finally, h1ce the fonlaoiDi eqpations, . tltey empirically enable the eVIIIaation of one
parameter if the mnaininJ two are bown.

5.2.2.5 Velocities .... CIIIDpAction


The burial of rocks in sedimeritary basins, for example, generates compaction processes
due to the lithostatic pressure. Compaction is the~ in porosity due to the effect of
overburden pressure. Different geological bodies obey compaction laws that are more or
less woO kaown but aenerallY distinct. The knOwledge of these compaction laws and the
meuuremeat of velocity variaboaa with depth can thus help to provide an idea of the
geological characteristics of a layer or a JI'OUp of layers investigated. Faust (1951)
developed an empirical law from some 500 velocity surveys (Fig. 5.69). He showed that, in
shale and sand sections, the relationship between compressional velocity and depth was:
1

V,.==B(~n

(5.23)

where
~ depth in meters,
B = constant equal to 46.6 for Faust's samples,
v,. - compressional velocity in m/s,
~ == age of the sediment in years.
In carbonate sections, a general equation of type I5.23) is difftcQit to determine. This is
because tu role of compaclioa is-leas uniform titan in shale and sahd sections. Jowsky
(1970) nevertheless proposed a qepession of the'ame type (Fia- S.70). or sands, Gardner
et al. (1974) and Domenico (1977) proposed the ,-elocity/deptll relationships shoym in
Fis- S.7L.:Siilhl~amobservable in comparison with faust"s rclatioe that result
from specific pressure aacl coatpacd6n elwacteristics.ltiliatefestinj to note that a power

f.

'--

dependance on depth. ~.was also found by G~ (1,51) for the P wave


propagation velocity in a helagonal packing of spheres (COrdiet, 1983).
The usc of Faust's relation or an intCJf&ted law:
s
t==B'~

where tit the vertical propaption time, offers a auess at the type of lediments analyzed. If
the law applies, it is pneratly a normally compacted shale and sand section. If not, it may
consist of carbonates or evaporites. or even of hi&hlY tectonized rocks, or series that have
undergoae erosion after b\lrial. In this latter case velocities are higher than the ones given
by Faust's relation. If velocities are lower, the formation may consist ofundercompacted
shales or very biJb porosity series.
Finally, as we pointed out for~ previous relations deanna with in situ velocities this is
only an empirical law to qproximaiHhe depee of compaction of deep sediments. Several
variations of Faust's relation exist, and these are neither more or less accurate, but merely
indicative of slightly differetrt sediments.

Fig. 5.69 Compressional velocity/depth relationship for different ~ series


{after Faust, 1951).

-;;4

l
!

D .luralicTri.aic

oea.-us

A~OE-

"-~

0'-'lln

o Tertlety

......._,

Qlpth ClPnt

Fig. 5.70 Compressional velocity/depth relationship for differeat .lithoJoaics (after


. Jankowsky, 1970).

0.5

.,,

Shaly 1u...-,..._;on liM

e
~

1u
2

...('

...-.onn.. ,

''

2.5 '---'---''----'----'U...--.....;L..-_ _ _ _.....J


800 500
400
300
200
100
TliiMl tllne .,.,..,

e
~

J
._.,,...
lrlne-...ct

Fig. 5.71 Compressional velocity/depth relationship for different types of sand (after
Domenico, 1977).

2.5

, _ OM!ocity (kllllsl

3.5

'-"~

s
5.2.1.6
,.

dSULW'Atlt

~--'

239

V,.f Vs and Poisson's ratio

The ratio ( v,. /V5 ) of lonsitudinal velOcities ( V,.) to transverse velocities ( V1 ) corresponds
one-to-one with Poisson's ratio v:
Jj.""

1$

J2(l -

Y)

(5.24a)

1 - 2v

or

,. = O.S(V,./Vsf -

(S.24b)

(V,./I's)l.- 1

The c:alculation of Poi110n's ratio._ requiftlll, tbe limultaacous measurement of the


velocities 1',. and J's. The compilatioa made by LawrtM{pcnoul c:ommuaic:ation) helps
to show that the different types of roCk display. rather different Poisson's ratios (see
Fig. 5.72).
-'-

............

.we

Dry~_. . . . . . . . . . .

'-

.
0

0.1

l'-

0.2

.~~

~.3

OA

o.a

......... ,.tlo

J11e. 5.71

Averqe Poiuon's ratios for dierent lithoJoaiea (after Lavcqne,

penonal correaponcleDee~

._/

'-

Hip values of Poisson's ratio ( > 0.35) (or high ratios Y,/l's) correspond to
UllCOIUOlidatcd rocks. Compact rocks dispJe;y P~'arati9!1~ 02 aaci0.3S.Yt'bile
ps sands have a very low Poisson's ratio, about O.l.ln water-saturated sands, by contrast,
Poislea's natio ia about 0.4. A awnbcr of average values of P aod S wave velocities are
pvea in Table 5.2. 1be for:qoiaa c:orrelalions bctweea ~ type of rock,. saturation and
Poissen's ratio (Fig. 5.72) are merely indicative values .Uowiaa the ppbysicist to focus
on the polosical cbarac:tcristics of.tbc rOICks inVC!It.i8ted.

'-

5.U7 Sa-mary ia :sial Wllodty ......,......


''-

r=

3.E

.__/

.__/

All the empirical equations that we have pointed out show that, if v,. is known, or
preferably v,. and J's, a pas can be made u to the Bthol()ay arid the porosity (but virtually
nothins about the saturation) of the material stUdied. This is not illtended to determine

precise values but to set limits between which dW: true nsponse. should lie. It is also
important to point out that, strictly spcakins, tbe foreaoina equations are strictly
applicable only to the samples investigated. since variations exist from one type of sample
to another.

240

ResuLTS AND MECHANISMS


TABLE

5.2

AVERAGE PROPAGATION VELOCITIES OF p AND


AND AVEitAOI! ROCK DENSmi!S

Type of formation
Scree, vegetal soil ............
Dry sands ..................
Wet sands ..................
Saturated shales and clays .....
Marls ........... , .........
Saturated shale and sand sections
Porous and saturated sandstones
Litnestones ................
Chalk ......................
Salt ........................
Anhydrite ..................
Dolomite ...................
Granite .....................
Basalt ..... , ................
Gneiss ......................
Coal .......................
Water .... :: ...............
Ice .........................
Oil ............. .............

WAVES

Pwave
velocity
(m/s)

S wave
velocity
(m/s)

Density
(g/cm 3 )

300-700
400-1200
1500-2000
11 ()()..2500

100-300

1.7-2.4
1.5-1.7
1.9-2.1
2.0-2.4
21-2.6
2.1-2.4
2.1-2.4
2.4-27
1.8-2.3
2.1-2.3
29-3
2.5-2.9
2.5-2.7
2.7-3.1
2.5-2.7
1.3-1.8
1
0.9
0.6-0.9

~~

100-SOO
400-600
200-800
750-1500

500-150
800-1800
2080-3500
3500-6000 2000-3300
2300-2600 1100-1300
4500-5500 2500-3100
4000-SSOO 2200-3100
3500-6500 1900-3600
4!00-6000 .2500-3300
28410-3400
~
4400-5:200 21c.3200
2200-2700 1000-1400
1450-1500
3400-3800 17004900
1200-125<>
...

'

Density of
constituent crvstal
(g/cml).

2.65 quartz
2.65 quartz

2.65
271
2.71
21

quartz
calcite
calcite
halite

(Ca, Mg)C0 3 1.8-2.99

'

------

After Laverpe, personal correspondence.

!.2.3 Attenuations
~.1.3.1'

Ia situ .......................

Measuring in situ attenuation is a delicate problem, and fteld measuretneftts found in


the literature are oftetl debatable. More6ver, the attenuation measured by various authors
is generally the total attenliatiotl, in other words the sum of the intrinsic attenuation
directly related to the porous medium, and the extrinsic attenuation resulting from the
geometry of the subsurface and of the source, scattering, etc. The most reliable field
measurements are taken either by means of weiJ.loging tools such as the EVA (SI tool at
frequencies around 10 kHz, or by means of VSP (vertical seismic profiles) at the seismic
frequencies. Table S.3 Jives some ...rences aQd results of field measurements. We shall _
discuss these techniques ip the tuwCbaptcr. .In this Section, we. have decided to present
so~e results and ho~s conq:J-nina t~ use of ahen1,1ation m~urements.

~'

'~

(S) The EVA tool (Elf Aquitaine trade-mark) has S transmitters and 12 receivers.

(((

..._

(((((

,'.),'.

~~~--

...~

--

V.U.IIF.S Of

Type of rock

Location

Limon (Colonulo)

Depth
1m)

Measurement
frequency
(Hz)

Q,.
apparent

50-450

32

SO-ll

2
181

Sandy day
Clay/saM

()..3
3-30
30-150

IS0-300

50-400

Clay/saad

117D-1770

Saadlaad . . . .

Same .,_ _,. saMr

1'710-2070

" 125

So.at.....T8aJ

Sandbaab.Jftll tiltyahale

Southeast Texat

Mostly . .
Sand (23%} aad clay
Sand (2C)-4l afld

2010-2850
9$0-1560
JSf0-1800
t8Ci).2100

Oult Coast (30 km south or

..
Ofl'shore lovisiana.
(~
.

/1':

Southeast Teaas
Hcauf~t

Loam/saitdfcl&y

Sands and..._

Houstottt.

--

clal

l.ime!etotte an4 clta


Sand(4S%, qct day

Sand(~ aifd'~)'

Sea (('anada)

otfshore

SiliccoU. chaJit

6GO-IS60

From Carmichael (1984) and Goldberg fl98S).

50-400
50-400

"125

"us
" 80
" 80
c;80
c;80

15
136
67
> 273
28
52
>'273 .,
30
41
> 273

>1020

._ RO
15-40
4()..70

!i4CJ- 1193
945-1311

12S
425

278-442

5000-1 5,000

442-5H2

on avcraJlC
5000-1 5,000
2H

1590-1755
~1320

Baltimore

Silieco111 Chalk with porcellanitejoina.

--

'_:

___

TAILI! 5.3
Q MF.A.~IRF.Il IN SF.Il1MI1NT!I

0-225

Pierre sllale

28
55

References

corrected

McDonald
(1958)

..

Tudos
(1969)

et

and

Reid
"5
,.:

(
,,;

:;

Haup(I9Bt)
;:

46

> 273
34
94
43
67

Oanlcy and Kanasewich (19110)

68

on average

at.

'

67
> 273
31
109
> 273
37

Goldberg (1985)

( l,
~

242

RESULTS A"N"D MECHANISMS

5.2.3.2

Results

The pessimism expressed above must be moderated by the results obtained in the
laboratory. In fact, attenuation is a difftcult parameter to measure. but provides
considerable infonnation concerning the medium investigated. especially with respect to.
saturation. Figure S.73 shows that knowledge of attcmuations and velocities provides a
better defmition of saturation than that allowed by knowledge of velocities alone.

--.---4 ~

,r

0
0

Vp

I
0
01>0
oO

r...itlon Andst-

Drv

6 . .,

2 1-

P-'illly a1Ur~
Fully a1Ureted
Sierr White gr.nite

, t::

0 Plrt;.Hy a1Ur~

Drv

2.0

1.5

Drv

l
I

::j

1.5

2.5

~to

0,

0~

0.0

Pattilllly . . .reted
0 fully~1MI

Sirrll White grnite

6
'(6
I

1.5

Orv
0 f'ltrt;.Hy 1Ur111MI

.... 0
0

9_

2.5

Vp/Vs

Vp/Vs

Cl

(bl

"""te

FiJ. 5.73 Massillonsaa4ltoac and Sierra


graaite. The arrow indicates
increasing effective pteflures (resonant bar) (after Winkler, 19791.
L Relationship V, as a function of V,.fV5
.
b. Relationship Q; 1/Qi 1 as a function of V,./V,.

Although. oa the averap.~tenua~ rises with porosity, Figures S.i4 aad S.1S show
that attenuation/porosity. relationships appear to be less simple than velocity/porosity
relationships. Hence, with. the attenuat;iort parameter,lhe possibility exists of obtaining
comple11lentar)' data ab"Gut the porous medium. Nur n Gl. (1980) pointed out that S wave
attenuation and permeal>ility couldtJe correlated; Wesball discuss a possible explanation
of this in the next Chapter.
.
.
.

S.2.4 Conclusions on in situ measurements


Field measurements lead us to derive a number of empirical laws for seismic velocities.
These empirical laws enable the geoP-hysiciSt to pinpoint the petrophysical properties of
tbe materials analyzed (porosity, debsity, -~Y content, compaction). It has not been
possible to establish empirical laws fot attenuations, because in situ measurements are still
too few in number and inaccurate. Ultimately, it is likely that reliable in situ measurements
of attenuation will be obtained. These measurements will then allow an evaluation of
other petrophysical properties, such as permeability and fluid content.

~-

.4

,__,~

'
j

243

USULTS AND MECHANISWS

1000r---------------------------------

o,

L-1.0

tocl

\00

' ...

....

lgneoulll'ld rocks

*Me_...e.lc

101-

..

Ll"*'-

....._

....... _ol
10

0,1

Porolity

FiJ. 5.74

(~I

Attenuation vs. porosity in a number of rocks (after Johnston et al.,

1979~

'-~

500 L
400

1-

1~:t
100 L

Op (500 kHzl

a1 =0
sw = 100%

.,..

10

'

15

Op (&00 kHzl

200

= 5MPa
Sw= 100~

a,

!..!!!9 150
Op

260

,.

!10

'

20

25

30

...

10

Porality(~)

'

100

15

20

25

PorOiity (~1.

J'ia. 5.75 Compressional wave attenuation/porosity relationship in saturated


Fontainebleau sandstone (after BourbiC and Zinsmer, 198S).

...

30

v~r
~
~

.
i

'f.

:':l

',,;,

.. ;

~~

i
waves and intertaces

'--.../

INTRODUCI'ION

'-.-/

'-.."-_

"'---'

_/

"---'

In Chapters 2 and 3, we have studied wae propaption in i'ffinite poroelastic and


viscoelastic media. In the subsurface. acoustic waves are reflected and transmitted at
interfaces which are characterized either by contrasts in elastic properties (acoustic
impedance contrasts) or in anelastit properties(attenuation or permeability contrasts). To
interpret field data, it is esscali8l .to UIMlentaaclllow theloioterfaces modify the reflection
and transmission of waves. Moteover the existence of interfaces allows the aencration of
interface waves (Raylciab or Stoneley wa) w~b may also be used for the
detcrmiDation oflitllolopcal -~ petrophysical propcriies of the subsurfaee.
In this Chapter concemia& iataface p:~~ ~.,_..,we will study firSt UI'ated
porous media, and secondly viscoelastic media. Finally, we will show that the two models
are complementary, and must be used jointly mcertain cases to correctly interpret fteld

....

-..__/
~

"-../

6.1 WAVE PROPAGATION

IN SATIJRAT1> POROUS MEDIA


DISCONTINUITY- EPFBCTS

---~

'--'
....,

____

_/

we--... in theJJldusionaaelaapter 2 th&&.c.t'~ porous mediamodelod by


Biot's theory, permeability plays a role essentially in the presence of discontilluities. More
precisely, the discontinuities, by the bo\lndary conditions that they imply, induce pRSSUre
aractients which modify the ftow. Heace they jive rise to attenuation. The poasible
existence of a second kind P wave also implies sipifac:ant chances in correspondina
clutod)'UIIIie ~.
.
In the flnt Sec;&ion of dais~. wethaU ~the boandary con4itioDs tMt must be satisfied at the interface of two saturated porous media. The IOCXIIld Seotion will deal
with wave reftections at this interface. The fmal Section will show what happens to the

~,

246

WAVES AND INTERFACES

c~todynamic

interface waves. We will also examine a typical problem in borehole

seiamics in which a source is immersed in a fluid and acts near a permeable interface.

6.1.1

Boundary conditions

Let us consider an interface S separating two saturated porous media denoted by


superscripts (1) and (2) respectively. The unit normal attached to this interface and
oriented from medium 1 towards medium 2 is denoted n, with components "r The direct
normal vector ton is denoted t with components t1 (see Fig. 6.1 ). The notations are those of
Chapter 2: displacements and macroscopic stresses ui'1 and ai7, pressures p<l), filtration
velocities WI" (I = 1, 2).

-,

lSI
"

M.dlum1

Medlum2

Fil- 6-t Notations at a Jiven mterrace.


At the interface, in additiOn to the fteld equations valid in each medium and developed
in Chapter 2, ne1v coaditib..S 'ftltlit 'be satisfied. The first deals with the continuity of
macroseopic displacements. 11Us is tile tmemadc cbndffion:

'' 1411 .,., ui 21

(6.1) '

The second condition is the CODICI'Vation of fluid mass and hence the continuity of' the
flow through the interface. This amounts to writins the continuity of the filtration velocity
component in the direction n, which we shall denote w,.:

w-

11-

.:.ell,.
= W!lln
"'I
I
I
I

"

(6.2)

The fmal conditions to be expressed are the so-called natural conditions, derived from
Hamilton's principle and ~with the~Mcroetopk:ltresseso17 and pressures P''' at the
interface. These conditions were obtaieed by Deietiowia aad Sk.alak (1963). We shall
adopt a presentation here ,tbae is close te their oWn, but in agreement with that of
Chapter 2.
Just as in Section 2.2.2.3, where we defaned a volumetric pseudo-potential ofdissipation,
we shall also define here a peeudo-pomuial of dissipation per unit a~ea o. relatie to the
interface, defined by :

D,=-1-~

2rc, "

(6.3)

where " has the dimension of a hydraulic permeability per unit length. The parameter "
characterizes the permeability of the interface,, and hence the interCOftftCCtion of the two
porous media (iee Fig. 6.2).

'""

'--'

r
l

.,.,..~ 't111'1t1VMB

2i47

Fipre6.2acorrespoadstoacueinwbidlaUdacbannelaaamllllicate(thl'illterfaceis
said to be opcB) aDd " is theNfore illfmite (K, co, ao dissipation). Fipre 6.2c n:p~aents
the cue of aeoaled iMerfacoaad K, 0, 10tbat, u shown lator on,
O(no filtration).
Figure 6~ (0 < K, < co) com.ponds to an iatermecliate cue. Tbaa ill a borehole. the
parameter K, can model the effect of a ''mudcake";-orof a tlooded zoae. if the latter is
sufkitntly thin to be treated u a resion without thickness.

w.-

Open lnwflce

hrtillly open ..........

................
Medium 1

lllldium2
--._,

Cal

rzz::J sOlid

(bl
ph-.

(cJ

c:JUquldpt._

Fi&. 6.l Simp~ cJil&rap ohn intorfacc botwee&. two porous media (after
Deresiewic!:i and'Stllal; 1963).
' ,. ' '
,
The variational formulation of Chapter 2 can then be resumed, addint the surface
potential t() the velumettio 4illip.don poteDdaa dclft1led by &q. (4S.3~ Hamilton's
principle al'wAy& leads to-thnalile lieN eqMdont reiMed to tk medium concerned [i.e.
uu- t111 Mld p ~. w,."f'', ., - flf, I lor 2 m (2.87}]. FurthermoN. under
conditio(6.1)and(6.l). dletoll...._ift1e8ral iiiMMIId IIIICUGelled:

'-

J.<o1Jl - o1fl)nJ6u, + J. (p41l .... ;a + ~. w.}sw,

'-

d.t

d.t - 0

(6.4)

~vc*the v~tiou W..-4Jw. ~f;lwe.vanatioAaare~' ud the

portioG of dac, 4atc.rf8cc S is IUtJittarJ, iq. (6.4) daw:_. ...,....t41J ~ the nullity ol the
two intcaraJa. Thus from tbe lint oae.:
~Jln1

o1Jn1

(6.S)

Condition (6.5) represents the 'continuity of the macroacopic stress vector at the
interface crossing. This is the equivalent of:

~~-~
on a surface where the surface force ~ is. imposed. The
W11 a - K,(pCll- p(ll)

-~

~~
~

condition gives:
(6.7)

Condition(6.7), in which iJp - ,C2l - p(l) represents the difference in pressure prevailing
on either side of the interfac:c (or of a mudcake), is nothiq other than Darcy's law
governing the fluid flow across the interface. It may therefore be noted that, for

'-;'

2118

WAVES AND INTERFACES

(open interfKC~the fmitcness ef:tbe flow gives rise to a zero pressure difference
(~p- pl 21 - rP 1 - 0). For "- 0 (sealed interface). no flow is obtained (w. - 0).
It is dear that " depends notoaly on the eeotaet geometry between lbe two media; but
must also depend oa the frequency (iloanbaum. 1974).. if the latter cornsponds to a
wavdeagththat is not large in comparison with the dimeosioDJ of the elementary volume,
but only in comparison with those of the. channels in wbicb the Oow takes place. In this
case. permeability is no longer absolute but relative to the frequency, on which it depends
(BioL 1956 b). The experimental determination of " for application to .actual cases
(mudcalce for example), is nonetheless a delicate matter. Hence aU the theoretical
investigations consider oaly the limiting cases " "" 0 and " = <X> (Geerstma and Smit,
1961. Rosenbaum. 1974, Feq aiad Johnsoo, 1983-). .
Equations (6.1), (6.2), (6.S)and(6.7) are knee the so-called nat1,U'al boundary conditions
that must be satislied at .tbo interface or two saturated porous media. It must be
emphasized that, contrary to the inconect preaontation adopted by Deresiewicz and
Slcalalc (1963). for a Hamiltonian fQnnuJation of the problem, o~ Cannot, independent of
this formulation, introduc:x: the constitliti\'ic equation (6.7) govetning tbe ftow at the
interface. In fact, this equation is a consequence of Hamilton's principle. To apply the
principle, it is necessary to account for all dissipations, adding the potential of dissipation
per unit area (6.3) to the volumetric poten&ials of dissipation. Giveri their clear physical
signiftcance, one could obviously hav~ introduced (6..5) and postulated (6.7). However,
a pan from the fact that this presentation woUld not bcin~t with the Hamiltonian
presentation of the theory developed in Chapter 2, the procedure would also have
obscured the so-called natural character of (6.5) and (6. 7), by conferring on them a more
heuristic value.
Two specifiC eases "iH be~ below. F~ eoaaiGor the case or a {fee surface.
Equations (6.1) and (6.2) then . . . . . .r. Equatioa(66) iueplaced .by Eq. (4.6). where we
ICIC j, ==
Ia t6.:7), P' 21 0 and bene~ p .. p'- 11 0, ~\IICtolal interc()niiiOetion exists
(open interface, '" cc ). Ia the cue :Of a. frce. udae.. ;mC i*lCiitio arc. tilus:

" - JO

o.

tln=O
Free surface { . 11 1
p==O

(6.8)

The second cue tonsidered ii that Of the reftection. attlle iBtetfaee of a pOrous 'Bledium
(medium l)ilndofaftuidmedium{tliedhlm 2).1nthisc:aseEq. (6.1)cfisappean.Moreo~.
since the fluid corresponds to unit porosity, the ftltration vector seen from thetluid side is
reduced to \\1 21 = Ul 21 - fl1 1 ' where iq 2J is the average fluid velocity. Furthermore, the
stresses in the fluid are reduced to a hydrostatic pressure, whereas (6.7) remains
unchanged. Finally we obtain:

w = W. 11 n- = (UP1-

II

Interface
Porous mediUm l~fluid2

o1] 1n1n1 = o1]"n1t1 == 0

w. =

p<21

......

il.ll)n.
I
I

(6.9)

- "(p(l) - pill)

'
.,
........

'=-'-'r
~

tl49

WA81 A.-'IMIIli'MIIS

...

'--~

'---'

~
-~,

''--'

v--"

-.'---'

'---'

6.1.2 Wave reflectloas at the interface of two saturated porous ...U.


In this Section it is assumed that the problems dealt with are two-dimensional. the
interface is planar, the waves_. p~anecu harmonic wa aad that the incident wave
travels from medium 1 to medium 2. Ia dMsic elutodyumic:s. an iDc:ideat P or Sl' wave
reflected anbe interface of two clastic tolids paerally lives rise to four typea of wa'Ve, two
transmitted and two nlected. P aDdS I' (for example. Ewiot a al., 1951). Tbc SH wa~ is
of less interest because of the at.nce of convenioa. and will not be conaidered further.
In poroelutic:ity, tbe famewcn of the study, the possibility exists of pneratina six
types of wave, tbla. traaaitted aad three rc:ctl<ll, P,. P2 aacl SV. clue to tbe paaiblc
eJisteacle of a eecoad kiaclc:a.ps--.1 Pt waw4lee Cllapter 2). Each wawisclcfllled by
its amplitude, aaplar frequency, aad wa~ ve;tor. Due to attauation mechanias, the
latter corresponds to d\e data of four tcalan (two N8l com.poaoats, two craplex
components). A wave is hence clwacterized by six parameters. Since, in ptiaciple. each
incident wave can give rise to six waves, the most pueral case (mciclent P1 , P2 aad SV
waves) corresponds to the determination of 108 unkDOWM for 1&4Ma. Tbe.UDknowns are
determined by the epcssion of bouadary coaditions (6.1). (6.l). (6.S) and (6. 7), usia& the
constitutive laws of Chapter 2 coDCel'llina eada medium. Altb.oup the solution of the
problem raises no theoretical difficulty, it is easy to sec that the effective calc:ulations
rapidly become inextricablc. This is why .we sbal1 restrict ourselves to two main cases
discussed in the literature. that of normal madence in the case of reftection at the interface
of any two porous media. and that of any incidence in the case of reflection at a free surface.
We shall not consider 6e case of an inc;:ideat P2 wave. Due to its biply attenuated
character, onec this wave is pnerated, it disappears rapidly amfc&D only be reOeetcd on an
extremely close interface.

6.1.11 Case of .,..lladdeaee

"---'

Let us farst introduce the ratio Z of acoustic impedances correspondinl to the incident

wave:
"--'

z _!.e.!!!

.__.

In (6.10). Vis the wave velocity for a closed meclium (i.e. no relative motion between the
ftuid and the overall movement). With the notations from Chapter 2, it may be recalled

(6.10)

(pY).

~=

C''; l#J)'
l

Incid.ont P1 wave: V V,..,


~'--"

Incident $ wave:

Ys (~Y

(6.11)

(1) It is always possible to approaima&e ,vave frpD~ ~ ~y low curvature loc:aUy by tlMir taaaent
planes. For any wave front. a couJ)Iitla OCICUfs ~'thf lriSftt pometry and the iaterface, and it is Uceual')' to
employ 6Der theories such u til<* oh&)'S (Cerveny ~r Iii., 1917).

---~

'---'

...

250

WAVES AND INTERFACES

Let us also introduce a reference angular frequency (Chapter 2t defmed by:

al

41

= 2nfc =-;;;:

(6.12)

PpJf

where~

is the hydraulic p'Cnneability.lt ma;v be recalled (see Chapter 2) that we is usually


very lar,e, thus allowing expensiODS with respect to tw<.
One can now determine the rdlection C()Cft'tcients R and traasmission coefficients T.
These coefficients are dehned as the ratio of the amplitUde of the displacement
corresponding to the wave a1Udyzed (reflected or transmitted) to that of the displacement
correspondiq to the incident wave. Note that, coatnry to the dastodynamic; case, these
coefficiems are complex because of aUIID\Iation processes dar to the two-phue character
of the materials involved. tbis at:tataation leadiBa to differeaces of phase. The
computations corresponding to the different typc5 of reflection were conducted by
Geerstma and Smit (1961) and Deresiewicz and Rice ( 1964). We shall only comment on
their results here.
L

CIIU of- ltu:i*W S

""'

WCN

For an S wave at normal incidence, only the S waves are evidently transmitted and
reflected. lbe coefftcients are then given by:

zz (. ~w ~w )z
2[ z2. .( w. w )2
T -:--1 + Z I +.4(1+ zl' 7t al,_ Q7
R-

1- z [
T+Z 1 + (1 + Zf

y1

y2

exp (i tan

where
}' = <I>Pt

.-..,

8,.)

(6.13)

,.

for media l and 2

9.1 d

exp (i tan"" 8y)]

i2

'

_ ]

:.Zzi ( ;; -"yz ~)

(6.14)

(J))

(J)
OT = -z- ( 2-1'1 --;-

1+

(1)1

These equations correspond to an expansion to the nearest second order in wfw< [i.e. up
to (w/wc) 2 ]. Note, to begin with, that, if w - 0, the classic reflection (1 - Z)/(1 + Z) and
transmission 2/(1 + Z) cocfticimts are obtained: Moreover. they depend on w2 , thus
differing from the same problem in viscoelasticity (see Section 6.2.3.2).
The flow conditions at the interface, characterized by the parameter Ks. have no effect on
reflection and transmission of the S waves. This is nonaal. ~cause shear waves induce no
pressure and hence no flow at the interlace. The influence of Biot's mechanisms is only felt
by the dissipation induced by the competitive effects of permeability and inertial forces,
thus the only forces responsible for flow in the media. but not across the interface. Thus
transmission is complete (T = 1) in the ftrst ord~r term of w d if Z = 1. In the second
order term of wfw<, the order in which the two-phase character prevails for the case of S

""'
.-..,,

--..,
.-..,

--..,
~

""

-.

~-,

'- ,i
"---"

:..

2Sl

ft"'WIAD~

'

waves, it is also necessary that the quantity ,Pp1 /pof = :Kp}lp be continuous
[substitution of(6.12) and(6.14) into (6.13)]. In fact, this quantity quantifies the foregoing
competitive effects. These d'ects must .then act similarly in both media in order for the
phase dift'crcncc between Ruid motion and macroscopic motion to be the same on either
side of the interface, and for transmission to be complete.

b. CIIIC of a iltciMIII P1 wc
The tr&Mmisaion and rctlcction codlieieata corrcspOildina to aa W:idont P1 wavoand a
transmitted or rcftected ~wave arc denoted yw and ~. Tbc sublaiptj is 1 fot waves of
the r.m kind and 2 for dlc wave of the seconcl kind or slow wave. For rcftected and
transmitted P w~ves, we !)btain : "
.. . .
..
., . .
1

R'u

fUl -

1-Z
1

+ z (1 + 60 ) exp (i tan - 1 80 )

,m
1- z) exp [- i tan- (1~
- z8 )]
+2Z(~1-8
1
0

(6.1S)

where
(6.16)
with

'[(1 - pm)rrryJ
fJ
l

. .
m== fJM g=
.1.1 + 21',

(6.17)

for media l and 2 and where fJ and M arc the coefftcients of 1Siot"$ theory (see Chapter 2.
Section 2.2.2.1 ).:;
, ~
For reflected ud tralll-.itte&t 1\ waYCS:

. R'1 91(1-ft ;D,)exp{i ~- 1 (1-lB:a- ~s>]


(6.18)

TC 21

~ f 1(1 -92 + 8,-IJJ eltp [t taft- (82 + 84 )]


1

"'

where

81 =

Jj(t- ~
Z

m1

m1

m2

80

Bz == (~ :-. 1 . ~~2 ) 1 - z2 Bo
1 + Z rc.p 1 V,, m1 - m2 ~ .
.

~ ~dico/aft - <d 2 co/CO\)


8
a 4i2 fl'-fY. (mt- m2 )(~/~)iii
t;.

.1 fla ~-:flit
.. ----.,zZ (lz
oft

,~

(6.19)

2S2

WAVES AND INTERFACES

with

4-, t/131fPt
p(p,fp- m)

for media. 1 and 2

(6.20}

In (6.20). q is a shape factor that depends on the geometry ottbe pore network. It
from a more elaborate theory than the one developed in Chapter 2 (Biot, 1956
average value is
Among other factors, it is related to tortuosity" by
ah,
acoefticient eharacceriziog thecapitlary CI'OSSaectioa (Ia ~ 8 fot' ein:uJar JeCbOIII, h
for infmite penny-shaped cracks).

r-

JS.

The foregoing equations correspOnd to an expansion with respect to (J)/(.1)~.


expressions thus show that the influence of the two-pbUe dtaracter of the
1

concerned is felt to the first order in (Q)/0>1i for tb.e ftlflection of a P1 wave, as opposed to
the case of the reflection of an SV wave, for which the influence is only felt at tbe frrst order
in (.1)/0Je. This inftuence is mainly exerted through the contrast, of tbe quantity m defmed by
(6.17). Ifthis quantity]J continuous (i.e. m1 - ,.2 ), Eq. (6.16) gives 80 = 0 and Eqs. (6.17)
then show that the reflection coeft"tcicnts AC 1 ' and transmission coefticients TC1 1 are
reduced to the classic cocfticicnts of elastodynamic:s (1 - Z)/(1 + Z) and 2/(1 + Z). This is
understandable considerina tJle ~QCC
Let us recall the defmition of the
macroscopic stress (see Chapter 2):

or ....

t~,1 =

If we set

t~.,

A.1 tr e ~iJ + 2p eu- PMe~,1

(6.21)

= 0 in (6.21), oy being the direction ~ to the interface, we obtain:

tr ~ ==

mt

(6.22)

siru:c tr is,. in this case. equal to ~


The quantity 1/m thus quantifiCS the share accounted for by the inaeue io water
content in the apparent volumetric strain tr .... zerO 4W!JQ~ . . . .M:opie--' stuss
(u., == 0). Ifm 1 = m2 , this share is the same on both sides of the interface. relative to the
respective voiUJJleitric ttrain: Thus, for m1 m2 , dae traJ1Jinissioa and Rlloction of the P1
wave of the first kind can take place with the same elastodynamic coeft"'cients, because of
the absence of au atUitioltalsta;cu at tbc iater(ace with respect to the elastodynamic case.
Simultaneously, note that in the absence ofan impedance contrast (i.e. Z = 1). the contrast
of the quantity m leads to the generation of a reflected P1 wave dependent on .;;;;!Oi.
Mechanisms of this type were identified in the analysis of the effect of attenuation in
viscoelastic media (Bourbie, 1982, Bourbie ami Nar, 1984). This will be discussed in the
second part of this Chapter.

We have just shown that the contrast Am= m 1 - m2 uerted a considerable influence
on the reflection and tran~on coeftic:icntuelative to the P1 wave corresponding to the
classic compressional wave in elastodynamics. Thus total transmission occurs for .1m = 0.
However, even when m1 = m2 slow waves er MCODd kind P2 waves are always generated.
This is understandable because it is tho ~tual movement of the interface (and not the
additional macroscopic stress, which is 'zero for m1 == m2 ) which generates slow waves in
return. For m 1 = m2 , this effect nevertheless depends on w/O>c to the first order (factor
8182) whereas it depends on (w/w1 112 in the general

case. .

~-r;_
'---' '

~".;.

'-'
~

'

253'

WAVII . . DSI~

It shoulcl ftnaUy be noted that the permeability .of tbe interface .rc, bu ao eft'ect (to the
tirst onlcr in CIJ/of} ncept t1uuaJb the factor f 1 82 [aee (6.18)]. aad hence only for slow
waYeL This is UDCientaa4able becaute it is always the mac:t'OICOI'ic moW~DCtDt of tbe
interface that can generate a fluid flow MI'OII:dlc iDtelface ill the ctirectioa Gppt)Sitc to the
propaption direction of the iacident waws.
Equations (<6.12) and (6.1S) to (6.19} pvc Dllults correspoadiag to a number of limit .
cases. Let us therel'orc auume thatoeeofdle two media is impermeable. Tbis correspoads
to Ulumina for this medium aa iBflnite ~ anautar frequency [.1'" -= 0 in
(6.12)]. Now let u assume that the iDc:ideat waw canes from tlae permeable medium (i.e.
crfz ..,. + GO). This does not aeacnto U}' aipifiamt~YC ChaJlF for tbe problem of
the iacideat S wave.(aft- w.~ .... +eo (6..UO. Fer th8 problem of an im:idcnt P
waw from. a pcrmcabk naedium,. _Ecp. (6.1S) ta {6.1sa) show that, to tbe aearat second
order in ...;;;;r;;i:

Hll==l-Z

1 + z

y<u.~
t +Z

p;
Rll _ ~

; ..,...

(0
(
.d ...-..up
l+Z of

Jt)2

(6.23)

Is is clear that no P2 wa:ve is ~ in the impermeable medium (T' 21 - 0). The


signiftcant cft'ect is that the two-pbue daancter is only exerted on the reflected P2 wave to
the second order in
and no lonsef to the f1rst order, as in the case of two permeable
media. This is understandal\le in the tllht oltbe forqoina explanations, since, with respect
to the elastic case, a macroscopic:.,..._. efthe iatetflleecuealy have an influence on
the P2 wave aencrated i11 tile ~ '1iledium. The lesser sipifteance of the result is
shown by a transfer to ~ order -"' ~ Now, if the wave CO~DCJ from the
impermeable medium(~ Of, oft .... -+ GO), the efl'ec:t is obviouSly reversed (R( 21 - 0 and

...;;;;r;;i

ym ~ on (J)/iff).
Another interestinlspeciftecase is tbe one in which one of the two mec:f'1a is a'ftuid.ln the
limitina cue ol a. fluid, the parameters introctuced into Biot'a theory (Chapter 2) are

reduced to:

ll ==0

no c:ouplina force. unit tortuosity


unit porolity
infuute permeability, no dissipation
no shear

;.1 == M

fl-1

a l

~ ... +ex>
..,-

These conditions have an evident physical sipifteance which was discussed in


Chapter 2. In ~. an infinite hydraulic permeability correspoo4s to an inftnite
absolute permeability rc (see Chapter 2. :II" "'" where If is the viscosity). The boundary
conditions (6.9) correspond to a perfect OWd, IUdl that the viscosity is zero. We observe a
certain paradox. becaue the porous medium is saturated by the same fluid, aad its
viscosityistbesoaroeofnon-nealiliblediaipativeeects(flnitepermeabitityoftbeporous
medium). But in fact, this paradqx -~ - ""rWtly exist. The diSsipative elfects are
actually due to the fad that fluid. Dow occu'n within a complicated pore network which

'-

,_

(6.~4)

'~
254.

WAV5 AND INTERFACES

slows down its proBR*ion by giriag rise to shear stresses of viscous orilin at the
liquid solid interi'ace. In tbecue of a luid medium. this interface does not exist, and the
assumptiOA of a perfect luid can be ablined. because disaipatiOA within the Ruid is
nqligible far from the walls lor I~ viscoJity Ruids.
Substituting (6.24) into (6.1 5) to (6.19) to determine the case of the Ruid/porous medium
interface is in fact irrelevant, becaual, accordins to (6.24), w" -+ 0 and the limited
developments in w/aJ~ for tludluicl pbue are ao loftFr valid. The entire problem lllUst
therefore be reconsidered, butitasedoaboulldary eonditions(6.9), to develop a function of
wlaf whtn of is the characteristic aagutar frequency of the other pcnneabte medium.
Geerstma and Smit (19tH) pafonaed the Corresponding computation. The qualitative
results agree with the tJC110l'81 reaul&s, .ia other words the pneration of reflected and
transmitted P1 waves with a firit order eotrective term in j(i{ai, the generation of a slow
P2 wave in the permeable medium with a ftrst order coefftcient in j(i{ai.

Approximllte 1fU18IIitlllks oftlll ,_,.,.,._


We have used the experimental data of Wyllie et al. (1962), concerning three types of
sandstone with widely differing pcnneabilities:

c.

porpsity t; = 29.7%
permeability K = 1900 ml>

Teapot sandstone
Berea

~ndstorie

porosity

pel'JDel.~ty

i 9o/o
K

= 200 mD

FoxAills saa4t~ ..' porolity ... 1.4%


~y K- 32.5 mD
The saturating fluid is water. The~-- data a~ stun~ in the following table:
wa~ <~turadaa ~) .
.
VISCOSity ....................... ...................... .
Density ........................ ' ....................... .
Sound velocity ..........................................

1 cP
to* kl/arl
lSOO m/s

GraiDS (silica)
Density ..........................................
Bulk modulus ...................... ~ ..................
Matrix
Berea sandstone
P wave velocity
S wave velocity
T~pot sandstone
P wave velocity
s wave velocit:r
F oxhills sandstone
P wave: velocity

2650 kg/m 3
3.19 x 1010 kg/m/s 2

................................ ..
....................................... .

3670 mjs
2170 mis

.. ' ....... ; ........ .... ...

3048 m/s
186S m/s

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ..

44SOm/s
2S1S m/s

...........,....... ' ................. .

S wave velocity ... ~ ..., .....

Tortuosity is assumed .to be constant and


~ual to a == 3.
.
.
'
'~

...

:;;r~-

"---'
'-....-

~~~yft)'~OW..

255

We have considered two types of ititerfage~


(a) The interface between two porous media (two of the above tbree Ulldstones).
(b) The interface between water and ono of the above .lbree sandstoDCI.

In the ftrst case. we consider an incident P wave (Fie. 6.3) and an incidentS wave
(Fig. 6.4) coming from one of the two porous media.
P1l

lA(1)

Par-medium1

tRC2l

JOl

'--

yC11

rnecllurft 2

6r--------------------------,
'-

1-<2)1

-'5

Prop.tf2

I-J2

~-

,,
0

--~--'!.~!~_:..

-""
.....................................
-~

rl' . . . .

F......,....CIIHzt

28

30

ofthe~lilileclioecoetftcleM

R'-dtbe 1\ wave
....._.toModulwa
the elutk rel'ectioa ...-..(ot tbt P, wawt a fuDctieD
(cue an
wave). Tbe curves identilted as

... U
''--

\0.

..,_lilftdatJFOldtills Uflllltt.

or
frequency
or incident P1
Me
follows:
porous medium (I)/porous II'IO!Itium (., The wave approaches from
medium (1). Note that. for the reftec:tion and traDsmission <:Oeffic:ients 11< 11,
ym and 2l, the quantities
A.. A. ., ,
and
are lower

T<

R<ll- ll"f('l-T., T., I

IT(2)1
T_.

than 10%. The symbol el stands for elastic: and meus that the reflection or
tnnvri,;Oil coeffiCieats are~ at-. ia.-.betwelm two dutic
media or that daae ooctT&<;icnts are QQIDPIUid.at ZeFO frequency.

'-

ln-tbe IICODCI caK, we consider an iacililent I' wave comiat from the Suid medium
(water) (Fig. 6.S).
To identify the differences betweea poro-clulielllobavior aa4 purely elastic behavior in
terms of wave roflectioa and trui!lsioa. Fip. 6.3_to 6.S show. as a functioe, ofliequency
(up to ~ut 30 kHz. i.e. frcqueQel used in aco~ wdl-loqiq expcrhDcnts): '
(a) The modulus of the mative .deviations of poro-'elastic Rfltction R", and

256

WAVE$ 4ND lii.IERFACES

transmissiQn T 1il coeft'tcients ofthe P1 wave(i = l)and the Swave(i = S)in relation
to the elastic reflection (R.,) and transmission (T.,) coefticients (i.e. at zero frequency
hence zero Biot effect) (Fags. 6.4 abd 6.S).
(b) The modulus of the reflection R', and transmission "fC3tcoell'lcionts of the P2 wave
related to the elastic reflection and transmission coafticients respectively of the P1
wave (Figs. 6.3 and 6.5).

s
RfSI
...._medium1
...._medium2

4r---------------------------~~
jR(S) _

RJ

laJ "2
0 1

Fie 6.4

- .1
'f ...... ----~~fioldlit
..,"
............
:r.;-;r.~-

30

20
10
fN~a~lncvlkHz)

Modulus of the relative deYlation

IRfSlR~ l

$...,_

A.,

or the poro-elastic

reflection coeffacient in relation to the elastic reftection c:oe8'1Cient as a


fuJM:tionoffreq~ofaa..._a

Tbe~ideQcif'IOd:u

follows: porous aaediual (1)/porout ....._ (2J.l"he waw apprcwfaea (rom


Jlllldium (1). Note tJiat:
jl"'t - T.dfiT..! < 1%
We shall emphasize the following points:
Effects on P1 and S wawi are anater inldection thaD in transmiaion. In the case of
an incident S wave (Fig. 6.4), the n6lctiot) deviations, although sli!)lt ( < SOlo). are always
greater than the transmission deviations ( <e 1%) which are not shown.
In the ca* of an incident P wave in the fhlid (Fia. 6.S), the relection deviations (J04'/o for
Teapot sandstone at 30kHz) for the P1 wave reach up to three times the transmission
deviations ta 10% for Teapot sandstolle at 30kHz).
The effects are far mQre J>ronounted for the s wa"" than for the P1 wave. Thus the
relathe deviatien of the poro-elastlc' teftection coelftcients in relation to the elastic
coeffiCients. although slight in the cased an incident S.wave (Fia- 6.4) ( ~ 4o/o at 30 kHz),

~.

/ :uu ' );' i

?::,:_~.if

J'J ,

...,....,........,..

yl21

~----------------~~--~~~
jattl_ ...~"20

"-''"

_____
... _...
.....1......_~=----.,__.. .....
...,,...............
:;..,...-"................-..

..

---

---:~----

10

20

Fnquency lkHit

(a)

r---------------------------~
10

trt''- yJ,.
jTJ

Pro.,.'t '"
5
-~

-~"::---~~

___ :.
.. ,

,. , _ .... - - ---.:.,,,~-~-~...............
------
10

<)

10
f~Hzt .

40

.--~-------------------,

!;.

~"(e)

,..,,12
~-~~-......
-------... ----~..-n.
...........
---~-----

to

io
Frequency lkHzl

F1a-

6.! Modulus of the ftllative deviatiens of porCHiaStic mlection


coeft'tcient IR'1l - R.d/IR..I (4) . . and
transmiuion
coeft'tcient
OT111 - T.,) /IT.d) {It) or the P~ wave in relation to the elutic reftection and
transmission coeft'tcieniS ~ively, and modulus or the por04laatic
transmission coelftcient Tl 21 (e) or the p 2 wave related to the elastic
transmisaion. ~ . . . fuactioA of rrequeacy (cale or an incident p 1
wave).

"--'

258

WAVES AND JSTERFACES

is greater than the same deviation in the case of an incident P1 wave (Fig. 6.3) ( ~ 1%)
which is not shown.
As predicted. the effects are much greater if one of the two media is fluid (see scales in
Fig. 6.5) than if both media are porous (see scale in Figs. 6.3 and 6.5).
The reflection Rf2 , and transmission T'n coeff'tcients of the P2 wave are not at all
negligible (Fig. 6.5c and also Fia- 6.3) compared with. the reflection and transmission
coefficients of the P1 wave. Thus, in thecase of Teapot sandstone (fig. 6.5c), the ratio of the
transmission coefficient T 121 of the P2 wave and the elastic transmission coefficient ofthe P1
wave reaches 30% at 30kHz in very permeable Teapot sandstone (K = 1900 mD).
Tho deviations are proportional to the square-Qf the frequency (Fig. 6.4) in the case of
an incident S wave, aad. to the square root of the frequency (Figs. 6.3 and 6.5) in the case of
an incident P wave. Moreover, the elfocts are stron,er with more permeable media.
It must be emphasized that dle orders of magnitude given above for the transmission
and reflection coefficients concern an open interface. The effects are slight for a sealed
interface (one order higher in w/af).

In the light of these results, it appears that if both media are porous and permeable, or if
one is fluid, the P 2 wave reflection and ta,lnsmission coefficients are not at all negligible.
The generation of reflected or transmitted P 2 waves participates in the total energy
balance and contributes in a non-neJligible manner t~ alter the P 1 wave reflection
coefficients. However, owing to the high attenuation of P 2 waVes in comparisoo with P 1
waves (see Chapter 2), direct observation oftb~former appears to be impossible. Hence
the non-negligible signature of the P2 waves must be found on other types of wave:
In conclusion, it should be noted that the main influence is exerted on reftection and not
on transmission. and that it must themore appear .Jti the recordings. Th.e two media
considered must nevertheless both be permeable and the interface open for a P2 wave to be
generated with a noticeable effect:

6.1.2.2 Aaalysis of reflecdoa CNI die free surface of ll seml-infnite


saturated porous medium
We have selected this specific case to IUgblight another important property of reflection

processes in saturated porous media, namely the existence of inhomogeneous waves. The
computations raise no theoretical difficulties, and it suffices to satisfy the boundary
conditions (6.8) by superJ,esing tbe incident wave and the reflected waves necessary to
carry them out. However, the computations remain cumbersome and we shall only stress
the qualitative character of the results obtained by Deresiewicz and Rice (1962).
A wave is defmed by its potential II such that :

II

= 110 exp i(wt -

k* r)

(6.25)

where k* is the wave vector and r the position vector of the point considered. Due to
attcnuatiQn JllCCbanisms,,k is a ~plex v~r:
k* k - iA

(6.26)

110 up (-A. r) up [i(an- k. rt]

(6.27)

which gives for (6.25):

-,

~-

-T

2S9

~AV!SANDI~

The norms of vector A and k arc written:

tAl== A

(6.28)

fkl- k

where A, inverse of a Jenath. is an attenuation, whereas k is the wave number such that:
kV = ro
(6.29)
where V is the wave velocity. A wave is said to be inhomogeneous if the \"ectors k and A
arc not colincar. In other words, the planes of equal amplitude (A r = constant) arc not
parallel to the planes of equal phase (k r - constant). These inhomogeneous waves arc
encountered in another coatext '**ly comparable to the one examined here, that of the
reflection at the interface of two viiCOelastic media (Bourbie, 1982, BourbiC and GonzalezSerrano, 1983). This problem wiU be dealt with thoroughly in the next part of this Chapter,
which can be referred to for a more detailed analysis of the inhomopncous character of
the waves.
The most important qualitative results for the problem examined here are the following.
In the case of an incident P1 or SY wave, the charactcristM:s efrcftected waves of the same
type as the incident P1 and SY wave dift'er relativfiy IJiPtly from the same waves rcftected
in elastodynamics. They are homoaencous, sliahtlY dispersive and dissipative, and this
dissipation depends on w/of to the lint order. By contrast, the reflected P2 wave is highly
1

dispersive and depends on (ro/of}io the fu'st order. ltsattenlMtion is proportional to rofw
l .

in a dircctioR panllel to tbe free surface, and to (w/of)-l' in the normal direction.
Deresiewicz aftd 6.'e (lf62) auaamcaD)' analyzed the expcrimtwltal da1a ofFatt (1959)
correspondina to a kerosene-saturated ~."tortuosity was assumed to be 1.01. We
Jive here the results~ to an iDddent 1'1 wave 4:w wbidl.thc Biot effects arc
particularly important, especially at low anatcs. of illCidcace (Glose to DOtlD&l incidence).
This is due to the polarization of the wave involvina fluid phase movements pcrpendic~
to the free surf.,.,.
For an incident P1 wave, the variations of phase velocity normalized by velocity Vr as a
function offrcqucncy are in the neiabborhood of 10-" and 10- 2 respectively for reflected
P1 and SV waves. For the retlected P2 wave, these.variations arc about to- (see Fia. 6.6).
Apin note the sliaht difereDces between the dispersive eharactcristic:s of the
inhomoaeaeous waves (see F"tJ. 6.6, solid curves) and the dispersi:re characteristics of the
homogentous 'WtWeS (dotted curves in the same ftgarc), analyzed in Chapter 2, and
propaptina in the same porous medium (kerosene-saturated Sandstone), albeit infmite,
namely in the absence or diJcontinuities.
The attenuations arc much hi8her in the direction perpendicular to the free surface thart
in the parallel direction. This was forelceablc, sinc:e. durina these .reflections, the Biot
effects occur, especially for flows normal to the discontinuities. It seems clear that, during
reflection, the free surface condition will considerably favor the differential movement of
the liquid phase in relation to the solid phase, essentially in a normal direction to thC
surface. The difl'erential m~ in tbilntiNc:tionwill theft be the main souroc of energy
dissipation.
For the rcftectcd P1 wave, attenuation characterbed by the ratio A. k is too low to be
signiftcant, this ratio being about to-. For the reflected SVwave, this ratio is about 10- 2

'---


1.()()04

.3
Yp
__:1..2

v,

-.::..1
Yp UXI02

lnhofncla-neaus-

Vp

'

1.0000

s:

Vt/fc

vm;

.I

:::..
Yp
.49

.48

vm;

Fia- 6.6 P . ve1ocily of il'l~ r~ P1 wave (Y,..~ P2

wa~
(V,.2 ) and S V wave (J'.)(solid lines) compared with the phase veloCities of the
saae types of. wava(P1 , P2 anclSY)ill the eae olullo........- IDII)de.of
propaption .ia aa iaMR. I&'IJ8dium (dotted ~ 'l'boee ~ are

~ .~ tJac vcloatf of ' ~vca (DO dissipatiOil). ~.abtcissa is the


square root ol the bquenc:y.~ to the~ hquency fc
(cue of aft incident 1'1 wate). 111e iatilo VJ.!Yr is ta'bll eqlilld to 0.483 (noadiMipati-ve c:ue) (ilftei: DeaMwicz aad .Rice, 1~ .

~ :t \
2L

l
0

I
""'

r,-o~
1

..~.

t__.. ...

Fit- 6.7 Normal, ceaaponeot of thc atten..UOn Vfllilt"' for the ..aow wave
normalized to the norm of the propagation vector as a func:tion of ,1flfc
(incidence P1. wave) (after ~ and Rice. 1962).

.----..,

-~...___

~-

261

WAVES AND IHTUPACES

30

r
I -

r3
p1
p2

30

10

r,

sv

10

~--------------------------~
flo.U

20

\fiif:.,: 4t

r2

'

' .. ' . .

Vffc .1

~or~c,or
<

thAI Pa wave and{3 of

SV wave

vs. anateof~ { 1 ohbe P1

1Rve
1962).

Deresiewicz and
Rice,
.

ViTfc. 0

30

10

to

r,

The intcrestiq qualitative. aspec:t is that, at the

.alnc frequenq, it rises with ana1c of

iDc:icJeDce (defmed in relation to - normal to cfie free surface). This results from the
peiMilatiea of perticle 1DotioD J*pCDdicular -~ tbc propaption direction. For the
rcflccted P2 wave, the normal component of attenuation is very hip (see Fia. 6.7) b1U is
pradically independent of ansJ.e of incidence.

or

or

Fipn 6.8 shows the variations anales reflection { 2 and { 3 of reflected P2 and SV
waves as a function of anpc of iaddence C1 of the P1 wave. It is clear that the angle of
reflcction ef the P1 wave is tbe .... as tUt of the iac;idcBt waw. Moreover, DQte that the
variation of ar&ale of nflec&ioa ', .. a ru.:tien of antic of incidence differs from the
clanical SaeiJ.Descartes law of er.t~: This eift'ect 1Mcomcs more pronounced
with increasing deviation from aiOimaJ incidence. The anJies of reflection { 2 and
increuc with the ratio .
the ratio with which the effects due to the two-phase
character of the studied- media increase. This can be explained by the dispersion of the
reflected waves which, conversely, impoee an increase in the anpe of reftection as a
function of frequency at faxed analc of incidence, to satisfy the Snell-Descartes laws.

'1

.;c;r;;,

c,

1.0

-l

182
0
(I)

IR1>/
0.2

...

.........

"'

e,

I
180

178
90

f1

30

80

30

0
90

80

r1
0.06

0.04

IR2'!

fife 1.11

.~

0.021

.........

.:t------90

A
.1

of

. a:t<::
30

.,
80

r,

o.e

0.4

m,:m

'

~-_::I
o____
~

---

30

0
.!

"'

80

90

r1

'""'"~.-.

180

jacslj

113

171

l---.

tl

Z1.a-=-

..

30

80-

I
I

'.
I

I
90

r1
30

80

r1

Fla. 6.9 Moduli fRt"' and phde 11of reflec:tiot1 ~ts (in potential) of P1
(i 1), P1 .(i 2) and SV (i l ar S) waves u a function of anJle of
incidence ' ' (~ 1'1 wave). ~~Yel ~e in4exod by the nonnaliad
frequency f [. (after Deresiewicz. qd Rice, 1962).

.,

-----

"---'~

r
I

-~f
'

'WA\U'Aktr~Ad!s

Figure 6.9 shows the

,-ariation of moduH and phases of refteC:tion coetftcients RU1


U= l(P1). 2(P1), 3(SY)) vs. the anJle of incidence { 1 Here the cOefticicnt All' is ctef'tned
from tbe potentials related to the wave studied by:

-.
....

-I

-,

::r
~

..-

'-

...,-

_1

:1

.J

263

= l, 2, 3

Ru1 =

i; = IR<hl exp (i8


~

(6.30)

1)

where ()0 is the incident wave amplitude.


Note that the reflection coefficients corresponding to the P1 and SV waves differ
slightly from those calculated in elastodynamics (i.e. w/ol = 0 in the curves). The only
signiftcant difference is a wider phase d~rence whidl is independent of the angle of
incidence. as compared with the elastic cast for the SV wave. This increase (in absolute
value) results essentially from dissipative effects which slow -down particle motion.
Moreover, as above, for a ftxed angle of incidence { 1 , the more the conditions for twophase effects are favored (rising w/Cif), the larger amplitude P2 wave is generated at the free
surface, which was foreseeable. In fact, coetTICient IJIC 2 ~ increases with w/ol' for a ftxed
angle of incidence and by contrast, the reflection coetTtcicnt IJIC 1 ~ corresponding to the P1
wave decreases to satisfy the enersy balance. The SV wave reflection coeft"tcient IA511
displays slightly more complex l;)ehavio~, which we can S11DUD&rize as follows:
At high angles of inc:idence (about > 650), and due to its polarization, the SV wave sets
partides in motion in the solid phase. esscntialy in a direction perpendicular to the free
surface, while the liquid phase rerbains practiallty at rest, since it does not transmit shear
forces. This has the eft"cct of generating difrerent'-1 movements between the solid phase and
the fluid, which induce two-phase effects, fuoring the generation of P2 waves and
consequently the attenuation of SV waves. As ptedicted, the effect is intensified with rising
frequency. At angles of incidence close to no~l, the mechanism described above is no
longer effective for the s1 wave, but for the I\ wave.
To summarize, an incident P (or SY) wave at the-interface between two porous media
gives rise to three types of reflected wave (P1 , ]\,and SY) and to three types of transmi_tted
wave (P1 , P2 and SY). 1bt wavtlitt the iatcrfacle: ..........., ildaolnOI'ftCO\JS (planes of
constant phase diltmct from planes iJr CODitUt'amJiitude) except
c:asc of the
refJccted wave, which is of the same type as the incident wave. Moreover, the Biot eft'ccts on
reflections and transtnissions are more pronounced at aqles of incidence approaching
normal, and hence ~ no tcmlt; be ipored.
-

in-.

6.1.3 laterfaee probltllll ltetwee11 porous ua.atetl metlia


Applicadoa to aeOUitic .........
6.1.3.1

Jaterface wues

llylft6h ~~

In classic elastodyrWnics at the f~ surface of a _._infmite .,lid, a so-callocl surface


wave can propagate, namely the Rayleijh wave (see for example Lord Rayleigh, 1885 or
Viktorov, 1967). This is a non-dispersiye inllemopneous wave whose amplitude decays
exponentially with depth. Particle motion O<:f\-1" flong two transverse components with a
phase difference or 7r./2 and contained in the Ulittal plane (plane deftned by the wave

'--

264

W.\VU.AND JNTERFACES

vector and the nonn,alto the$~). The ~~t~tmnity ofthe polari,zation vcctor.describcs an
ellipse in the direct.ioa retfoar near the~ aad PfO&rade in 4cpth. The horizontal
component is cancelled at depth Q.2 118 , where Aa is the associated wavelcagth (sec
Fig. 6.10).
MJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ

JJ)JJW)j)))))))

JC

Prclpegition

~~

nnn JJJj ns;nn;j;;ilnn ;;;;; ;;;;;; Jh;sJ; --... x

ftrOIMIJition

'

AW2

lbl

'

f'll, 6;.. DistriHtioo.otveklfity fleW (a) ud 4i~ <')of particles ol


Ill isotropic scmHafmi!e medium at the passage of a llayleiah WJVe (after
A\lld, 1973).

..

We shall now examine what happens to this Raylciab wave if the propaptioo medium
in Fig. 6.10, for the same geometry, is a saturated porous medium described by Biot's
theory. Let us consider potentials of the form:

== t;1 ~ (- r1z) exp [i(kJx- a>t)]


j == 1, 2, 3
(6.31)
Each potential defmes a P1 U == 1), P2 U a; 2)aad S{i 3)waveasindic:atedin Chapter 2.
~J

To identify a surface wave of the Rayleigh type consists of determining whether the
boundary conditions (6.8) can be satisfted by a superposition of waves dtfmed by
potentials of type (6.31). If this is possible, the real part Re(kl) and the imaginary part
Im (kl) in (6.31) respectively defme a Rayleigh wave phase velocity V8 and a corresponding
attenuation ~. in the ox directioa ~
(()

~e (kl) ""' v.(w)


1m 1kl) == a(a>)

(6.32)

''

WAWiAiM~Aa!s

285

The general eafculatiolll oorrespondins ~ dais procedure were performed by


Deresiewicz(1962). Based on these c:alculatiolll, oneoan clemoBstrate that an expansion in
w/of yields the equations which must be satisfied by Va and .a in the form:
1

../i ,.2q,
v. (- v!)1(w)1
_4 (-~)2(
v~)l- (2 _ v~)
1 _ Y,.
g V,.
V
of
Ys .
V
5

6.33>

vl t - 2 V2)
- .fi.a {(3 vivi V2vi- 2(V2vi.,. . 1)} ==

_(w)

of

~'-<

'----'

"---

''-.--"

'---'

~ ,.~</1-(t- v~)(- ~)(2- ~) v,.


Va

V5

Y,.

V,.

V5

(6.34)

Rayleigh's classic equatioll(wbere ro/af O)can be RJCOpized in the second member of


Eq. (6.33). The ftrst member, where m and (J ~ de(ined in (6.17), corresponds to the twophase effect. This ftrst member depends on theJrequcncy. and heDce, contrary to classic
elastodynamics, Rayleigh waves in saturated porous media are dispersive.
Figure 6.11 shows the Rayleigh velocity as a function of frequency, and also attenuation,
or, more precisely, 1000/Qa where Qa is the quality factor derived from (6.34). The ratio of
the bulk modulus K 11 of the fluid (water) to the bulk modulus K. of the solid constituting .
the matrix (silica) is kept constant and equal to O.OS9(- K1 ,JKJ:. This value is the same as
for a water-saturated Berea saadstoac(Wyllie &.1962). Asia Claapter 2, the ratio of the
bulk modulus of the open system to the bulk modulus of the solid has also been varied (i.e.
K 0 /K.- 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6). The broken line, solid line aad dotted line curves correspond
respectively to the pGft)lilies t; ... 30, 20 and. 10%. The other parameters involved are
derived from Gassmann's equation d Berrynia11's equation for tortuosity [sec Eq. (2.92)
in Chapter 2].
It may be observed ia Fig. 6.11a that the velocity fint decreases with rising frequency,
and that, at a pvea frequency, it increases witb the ratio K 0 /K, . .This is easy to
understand: liace the surface is free~ the pressure p ia ..., fluid is :lAII'O on this surface and a
depth gradient op/o: is created, c:ausina differential m0011leftt between .the ftuid and solid.
The movement correspondina te the~ wave iS obtaiaed by the superposition of
three potetltials(6.31),eacbc.:oi'reSpondina to a P1 waw,an Swave and a slow P2 wave. As
sboWD ia Chapter 2, however, the P1 and S waves have veloc:itiel which rise very slowly
with frequency, whereas tbo P2 wave has a vetodty wbicla inCreases rapidly (from zero at
:lAII'O frequency). Hence as the frequency rises, the contribution of the P2 wave dominates.
Since the velocity of this wave is much lower than Va(O) (the velocity of Rayleigh waves at
zero frequeacy), the velec:ity oldie Jlay,lei&h WM1J4ooroa.scs-' the frequency rises. This
initial dec:nue is mdeady leis pronounced if K.ofK.. approacba 1, because this causes a
less pronounced difFerential movement of tho ftukl. At hilber frequencies, the Rayleigh,
wave velocity increues as a function of frequency. This result agrees with the ftndinp of
Dercsicwicz, 1962). This is explained by the fact that, at the higher frequencies, the P2
wavei are too attenuated to be sipifJCant. In this case, the increasing effects of the P1
and S wave velocities prevail. The curves corresponding to 1000/Q11 (Fig. 6.1lb) vary in
the oppotite way to the curw:s correspondia; to the velocities (i.e. inereasing at low
frequencies, decleasina at hilb &equencies for frequencies 110t plotted in Fig. 6.11 but
studied by Deresiewi<2, 1962). This is ~rtnal. becaUte the more significant the P2 wave
amplitude the jreater its attenuati~ and "'" wrsa.

266

WAVES AND INTERFACES

,.,......,
1.012

..
_,' .

~,

'"''

10

,.,.....

20
30

f..~

"'"" .......:;/1
...

- - ...... -:...: ... :-:;;:..,""

VR

Vo

.4

1.000

.2 .. ""

,t;"

-- , ...

.1198

.4

.2

.........
.......
' _,______
.
--..... - ..~.2

Cal

~---~
'

.oa

.08-

.12

'Ks

.15

fife

I
i

20

~ity

......
15

""''
JO

~.

~---~~-L . . ~...

!...9!!!

OR

10

,./
-~ ,

.2/
.,
,.,

,
..
"'
..

'

....

.6

.4
:

(
I

5
(b)

0 .0

.03

.08
fife

.12"

.15

F'ia 6.11 Phase velocity 'fa) aad ittvreild ctuality factor<') of the Rayleigh

wave. Tbe phase Velocity is~ to the phase velocity in the absence of
dissipation (i.e. at zero n.~). the frequency is. normalized to the

characteristic frequency fc. The curves arc drawnfor varyina ratio Ko!K.

b. Stouky

WIIHS

In classic elastodynamM:s, at the iate~ of two. elastic half-spaces, a aeneralizcd


Rayleigh wave can propaaate, wh~ amplitude c,iecreases ~xpooentially with distance
from the interface. This wave. identified by Stooeley. does not-always exist. Its existence
was investigated by several authors, and particularly by Cagniard (1962). The reader can
~

'""'

'-'-

'-

t/Jfhl$ ANfi~Aeil

261

senerat

'-

'-

refer to MikloWitz (1978) for a


diiCUuion. For the ease ofa solid/fluid interface,
the Stoneley wa~ always eXists.
.
Now let us consider the case in'wbich one of the two mtdia is a perfect fluid and the
second a saturated porous medium. To identify the existence of an interf8ice wave of the
Stoneley type consists in determining whether the bOUndary conditions (6.9) can be
satisfled by a superposition ()f waves defined by potentiak similar to (6.31) [thn~e
potentials (P1 , P2 and S waves) for the porous medium, and one potential (P wave) for the
fluid medium]. "fhesecalculations raise no difl'reulties but are tedious, and the reader can
refer to Rasolofosaon and Coussy (1985).
Figure 6.12 shows the variation of velocity V5, of the Stoneley waves and the ratio
1000/Q51 where Qs, is the ctuality factor, as a function of frequency for different values of

K 0 /K.

1.CIOit''
.
YSt

~
Open

1.ooi0

Vo

.til
(a)
0

.01

AMI

.12

.()8

fife
:q~:,

'-

.a

_....,_
::ru~l
.

'!Sa.

Ost

. .3KofK.

---.
.
--------L-?tttz=--=---- .....

_.... -~-

..

..

.oe

fife

Fie- 6.ll Phase

a;;-:;.t J (It)

.12

velocity (a) and invene,cpility factor (lt).of the. StoadcY .


wave. The phase velodt is onu.lizecl tp the pbase velocity in the a~ of
~ip&tio!l.<i.e.. at ~ohQ\ieftC)'). l't. CtequeftCY is n~ to the
cbaractenstte frequency 1.: 'the 'tUrveS art drawn for varyin& rauo KoiK

'

268

WAVES AN~ INTERFACES

The PQrosity is assumed here to.~ 19o/.. and tortuosity is 3 (see Berryman's formula.
Eq. (2.92) in Chapter 2). The ratio of the bulk modulus K I. of t)lc Ouid (water) to the bulk
modulus K. of the solid constituting the matrix (silic.~t.) ~ kept constant and equal to
K 11 /K, = 0.059. The solid curves comspolld to ~e case of tbc open Ouid/solid interface (i.e. JC1 = ao) and the brokeo.liQCS to the case of the scaled or the closed interface
(i.e. " - 0). Like tbc R,aylciah wave in the case of porous media. the Stoneley wave is now
dispersive. For a better unders&andjng of the curves obtained. Fig. 6.13 shows
schematically the geometric representation of the increase in the ratio K 0 / K, at constant
porosity.
Poroua medium

fluid

Poruulllllllium

Fluid

Fluid-=
Fluid__.

Fluid

Fluid

KJKs "\.1

lowKJK,

Fi&. 6.13 Schematic diagram of a Ouiclfconstant porosity porous medium


interface. Note the influence of K 0 /K. Oft 40 pore sh'e".

-,,

To presume increastDJ K 0 K at constant t/J and hence at co~tant saturated connected


pore volume, corresponds in r.ct to tic ~x.i:stence of illCldsinglyJme pore channels (see
Chapter 2). Let us ftrst consider the case efthc scaled-mterface. f"br this sealed interface, no
fluid exchange occurs between the porOU& medium and the fluid medium. Hence there is
no contribution from the P2 wave in the porous medium, because of the absence of any
possibility of movement out of phase between the overall system and the fluid part.
Accordingly, the fwo-phase effect will only be exerted througb 1'1 and S waves. Since the
velocity of these waves increases with frequency (see Chapter 2). the velocity of the
Stoneley waves will'also increase as a functioll of ftequency. These dift'erential inertial
effects, increasing with frequenq, will incrnse IB~dilference between the motion of
the fluid and the overall system. This differential movement is respollsible for attenuation
phenomena and therefore implies that l088LQ61 increases as a fUnction of frequency. At a
given frequency, these effects Will obvioutly be less pronounced for a rising ratio K 0 /K
since, in this case, dift'erential movement will occut tt.ith lesser facility.
Let us now consider the case of the open interface. tn this case, fluid exchange occurs
between the porous medium and the fluid medium. In the porous medium, this fluid
exchange allows for a contribution from tile P2 wave, for which the Ouid movement and
the overall movement are out of phase. Thus the case of the open interface for the Stoneley
wave leads to the same phenomena as for the Rayleigh wave, which explains the variation
in velocities: an initial decrease, followed by an increase as a function of frequency.
Signif1caot difFerences rtevertheless exist.
In fact, the pressure gradient prevailina in the ftuicJ at the interfa~ is l(,)wer for smaller
ratios K0 /K . For a suft'1ciently SQ1all KoiK the channels arel10t so. thin (riC- 6.13a) and

..-....,

'

---~
'---'
"-./

'-

''-'
'----'

'-"-./

'-

'---

"-

"-----~

'----

-~

"---'

'----

WA'WIAHB~

'

:!69

the reduction in cross-section throush which the fiUidftiJws toWards the porous medium is
leis drastic. Tbe- pteiiUI'e 8f'8dield is tbenlf'ore llal'fOWW, Iivia~ rile to a sanaDer Ouid
cxchaftae between the two mediL The contribution of the-~\ wave, as well as the
dilsipation d to Row across the iaterface, is ......... ICCOfCiiatly. 1'llis aplaiDt why,
in contrast to Rayleip waves, the velocity eurveaconapondinsto K 0 /K, 0.3 lie above
those corrapondins to K 0 K, - 0.6 and 0.9, and why, at low frequencies. attenuation
(1000/QSr) is less for K0 /K, 0.3 than for hisher Ke/K, ratios. At hip fn:queocies,
however, with increasins K 0 / K,, attenutiOn decNases because the attenuation due to P1
and S waves dominates in this cue. The velocity curve correspondins to K 0 / K, 0.91ies
above that correspondin& to Ko/K, 0.6. because the channels become exceaively thin,
and the pressure sradient prevailins at the interface is inadequate to auarantee sipiftcant
flow as K 0 /K, approaches l.

c. Slulutulrl
As a general conclusion concernina interface waves, we can state that the two-phase
cbaracter of saturated porous aaoclia ~Mba 1M RaJleilh and Stoneley waves dispersi\'e.
However, the effects can be iporecl fer the ltayleiala wve, both for Yeloeities and for
attenuation (see scales in Fia. 6.11). The same applies to the velocities for Stoneley waves.
On the other band, the attenuation ofStonelcy waves due to the tv.o-pbase character is no
longer neJlilible in the case of an open interrace. At low frequencies, in fact, an open
interface leads to Ouid excbanacs IJetween the media, and hence a sipiftcant contribution
of the Pz wave, correspondint to out-of-phase fluid/matrix movements. Dissipation and
attenuation then reach a maximulllat a liven -frequellcy for intermediate values of K 0 / K,
(K 0 /K, 0.6). allowing large pressure ~tadiea:ts anCf SGbstantial fluid exchanges. Inertia
effects become domiaant at IBP fN\quencies, and ateteetl on P, and S waves. 'fbeseefl'ects
are also aecentuated by the open dtaracter of the. ietotface.
For applk:ations to wen loainr. it is iftttrestial-to aulya the claaqe cauled by the
two-phase character of the medium in comparison with the elastodynamic framework,
wbea a seismic source is plaeed mtt.eYicitdty of a'I\IM/penlable rneclit.tm interface. We
shall examine this problem in the next Section.
'
-

6.1.11 .............. wJcilllty ., 11 fl:dtlfOIMI - - .Wterface


We have just examined the aeneraJ properties of sutface waves (ltayJeiab and Stoneley)
propaptina at the pfaae surface or a semi-inf'mite saturated porous medium, and at tbC
plue interface betweea a fluid and a saturated porous medium. These waves were
a~ iadependently, ill other Words 1rithout poltUiatiDa any hypothesis on the source
generatina them.
We shaD now examine problems correspoJl'dinS to sources immetsed in a Ouid, near a
petmeable interface. We shaD examine the thanacs aenerated by the permeable porous
media in comparison with the classic elastic media. We shall see that the two-phase eft'ects
alter the waves propaptinJ at the iatedace. irrespective of the cylindrical or plane
geometry.
The study wiD be carried out with the aim of fmdint a suitable method for determinint
the permeability of porous media, tbroup its sipature in the ,enerated waves (i.e.
modification of the recorded signal). We shaD f1nt describe an analytical method of
resolution of the problem, and then analyze the ~results of sewral numerical simulations.

270

'

WAVI;SANP lNTEI\FACES

a. Alflllytical resolutitM qJ tlw ,...,_,

The problem is defmed by the pollletry of the propqating media and by the source
characteristics. The geometries aaalyr.ed corrapond. for example. to the folloing
problems: a plaae interfacx betwcea a 8uid and a saturated porous medium t Fig. 6.14._ a
layer of fluid of constant thickness lyina between .two identical saturated porous media
(Fig. 6.1 5), or a circular borehole filled with Ouid in a surrounding formation consisting of
a saturated porous medium (Fig. 6.16).
The sources are defmed by their aeometrical characteristics (point source. line source or
cylindrical source) and the time sipal omitted (Dirac delta function, Ricker wavelet). All
these problems can be dealt with in the same way. We propose below an analytical
resolution algorithm.
~

Choice of a system of coordiDteL For example, cylindrical coordinates in Figs. 6.14


and 6.16 and rectangular (2 D) coordinates in Fig. 6.15 for the case of a lint source.

Defulitioll ef potelltial fuc:tioM. Tlaese potential functions serve to completely describe


the vibration state in each of the propapting media:
(a) In the fluid, assumed to be perfect and incompressible, and where the source is
immersed two scalar potentials must be defined, one corresponding to the solution
obtained without any soura; and the secoi)d coticsponding to the superposition of
a source.
(b) In the porous GJ.edWm. it iua~~ry to dell~ three potentials, two scalar ( 41 1 and
4Jz) and one vectorial 'I' ~5ec Ch~ 2~ Due to the spccif1c symmetries. the
potential 'I' actually has OAly one aon-zero eoptpOnent, the orthoradial component
in the case of cylindrical,aymmctry (FiJ. 6.1~ aad the normal component to the
plane of the figures in the bidimcJWonal case (Fip. 6.14 and 6.15).
~doaofdlecrlltidoala...;....,._...,_ . _

and the porous medium (Section 6.1.1 ),

"

The complete resolution of the problem hence amounts to the determination of all these
potentialfuactions.lt is very coammietlttouse mecbods based on Fourier-type transforms
(Bracewell,1978, for example), in die tilDe and spac:edomainin the two-dimensional case,
or of the Hankel type (Oitkinc and Proudnikov, 1978. and Bracewell. 1978, for example) in
the space dom~n in thC three-c:timeJlSional case \\<itb cylindrical symmetry. These methods
offer the advantage of considerably simplifyiag the resolution of the systems and fmding
explicit transform solutions.
Hence, in the example in Fia. 6.14 for a popat source, the potentials 41 1 and~ z relative to
the Ouid are defmcd by the following equatioil$ iq cylindrical coordinates and usins the
notations in this f1gure :
~2""

,...

..,t -

v12

'il't

u
d). 4S(r)
== fi(t,.,(z
iJ 11

where
/(t)
VI

= source fu~tion.
= wave velocity in t~ fluid,

nr

for i

= 1,2

(6.35)

~"

-~

__

"\

-.
P!nt:l

Wft!I*JI-.IOof

IJII/J/Il/1111//J!IIJII//fU

.....
--1

------

P!ftl:l

z
9

272

IS(z- d)

WAVES AND lNTERFA(;ES

;_r> =Dirac disrbution product and,


'
{1
= Kronecke s delta 0

6 11

ifi=l
if i :#= 1.

Equation (6.35) ex
that the potential fl 1 destftbes the vibratory state in the
infmite fluid in the presen of a so...rce (second member of (6.35) non-zero) and the
potential fl 2 corresponds t the reflected" waves (second member= 0).
After the time Fourier tra sform (t -+ w) and then the zeroth order Hankel transform
(r -+ k) of Eq. (6.35), ~ utions of this equation are eafily put into the form:

k
1

fl2

where

h} = k2

'

) _ F(w) exp (- h1 1z- dl)


hI

z, w - 2w2

k, z, w) = fl2 0 (k, w) exp (- h1z)

(6.36)

w2
V2 with Re(h1 > 0,

~notes

fl1(k, z, w)
the ouble transform (Fourier and Hankel) of the potential
z, t),
11>20 (/c, w) is an arbitrary runction ot k and w which are the conjugate variables of r
and t in the two foregoing transformations.

fl1(r,

The necessary uniform behavior oflthe poklnlitl1s at infmil)' (radiation condition)


justifies the condition Re(h1 ) > 0 and the rejection of the solution fl 2 in exp ( + h1 :). The
complete resolution of the problem amounts to the determination of the unknown
function fl 20 (k, w) which allows the determination of potential 11>2 related to the fluid, and
the determination of potentials ., ~ aad 'I' related to the porous medium.
These unknown functions are computed t.y bbfe.Vansforming the equations and
determining the boundary COnctitfou to be;atisfied at the m.terfaces. These conditions are
expressed in the following matrix fow:
[M](X) '"" [}f)

(6.37)

_where
[X] is the unknown column matri'lt' whose elements are unknown transformed
functions [for example fl 20 (k, w)] to be dttermined.
[Y] is a column matrix of the same dimension as X, whose elements depend
exclusively on the source spectrum (freq\acncy and wave number).
[M] is a square matrix depending exclusively on the propagating media (geometrical
and mechanical characteristics) and totaUy independent of the characteristics of the
source.

"

In the absence of a source, the matrix [Y:J is zero and syatem (6.37) is then reduced to:
[M][X) = [0]
(6.38)
where [0] is tbe column matrix composed of demnts that are all zero.

"

_j

...._,

"

, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------- ---

T
.._,''---'

,_
:~

'---'

ftJmfftiij~'

'

In thisQSC, to deviate from the trivial sOlution {X] - O,correspoildiDJ to all potentials
equal to 0. or to a si*e at rat, it is llecellary tocancdthecletermiuilt ofsystem (6.31)or:
dct [AI) - 0
(6.39)
Equation (6.39) actually constitutes the velocity dispersion relation ohhe system, which

serves to dctcnnine the characteristic propaption modes of w,vcs corresponding to the


pomctry analyzed. Equations of this type were discussed in Section 6.1.3.1, enabling us to

describe the dispersion and attenuation functions of the Rayleigh and Stoneley waves.
These characteristic modes are obviously independent of the source.
In the presence of sources, the sotutions to system (6.35) are given by:
'---'

det (WO]
, - dct [M]

(6.40)

where

is the transform of the fla unknown potential.


[~ is a square matrix obtained ltrnplacina the ,.. column by the column vector
(Y].

X1

'----

Since the unknown transformed functions are all perfectly determined by Eq. (6.40), the
vibration of the space is determiDed by takina tbeir inverse transforms. Thus, for example,
ia the cue C'll F'll- 6.14, tbe.,..... dillribUtioll iac6eeuid is determiDed .. fDUows:
By clebition:
Pr(r, z, t) - Pr[11 (r; z, r) + 4S~(r, z,' t)] '

'-

(6.-41)

where f'tckll Mel the fluid dcDiitJ (AcbaaiNichi lJU, for-ple). HCJl4:0,., Fouriw and
zerotb o.- Hankel uaasrona cl (6M). we .obtaia!. ,

pf{lc, Z, fD) p1aPf.t(lc, t-, Gf) + .2(~ %, m)J

\.._-

(6.42)

where and 2 were previously detcrmiDed by Bq. (6.40). The pressure distribution in
the ftuid is then obtained by inverse trauaform of Eq. (6.42), ~:
,

, A,r, z, t) - ;.

'-

f J

_+..,.., _+..,.., p/cor. (i, ~~ tiJ) ....2(t, z, co)]Jo(kr)t dk dco (6.43)

.. .....,.. of,.,.,...., ..........

'---'

The simatations that we pnwat were performed to.y lleeeabaum (1974). based on the
expcrinaeatal data of Wyllie n Gl. ( 1962) (aee Section 6.1.2.lc~ Only two spedficconditions

at the iDtelface were ualyakt:


(a) Free interface
(b) S.W. irlterfaGe

-..

t~'-

'

" oo.

" -

o.

To aDalyze the eft'ect ofpermeabDityJllore pndlery'ia each simulation, the results for
each type of sandstone were rcplacecl by die rMitl obbtibed for a fictitious equivalent
material Qf the same dlarKt...... but widllowcr pmacabilitY.:

,_

(a) S mD instead of 1900 m'D for Tupot salldltone.


(b) smn instead of 200 mD foi'lerea taridstofte.
(c) 0.1 mD instead of 3l.S, 10 or' I iaD fOr Poxhilts Andstone.

~'---

_...
'~

'

274

WAV~

AND

INT~RfACES

The source employoci is a pressure so~ who~ tfequency spectrum is such that its
phase is zero and its moclulqs.c:oostaat bet~ frequencies / 11 and .f and zero.on either
side of the frequencies f 1 ( < f 11) and f 1 ( > f.). Between f 1 and fs and between / 2 and / 8
the spectrum amplitude rolloff is a cosine taper (see Fig. 6.17).

'a

,,_..,.. 'H

'2

Fig. 6.17 Frequency spectrum of source function.

Two JeOIDetries wcte iiM:dipted by ROICilbaum: plaae (fia. 6.14) and cylindrical
geometry (Fig. 6.16). However, it should be recalled that the Biot's effects occur essentially
at discontinuities which, by the bo.undar)' conditions that they imply. induce pressure
gradients which alter the flows. This shows that, on one hand. the geometry of propagating
media can only play a secondary 1'0~ and why, on the other, pcrmeabi1ity and ftow
conditions at the interface have the ~same .qualitatift iRflueac:e for both aeometries. We
shall therefore mainly discuS$ the l'esults concernins a plane interface, but compare them
to the ones obtained for cylindrical syinmetry to emphasize the foregoing remarks.

Different wae type&


Several type$ of waves
boundary:

are

senerated by . . immened sourc:e ncar a fluid-solid


~

Body waves:
(a) A conical P wave rcfr~ P oa .the interf:ac:e (dcoot~ P below) constitutina the
f~rst arrival.
(b) A conical P wave refracted Son the interface (denoted S) constitutina the second
arrival: this wave only exists if the S wave velocity in the solid is greater than
the P wave velocity in the fluid.
(c) A direct P wave in the fluid (denoted D), which does not .. meet- the interface: this
wave is often muted by tbc. StQilcley wave whose velocity is (see Section 6,1.3.1)
close to the wave velocity in~ fluid.
In the case of the cylindrical ~ry (F~g. 6.16) and of the equivalent plane
geometry (Fig. 6.15), ''multi-reflected n piQed. wa,ves which display an i.Qfinity of modes,
all very dispersive and attenuated, e~ in elastodJ1W11ia (Paillet and White, 1982): the
zeroth mode of these guided waW~. slightly dispersive, is also called the Stoneloy mode

'

"~T

~ Ji

'

- ~I

'-;

--'-"
'--

'"-

,,
1

----
'-'-.,..-

'-.,..-

--

1:~

- ;4-

WAVES AND~

21S

because, in elastodynamks, the velocity correspoading to the high frequency linut JJ tbe
velocity of the Stoaeley wave (the Wllvelength beiDa very small. the. cwvature Gf the
interface doll not have any eft'ect). Its low frequency limit is the familiar tube wave in
borehole seismology.
In the case of a plane interface. a Stoneley wave (denoted St) previously described in
Section 6.1.3.1, which is non-dispersive and non-attenuated in elastodynamics.
In the simulations and actual recordings (acoustic logs) these multi-refiected modes
(except the 2CI'oth mode) are very often masked by other arrivals due to their small
amplitude. Hence we shall only analyze the conical P wave, the conical S wave and the
Stoneley wave, whose amplitudes are significant.

Results of 101M . . . . . . . .
Different theoretical sipals are shown in Fip. 6.18 and 6.19 to simulate signals
recorded in Berea sandstone. As a ..-. the anivals correspond to rather low amplitudes
for the P wave, moderate for the S wave, and very energetic for the Stoneley wave.
Variations of the amplitude ratio obser'Wid fortb.e thtee types ofnvc(P. Sand Stoneley)
in the case of a Jiven porous material, and of those observed in the case ofthe equivalent
material having 11M sune cba.racteristics but very low permeability, are shown in
Figs. 6.20 and 6.21. The sipal is recorded in lbctfluid., the receiver beiDt at 3m from the
source and at the same depth.
Infl~nce

of the source frequency spectrum.

For Teapot and Berea sandstones with high and medium permeability respectively,
high frequency and low frequeacy sources w~ tested. The phenomena are more
pronounced (see Fig. 6.20) at the hiper frequencies, which is expected because high
frequencies favor two--phase eft'cCts.

.......
'-""
'-..-~

lrt}lvence of interfae. flow cmuliJioM. (open or 8flled interface).


The effect of an opea or sealedioteffacc is prKtlCitly neali&ible Oft the P wno and the S
wave (sec F11- 6.20~ However it iuadical on tbe stoneley wave (compare Figs. 6.19a and

,__,_

6.20 to Fia. 6.19c:~

-.__.

Infl~nce

'--'

'--

of permetJbility.

Rosenbaum's results are summarized in Table 6.1, which gives the calculated
attenuations per unit lonath obMrved for each type of wave.
.....__._

The effect on the P wave is plllactioally nepaibJe. Therefore for example. in a very
permeable sandstoae (J'apot) atltlnlation is lea than 1 dB/m.
The effect on the J wave is sipificant and relativoly independent of interface Oow
conditions. This is a particularly intmlltina result for the inverse problem of measuring
the mobility of the ftuid directly from fteld data.
The effect of the Stolldey wave is considerable. bul de~nds heavily on the interface ftow
conditions. For the hiJh permeability Teapot sandstone, open interface attenuation is
20 dB/m and sealed interface attenuation is 1 dB/m.
Note that &a results pwa fol: low~ Foxbilli sandstone (JCC Table 6.1) are
only refOI'ellCIO iafoanadoa, aad aN aot .at all OCJIDIW~ to the other raults (Berea and
Teapot saDdttones). 'I'M fnlquency specm.. of the source is much richer in high

,___
'--~

"--'
"-~

--~

"---'

--'-.,..-

"--'

41

O+St

D+St

I
s.lecl
....._

I~

..t
J
I 1110

IC

:=_

~i:
.I

J~

...

1100

"*limO

- .

10110

...

1000

100

Ti!lllelft ...........

1 ~

l~

~
j~
~

1100

~0

l,

Fi&- 6.18 Tbcoretical sci.smopuDI for a plue ~ted~ between a saturated

~~ere& sandstone aad water. The tranamitter and receiver are near the
interface. and the transmitter/receiver distance is 3 m. The source frequency
spectrum is aiven in fia. 6.17 (/1 0, f- 10kHz, 1... lO kHz, / 2

.J.

30kHz) (after Roaeabum, 1914).

J,_

&

I
s

O+lt

.....,_

s-led

-.

'

I
tr-

&

---~AA.._____L,

.----AAA-

~,,.---~-----, ~v~

-4011

- -_, .. -,__ .......


r

r.
+
-- - -I

mO

-li

='l

11::-

~i

--t:
-1

J_,

....

1-:J

J
1400

Theoretical seismOaraJDs for a plane interfaee between a saturated


Berea lalldltone an4 water. The U'aMiDithr aacl reoeiwr aN aear the
interface, and the traasrDitter/reatiYW distance-is 3 IQ. The IOUia (~
spectrum is pven in Fis. 6.17 (/1 15 kHz, f. "" 25 kHz, In = 35 kHz, / 2
... 45 kHz) (after Rosenbaum, 1974).

Ji1c. 6.19

~:

=t~ limO

l~

~---.

TliMinmer-lds

......,
....,._

c.

'

.I

.t-UIIfll---

-=. 2001110

...("""

O+lh

1100

_f

-l

~
--.

........,

-----..
'\

~~

('

( (\

.~

II

"'r
(

._.....

----------------
BEREA SANDSTONl (IC 20D mOl

,......,_...
1.0

II t'
I!,=,

:.

":

.01 ~

.01

11

__ ,

1.0

.........,.
75

dlst-c-t

Openlnt.t-

.___,

0.5

'
:
:::
li r

~s

1.0

~~
,.Q1

1.0

lu
I

._..........,

......

Open ......

TEAI'OT SANDSTONE I " : I 900 mOl

31110

._

I!,=

.1

.1

I .. f1

St

. ) t.o

.01

,01 ______ L
11

31110

...............

dlltMiatlcml

.5
.1

cllltllllltcml

.01

r
~~
1.0

li

r-

-P.St.S

r
.01

=-

Il ' ,.~
J

75

300

Sou___._

~-

.01

.01

~:

.1

.01

!-

1.0

1.0

.5

i-:r l

.
75

..

..........
..........
300

1
I!
a!

"!:::

.1

___ ,

1.0

.5

I1

.1

's

j.OI

.01

-e

.Ot ~-"-'-'-"""--75
300
Source-r-w

,011

75
31110
Soun:e-realwr

~-1

Fig. 6.10 P ~tnd S rerracted wave and Stonelcy wave (St) amplitude variation!! Rll a (unction or
transmitter/i'eceiver distance. These amplitudes are normalized to the amplitudes computed for
an equivalent low permeability (S mD) medium. Case of plane geometry in Berea and Teapot
sandttones (after l.oseabaum, 1974~
L

,L.-.

,.

._lcml

II

( (\
..( ....,..,.....
____ (

',.
~

FOXHILLS SANDSTONE

St

1.0 ,....
0

"'
~
H
I(

15

t::t::!:::

1.0 ~

~:

l .5 rJ

)
I

.1

20

40

eo

"'

::!!

"@0

...

-:z

_j_

.1

2040

so

~Neeiverd..._

>

"'!

St

I
z

Open int..tKe

SNied inwt.ce

10

eo

~""

Soun:e-,_w., disu.ce (em}

(em}

0
__:~

..,

1.0 ....

.I

..

2
I(

.5

...

~:::::!

: St

1.0

-!t"'

I~~ ~:
I:"

"'~
~
;;l
l,j

St

..

1
I

.1

j!:

r-

Ill

'

.1
20

Carnl

-=-~
. ~

.< :>-

2040eo80
~iverd..._

_J
"'
Ill

40

~~

10 80

S o u - - - d - . - (em}

-.0

-~
z

..'_...l

<

i
~

I(

1.0

L"

r P,St,S

1.0

.I 1-

.5 ~

.1

~~

:';

20

40

Sou~vrr

eo80

d.._ (CI'II}

I ::::::

-Ill

P,S
St

-"'
.~
s
"'

~z

~
~<
;;l

.1

20 40

_j_

eo

80

Sour~~lcml

P ~ Stefrac:ted "!ave and Stoneley wave (St) amplitude variations .


as a function or transautter/receiver distance. These amplitudes are
normaliad to the amplitudes computed for an equivaleat low permeability
(0.1 mD) medium. Case o!plaacpometry iD Foxbilksandatoae.. The.sourcc
frequency spectrum is given in Fig. 6.17 (/1 =60kHz, / 2 = 160kHz) (after
Rosenbaum. 1974).

-E<

F~~o 6.21

-------r----------------------------------------------------------------~

' ..

,..

'

(\

TAKLF.
ATTENUATIONS OF INTEIFACI!

P,

6.1

SAND STONI!LF.V WAVF.S C"ALC"ULATF.D I'OR THF. C"ASF. 01' PLANF. (if.OMF.lRY

I'Oit VAIUOUS TYPF.'I Ot' SANI>!."TONF. WITH lllt'I'F.RF.Nl" pt;Utf.I\IIIUTIF.S

Type

orroct

Teapot ddstone

1900

BerCallliMktone

200

frequency

spectrum

(mD)

Attenuation

Cetttt-al

F~equency

Permeability

ofiOUrc:e

IS_, 45kHz

1.2

Pwave

Swave

Stoneley

Open

0.4

3.5

20.s

Sealed

8.9

4.0

0.9

Open

8.9

4.1

11.6

Sealed

0.9

3.5

0.9

Open

ts

5.9

17.1

Sealed

1.S

6.2

~o

Open

~o

3.2

10

Sealed

~e

3.2

~o

Open

~o

~o

J.5

Scaled

~o

~o

~tO

frequcney

IS to 45kHz

0.2

32.5

(dB/In)

Interface

60to 1601Hz
,.

Poxhilts.
samistcine

'"7.

60 to 160kHz

60 '*' 160

tO

T,uu 6.2
CoNI'A&IION
Nl

Sowce

spectrum

BI!TWII!N A'l'fafUATtoNS CALCULATED IN I'LANI! AND CVLJNOiliCAL OBOMITitY

Bal,4 SANlJSTONI! 011 ~

Pwave I Swave
0.9

0.9

Stonefey

3.5

Source
spectrum

11.6

4.1

IS to 45 tHz
Sealed

20(). mD AJIID POaOSITY

Attctauatlon
~B/mJ

Interface
Open

I(

19 %

AND

P0a //f.

0.2
Attenuation
(dB/m)

Interrace
P wave

Swave

Stoneley

3.4

0.7

2.7

()pea
IS to 45kHz

0.9

Sealed

-~---~

Plane geometry

Borehole (24 em diameter)

(FIJ. 6.14)

(fiJ. 6.!6)

0.6
....

-------

'---~-~

----

280

WAVES AND INTERFACES

freqacacies (central spectrum frequency/cha!1lcteristic frequency of Biot's theory ;; 3),


since it is also necessary to use very bish frequencies to observe sipif1cant effects at low
permeabilities (see Table 6.1 and Fia. 6.21).
Furthermore. for comparison with the attenuations previously observed for plane
geometry, we have summarized the same results for the attenuations computed in
cylindrical geometry (see Table 6.2) in Berea sandstone. As we previously pointed out, the
effect of the source spectrum, permeability, and intctrface conditions of the different waves
is similar. However, the attenuation of the Stoneley mode is smaller for the cylindrical case
than the attenuation of the Stoneley wave for the planar case (see Table 6.2).
The interpretation of these observations is given in Fig. 6.22. In the case of the
refracted P wave at the interface the movement of the ftuidis more or less in phase with the
overall movement (tee Chapter 2). This means that the differential movement between the
two phases (the source of attenuation in Biot's theory) is relatively small Moreover,
particle motion, due to its polarization, iS parallel to die iatert'ace, so that the interface
conditions are unin:lportant because the filtration velocity vector is also parallel to the
interface.

p._.,.
li'ropegetlon

fluid

..

s-w-

-~-

fllulcl

Solid

Solid

,.. ........llltllliGft

...... lloc'.......

...........
....................
.........
Dllfhllllllt.......... to
.

................
_.........,
......,..._
.......... ..

.. .................. lkrt

.-,

StoneltyPrQPIIIIdan

Proplgltlon

.....................

r.

'

.~

~~~- ~
r o

Dlplh

"''

.....,

tafluence or relative movement or fluid phase in relation to solid


phue aad interface conditions on refracted I', S and Stoneley waves.

Fta. 6.21

Phyiical iaterpretation.

In the case of a refracted S wave at the interface, since the liquid phase does not respond
to shear forces, no pressure aradient occurs and hence there is no fluid exchanse across the
interface. Thus the open or sealed cbal1lcter ofthe interface has a nealigible effect on the S
wave. However, since the interface is set in motion, flow occurs in the porous medium by
inertial coupling (Darcy's law and inertiaUerms), and not by the pressure gradient etTect,
which is zero. Thus differential movement occurs between the fluid and solid skeleton of
the permeable porous medium affectina the S wave attenuation.
Finally, permeability and interface conditions exert a considerable influence on
Stoneley waves, as discussed above (Section 6.1.3.1). However, the effects in the

'--,
~

"'

.._.-

. . . .ANI)ftim!lt.ti'.:!!S

neighborhood of the interfa<:e arc incrcasinpy pronounced for the Stoncley.wave and at.
higher tiequency (lower penetration depth). since Stoae1cy, particle movement is
elliptically polarized and hence ditfcrential movement ocx:urs between the fluid and the
porous medium.
I tifluence of distance

_/

'~

'--'

'-

-..__._
'-'

,_
'.._

of transmitters and receil'ef"S from the interface.

All the simulations described above apply to transmitters and receivers very close to the
interfaces. In Fig. 6.23c. the sourc:c is lcK:atoclat 10 em from the interface. and the porous
medium is a highly permeable Teapot sandstone. The effect ofdittance between the sourc:c
and interface is clearly undetectable for the P and S waves(c:o.aaparefigs. 6.23a and 6.23b
with Fig. 6.23c). wlaercaa the same distance (10 em) implies that the Stonelcy wave
amplitude is attenuated by about 30 dB. Stoneley attenuation is approximately the same
as that due to the difference between a sealed interface and an open interface (;;; 20 dB,
Table 6.1). This is expected, because Stoncley amplitude dccreucs exponentially from the
interface. whereas P and S amplitudes decrease as the invcnc of the distance from the
interface.

6.1.3.3

.....

211

Coadullloas

To conclude tbitaalylil, aucl from a practical studpoint; if research is guided in the


direction of invcrtiilg acouatic lhcasuremu for mobilitJ ofdadluid, independcndy of
the interface Dow conditions, it is of primiry importance to Ute bish frequency sources
(that is to say frequency dose to the chaaeteristic frequency). However at these high
frequencies, the Stoneley wave is strongly attenuated and hence diffiCUlt to observe. In
practical applicaqons, it will be necessary to compromise, in terms of tiequency, if the
Stoneley wave is desired. AI it has been thown, the Stoneley wave is most influenced by
permeability, in the case of an open inttrface.
It is important to note that the fmt artivals (P wavea) are inlensitive" to permeability
for any interface conditions. F"mally 4- S wave is especially interesting because its
attenuation is sensitiw to the :variation iD pcrmcability and i~t of interface flow
conditions whicb arw,. . .t for in tiWIIliU1JI'elllCRt. . The transmitters and rec::civers
must be placed relatively'*- to the interfaces for these c6c:ta to be observed. It is
nevertheless difttcult to evalute permeabilitics leu tbaQ to .aD'(see Fig. 6.2le and
Fia. 6.2U) cspccially if the interface is -.Jed.
Laboratory experimcnu on borehele models of non-porous epoxy and sand
(Schoenbera et al., 1911) or porous concrete (Cben..l9U) materials have revealed wide
gaps betwoea the RtuiU olailild by ~ aDd tlaose predicted by theory.
The possibility of sample hctcrepoeity has been suaested as an explanation. For in
situ acoustic loging experiments, the problem of the inversion of acoustic measurements
for permeability still remaiaa :poorly .....~ For the. aiAae bling. it .appears that, in
many ca1e1, ue is oftina maa-of a ftUJDiaer of e&Dpirica1 folmu&as, dtlvoid of any solid
physical foundations, which work only in rare favorable eonlipratiOM.
However, the importance of this inverse problem for hydrocarbon recovery and
reservoir evolution justiftcs a major effort in this area to understand the physical
phenomena and develop an experimental proaram. Some references on field applications
of permeability effects on interface waves are given in Chapter 7, Section 7.2.

. (tL6t 'Umwefua80lf
5! ~S!P A!**J'U!UJIUQ ~)--- pu1J NOl. . . . ~~
puaua U;MlaQ acnJjJ9} aQid 11 10j
~~oaq.J. .r9 'lt.!i

---owtps

Jltp}{W

c-. tlllt.L

i" i"' 'i'

01

woo,....-.

-.-ut flll.UI04

'---"'ln---...;..-~o

,__.....

.~

lS>Q

01

....._,_,.,

.-.u!"'lctl

..,.,..UI
pejft$

lStQ

IIWIOIIIOS

01

'

01
-...ul"'lOl

.........

-p-.-,.

'-

-.-ut

liMO

lStO

t
s

01
(JH'Iot=HJ:~,.IJ)
ZH'I 9t>-O allll\4adl801f10$

t
d

S3.JV.:fll3l.NI QNV S3AV.'A

QIIIOQ8L,.

1' L'&t ,
3NO~NVS .LOdV:i.l.

.,

*AVIS AN&~IWAd!s

283

6.2 REFLECI10N AND TRANSMISSION


IN VISCOELASTICITY

We have dilcussod the intemum in Biot type media ia tbe tint pan of this Chapt. In
this second part. we shaD examine the chanJCS made by the introdactioa of iat~ in a
viscoelastic medium. We shall develop the arguments in a thne-climeasioul space, and
then. for quality-factor-related problems, we shall limit ourselves to the two-dimensional
case. We will then calculate reflection and transmission coeft'Jcients and examine in detail
the ditterences with respect to,the elastic case. Tbe problem ~ ielerface waves will be
discussed very rapidly.

-~

6.2.1

Wave equation in viscoelastic media

We showed in Chapter 3 that the unidimensional c:dl!lstitutiveequation between stress a


and strain e of viscoelastic materials is written in one dimension :

a=me

(6.44)

The extension to three dimensions yields:

a.1(t) = C1.;t1(t) 111 (t)

(6.4S)

In this equation, Einstein's aotation is implied,. with IUIIIIDadon OD the repeated


subscripts. In the isotropic case, Eq. (6.45) is reduced to:
~

qlj(t) =

'J( K(t)- 32Jl(C)) ~~(t) + 2p(t)Hu(t)

wbcrc
61} - K.roooc*cr 4clta;

{ 8,1 -o
~I}- 1
~

(6.46)

iflt'J
if i j

K(t)- bulk modulus,


p(t) = shear modulus.
The equilibrium equations are:

a,1J"" pu,.

(6.47)

where u1 is the f'A component of the displacement Equation (6.47) caa be ICWI'ittlln by
iDtroducina the constitutive Eq. (6.46) in Eq. {6.47):

pii1 - 61{ K(t)- ~t)] u..t&' + p{l) ui.JI + p(t) "JJJ


"--

(6.48)

284

WAVES AND .U'ITEJt.f'A.CES

In this equation, displacement u is a function of the space [r = (x1)] and time (t)
variables. Takina tbe Fourier~ 1Jf (6.4&), we obtain:
- pw 2 U

= ( K(co) +It(~))

an

+ p(co)

V2 U

(6.49)

where K(co) and p(~are tlte FoariettnnaformsofK(t)andp(t)R"JSpectively, and 6 is the


~olumetric 1train - div U. U - U(r, 0)) is the Fourier transform of (t, t).
Let us fmd U in the form:
U = arad 4> + curl .P
(6.50)
with the condition ctiv 'I' a
By combining Eq. (6.50) with (6.49) we obtain:

172 4>

V2 ,

..

+ kJ 2 4> = 0
+ kJ 2 '1' = 0

(6.51a)
(6.5lb)

with

14

pw2

K(co)

(6.52)

+ 4/3Jl(co)

kJ2 = pcol
p(co}

(6.53)

or

kJ == ~~ V,.(QJ) (K(co) + 4/3p(co))'l ().(co) + 2p(co))2


Y,.(co}

co
kf Ys(a>)" V,(m)

Jl~)

r
!

(6.54)

(6.55)

The quantities K(co), p(co), V,.{co), V,(co), kJ and kJ are complex quantities. The chosen
branch for the square roots in Eqs. (6.54) and (6.55) correspond topositive real parts. This
choice will be understood in the ~g discussion.
The general plane wave solution in the time domain of Eqs. (6.51} is:

4> == o exp [i(cot - k r)]

(6.56)

In this equation, k is a complex vector which we can separate into its rCa1 and imqinary
parts:
k = k- iA

(6.57)

where k is the propagation vector and A is the attenuation vector. The solution (6.56) to
Eq. (6.51) is then written:

4> = 4>0 exp (- A r) exp [i(cot - k r)]

(6.58)

As a rule, the vectors k and A are not panllel, and in this case the wave is
inhomogeneous. If the angle between k and A is zero, the wave is homogeneous.

'

-,

-;;or
,_.~

,.,

-~

-6
'"-'

. . . . . . MIDINUIIPAC!ES

PhyiM:ally, the wave ampliludc must no& Daile in dac propaption diRiction.:implying
that the anale 7 between dae wctoa k aacl A must satisfy:

-~

O~y<

1be existence of a non-zero anale y expNISCS that the planes with constant phase and
planes of constant amplitude are not parallcl. Fiaure 6.24 shows schematically the
behavior of a homogeneous wave (y - 0) at the interface between two attenuating liquid&.
1be transmitted wave is automatically inhomogeneous.

---

...

.... 6.JA ......... ud .IIIW"watt fll &.-pilule


medium (Schwtjc a..,..~

'-'

WMe Uta vilc:ociMtic

'-

,_

Equations (6.Sl), (6.56) and (6.S7) live us:


'-...-'

k k - .., ..... fAI 1 -- '211AIIkl COI1

(6.S9a)

~
/X1
k. k - iiiif [Ma - iMJ
M
IMI

(6.S9b)

and
'-

\-

where M M(QJ) is the ooaplex modulus of the wave, namely:

""'-

'-

4
M(QJ) K(QJ) + j p(w) l((l)) + 2~t(w)
for a P wave, and

'-'
~~

\_

M(fO)
for an S wave.

~t((l))

286

WAYI!i!h\ND JNTERFACES

In two dimensions (x,

z coordinates) Eq. (6.58) is written:

tfJ = tfJ0 exp [- (Axx

+A:z)] exp [i(rot- (k"x + k=z)]]

(6.60)

and Eq. (6.59) can be expressed in the form:


2

(kx - iAs-)2

+ (k: - iAJ2 =

p:;

(6.61)

or

k!2
where V is the complex velocity

+ k: 2 = pro

'

2
_ w2

(6.62)

M- y2

~med

-,,

by:

V=l=;_
Equation (6.59) enables us to calculate

lkl
IAI =

= { ~ [ Re kt
{

lkl and IAI as a function of kt- and


1

+ (<tte kt2) + (l::;~>lYJ


2

~ [ - Re kt

+ (I::J~J

+ (<Re

2 2
kt )

~.

y:

YJ

(6.63)

y
1

(6.64)

The phase velocity of the plane waves considered is equal to:

'
(0

(6.65)

lkl 2

By means or Eqa. (6.63) and t6-64), it c:aa be 'Sbelwn that this volocity is higher for a
homogeneous wave than for an inhomogeneous wa'Ve (Borcherdt, 1973). Finally, it is
interesting to note that, in the case or homogeneous waves, the foregoing equations are
simplifaed. If 6 is the angle propagation measured from the vertical (Fig. 6.25) we obtain:

k! =

~- iA,.

(Jkl- iiAI) sia 8 == ro

j{;

sin 6

(6.66)

II

~r"'k
z

---...

A';

II '

-k
-,

Fig. 6.25 Attenuation and propagation vectors for homogeneous Oeft) and
inhomogeneous (right) waves.

-----..
-~,

"'

.,........

WAV!f'MftntftdFAees

28?

The aDJic tJ is given, whether the wave is homogeneous or iohOJno~ by:

""

(6.67)

lkl

sin 6

which is written, in the case of the homogeneous wave:

. 8 = Vi + Yf -k"

v..

SID

(6.68)

(I)

where Va and V. are respectively the real and imaginary parts of the complex velocity
V = foJP and equal to:
(6.69)

v.
6.1.2

-('.vt;Mt

(6.70)

Energy balance and quaHty factor

6.1.1.1

Energy balance

We have shown that the displacement uWi8flcd Bq. (6.48), or that its Fourier transform
was the solution to Eq. (6.49~ for a plane wave, it is always possible to write Eq. (6.49)
formally as a function of u (see for example Bourbie and Gonzalez-Semno, 1983):

pi= (K(w)

+ p~td)] arM 8 + p(w)V2u

(6.71)

with 8- div u.

__

The actual displacement vector is the real part Ua of the displacement


new equation verified by Ua:

11.

By deriving Eq.

(6.71), we obtain a

pl. - ( Ka +

~) .... 8~ + l'tV2. . +

![

(K, +

~) .... Ba + Jlt vzu.]

(6.72)

The .sublcripts R and I indicate the real and imaginary parts respectively of the
quantities considered.
The~ ~ua~ is olQined \lY detenniaina the scalar product of Eq. (6. 72) by lia
(Linds&y, ~~~After tranSrormatioq (llorctierdt, 1973), we obtain:

Pa) 8a2 + 21lallaa.)llaJJ


1
]
ot0 [p2 ~2 + 21 ( Ka +. T

1 [(~

+(I)

Jl) 8a. l + llilla,..JUaJ


.
]
3

. [(Ka+3Pa).Baila+ 1 ( Ka+3Pa) 8atia


)

-dtv

+ p i [ ,..(U. div 11a +

Pt(litt div

(6.73)

lia)]

288

WAVES AND INTEitFA(;ES

The intcaration of (6.73) on. a vol&UU. D ofsurfacc SJi~ us the equation:

:r L

E dO+

fn 0 dQ = -

II.

dS

(6.74)

where
E == sum of kinetic and potential .energy densities,
0 = dissipated energy per unit volume,
I =energy flux per unit time.

6.2.2.2

Quality factor

The knowlcdae of these quantities now enables us to calculate the quality factor defmed
in a manner compatible with one of the 1D defmitions. We have decided to defme the
inverse of the quality factor in the same way as Borcherdt (1977), namely:

Q_1

= _1 loss of eneraY denlity per forced oscillation cycle2x

peak energy density stored during a cycle

(
)
6 75

Using the results of Borcherdt (1973), the values of the different quality factors are
obtained:
(a) For P and SV waves:

Q_ 1

M1 + llMf/IMI 1 tan1 y
- Ma + ~taMl/21Ml1 aaa1 y
_

'

(6.76)

where for P waves:

4
M == M(<O) == K(co) +; #() .l.(co) + l'p(co) ; y = Yr
and for SV waves:
M = M(co) = Jl(co) ; Y == Ysv

(b) For SH waves, Q- is given by:


1

Q _1 _

lla[1

6.2.2.3

+ Jll./114 1 tan1 YaP


1
+ (1 + Ill 11Jll 1 tan 1 YsHJiJ

2p.[t

(6.77)

Coostaat Q model in two dimeosioas

We showed in Chapter 3 that KJartansspn (1979) bad developed a riaor~ thcotetical


model for which the one-dimenSional quality factor was ripously ilickpcrldent of
frequency. The quality factor considered by Kjartansson was the one defined by:

Q""l == : :

(6.78)

Equations (6. 76) and (6. 77) are the same as Eq. (6.78) in the case of homoaencous waves
(y == 0). For inhomogeneous waves, these equations are different, as the angle y between
the planes of constant phase and oonstant amplitude atfects the value of the quality factor.

'--

i \

'

(
I

~~

CottsTANT

TAIU! 6.3
Q llroDBU IN ONI! AND TWO DIMI!NSIONS

Constant Q mqdelln two dimensions

SH waves

p(al} = p(CIJo)

QiJ-

SV waves

,.(01} _

(w)z'

p(m)

0).

tan.,

OiJ = 2 tan JCI

p(wo)(':.Y'

+ lin2 Kl tan 2 .,,.lr


I + (l + sift 2 . , tan2 "'1111,.
,t
(l

p(Ofo<:r'

lw)"'
p(Q)) - p(We)(Ct

tan--

Qi.,' tan .p l + 1/2 smi P tan2 "/sv

Qi.J-

1 + ltin*"' tan

(t)

M{GJ)

M(oto{:)~

"/sv

.... lictuid medium

Q;' lan trar

P waves

JI(Q))- Jl(to<:r

(2)

M(w) M(roo)

Q;---

(iw)a.
Wo

p(w) p(wo)

and

1 + l'(a~o)fM("'o)

,-a
I'

Al(w)

(4) Trivial

CllliC

= M(o)(;iw)l<l
; ,

a;'- tan

M .. o
Ma

)2'

~
It{) p(~Gi;

Wo

sm2 ar tan2 y,.

"' -tan" 1 + p(aJo)/2M(Q)o) sift


(3)

(fw)

Q;'-o

XIX

tan 2 "/r

, tan u 2 tan

290

W.-\ VES A:>;D

I~"TERF ACES

This is hence no longer an intrinsic property of the material, but a combined property of
the medium and the type of wave analyzed.
It can be shown (Bourbie. 1982) that, in the general case. a rigorous Constant Q model
does not exist in two dimensions for an inhomogeneous P wave. In very specific cases,
where the material analyzed reacts in a non-independent manner to longitudinal and
shear waves, a Constant Q model exists. The results are summarized in Table 6.3.
Nevertheless, it is important to realize that the variation. as a function of angles i'r i'sv.
y58 , of quality factors Q-p1 , Q.S/ and Q5J. defmed by Eqs. (6.76) and (6.77) is slight.
Figures 6.26, 6.27 and 6.28 provide an example of these variations for a particularly
unfavorable case in which attenuations are extremely high. It may be observed that Q -;.1 ,
Qiv1 and Qi,} are independent of the angles }' if these anaies are smaller than 70 to
75 degrees. The hilh values of y, as we will shoW in the next Section. are only obtained in
the case of an incident homogeneous wave for angles close to the critical angle. Hence we
can consider that the quality factor is virtual~ independent of the inhomoaeneity angle y,
which amounts to stating that the quality factor can be assumed to be equal to the
defmition (6.78) even for the two-dimensional problem. The Constant Q model of
Kjartansson can be considered as a two-dimensional Constant Q model.

6.2.3 ReOections aad transmisllons in two dimensions


6.2.3.1

Theory

The details of certain calculations, particularly for the case of homogeneous waves, can
be found in Cooper (1967), Lockett (1962), Borcherdt (1977) and Bourbie (1982). Let us

consider an interface between two attenuating media The variables associated with the
medium in which the incident.wave propagates will be denoted with a subscript lor 2
according to whether an incident of reftected ~ariable is involved. The '-ariables associated
with the medium in which the waves are transmitted will be denoted by a prime('). The
computations will be carried out in potentials, since their use simpliftes the wave equation.
Finally, time dependence will be understood and equal to exp (iaJt). The incident wave in
the most general case is the sum of a P wave and an SV wave. If x is the horizontal (i.e.
along the interface) coordinate and z the vertical coordinate, the system of equations to be
resolved is the foJiowing :

= A 1 exp (- i(kx + dz)] + A 2 exp (- i(kx- dzl]

(6.79)

+ B 2 exp (- i(kx- hz)]

(6.80)

'I'- B 1 exp (- i(kx

hz)]

., ==A" exp [- i(k'x

+ d'z)]

(6.81)

'I''= B' exp [- i(k'."C

+ h'z)]

(6.82)

R.e td) ;il: 0

(6.83a)

k2

IVll

+ d 2 = -.,_-_
I.+ 2p

k2

+ h2 =

pwl

J.l

Re (h) ~ 0

~,

(6.83b)

,,

'--

'- -

', __

.30

.-.;

,.

-~'j:;r

. '-:'t:,-.

Vp=2

<lt> hp = 0) =5

v$ = 1.2

0s lls =ot""s

:.._~~" ~.~

f'il. 6.26 Inverse of quality factor


1JQ1 vs. angle between attenuation vector and propqation
vector (after Bourbie, 1982).

18
1

Osv

.t21::----------.. . --.06

~~_.--~--~~--~--._~~-L~

Propegation . tt8nUitlon ..... (dig.)

~r---------------------------------~
Vp =:
Op hp "'01 = 5
v 5 = ;,2

.24

.18

cl;
.12

FJe. 63!1 . lnvene ot qalifJ facft,t

1/Qsr va. aqle.,...... attimua- ; o

tion vector and propagation


vector (after BourbiC. 1982).

..oe
OI
0

Propeption.

,....rian...........

30r---------------------------------~
v5 1,2
Ostts .,.,

.24t
.18[

..;.. .12

..t

'

"'""'

.oe
o~--~~--_.--~--~~~~--~--~
0
w ~ ~ ~ ~
~
~

Propegation Anenuetlan engle Idee-I

Fi&- 6.l8 Inverse of quality factor


l/Q111 vs. anp between attenuation vector and propaption
vector (after ~urbie. 1982).

292

WAVES_ANP
,

y + d'l ...

.P_(I)_
,

k'l

I~RFACES

+ h'l = p w

Re (d') ;;11: 0

(6.83c)

Re (h') ;,:: 0

p'

(6.83d)

In these equations, the quantities k. d, h, k', d' arul h' and the amplitudes are complex
quantities, and are related to the propagation k and attenuation A vectors.
Displacements and stresses are given as a function of potentials by:
(1) Displacements:

a.

o'P

(6.84a)

u% -ax
- - iJz
-

:r

a o'P

==-+az ox

(6.84b)

(2) Stresses :

... a.. (1 u

. a2
A.

02
2

oz

+ 2P ax cz

a2

0 2 .,

a2 ")

iJxl + (l + 2")

a2"

(6.85a)

= p ( 2 ~~ az - az'-' + ax 2

(6.85b)
-~,

The reflection and transmission coefftc:ients are obtained by appling the boundary
conditions at the interface. Three alternatives are avMlable. namely a liquid/solid
interface, a solid/liquid interface, and a solid/solid interface. We shalupidly examine the
results of the computations in the three cases.

a.

LitiiiiiiNIItl -~

Since the incident wave propagates in a liquid medium, we have p


Continuity of displacements and stresses implies:
U:r

= 0 and B 1 = B 2 = 0.

a(

= a;x
a.,.- u;z

(6.86)

0
We obtain k k' and:

A2
p'd[(h'a- k2 ) 2 + 4k 2 d'h']- pd'(h' + P)2
Al == R == p' d[(h~:t - k2)2 + 4k2tl' It'] + ptl'{lt'- + k2)2
2

A'

2pd(h' - k')
+ 4k2 d'h'] + pd'(h':

+ P)2

<688)

4p4tl'k(#l'a + k2 )
= Ts = p'd[(h',t- k')2 + 4Jc2d'h'] + pd'(h''

+ k2)2

(6.89)

As T r -.p'd[(h'
B
Al

(6.87)

k2)2

w.wM-MellftiiU'AaS

293

b. Soll4//i411Ul hltajla
Sinc:c the transmitted wave propaptcs in a liquid. we have p' 0, B'
continuity equations arc written:

= 0.

The

" =,;
flu=
t1.,.

(6.90)

a;.

Here again, this implies that k = k'.


Two alternatives arc available for the incident wave, namely an incident P wave or an
incident S wave:
(1) Incident P wave,.. Bt
Az

= Rrr =

= 0:
p' d(hz

+ k2)2 + 41c;2dd'hp- pd'(hz- kz)z


h~

(6.91)

Bz
_
4kptl4'(h 2 - k2)
At R,.s = p'i.(Jil + ~ti)f'+ 4k2d4'hp + pd'(hi _ k 2 )1

(6.92)

At

A'
A1

.t

Jn.'i .. 'h'i .

2pd(h4

111.

u'i

k")

= Trr = p' d(hi + ti)z + 4kiUi;p + pd'(hl _

k'2)z

(6.93)

(2) Incident S wave At 0:

!!!
s.

R,.

_,k:(U'hp :- pd'(h2- A:lt- p'd(hl + kl)l


_,

JIL4

..1.1 .

s. A'

Bt

'-

------~-

. ... 4 ,.

- 41ul'hp(h 2

Az
'~

..,. 4

R,- p' d(h2

k2 )

+ P)l + ,4'(hi - k2)2 + 4i(!M' lap


_ 4/ulllp(h 2

(6.94)

(6.95)

+ k2 )

= Tsr- p'd(h2 + fc'1)2 .;pd'(lt2- k2)1 + 4k2dd'hp

(6.96)

e. So#U/HIU later/""
The continuity equations are writteft:

u., = ~~~
" = u;
a.,= a'"
- a'.,
Here aaain we find the c:ondition k = k'.

~ ..

__

(6.97)

294

'

WAVES AND INTERFACES

In the case of an incident P wave (B 1 = 0), we deftne the quaat.itics:


A2
Rp p =
A,

B2

Rrs=-

A,

(6.98)

A'

T,,=A,
B'

Trs=-

A,

solutions of the linear system:


dfftp = 11

(6.99)

where

h
k.

-d
d=

- k
-d'
- lk4' p'

-2k4p ~ (h2 - k2 )/l


( (h2 _ P)p
2
- 2khp
- p'(h'

~,=

R,.,.)
Rrs

,g
I'Jfl

. T,
T rs

In the case of an incidat S

wave (A~

k2 )

h'
- k
(h' 2 - k)p'
- 2kh'p'

( - dk J...
-

- 2kdp
- p(h2 - k 2 )

0). we dCODc the quantities:

A2
Rsr = -

B,

Ba

Ass='B,

(6.100)

A'

Ts,.=Bt

B'

Tss=-

B,

solutions of the linear system :


dfft5

= f!J

(6.101)

where

Jls =

RsrJ
(Tss
Rss
Tsr

{!} =

- hk J
(p(h2k2)

- 2kla,4

.,__.--

----

'1

,,

:.t:;

WAVasANDI!\iEaf:ACES - .}

29S

It is interestin& to note that, in aU cases, the condition k == k' must be satisfied. This
implies a generalized Snell-Descartes law. In fact, for a single type of wave (P or S), we
have:
-~

ka = ka => lk1 1sin 81 = lk~l sin 82


k1

= kl

=> IAtl sin (8, - ;,)

-~-

= lk'l sin 8'

(6.102)

= IA2I sin (lJ2- 'Yl)


= IA'I sin (8' -y')

(6.103)

From which. by means of Eqs. (6.63) and 16.64) we obtain:

82

d,

(6.1048)

l'l

= i"t

(6.104b)

An inhomogeneous P (or S) wave is therefore reflected as a P (or S) wave with the same
inhomogeneity angle and with an angle of reflection equal to the angle of incidence. The
values of 8' and i are more complicated, but can be iaferred similarly from the foregoing
equations.
Figures 6.29 and 6.30 show two examples of transmission angles (8', i) in viscoelastic
media, for a solid/liquid interface and a homogeneous iQcident wave. The angle 8' for the
attenuatilla case is very close to the angle 8' for the el&Jtic cue except near the critical
angle of incidence. which in efcct does not exist for the attenuatina case. The angle "'(
increases with angle of incidence up to the .. critical" angle for which y' is approximately

90".
-~-

'v

'-

The foregoing calculations show that the different reflectioa and transmission
coeftcients are complex numbers irrespective of the angle of inc:ideooc. In Fig. 6.31 we
have compared the retlection coeft'ac:icnt for a non-attenuating liquid/solid interface with
the one obtained for the S&me interface, but with an attenuating solid with Constant Q
behavior. The incident wave is assumed to be homogeneous, and the reflection coefac:icnt
for the intcrt'ue betwceaatteDU&tial~ is cak:ulatld for a~ aqular frequency
(co0 - 1 Hz) in the Constut Q . . - . . VutuaUy-u c:Uenmae is obeenedbctween the two
reficction coelftcients for angles less than the critic:al angle, thoup a larger difference
occurs at anaJes greater than the critical angle. The interested reader can fmd other
examples in Bourbii and Gonzalez-Serrano 11'983) for solid/solid interfaces.
-

6.2.3.2 laterfaee effect of attenuatioa


As we have shown, attenuation modiftes the modulus and phase of tho. reflection and
transmission coefticients. BourbiC (1986) showed tbat. for any linear vitcoelastk model.
the reflection coeftcient at normal incidence for a plane wave could be expressed in the
ftrst order (i.e. for moderate attenuations) in the form:
R

~ Pt V,o- P2 v20 +..!.. (--- _1_) In t~l + ~ L!


Pt V,o

+ P2~'2o

2lt Qot

Qo2

CUo

4 ~t

- _1_,
Qo2

(6105)

The-subscript 0 indicates-that the velocities .v, and atteauatioDI (ljQ,) arc taken at a

.
reference anplar fr~ w0
This gtfteral formula clearly explains the effect observed in Fig. 6.31 for a Constant Q
lllOdel, ia other words the modikation of tbe modulus and pbue. However; it also shows

110

""

Vp 1.2
V'p4
vs=1

80
.., 70

l
-eo
fso
5

:[ I

~leo
t SOL
J
I

,..,..,.

):

.I

Cp10
O'p=50
o5 =20

'

,_

40

30,

,__

v,= 1.2
V'p=4
V's = 1

'

....

ro

20

80

so

lnclc*>ce .ngte

Idea-l

30

40

ro

80

110

ro

20

30

40

80

ro

eo

80

110

lncidel)ce ..... 14111-1

f1l. 6.29

Transmission angle vs. angle of incidcacc for a mud/solid interface (after Bourbie, 1982).
Left: elastic case.
Right: viscoelastic case.

110

lt ..~
70.

I ~~

Vp1,2

0,.10

V'p=4

O'p=80

V's1

O'sa20

.._

' "

J
.ro

ro

so
...................

20

30

40

110

f1a; 63t Aap~ attenUation tector anlpropapdoinec:tor vs.eJie


of iJieidence lor mud/Solid iatert'ace (after 8oudK6. 1982);
0

i ...

.a

L~

. 1

'5

0-135

J
01

to

20

30

40

80

C)<-f

80

lnclc*>ce engle ldeg.)

70

80

110

-1101
o

10

20 .

.1

30
40
10
eo
lftcldenoe .,.ie ldll-)

-r---r=--'
10

80

'

110

Fit- 6.31

Modulus and phase of reOection coeffiCient vs. aqle of ioeideD:cc for a liqWd/IOiid
interface.
The solid curve is for the viscoelastic case and the dotted curve for the elastic one.
The velocities are v,, ... 1.5 km/s, v,. = 2.5 km/s and Vs. = 1.2 km/s. The attenuations for the
viscoelastic case are liven by Q,, = oo, Q,. - 14 and O.ra 10 (after Bourbie, 1982).

-----------------------------------------~---~

F
j:

wAVIS'.\111)~

297

that the clastic effects (a<iOustic: impedance contruts pV) and anclastic effects can be
decoupled : there is no atteriuadon eect on the rclection caiefticient in the absence of
attenuation contrast at the interface. Moreover, in contrast to the elastic case. if the
acoustic impedances (p V) at the interface are the same. rdlection nevertheless occurs due
to the contrast of the anclastic prOperties.
Bourbie and Nur(t984) experimentally tested the phenomenon of attenuation at the
interface between two media. They tuc:eeecled in shoWing that:
(a) Tbc attenuation cotlU'alt ~ is essentially u amplitude drect.
(b) The interface effect of attenuation on ~ rcOection coefficient is only observable if
the elas&ie reftoctioa cooffleient (p 1 .Vto- Ps V20)J<Pt V10 + Pa Y1 o) is small ( < 0.05
so 0.1), wbidl is usually thf ~ in ~ proapectjna.
(c) Tbc atteauation etJeot on nftectiona . . , _ . on the uaJe of incidence and only
occurs for low angles ( < 20 to 30").

Flaure 6.32 summariles tbe results .obtainecf m aniplit\tde.


Ro
li

'

No .........

'UnaoiiiOiidltld ....

lnterl- efftc:t

A-.~&~=
a:::::a--

elatic

pnltM
I
I"' Ti~ ... uncls

reflection
_.,.,._
O.ot

ol
0

~;-........
~

'-lr!Ft 111Gb
...a.....JL....-....__.__

40

,.

1010400

,.. U2

AOU).

Jntcnaee
.

effect
.

or a,tteauatiotl (._ lloutW and Nur. C


'

"'

6.1.4 ltlterlaa .wA'fes ill

I
I

.o..-
'-"

. J:

1984

Left: sbftP66eddlalts li'htJ the . . . . . . . . . . ....UCucl vilcoelutic


releetion ~.. (%). .
.
Ript: some "cbatacteriltic" VU. olila .,..._..._

i)

..._

s.-.

We havt lhowa in Chapktt 3 aa4 in


6.2. J &bat die CQQ&Doas of elasticity are
easy to write mathematically when tbl .....aptioa of olaaticity is replaced by linear
vitoooluticit)'.lndeed, tbe co,........_.
bo,applied to replace the real
clastic moduli by complex fr~-4ep deat oaas ia aU e&utodyaami~ equations. The
modiftcations of the equations for the propaption pf Rayleigh and Stoneley waves,
assumina viscoelasticity, are then easy to derive. No other fundamental phenomena other
than propaption of these waves in viscoelastic media need to be taken into account This
was not the case in poroclastic media where fluid flow at the interface has to be taken into
ac:a>unt. More theoretical details on in~ waws in vilcodastic: media can be found in
Borcherdt (1971, 1973).

,..,..._,uld

. ~--.

298

WAVES AND INTERFACES

6.3 GENERAL.CONCLUSION
Two types of constitutive laws for rocks have. been cJ,iscuss,ed in this boQk. First we have
considered rocks as a combination of a solid skeleton and pore fluids. In this case,
displacements both in the. fluid and in the solW skeleton were considered (see Chapter 2
and Chapter 6. Section 6.1 ). But the extreme complexity of a porous medium makes this
approach too simplistic in most cases. The macro~c behavior of. rocks could not be
obtained from microscopic laws. Attemativ~ly, we can consider an equivalent
homogeneous material which WCJuld react to acoustic waws like the rock itseU: Linear
viscoelasticity is an appealing model since it ~nts the eect of fluid inlide the rock
and it is relevant to the small strain amplitudes encountered in seismic exploration (see
Chapter 3 and Section 6.2).
For wave propagation in~~- and for the Creque~~ ranae relevant to f~eld
measurements, macroscopic fluid motion with respect to the matrix has a negligible Cft'ect
(see Chapter 2). Rock behavior can be modeled effectively by viscoelasticity. The anelastic
part is then quantified by an intrinsic quality factor Q.,e
In the presence of interfaces such as a borehole wall, macroscopic fluid flow is no longer
negligible. At the mud/borehole interface, the free surface conditions ~e important, and
fluid flow effects modify the wave propagation. Viscoelastic phenomena also add to
macroscopic fluid flow effects. Therefore, to interpret acoustic data in a borehole, it is
necessary to separate the two ~ts. To the r1rst order, they can be considered
independent:

Qf..' . flM:, (2) + Q;. t

~.

~\

(6.106)

This formula is simila,r:to the one obtained by Goldberg et al. (1984) on simulated data
for P wave refraction. In their example, the total apparent attenuation is approximately
the sum of a borehole iluid. at.tc;nua~p ao4 &Q .attenuation ,ip the viscoelastic medium.
This observation implies that, even t()f p waves, there is Sonic tluid interface effect.
The detenaination of~ aUQW4 a meaaure .of intrinsic ~~ty and mud cake
effects. The determination of Q;;, 1 , which is an intrinsic; parameter, aliQws a measure of
porosity, porous structure and saturatillg fhddaof the rock.
If both terms can be obtained independently from the data. then several properties of
the rock can be understood.
.It is, then, essential for the interp~ of~ acousticloss to model the porous
media as a viscoelastic Biot medium. Unpublished experimental results (Rasolofosaon,
personal correspondence, 1985) support dw1.hypothesis (6.1 06) and show that Q;. 1 sheuld
not be neglected in the interpretadoft of the data.
In situ, it may be diffiCult to oBtain ill4ependefttmeuom of Q; 1 and Q;;;,. The double
effects of attenuation may then become an *tade practical ,apptieationa.
:,.

~,

Q.,,.

(2)
is delmed from attenuatiotus in Yi~asticity. This def'mition issoalewba1 abusive: this quality
factor cannot be related to the other deftnitions, as was possible in viscoelasticity (see Chapter 3}.

.......

'-~

''----'
"----'

some applications
in petrdeum geophysics

INTRODUCI'ION
(

In the previous Chapters, we lhoYt'!DCl the extreme compleuty of the relationship

between acoustic waves and porous media. Both velocities and attenuations vary
substantially with porosity, ftuid contont, temperature, and pressm, and it is not always
possible to der1ne the boundaries between the inftuence of the different parameters. Hence

.._

!I

'
'I
I

'

"-...--

.,__
I

II

I
~
:
I

.._

..._

'-~

it is easy to realize the dift'JCUity of the inverse problem, which consists in characterizing the
porous mcdiulll through the chanps occurring in che w.ave traveling through it. Yet this
very diffiCUlty is rdated to the amount of information that we can anticipate from solving
this problem.
The followilla table (fable 7.1) summarizes ~ salient features of the ~elations
developed ia tht ~ Chapters between ~ tbnlc major families of parameters,
namely ex.terDal CODditions (fresat~e, tempctatuu); the characteristics of the porous
medium, and its acoustic ~ (veloi:iity, atteaUation). Of these three poups of
parameters, oaly two are iadepeadent In fact. pressu~ and temperature conditions
inftuence the~ oftbe porounl'liediUID without truly altering the mechanical
propertie!lol'the eoDIIi-.tive ~ Tlaedrec:t of pressure and temperature can therefore
be replaced by an eft'ect on the fluid daatacteristics or O$ the pore structure.
Faced with the abundanc:e of ~elationships which
to discourage any detailed
analysis, it is necesaary toproOeed by successive eliminations of variables. Depending on
the major application imolved, this elimination assumes various forms. The Simplest case
is that of JDCaSurenaeats aimed at the nondestructive testiag of materials. In this case, the
external eonditions can be accurately controlled. Knowing the ftllid content, one can then
focus on one cbaractcriiUc of the porous medium. For those analyses, the measurement of
acoustic properties is rdatively auraae and easy, provided the sample aaalyzcd is in
direct coatact with the measuring iastruments (as opposed to remote measurement in f~eld .
studies). Oae can ~ deaip a laqe number of experimeats to explore a specif1c
relationship between particular parameters, keeping the other parameters constant.
Nondestructive testing of materials has been developed, mainly based on velocity
measurements. The additional quantitative consideration of the attenuation factor can

soem

--

-~--

.....___._:.___

,,

~-

7.1

-~~

--'--~~

~lftellum

Characteristics or

..

(?)

,,

Attenuation

Velocity

averap, strong.

------.-.. -------

neaHJiblfl. sliJht, "

Gat/liquid aaturation. Geometric distribution or phases


....

01P (plwc diaiaM ......

Type and physical state of

fluid content

Peftneab_iiity . ~ ............

Porosity .... ..........

Teatw!e: pn contacts,
c:racb .................

Comptessional

Velocity

Body waves

*(?)

Attenuation

Shear

Acoustic properties

8tJMMAlY Of' NAIN POROUS MEDIUM/ACOUSTIC PROPERTY INTERACTIONS

TYpe oholid pbua ......

- - --------.,,---,-

IDI1uedce: ("l) indeterminate, -

'

..

--

Temperature

- -

prcaare

Effective

External conditions

TUU!

Surface
waves

.,

'---'

10MB~ . . . . . . . . .

MIIIIJIICII

''----"

only help to improve future testins. We give below two examples of possible applications
for petroleum-~ &abo..,...:

We showed (in Chapter 5) that microcracb. under low effective stress, substantialy

affect the quality factor Q of a porous medium. Thus attonuation measurements on core
samples from a well can serve to determine the orientation of the micrcxneb" anisotropy,
and consequently furnish data on the state offractur'iq of a reservoir or a description of in

--~

situ streslel.
We also pointed out how the velocity and espec:ially the-attenuation of ultrasonic
waves could vary as a function of ps-saturation and the
distribution of this
ps for a given saturation. This. ofrers a much needeed analytical method to study twopbue flows iD porous media.

or

aeometric

In this Chapter, we have decided to focus our presentation on applications iD petroleum


aoopbysica. Firat .- all, the taraota ill ........... IIOPhYtics as aftoa far from the
ll.lC8IUiiJII aad rer:ordia& IJiteiQ. It il .~ - M Y for &be acoustic waves
tr&Dimitted lO adeq-.Jy .,...U.te tM IU~ 'l1lil ,...uatioa depth illimite4 by
the IDCfiJ lOIIIIIUitained by tho wa as
ia tile~ (eaer&J lolaes
which we have called the iDtriasic ud utri1tir .........uo-). For deep penetration.
attauatioa lll\llt be smallaad the IOUNC ~tow. Oadle Giber baed, for louin&
IDMIUia~ which thc
riaatlltcm. tile aco.UC
frequcaciet ar:e hiaJaer.
Tile follewial table(Tai*1.l) liltl._i_..,.of,.......ofthc wavclcaltha used in
the dift'ereot IOiamic tedmiques.

it,....,....,.
taqet.,.._ .,_ ..
T.uu 7.2

5uMMAilY OF

.........,_

:~~e..

-~

.I
''----"

'j

lI
I

,.,.., ..., ....

DIFFiaENr. ~ ~,,t.IIIO IN ioaAcrtcAL


AI'I'UCA~
r.
'

x JOl

14~\~';

10'

ID

, ....
~IMIIII:.

,,

~
.....

..

........... plelpictlii ,,

.....

..~a

.,.

; . .....-c
.....
.

xto

.. ,......
.......
106

t.ow....Y ...... i,jla,_

Two major aroups emcrp, separated by neatly two orders of mapitude in frequency:

(1) Low-frequency seitmie prospectia& (arouad 50 Hz) il intended to detect iDterestina


aeoloaie&l horizons under sedi~ ........ea ap to ...,.a tilol8etcrs. This
technique, whose main application ia the aeometric description of the subsurface, is
~to . . for
tMMIOIIIiC ............ oftbiaW. widl respect to

..a,-,

the~~

(l) Hi.....,..1HIIlCY-.. proepe;tia (a w Hz)u..., fOf .....ICIDIIlta ill well$,


.-...a at die puUcular WI ef ........., MCl it very siiDilar in tcduaiquc to.
eleelria8lloaiDJ. 1111oWIII-. . . .tiwlJ . .y to . . and aM resolatiGJl
is much bctecr tbata low-freftun.cy Pl'GIIMIDtiu. However the rook vohlmesteated
are lialited arouacl tbc wellL

''---'

302

SOME AM.ICAT1i0NS'IN PETROLEUM GeoPHYSICS

7.1
7.1.1

LOW FREQUENCY SEISMIC PROSPECfiNG

Geaeral

To analyze the changes undergone by an acoustic signal traveling through a bed. it is


necessary to be able to distin,&uish between the reflectiom at the top and bott~ of the bed.
In other words layers ofminimum thickness clo~Jo the wavelength (- 20-30 m) must be
distinguishable (Widess, 1973). Therefore limits are imposed for interpretation of largescale exploration seismic prospecting (conventional seismic prospecling> in which the
large wavelengths employed are not sensitive to the reservoir beds most frequently
encountered.
Hence any increase in the maximum UDble frequency in the recording enhances the
knowtedse of the subsurfaa. nus is adlN\Ikt in high-resolution seismic prospecting. in
which frequeli<:ies in the 1'11DJC of lOOHz'llfe 'still ob8ervftle after propaption in the
subsUrface. It is ob\lious that tile illvestiptiOn depth Of hi@h-reselation seismic
prospectint is less than that of~ seismic prospecting, but hip resolution is
essential f~r an accurate iderttikatien fJf the JitholoJy: of a thin bed or of a sha11ow
reservoir. The fleqUeacy eentelltd' tlt6 teeerclochignat Clln also be mcr.sect tJy limiting
the distance traveled in the subsurface. By recording in a borehole, verticalad multiple
offset seismic proftlespermit shOJ!ter'trav.dpatblfo neorders inside the borehole. Hence
the technique of reservoir seismics emerged, very dose to. conventional seismic
prospecting in its methods of measurement and analysis, and whose initial purpose was
the calibration of seismic profiles. Its bet~er def1niti~ makes it easier to acquire high

resolution data about the' acoustic properties orreservoirs.


These problems of ticaleean be partly limited in certain cases by using the-knowledJC of
the interfaces obtained from Chapter 6. Whatever its frequency, a wave i$'icll:cted m
discontinuities of elastic or anelastic properties, for instance when travetm, from a gassaturated bed. to a liquid-~~ bed: ,_.. rMion can be detect~ even it' the
waveleaath bed thickness ratio is less than favorable (Widell.. 1973). This variation in the
reflection, as a function of vti'hltions in
or~ .for exalftJ'Ie,"elln provide
valuable data about the interface. w~, abaU provide an ~xample for bright spot
characterization in the followiftiSectioa:

7~1.2

TheexpNSiiott c.tmtntioaatMilmic prG~p~Cting applies to tdeetion seilmics used in


petroleum exploration. As a f1rst approximation, the soarcaand receivers an located on
the ground ,or at sea leveL Itt ~ seismic piOipeeting, ()Wing to the tarp number of
shots and geopbOMS, several amvals ant ftJCOI'ded for tbc sanle rellectioa point
correspondillg to daerent transMitterlftleliver distallces (ol&ets). The Ule of. the first
arrival times helps to 4otermine the 'Velocity aad depth of each bed (see, for example,
Waters, 1978 or Grau, 1985). As a rule, seismic prof1les are obtained with compressional

"'
~

' 1

L_~~------------~------------------~--~~----

'-

s6Mi 'AHIU&1isM$<'tif'~ !~<;

wave sources. However, a number of sources exist (Marthorw, S wave Vibrators) that
enable the recordiq of shear wave seismic sections.

7.1.2.1

'-

303''

Ca. .laed .aeof P .... SWIMS

The combiacd usc of P and S waves allows the measurement of the P and S wave
velQCitics for a given ~ and hcn4::e the detcnnination of the Poisson's ratio. As we
showed previously (Section S.2.2.6), this ratio provides information about the type of
formation traversed by the wave and helps to limit the problem. Nevertheless, to obtain a
more thoroush knowledge of the litholoQ, it is necessary ,to employ more elaborate
techniques, which no longer Use only the information given by propaptioa time.

7.1.2.2 Sipal .....ysis

''-

The mea~Un~~Deat of.Mwh velecitiea ia reOectioa aacl refraction prospectiaJ requires


oaly tJae kaowJedJe of the arrival tiJDel ol tbe ~ lipb. Aa we have shown
(Chapcer 4), a sipal wbicb ptopaptes in an .uenuatins 'JJOilOUI medium undcriJOCS.
cl1aaaa in spectral COBteaC, 10 that the fGna of tbis dwale ia tbe lipatare of the
io.-actioa between the wave- and a poroua medium ol given :properticl.(porosity,
permeability, saturation). In face, a wave ~ ia the subsutfloo'uadclrsocs other
typos of tantformatioa, cveo. ill an elutic 111111-iilfmite lllldiUJL .
For a wave witlaanoa-plaMwavetn.t(aplawi&W or c:yliadriallf'otaaple}, the wave
amplitude decreases with propagation distallCC. The total cnerJY, proportional to the
square of the displa<:emcnt amplitude at the souro:, is distributed on the wave front whose
area increases during propagation, and hence the displacetWDt ampitu4,e decreases. .
Thus, for a spherical wave front (!of i~~ an explosive soun;e), the. total area of the
wave froat is 4d'1r1 at a given time t, for a ~ of the medium V, ~ beli<:e the wave
amplitude per uait area is proportlonal to 1/t and thus ~ :Withdme.'t:tiis etrect is
known as ~di~.ltsipUWlytkenall t~frequeQCies. tt~wa~ no loa,Fr

propaptes in a sinsle. ~.b\Jt iit.~.series fla~ btcl$, tll,e.~ _transmitted


undergoes other changes.~ CbanFI ~teto traasmission and1'eftection i.Mchanisms
at the different interfaces. Many iavcstiptioas on fteld seismocrams have revealed that
these processes affect not only the amplitude, but also the frequcaey. c:oatent of dte
tr&QS!Dit&cd ve (O'~y a.od AMtc)', 1971, -Sdloqaberpr and ~ .~974). Other
more com~ pr~sucb as ac::atteriq. . . . dcct the s.,ctral abape or,~ sipal
received.

Two types of attenuatioa caJ1 be disti~ The tint, which we sbaU ~ intrinsic
atteauatipn, has 10 far bcp.our maiawbjfa diacuMion.lt clw~ the aaelasticity
of the material the wave' has
thro\lp._ t1lc second. v.:ltidlwe Shall cafl extrinsic
attenuation, isclw'ac~ ofthe-pomctr)' of'~ su~ue and Qfthe soUQ:C.lt has two
etrects oa the seismic sipal; an apparatt ndueliOn in amplitude (the missinctner&Y is not
lost but has beea delayed ~ale to.. tbe . . _ , peth.s traveled by the wave). and a frequency
fllterin& dl'ec:t for mul&iple rc~Ject.ioas.. siuai~N. to .~ dJect of iatrinaic a~ten~ti9n
(Schoenberpr aad LeviQ, 1974. M.odol et Gl..lt$2).1~ fact, it is therefore vc[y dift'tcult to
separate intrinsic: and extrinlic aUCB~~
b ~pte Spe0ccr et al, 1?82).

aonc

or

<-

--

(tl
~

b&istered lfllde..mark of lrrstitur F~ts tlu Mrilte.

304

SO,_E

APPUCATIO~

IN

PET&O~UM

Gl!OJ'HYSICS

a. Seismk #rfllicr.,
Seismic stratigraphy uses the fact that a Jivca ~ ~Cquence (altematina
shale/sand, delta deposits, seabed slumps) corresponds to a given sipature on the seismic
signal, making it possible to obtain qualitative li&hol~te. 1lae IUin iatfation is to use
the extrinsic attenuation of the signal. In fact, a cyclic ~ namely one consisting of a
regular success..ion of beds (fo.r instance sha.le and sand~'ons),. possesses a clearly defined
spectral signature. The low frequencies, those whose w
gths are tona in comparison
with ~ thicknesses, travel as if they were passing thr up one homoaeneous medium,
whereas the hip frequencies undergo multiple ret1 ons within the sequence. The
resulting frequency content is characteristic of the so
and the sequence analyzed (see
for example Morlet et al., 1982).
The morphological analysis of seismic sections is iCOJlductcd by means of various
techniques of amplitude restitution and signal processjng, such as the aJlalytical signal
(Bracewdl; 1971~ Various examples are available in
(Tanaer Ill., 1979,
Sheriff and Tanaer, 1979, Lacaze Ill., :1978,
et til., 1979). Note that this
tecbuiquc is oaly applicable to clearly defined p
teq\IOftCIS, aDd that it requires
priorknowJodpeftbepolouiDtMrepoaiiWCICip siaceiO\'eralsequenoeseaahave
the same sipature. Where it does apply, however, tbia ~ terVCS to determine lhe
contours of1be nsenroic and of deposita. Finally. altiMJUih it mainly involves a sublluface
geometric effect (and hence extriasicto the porouuaodiuat), die euminetion not ODly of
arrival ~ "- alsolipal shafes is UICiful for the remote lithOlotic determination of the
subsurface.

*litemule
aadiuey

b. .AIUI/y$1$ Dj /iriglt 6]1DfS


In a seismic section, the amplit\ICles ot Cfle retlectioas observed are prally fairly
constant, with m~or co~oiu for elects of ae'ometric diveraence. In certain ~
however, bilher ~ncrgy refteetioD$ are observed in the formoflocal amplitude anomalies
(see Fi&- 7.,1). 'ThClle ~ c8Ued ~ .,o~. ~ JeOPlayslcists have observed for a
lona time-t~~ bN,bt spoti ocCasiOaally identified the pretOilOC or ps at the interrace
concerned.

VelocityCODCI ....
The investigations of Domenico (l~4) showocl that tbe refteetiVity of a Shale/Oil sand
interface was quid: different from that of a shale/gas' sand interface. The seismic velocities
vary when a very small ;pnount of gas (S% or even less) is introduced into the system (see
Fig. 7.2~ The reflection amplitude rises liipiftcaatly'hithkcae. Tbis amplitude is not a
linear functioll of the amount of gas preiCilt in the reservoir. Unt'Ortunatcdy, no biunivocal
relationshipexisu between bright spots and the preseilcC ota ps reservoir. Some wells
drilled on bright spots proved to be dry. The local amplitude auoJnaly results in this cae
either from taterat facies variations, or from constructive (or destructive) interference
between near tefld:tors. Hence it is essential' to be able to distinpnh betwee~~ bright spots
with gas and without gas. To do this. all the traCes~ for tbe same reflec:tion point
(corresponding to different transmitterfftlCeiver distances allCl heD<:e to dilferent angles of
incidence) must be used. Recent investiptiOils (Ostrander, 1982 and Backus, 1982) show
the importance of a fmc analysis of amplitude variations with angle of incidence.
Ostrander (1982), for example, pointed out that the gas sands have low Poisson's ratios

"

'

SO~!E

APPLICATIONS IN PETROLEUM GEOPHYSICS

...

j
1
I,

1.0

e
s
.I
I,

"'
"'
E

i=

"

s
s

e
e

.r
e

Fig. 7.1

Example of bright spot (after Kjartansson, 1979 b).

3r------------------------,

;,

3048m

s
a

~
:s
e
a
tl
's
.e
;e

:s
It

>f
N

IS

2.5

e:
?:

-g

.,..../1

--------ro;;:-./
.,
=..------ --

--

.....

1828m..,}

1828m

---- --

-,;

>

~"'

-------610m

1.5

"-610m
~~---+----4---~~--~--~
0
20
40
60
80
100

Water saturation (%)

Fig. 7.2 Longitudinal wave velocity vs. water saturation for gas (solid curves)
and oil sands !dotted curves) at depths of 600, 1800 and 3000 m (after
Domenico, 1 9 -~).

305

306

SOME APPLICATIO!'IIS IN PETROLEUM GEOPHYSJCS

(see Fig. 5. 72 in Chapter 5) (Poisson's ratio;: 0.1) with respect to shale and sand section
(Poisson's ratio;: 0.3 to 0.4) and causes the P wave reflection amplitude to rise with
increuina anp of ;ncideDcc. He also provides an example. In the case of a lateral facies
variation. no uaiform aria1ioB ill ttfllcUoa amplitude witb an,te of incidence should be

observecl. since tbe Poiuon~s raa of tbe different;becb are similar.


Another approach. lot ~tin,a,.s eft'ectt in briabt Spots.~., comparing the P
and S wave recor(Jinp correspondiafto the saJDe profde. Since S waves ate less sensitive
to the presence ofps tho Pwaves,a,.. bript spot visible on the:Pwaveteetion will not
appear on that of the S wave. Naturan,Y. inthec:ase of a lithologic variation, the bright spot
will exist on both P aactS wave -'iOns (Ensley, 1985).

-'

A_._ oa1rr11r

The invcsti,ations so far d~ wore only concerned'. with the analysis of the
properties of seismic veloc:ilies.Yet wbow (see SectioQ $.1.1.2) that the P and S wave
v~are relam-elyml...._..ltr.&bt~ ofpsforuturations~from 5 to
95%, and thereforeCODSlitute. . . .v.IJ.fODrsaturat~ i.,._(Ors. By~ acoustic
attenuations are biJhf1 --~ to ~ differen~ saturations (see Sectioa 5.1.2.2), and
attenuation readies a peak for a ps sa.-atkm from 20 to ~4. Bourbie aod Nur ( 1984);
showed that ~ waves exertea:cwo au.uarion e1rects. t:ft'ect on propaption and
an eect at tbc iaterface (Section 6.1.'.2).: The p~ of an attenuation contrast at an
interface ~ the roftection....... which woukl haft been aecordcd in the
absence of attenuation coatrast 'l"hh ..pitude of dris elfec:t, depends 011 the absolute
value of tbe .. elastic.. Rflection~ ~~ atteDuation).(scc Fig.. 6.9).1'bit attenuation
contrast is only ob~rvable on the amplitude at angles of incidence smaller than 20 to 30".
Moreover. attenuation corttrasts act on the phase of the reflected signal, altering its
behavior as a function of anate of incidence. In the purely crlastic case, a reflection changes
polarity abruptly after ~ing through zero, whereas, in the attenuating case, this change
in polarity occurs as a cqnge of phase (Bourbie, 1982). Figure 7.3 gives an example of this
behavior. A detailed analysis of ttte behavior of relections as a function of angle of
incidence is also necessary. tot in situ atten~ation contrasts, the measurement of the
absolute value of intrinsic attemultion is no longer relevent since the relative variation of
attenuation at the interfac:e suftidently describes the effect. This can then be implemented
easily in synthetic seismoarams (see for example Jones, 1983).

Conclusion on bright spots


For the analysis of bright-spats by velocity and attenuation measurements. we have
shown the need to study the variations of reflections as a (pnction of offset. To do this. it is
essential to have a high sipal/noise ratio and to work on unprocessed data. Few analyses
ofthis type have yet been conducted to determine whether it is truly (statistically I possible
to differentiate between bript spots_with and without gas. Nevertheless, the few results
obtained so far are promising.

.,,

'

_,
~.

~,

--.,

7.1.2.3 Three-component sa.dle$


Conventional seismic prospecting generally records a single component of particle
displacement at each rec:eiver. Recent investigations (i.e. Prunier, 1981) have demonstrated
the value for onshore seismic prospecting of a simultaneous recording of the three

'f

'1

'
"'
~

SC>~i j.,.:t:it.i~'N$' 1w ;PEfi&l~M ~Jdft.vlfkS

301

Offset

I ;
II
00

s
I

-~~

..

'

_l_

.....

..

mfi
..~;

1-r
~

~~~:i: (

-.:;! . .

.
~-H-tt+f--t-t-lt-++t+t-t+4H::Tt-

L~~ . .,.
. :!"t- ~ . : :
,(~:~:n ~ :-n~:r ~ ~

..
~

. -~{{"r ..,.

w~a~-to

-~

~M

-: .

.. u

~' t{
... _{

\{ . ~"SS .

-~~;_~
-!

..

"'

,...

~~-t

.. .

Ill

, ' ... t-1 ,

to

..-:,..~:

~~.c."

~> :.
... .

,.

..

;~:.;,a-.

... .

..._..
,~
r~.;

t.{!t:l ,. .... ..

~~- .

. ~..

.:~.,

~.: ....'.~'-~

..

t-~

::..

~~Uh.

~:

.;

..

,:.:. ...-., ;,:::

": ,!"~~~..

:
' .

~R

&

~0

.~. ..-:.s::
.

"

'!II

. "'
~

'

.,.

":
<::"

"j .

;.,.

...

u.

"
U_

'---

.;

!)
-~~

..;

..... '7.3 Example of common mid--point gather. The arrows indicate the
arrival for which a ~bangc in polarity is observed with offset (in Bourbie, 1982,
after Kjartansson, 1979bt.

~~

compo~nts .

of the velocity vector. However the application of three-component


reoordiQp to two- and three-dimensional Seismic prospecting requires an understanding
of the propaaation m~hamsms iq the weattlefed zone (WZ). This undercompacted and
under~nsolidated zoiie displays hip attenuations(~ ~ 10 to 20) and any interpretation
of three-component particle l'ilodon must takt thc$e attenuations and th~r anisotropy
into account. Recent examples (Dubesset nd tliet, 1984) reveal differential behavior

.'--

----A

308

SOME APPLICATIOSS II' PETROLEUM GEOPHYSICS

between the different components of velocity, which is not yet fully understood but
appears to result from differential attenuation. Therefore the future of experimental threecomponent analyses should provide a better idea of the anisotropy of the propagating
media.

7.1.3 Rese"olr seismies

* and hence higher


This expression is applied to a hisher frequency('> 100-.lSO Hz)
resolution kind of conventioaal seismic pros~ Jcaetration is shallow, and the
dcimition ia reservoirs.
application of this method mainly adlio\ra bed
The frequency iDcrcase c:an be obtained by wttJcaJ SeisDaic profiliaa (VSP). For these
profiles, the SOUI'Ce remains located ()a tfte .JI'Ound, but the receiver is pia~ in a borehole
right below the source. This ~- ope travel path throop the hi,lhly attenuating
weathered zone (WZ). However, Iince tbese .travel paths ate subvertical, tbe zone analyzed
is limited to the formation doSe te .~ well. An ofsct VSP tcdmicp.re was developed to
overcome this drawback. in Which the s~nirte is no ~aer near tbe borehole but offset by
up to a few hundred meters~ In this. c;asc. the zone analyzed iJ cxtend.fd to formations that
are further from the borehole (see Fit. 7.4~.
'

-...uc

Fig. 7.4

Diagram of an offset VSP.

In VSPs. velocities and attenuations re easier to measure than in standard seismic


prospectina. Measurements can ~ QlJde iteratively relativ~ to. depth locations. Since the
subsurface JCOII\etry is well defined, it is possible to determine the extrinsic ttenuation
from total attenuation. This m~es it much easier to obtain. infqrmation about the
formations and their fluid content from signal analyiis.
'
.

..

~-----------------------~----------------------------------------------------------------------------~------_J--------~
~

'--'

.,
7.1.3.1

309

Variation in fluid phase or pore

Dllllttre

a. Ste11111 jrtHII tUt:titHH


TltemeasURme~~ts presented in Chapter S showed that the liquid/ps phuecbanp was
marked by a sipiticant chansc in velocities anchttteauations. Fiprc 7.5 siva an example
ofa tiekl recording obtained by McEvilly er .,.(1978~ Thueianicdata COilCCrninga single
event were obtained at diferent stations. The station located immediately nat to the
caldera (station 3) shows a 10\\ ratio of P to S wave amplitudes. This is similar to the
experimental results by De Vilbiss (1980) and c:orresponds to the minimum of the
water/steam transition (sec Fig. 5.40). This is not an example in a reservoir, because there
the procc11 oec:urs at a much laqer ICile, but it IUJIIIls UICful. results that can be
aaticipated for steam front mOnitoriq.

~-..._/

''-

...___

,.... 7~ Seismic RCOfdiq (Mexico) abo. . _ oC a celdera. Tbe


aour<:c is at a diatucc_ .of about ~SO~. ~ numbon rise with
increasina distance from the caldera (after MoEvillY, et ill., 1978).

'"---'

''-

~-----

Nur0912)SUUOSfOdtileucofaetwocbofroc:eivendurinasteamOoodinaoranyothcr
enhaJK.Od racovcry operatioa. inorclcr to4Cler~Pinc ~ ud attenuations within the
reservoir. The monitorin& of ,-ariations in velocities and attenuations would otter a
knowlcdp of the gas phase distribution within the raervoir. A procedure of this type,
adapted to an undc!JrOUnd gas storasc problem, is discussed by Blondin and Mari (1984).

1. A.IHtonncl reunoir JWe.,.,


We have shown that velocities and attenuations depend on the effective pressure,
namely the dift'erence bet\een CODAllins ~ (litbostatk) an.4 J10re pressure
{hydrostatic). In the cMe of Jrilh-pressUte raervoin, the bi8h pore pressUre
couatcrbalaaces the confiDills prts~t~te yie14iaa atmMIUIIIow I' and wave velocities
and abnormally high attenuations. The determination of the acoustic parameters or their
relative variations at the resenoir jaterf~. &:Ould thus help to identify. hisbpressure

-~

zones.

310

SOME APPLICATIONS IN PETROLEUM GEOPHYSICS

7 .1.3.2

Analysis of fractured soaes

a. Nlllurtll frturi~~g
We discussed in Sections S.l.l.l and S.l.2.1 the int~nce offrac:turina on velocities
and attenuations. In a saturated rock. fracturina reduees the velocities and increases the
attenuations. This is one reason why fractured zones are acoustically distinc:t from the
surrounding zones. Other processes are also involved, such as wave scatterina by the
fractured zone, if the transmitted wavelength is about the same as that of tbe fractured unit
block size. Wellto-well seismic prospecting is the ideal tool for analyzing these shallow
fractured zones.
Fractured zoaes arc more eeoustically vitiblc with lower effective pr~un:. in other
words at a given depth with increasing pore pressure. This may also cxplaia die hiah
amplitude reflections sometimes observed in deep seismic prospecting in crustal tectonic
zones. If the permeability of the rock surrounding a fractured zone is sutftciently low, the
fractures may preserve overpressures over long time IC81es (see for example tbc Wind
River Range overthrust (nearly 30 km_deep), Jones, 1983).
b.

-----.

''----

MollitM1116 ofltytlralk jiwt:tlrilg

The technique of hydraulic fracturina to improve hydrocarbon recovery in a given


reservoir involves injecting a pressurizeG Ouid into a well to fracture the reservoir rock.
These pressurj2ed fractures exert a 'tiplacaat effect on the transmitted waves. and also
generate reflected waves due to the contrasts in acoustic properties. ReOections are
generally greater with ~ waves ~ with compressional waves across a hydraulic
fracture, since the aheat moduli aa. ......Y tow;
The ideal seismic cocbaique for .....,... ~ hydra~ fr~urina process is well-towell seismic prospectiaa (see Glf~,1914 In ibiS metJaod. acoustic waves are
transmitted and ft'Jeeived iR two ..ens.. a:h huladrad meten part. This elimiaates all
problems associated with the weathertd'zone, so that various horizons can be observed
with relative a uracy. The maximum frequencies received are on the order of a few
hundred Hz fo well-t&-well distances 'of 200 to 800 m. By means of wlocity and
attenuation me urements, it is p0$si~ to delimit the horiZons and to determine the
length and strike of the fractures induced during injection. Unfortunately, the well-to-well
technique has so far been used very little, due partly to the possible damage caused in the
wells by seismi shots. Recently, due t& efrset VSP dewlopments, this technique is
reappearing in
hysies and sbould. prove its drectivcncss in the years to come.

7.2 I FULL WAVEFORM ACOUSTIC LOGGING


~~

seismic prospectins in boreholes is a broad term for sonic logging with


analyses. The $ODic sonde, up to 15 m long (like the EVA tll tool) has
ers and receiveTL B9th tr~milllion and reception take place in the

---..,

(2, EVA, Evaluatlon or Velocities and Attettuations, Elf-Aifllltlllne trade-mark, has 5 traftllllitten and 12
recetvers.
-r

'

'
~

'

--.--,

-::'-

311'

SDM1 'AiftlcATIONiffM ftfteta!IM CIIIIMV..S

borehole at frcquenacs of 10 to 20kHz. After propagation through the formation and


mud, the full waveform is recorded. Two types of waves can be distinguished. namely the
two waves refracted along the borehole wall (P and S wave). and the surface or guided
waves due to the presence offluid and to the cylindrical geometry (see Fig. 7.6~ In perfectly
elastic media, P and S waves are non-dispersive, whereas guided pseudo-Rayleigh and
Stoneley waves are dispersive. An example of a recording obtained with the EVA tool is
shown in Fig. 7.7. which reveals t~ coinplexity of a recording of this type. In some cases.
neither a refractefl~ ~vc aor a_ Stoncley wave is obeened. while. in other zones. a
refracted wa...a ~ ... aoStoaeley'WPe; Muy theOretical studies have been
conducted to illaodet ........ ~ ~don iD .~ media (see for example
Rosenbaum. 1974 or . . . . 6.ll. ~fl dloiU&:~ for Qan1ple Cheng and
Tok.OZ, 1981 or~,a~.;l-~ ..... ~also ~used to test the
validity of the . . . (!"i~*d:E~ ltJ3.adChen. 1984).

..

;i'
1

jr,~
~.,~ .,;r1'
~~

:.. .:-. i

li' . '

,...,
.......

ii

'.~ ~

'"" :.....1:-....,...... .....

., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

n.T.f

~.F

Wa~>~~ an -~c tool~ the EV~ type.


.l

~~ the ~boratory

Experimental .-esults
ud in situ show that it is Q/wi/lys possible to
obtain the compressional velocities v,. and $bear velocities Vs of the formation, by using
either a standard source (as in the EVA tool) or by using a dipole or quadrupole source
such as in the Exxon tool (Winbow and Rice. 1984). For the time being, measurements of
attenuation Q,. and Qs are not routine, although interestins results have been obtained in
some speciftc cases (Goldberc et al., 1984b, Huang and Hunter, 1984, Mathieu and .

312

SOME APPLICATIONS 11' PETROLEC\1 GEOPHYSICS

..

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0

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00

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.c

c.

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SOME APPLICATIONS IN PTaOLIUM OEOfHYSICS

313

Tok50z, 1984). These authors clearly point out the relationship existing between the
amplitude ratio of P and S arrivals (Goldbcq et al., 1984) and the Stoneley wave
amplitude (Huang and Hunter 1984, Mathieu and ToksOz, 1984). and the fracturinc and
hence the local fracture permeability. These results should not surprise us. In faa, they
agree completely with the conclusions of Chapter 6, showing the importance of
attenuations (and hence amplitudes) of refracted S and Stoneley waves for the
measurement of a permeability that may not be due to fracture permeability only but to
matrix permeability as well.

The relatively short wavelencths (a feW dozen em). the knowledce of the P and S wave
velocities, and hence of the Poisson's ratio, and a certain approach to permeability, make
these techniques the most promising of all those that
have yet examined. It is in this
type of approach that a sound knowledac of acoustic problems in porous media is
essential to allow maximum use of recordinp of the type shown in Fig. 7.7.

we

<~

'~

bibliography
REFERE~CE

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Serra, J.,

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~~-

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'~

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------..._,

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------'

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'-._...

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--~

'-

''--

'-

ll9

Gre,ory. A. R., Aspects of roclt physics from laboratory aad lof data that are imPQrtant to seism~
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White, J. E., c:rulergrotUUI SOillld: wlictJiion of seismic t\'Ql'es. Elsevier. Amsterdam, 1983 b.
Widen, M. B.. "How thin is a thin bed?", Geophys .. 31, 1176-1180, 1973.
Winbow, G. A .. Rice, J. A., "Theoretical performance ofmultipole sonic loainl tools", PtJper BHG 2.7, 54th
SEG Jleetittg, Atlanta. Dec:. 1984.
Wmlder, K., "The effects of pore fluids aacl frictional slidina on seismic attenuation", PhD. Thesis, Stanford
University, Calif., USA, 1979.
Wmlder, K., "Frequency dependent ultrasonic properties of high porosity sandstone ... J. ~ph. Res. a, 94939499, 1983.
Willkler, K., Nur, A., "Pore fluids and seismic attenuation in rocks", Geoph. Res. Lett . 6, 1-4, 1979.
Willkler. K., Nur, A., "Seismic attenuation: effects of pore fluids and frictional slidina", Geophys. 41, l-IS,
1982.
Wia1tler. K., Nur, A., Gladwin, M., "Friction and seismic attenuation in rocks", .\'ature,l77. 528-531, 1979.
Winkler, K., Plona. T., "Technique for measuring ultrasonic velocity and attenuation spectra in rocks under
pressure", J. Geoph. hs . 17, 10776-10780, 198:!.
Wu, T. T., "The effect of inclusion shape on the elastic moduli of a two phase material", Intern. J. Solids
Structures, l, 1-10, 1966.
Wyllie, M. R. J . Gregory, A. R., Gardner, L. W ., .. Elastic wa\e velocities in heterogeneous and porous media",
Geoplrys . l, 41-70. 1956.
Wyllie, M. R. J.. Gregory, A. R., Gardner, G. H. F .... An experimental investiption of factors affectins elastk
wave velocities in porous media", Geophys.. 13. -'59-493, 1958.

s-s.

..___

'~

---~

324

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wyllie, M. R. J., Gardner. G. H. F., Gregory, A. R., "Studies of elastic wave attenuation in porous media,
~ 17, ~S89, 1962, lllrd d&t:ussi011: G#opltya., 21, 1074, 1963.
Yin& C. F., Truell, R., "Scattering of a plane longitudinal wave in an isotropically elastic solid .., J. of Appl.
Pltp. 7:1, 1086-1097, 1956.
Zinsmer, B., Meynot, Ch . Visualisation des proprietes capillaires <res roches mervoirs", Re1. lrrst. Fran(. du
P~.37. 337-361.1982.

~-----

"---"

author index
'-..__

"'--

'-

Brutsaert, w.. 190


Budiansky, B., 58, 65, 122
Butler, T. M., 304
Bycrlee, J. D., 176, 184

Abramovitz, M., 125, 127


Achenbach, J. D., 49, 70, Ill. 273
Ahlberg, L. A., 213
ADdenon, D. L., 123, 124, 195
Andenoa, 0. L., 162, 163, 166
Andrieux,
63
Aqenheistcr, G., 57
Anaona, F. A., 241
Anstey, N. A., 303
Archie, G. G., 71
Arditty, P. C., 160
Arens, G., 160, 304
Aron, J., 281
Asce, A.M., 190
Asce, F., 190
Auld, B. A., 223, 225, 264
Azillli, A., 124

s..

"'--

.._

Capiarcl, L., 266


Caqil1, G. S., 13, 16
Camwm, P. C., 35
Carmichael, R. S., 80, 193, 241
Cutqna, J. P., 298, 311, 313
Caye, ll., 13
Cerveny, v . 249
Claandler, N., 81
Chang, s. IC.., 311
Chell, S. T., 281, 311
Chalg, C. H., 311
Cbkk, B. B., 147, 151
Qoquette, P. W., 14, 18
Ouistensen. R. M., 100
Cart. V. A., 190, 207, 213, 21P
Cleary, M. P., 81
aiel, C., 307
Coben-Tannoudji, C., 109
Cooper, M. F. Jr., 290
Cordier, J.P., 230, 237
CouraDt, ll., 129
Coussy, 0., 266

s.

Backus, M. M., 304


~

Bader, M., 151

BaDcrof't, D., 166.


"'--

'---'

'---'
'-

'-.-c

Beard, D. C., 233


Becquey, M., 304
Belllouuan, A., 64
Berry, B. S., 122, 143
Berryman, J. G., 71
Babers, D. N., 219
Biot, M. A., 64, 65, 67, 72. 7J, 22S,
lin:ll, F., 166
Blair, D. ll., 157
Blan4, D. R., 122, 125
.Bioadin, L., 309

Borcherdt, R. D., 112, 286. 287, 288, 290. 291


Bourbie, T., 80, 157, 158, ISS, Ill, 190, 204, 206,
208, 232, 243, 252, 259. 287.290, 291, 295, 296,
297' 306, 307
Bousquie, P., 29
Bowler, J . 146
Brace, W. F., 34
Bracewell, R.N., 270, 304

--

248. 252
Danbura, J. s.. 233
Da Prat, G., 192, 196, 197. 207, 211
Datta, s. IC.., 94
Davis, H. T., 17
Davis, L.A., 170, 203, 2ll. 212, 216
DelfiDCI', P., 13, 20
De Martini, D. C., 233
Denis, A., 179
Demiewic:z. H., 246, 247. 248, 250, 258,260.261,
262,264
Desclwnps, M., 152

'._/

_/

._/

326

AUTHOR INDEX

Devaney, A. J .. 215

Grau, G., 302

DeVilbiss, J. W., 187, 195, 197, 200, 211, 242, 309


Dhawan, G. K., 29
Ditkine, V., 270
Diu. B., 109

Gregory, A. R., 75,177,181,189,130,231.133,235.


237, 254, 265. 273
Grittl, R. E., 12
Guillot, D., 14

Domenico. S. N., 190. 191, 237, 238, 304, 305


Drake, C. L.. :!32, 233. 235
Droschak, D. M . 166
Dubesset, M . 307
Dullien, F. A. L., II. 23, 29, 30
Dupa, L. L., 146
Duschatko, R., 13

Elbaum, C., 147. 151


Ensley, R. A., 306
Eringen A. C .. Ill
Eshelby, J. D .. 58
Etienne, J ., 29
Everhart, A. H .. 3lt
Ewing, W. M., 49, 249

Fatt, 1., 259


Faust, L. Y., 237. 238
Feng, D. L., 248
Flugge, W., 100
Fourgeau, E., 304

Fung, Y. C., 53

Hadamard, J., 96
Hardin, B. 0., 190
Hauge, P. S., 241

Hickman, W. B. 31
Hilbert, D., 129
Hosten, B., 152
Huang, C. F., 311, 313
Hunt, E. R., 232, 234
Hunter, J. A., 311, 313

~~

~~

lshimaru, A., liS

Jacquin, Ch., 35, 44


Jankowsky, W., 237, 238
Jardetzky, W. S., 49, 249
Johnson D. L., 71, 80, 81, 88, 89. 91, 92, 93, 248
Johnston, D. H., 154, ISS, 203, 205, 218, 243
Jones, L. E. A., 180, 233, 236

Jones, T.,l82, 186,194,209,222,223,226,227,306,

310

Futterman, W. L., 124

Gai'Perin, E. 1.. 310


Ganley, D. C., 241
Gant, W. T., 311
Gardner, G. H. F., 75, 166, 182,230, 231,233,235,
237, 254, 265, 273
Gardne~J. 8.,232,234
Gardner, L. W .. 230, 231, 233, 237
Gassmann, F., 68, 237
Geerstma, J., 84. 94, 190, 248,250, 2S4
Germain, P .. 49. 66, 69
Giard, D., 304
Gladwin, M. T .. ISS, 201, 216, 218
Goetz, J. F., 146

Kalinin, A. V., 124


KaliniD, V. V., 124

Kan, T. K., 298, 313


Kanamori, H., 123, 124
Kanasewich, E. R., 241
Kaye, G. W. C., 193
Kjartansson, E., 125, 126, 127, 157, 221, 224, 218,
305,307
Koehlet, F., 304
Kojima, H., 93
Kowallil, B.J., 233, 2.36
Kuo, J. T., 219
Kuster, G. T., 58

Goldbug. D., 241, 298, 311, 313

Laby, T. H., 193

Gonzalez-Serrano, A., 259, 287, 29S


Gordon, R. B. 170, 203, 211, 212, 216

Lalc)e, F., 109

/-

..-......

~-----

Lacue, J., 304


---.._

-----~

_...,

A~'iWolix

Nowick. A. S., 122. 143


Nur, A .. 62, 94. 139. 176, 177. 179, 181, 184, 187,
188,192,193.195,196,197.201,205,206.210,
211,212,216.218,222,223,
226,227,233,
236. 242, 252. 297, 306. 309

Landau. L., 49
Lanon. R. G., IS
Lawrpc, M., 239, 240, 304
Le Fournier, J., 29
Levin. F. K . 147, 303
Levine. H . 215
Levy. Th., 64
Lifehitz, E., 49
Lindsay, R. B., 287
Lions. J. L., 64
Liu, H. P., 123, 124
Lockett, F. J., 290
Lockner, D. A., ISS
124
Lomnitz,
Louis. P., 304

m.

Oates. w .. 147
O'Connell, R. J .. 58. 6S, 122
O'Doherty, R. F., 303
O'Hara, S. G., 165
Ostrander, W. J., 304
Outerbridge, W. F., 163, 164

c ..

Paillet. F. L., 274

Mahood . G. A., 309


Majer. E. L., 309
Mandel, J., 33, 49, 53, 64. 66, 72, 120
Mari. J. L., 309
Marigo, J. J., 58
Marzetta, T., 281
Mason, W. P., 219
Matheron, G., 18, 72
Mathieu, F., 3tl, 313
Mavko, G. M., 58, 94, 198; liS, 2'18,
'~

Me Skimin, H. J., 153


Meynot, a., 29
Miklowitz, J., 266
Mills. R. L., 241
Mobarek, S. A. M., 194
Mochizuki, s., 225
Molotkov, I. A., 249
Monic:ant, R., t I
Mor1et, J., 304
Mortier, P., 94

,_

~~'

"---

'~

22'7

Me Donald, F. J., 241


Me Evilly, T. V., 309
Me Kavanash, B., 170

'~

Morrow, N. IL, 23
Murphy, W. F. III, 123, 177, 179, 181. 184, 187, 188,
190,191,199,201,206,213,214.216,218,220,
222,227,229

Nafe. H. E., 2~2, 233, l!S


Noadler, H., 213

'327

Palmer. I. D., 227, 229


Panet, M., 57, 177
Papadakis, E. P., 153. ISS
Papanicolaou, S., 64
Parks, G. A., 192
Puierb, F., 93
~ L., 163, 164
Pickell, J. J., 29
Pickett. G., 162
Pierrot. R., 13
Pittmann, E., 13
Pivovarov, B. L., 124
Plona, T., 80, 81, 85. 86, 88, 89. 98. 91, 92, 93, 152,
153, 213
Porter, R., 281
Pray, L. C., 14, 18
Preis, F., 49, 249
Prevosteau, J. M., 13
Proudnikov, A., 270
Prunier, A., 306
l'leacik. I., 249
Purtell, w. R., 26

Quimby, s. L., 165


Rqot, J. P., 13
RuolofolllOD, P., 266, 298
Raising, J., 223
Lord Raylcip, 263
bymer, L. L., 232. 234
Reid, A. C., 241

-~j

328

Al:THOR INDEX

Reynaud, R . 304
Rice, J. A., 311
Rice, J. R., 81

Rice, J. T., 2SO, 258, 2~. 26l, 262


Richardson, J. M., 207, 219
Richart, F. E., 190
Robinson, J. H., 233
Rogez, D., 151
Rosenbaum, J. H., 94,248,273.274,276. 277.278.
282.311
Salen~n. J., 100
Sanchez-Palencia, E., 64
Sarda, J. P., 94
Sayers, C. M., 215
Scala, c., 93
Schechter, B.S., 309
Scblumberger, Co., 230
Schmidt, E. J., 223, 225
Schoenberg, M., 281
Schoenberger, M., 147, 303
Schone, P. A., 34.

Schreiber, E., 162, 163, 166


Scriven, L. E., 17
Sen, P. N., 71, 93

Sensbusb. R. 1., 241


Serra, J., 18
Sherift, R. E.. 304
SieJ(Jed, R. W., 311
Simmons, G., 195, 210
Skalak, R., 93, 94, 246, 247, 248
Smit, D. C., 84, 94, 248, 250, 254
Soga, N., 162, 163, 166
Sonnad, J. R., 304
Spathis, A. P., 157
Spencer, J. W., 123, 171, 222, 227
Spencer, T. A., 304
Spencer, T. W., 190, 207, 213, 219
Spetzler, H., 195
Spinner, S., 166
Stacey, F. D., 155, 170

Staron, Ph., I~
Stegun, I. A., 125, 127
Stewart, R. G., 157
Stewart, R. R., 218
Stoll, R. D., 218
Strick, E., 124

Suhubi, S., 111


Suquet, P., 63, 64
Swanson, B. F., 31
Tanner. M. T., 304
Tarif. P., 154, 155, 157, 158. 160
Taylor. R. P., 26
Teft. W. E., 166
Timur. A . 154, ISS, 194. 195, 197. 218. 243
Tittmann, B. R. 166, 190. 207, 213, 219
Tok50z, M. N., 58,.154, 155,203,205,218,243,311,

-~

313

Tourenq, C., 177


Tosaya, C., 178, 180, 183, 186, 192, 195, 196, 197,
210, 211, 233, 236

Tra,ioUa, M. L., 227, 228


Truell, R., 115, 147, 151
Truesdel, A. H., 309
Tullos. F. N . 241

...--...~

Van Nostrand, R. G., 241


Viktorov, I. A., 263
Vo-Thanh, D., 192, 195, 196. 197,210. ~II, 223,225
Walls. J. D., 187, 242
Walsh, J. B., 58, 94, 116, 180, 184, 195. 218, 2l6
Wang, lt.F., t80, 233,236
Ward, R. W., 154
Wardlaw, N. C., 26
Waterman, P. C., 115
Waters, K. H., 302
White, J. E., 68, 141, 153, 161, 164, l~. 241,1171
Widess, M. 8., 302
Willis, D. G., 65, 67
Willis, M. E., 311
Willm, C., 304
Winbow, G. A., 311
Winkler, K., 58, 139, 152, 153, 165, 166. 169, IB7,
197,200,201,205,206.212,214,215,216,218,
222, 242
Wu, T. T., 58, 180

~-""""'

~~

Wyllie,M. R.J., 75,166,182.230,231,254,265,273

Ying, C. F., liS


Zinsmer, B., 29, 80, IS9, 185, 188, 190. 204, 206,
208. 232, 243

...--...

-----:'1

.......
''--'
'

'---'
'----'

subject irdex
'.,____

'---'

'-'
'''-"

------

Act.orbed water, 219, 225


Ac:ces radius (porous medita), ~6. 29, 87
Atlnl (material), I 00
Air)' ..... Ill
A8qiiAollte, 216
Allltydrite, 235, 240
Allilotropy
iaduced, 183, 184
intrinsic, 186
~pasation,61, 74,96
transverse, 97
Aaale (eritical), 88
Aaortllollte, 220
Ane.atloa
capillary forces, 220, 221
contrast, 306
deftnition, 15, 107, 1 t:
extrinsic, 147, 303
frequency, 211-214, 2::2
in situ measurements. 240, 243
interface, 279-281
intrinsic, 147, 305
mechanisms, '63, 217, 229
measurements, 15 I
~.156

permeability, 275
"---"
"--'

'---'

'-----'
"--
'-'

'-"-'

attenuation contrast, 306


velocity contrast, 304

Caldera, 309
Capmary, Calilarity, 22
desorbtion, 24
equilibrium, 23
force, 191, 220, 221

pressure, 24
visualization, 29, 32
ear.a.Kozeay fonmda, 35,47
Casco (see Gruite)
C...uty prillcifle, 103
Claalt (see u.e.toae)

a ...ca~._.

hydrosen, 219
Pray dellllfacatloll 15, 16
Oay (see also, Sllale), ll, 12, 34, 235, 236--240

a...-ue ...

phase change, 211


viscosity, 207, 210
saturation, 2()4..207
methods, 207, 208
scatterin& 214, 215
strain, 215
temperature, 207, 209

Colli, 240
COCGidao (see Saadst011e)
Celoralle(seeSIIIIes)
eo.,.ctloa, 237
CotDctlfllle,23
COIIdaulty bldex, 179
ConloYa ereaaa (see I' eltDae)
C....... l47, 153
inertial, 71, 83, 225

Barre (see Graaite)


BMalt,216,240
Wfonl (see IU.IIt1M1e)
Berea (see s..tst..)
IJerrymaa's foranlla, 79. 265
Bimodal perGiimelric SJiftb ... 27,

8riPt ...... 304-308

breakage, 219, 221

pressure, 203, 204


saturatina fluid

-~

--------

Blot's dleory, 63-84. 141, 161, 166, 190. 225,


250, 259, 263
(experimental veriftcation of), 85
Bolle (see Saadltoae)
~.. prladple, 102
.............. 152

tbermomechaDica 65

viscous, 87

rT

COYMiuce, 18, 40
Creep fuctloa, 100, 124, 12S

'-'

_.. ..:::;-

330

SUBJECT INDEX

Cracks, 179. 180, 186, 204


growth, 57
porous medium, 21
closure, 57
Cross-sectioa (scatterilll), 115

Damping (re4uced), 136

Dare:,

Ia~. 31, 69. 281


unit, 31
Decay (lopritluaic), 135, 161
Delayed behamr (coastlbltlve law), 54, 56, 100
Desorbtioa (capillary), 24
Diatomite, 231
Diffusion, 81
Diffushity (hydraulic), 81, 227
Dilatation (vollllllie), 52, 55
Diopsiclite, 216
Dileoatiauides aad wafti;24S..l49
Dislocation, 219, 221
Dispersion, 128
inverse, Ill
normal, Ill
Rayleigh waves, 265
Stonely waves, 267
Dissipation, 269
Diveraeace(spreadllll), 147, 153, t'5s, t60, 303
Dolomite, 16, 17, 32,230,234,235,240
Webatuck, 177, 179
Ih1Uaa,e,23, 29,32
Dry rock (defulitioa), 187
Duaite, 179, 216

Echo method, 151, 172, 173


~. 132,273
llgeafrequency, 131, 136
Elastic constaats, 62
Elasticity (linear), 54
Eblltodynamfcs, 49
Eaeray
average, 122, 138
balance, 287
elastic, 106, 121, 138
kinetic, 70
maximum, 122, 139

EVA tool, 159, 240, 310-312

Exteasional IROde, 162


Fadel variation, 304
Faust's fennula, 237
Feldspar, 17
Filtratioa velocity, 246
Flexural..-, 162
Flow (1Rultiphase), 38
Foataiaellleu (see s..lstoae)
For~Ratiolt faetor, 71
Fort Ualoa (see S.Ddstoae)

-,,

Fourier.......,_, 104
Foxbills (see s..lstoae)
Fraehuila
'
(hydraulic), 310
(natural), 310
Free 'ribratloas, 134, 161

,,

F~

band, 146, 301


central, 228
ch~stic,

75,80
(eigen), 130, 131, 136
resonance, 162
sweep, 136, 162
thermal relaxation, 221
Frldloa. 216

c .........

fOI'IIIIIIa, 68, 82, 84, 190, 265


Gcentma .... Smlt ........ 84, 190
Geopltysia (petrale-), 301
Gneiss, 186, 240
Granite, 212, 216, 239, 240
Barre, 184,195,210
Casco, 179
Oklahoma, 222
Sierra White, 182, 188, 199, 200, 206. 242
Stone, 179
Troy, 177, 179
Westerly, 177, 179, 184, 193, 197, 211
Grain
contact,9
size, 19,44

~-

-~~

---,
'
~

Halite, 235, 240


Hamilton's prilldple, 70, 111, 246

'
~

'"'""

-~~
~. 16, 17,2?;28,32, 37

Haakel . . . . , _ , 270

attenuation, 243
Bedford
attenuation, 203, 210
ve~ty, 171, 179, 195. 196
chalk, 27, 28, 39
attenuation, 207, 241
velocity, 178, 179,240
Indiana, 207
Oak Hall, 179
porosity/permeability relation., 34
relative permeability, 39
Solenhofen, 177, 179
Speraen, 222
~ty, 179, 230, 234, 235, 231-ol40
~ 146,247,255,2&1

Hannoaic:, 137, 167


lleteropaelty, 167
-~

''-

'--

'---

~
(minimum volume), 40, 4i, 42
Biot's theory, 63
Hooke's law, S4
HydrauUc fraetwiDI, 310
Hydrogea bollll, 190, 209
Hydroxyla, 190, 219, 225
,:

- ...., . , 18, 19
llllbiWdoa, 23, 29, 32

lncelapr! Dllitr ...


'--'

S6

M....,. (see Sa~Mtstwe)

Impulse ........ 125


ladiua (SH I I !ROlle)
bljecdoD (epoxy), 21, 29
laerdal
coupling. 71, 83, 225
effects, 81
lntercryltallia (ponul ......), 18

Madlemadc:al ~. 18
MaxweiiiBCMiel, 119, 120
Mlcroeraeb, 9, 21, 179, 204, 301

MoWIIty, 72
MCNiel

Interface
eff~(attenuation),29S

open or sealed, 247, 268-270

laterfereace, 108, 109, 133

IJiter&ruulM' (ponul . . . . .),

13, 16, f8, 35

~(paroal---), 16.'t
lrrotadoltal ...,_ellt's. 59

'-

331

Jn's.......,26

Kelrut-Veip ...... 119,"120


Kera RiYer (see SaillllsteM)
Kr~~~~en-Kroal& .........., 122. 142

'

Constant Q, 124-128, ISO, 200, 287


Kelvin-Voigt, 119, 120
Maxwell, 119, 120
Nearly Constant Q, 123
standard, 117, 123
20,288
Zener, 117, 123

complex, 104, 112, 142. 285


delayed, 118, 143
effective, $1
instantaneous, 118, 143
reflection and transmission c:oefticieat, 263
relaxed, lOS
static, 58
MoNk (porous me6Jiia), 16, 18
M .. cake, 247, 248
Myloaite, 186

---------~

-~

l..qrutiu, 70, Ill

Lame's eat..., 54, 62, 61, 104


Laplace's ,......., 22

Lateral extealioll eofta:tiDM. 166

Naajo (SH Saadstone)


N.--Stokes equadoa, 72
Neller (deflaldoa), 112
Nolle, 147, ISS, 161
NGIIIinearity, 168

-,_

_-,J

332

SUIUECt INDEX

Oak Hall (.rn I..ilaelltoae)


Offset VSP, 308
Oalager's priadple, 69
Orthotropy' 97
Ottawa (see Sand)

Pressure
confming, 176, 181
differential, 176
effective, 176, 181
hydrostatic, 56, 67
pore, 176, 181
Pyroxeaite, 216

"'

'

Packing (spheres), 13, 14

.....Utude.

129, 130
Pendulum, 163-169, 172, 173
Peak

Q (see Quality faeter)


Quadratic form, 66
Quartzite, 179, 212, 216
QaaUtyfaetor(defmitioa), 112, 117, 125, 140,
170, 288
attenuation, 113
kinetic energy, 113
2 0 equation. 286
in situ measurement. 241
Q 139
QK,, 139
Q_,, 298
Q,., 139
Q 265
Qs. 139,289
QSr, 267
Que 298

Percolation theory, 15, 36


PenaeaWIIty
absolute, 31, 7l
bulk, 31
global, 31
hydraulic, 69, 72
interface wave, 247, 275 .
!
matrix, 31
measurement. 33
monophasic, 31
porosity, 34-36
relative, 38, 39
Permeameter, 33
Phase chana~ (flllicl), 207, .211
Phase shift, 134, 261
stress-strain, 113, 170,.173

Pierre (see Shale)


Polarity cbaage, 307

Racliolarite, 231
RQP,.20, 40

Polseuille's law, 33

Raylftala

Poissoa's ratio,. 54, SS, 62, 139, 181, 231, 239,


304. 306

..

Radius ac:ces(poroas Blediam), 26, 29, 87


Reflectioa
coefficient, 152, 250, 255-263, 29().:296
modulus, 263, 295
phase, 263, 295
interface, 249-258
multiple, 147, 303
Relaxation, 101, 11&, 142
time, 118
thermal, 221, 224
viscous, 226
Resouace peak, 162, 166

Poteatial
strain, 56, 66
dissipation, 69
surface dissipation, 246

-t

Resoaant bar, 137, 163. 169,


Restam'ed .._. mediad. 24

approximation, I t6
(pseudo), 311
wave, 263

Pore cast, 12, 17, 21, 37, 45, 187

Porosimetry (mercury), 26
'
Porosity, 10
clay, II
connected, II
fiSSure, 21
measurement, 10
occluded, 11, 36
total, II, 46
trapped, II, 25

~,

P-.elllllddty, lS4
Po~BMtrics~,27,28,44

~.

'

---.....-..,

17~ 173

Rheological lllOdel, 117

Rise time, 1~6, 148, 155-160

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~

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'-

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'-

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'-

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I

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Saiat Peter (.sw SaMIIeae)

~11,89,91

Salt. 235, l40

Skill,
effect, 86
depth, &7

s.-......... fonladoal.238,240, 241,304


'-._,

;;

~IMJD;I

s..l. s..t.to.e, 234, 235,238.241, 243


~.254,273,279

attenuation, 203, 209, 211, 212. 216.222


velocity, 181, 182, 194, 197, 200, 201
Boise, 194, 196, 207, 210
Coconino, 207
Fontainebleau, 43-47, 185
attenuation, 159, 204, 206, 208, 243
velocity, ISO, 186, 188, 232
Fort Union, 199
Foxhills, 2S4, 279
Kern River, 196
Massillon
attenuation, 169, lOS, 212, 214, 216, :us,
219, 222, 22S, 242
velocity,l77,179,182,187, 18&,199,200,
201
Navajo, 205, 222
Ottawa, 216, 231
porosity/permeability relation., )4, 44
relative permeability, 39
Saint Peter, 182, 197, 211
shaly, 27, 28, 37
Teapot,2S4,273,279
Venezuela, 192, 196, 211
Vosges, 166-168
Wingate, 207, 213
Satwation

irreductib1e, 24, 39
methods, 207, 208
residual, 25, 39
Seale, IC8hl ......... 40, 94, 302
Scatteriac. 91, 115, 146, 147, I, 197, 211,
214,303
cross-section, II S
Seia1ic p~upediag
borehole, 308
full waveform ~. 3l0 ,
low frequency, 302
'' ,
reflection, 302
reservoir, 302, 308
statigraphic, 304
three-component, 306
well-to-well, 310
Sbale
Colorado, 203
Pierre, 178, 180, 182, 186, 241
Shape factor, 116, 180
Sllear ..... 162
Sierra White (see Grufte)

Soleala.r. (see U.llhlle)


Source (.a-lc:). 269
SpecifiC
area, 22t
gravity (rocks). 240
Spectral ratio, 1S3-l 56
s,erp. (.r Umestoae)

s.at--.227
Sf(alllt flow, 227
Staq4*,128
~ ............ 110

Stall rroat, 309


Stelle (see Graaite)

Stoaeley
mode, 274
wave, 266, 311
Stylolidle, 16

StniD
principal directions, S l
small, Sl, S3
teasor, 49
~eyde,10S

s......

compressional, SS
effective, 81

'I

iI

shear,"
telliOr, S2
traction,SS
Sweep (fnlpleaey). 136, 162

SJDdledc rrf

J
~\

......., 276; 282

Syttaa
open, 75,79
closed, 75, 79

Teapot (see Saadstoae)


Terupi'alaw, 81-84, 93, 176
Textwe ...aysls, 18, 19

l'henlapaen\....,., 12
~221,224

nta .etioll (rock). 12, 14, 32


'J'IIree.colllpoMDt reccrii..,

306

>.-/
(

'~

_:J;I

Tor.Honal~, 166
Tortuosity, 35, 71, 80, 81, 83, 93, 191, 252; 254
Traasmission
coefficient, 250, 255-263, 290-296
modulus, 263,
phase, 263, 295
method, 153, 172, 173
Tripolite, 231
Troy (see Granite)
Tube wave, 275

o t \.\,~as- C\' ~).


Unsteady-state, 128 \..c:..\ Y"CE.J<.-4 Ch~"do
"C

Vector

attenuation, 260, 284


propagation, 284
Venezuela (see Saad)
Velocity
average value rocks, 230, 240
clay content, 179, 233, 2l_6
compaction, 237-239
complex, 286
dispersion, 197
energy, Ill
extensional, 128, 141, 166
frequency, 197
group, 108-112
in situ measurement, 23o;.240
interval, 146
measurement, 148
phase, 108,149,260,286
porosity, 23()
pressure, 177-186
Rayleigh, 265
saturating fluid
phase, 196
viscosity, 192-196
saturation, 187-192
specific gravity, 233-235
Stoneley, 267
strain, 198
temperature, 193
uniaxial stress, 182
Vibrations, 128
. forced, 134, 161
free, 134, 161
_,quality factor, 135

Viscoelasticln (liaear), 107-ll2


interface ~aves, 297
reflection and transmission, 283-297
v-...coupllaa,87
~. 194. 204, 210
V~tlon

capillary properties. 29, 30


porous medium, 12
VSP (vertical seismic profdiag), 240, 308
Vugy (Jiorous IDellium), 15, 16
Vycor, 191, 206. 213, 219, 222, 228

'

.,

'

~'

----..

Water content, 66, 252


Waftl
dilatational. 59
equation, 61
extensional. 63, 128, 132
homogeneous, 284
inhomogeneous, 258, 284
interface. 263-269
longitudinal. 60, 63
primary. 58. 73
propagative. 128
Rayleigh, 263
refracted, 274
secondary, 60
shear, 70, 74
slow (second kind), 73-82, 83, 88., 252
standing, 161-169
Stoneley, 266, 311
transverse, 60
tube, 275
wave guidt~ 110
WeiMtuel (SH Debaite)
Well loallll (acoustic), 146, 247, 255, 281
Westerly (see Graaite)
Wettallility, 23
Wettillc/IIOil "ddlli .... 22
Wi~~&&te (see Saadstone)
WOCMI's metal, 29
WyDie's formula, 230-233

.,

~-,

.,.
.,

-,

...__

-.

'
-.

---...

-..

'
----.,

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YoiiRI'S modulus, 54, 57, 170

'

Zener model, 117' 123

......

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