~,
B!P3W
SOO.Jod JO
S3!JSD038
\
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.___~
\.....
Thierry BOURBI~
lnstitut
Fra~
du P6trole
''
Olivier COUSSY
LabcJqtoire Central des Ponts et Chau..._
Bernard ZINSZNER
lnstitut
du Nlrole
''
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'./
''''
'~
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Foreword by
acoustics
of porous
media
Ama NUR
'.~
Professor
Director of the Sgnford Rock PllysQ Project
Geophysics Depertment. Stanford Un~
'../
'~
1987
''
"
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technip
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Translation of
c Acoustique des milieux poreux
T. ~ 0. eot.y. B.,zirtii&IW'
~8111hot~:::.~ted
intlefilurec;ap . ~~
,
list(title
....__
ISBN 0872010252
Library of Congress Catalog Cerd No. 8882913
.,
Printed in France
by lmprimarie Nouvelle. 45800 SaioltJeandeBraye
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.. fcreWord :_~.=. 
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!2'
It has Ion& been recognized that~: wayc; ctifr~d~ristics as measured on the earth's
surface can provide information not onl~~bl>.!!UJae1l.ttitude and distribution of interfaces
between rock types within the earth, but also about the mineralogy, as well as the state of
the rocks present. In fact much of our knowledge about the internal constitution of the
earth has been derived from seismic wave characteristics such as velocities and
amplitudes.
Althoup seismic methods, notably reflection methods in exploration geophysics have
been used most extensively, they were in the past applied mostly to delineate rock
interfaces in the earth's shallow crust, to evaluate structures which might bear
hydrocarbons. In contrast relatively little use has been made of seismic waves for the
determination of the rock properties of direct interest to hydrocarbon recovery (e.g.
porosity, permeability), or the direct detection of hydrocarbons. Even in acoustic logiing.
only the estimation of porosity from velocities has been developed as a regular service.
The estimations of permeability or saturation are based on other, non seismic, methods.
Because of the increasing value of oil, the growing complexity of recently discovered oil
ftelds, and the growing realization that reservoirs and recovery are more heterogeneous
than assumed. in the past, a major shift in the use of seismic methods has taken place
during the past one or two decades. One of the central aspects of this shift involves the
need to establish and understand the relation between the seismic properties of reservoir
and reservoir related rocks, and their production properties (porosity, permeability) and
state (mineralogy, saturation, pore pressure etc.). Some obvious applications are the
evaluation of stratigraphic traps, fracture detection, and the spatial distribution of
porosity and permeability.
Seismic methods are almost never used in hydrocarbon recovery assessment, in spite of
the growing need to better understand recovery. A major problem which has emerged in
the area of reservoir evaluation and production is the realization of the complexity of
most reservoirs, leading to great uncertainties in estimated total recovery, recovery rates,
and recovery method. Reservoir complexity is typically related to the signifiCant spatial
heterogeneity in porosity, permeability. clay content, fracture density etc. The spatial
variabilities cannot be inferred at any level of detail from well testing data, logs, or cores.
They may only be obtained, hopefully, from remote geophysical measurement, especially
seismic measurement.
A direct consequence of the heterogeneous nature of reservoirs is the complexity of
their recovery processes, ranging from problems like the migration of the gas cap in
reservoirs with discontinuous shales, overpressure zones, and the tracking of steam or
temperature in thermal recovery in reservoirs with large spatial variation of permeability.
_lj
VIII
FOREWORD
There is little doubt that seismic methods will play, in the future, a major role in helping
to solve production and recovery problems. But we first need a better understanding of
what it is that seismic waves can tell us about reservoir rocks, and how to extract the
desired information. This book is an important step in this needed direction.
A. NUR
Professor
Director of the Stanford Rock Physics Project
Geophysics Department, Stanford University
July 1986
.~,
._,
~,
~.~
_,
~
,_
''
~
First of all, we thank the lnstitut Franrais du Petrole ( IFP) for making: this book a
possibility. Over and beyond material contribution from IFP, we benefned from the
invaluable help of our colleague$ there.
"'
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,j
'''
':"'
'
''"
G. GRAu, M. LAvERGNE and P. TAIUFwho read the manuscript, which improved a great
deal due to their constructive criticism.
D. BELAUD, M.T. BIEBER, M. GuEDJ, M. HuaTE, C. JACQUIN, M. MASSOI" and the IFPDocumentation and Publi<:ation Services who have contributed in their different areas of
expertise.
Editions Technip is responsible for the particularly careful presentation of the book.
We must also not forget B. HALPHEN of the Laboratoire Centra/des Ponts et Chaussees
who encouraged us, along with M. PANETand J.P. PoiiUER, respectively of Simecso/ and
the lnstitut de Physique du Globe de Pmis who kindly wrote the foreword to the French
edition.
~
\,_/
\._;~
~
_.'
'~
'.
A. Nua from Stanford University, to whom rock physics owes so much, kindly
agreed to write the foreword for the English edition. We wish to thank him here most
warmly.
~~
'.~
'...
contents
~
Foreword ..................................................
'.
NOMENCLATURE ................................................. .
GENERAL INTRODUCfiON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VII
Chapter l
POROUS MEDIA
'"
lntrocluction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
''
l.l. POI'Oiity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1. 111e . , , . , . or pon1111ty
''
~
.
.
I0
1o
II
II
12
12
13
13
15
15
15
18
21
22
22
24
26
29
29
30
'
CONTENTS
XII
30
31
31
33
35
38
38
40
40
42
43
43
43
43
44
47
Chapter 2
49
49
49
52
u elasddty .................. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.4. u . . elasticity aac1 rock ..c~aaa~c:s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
56
56
linear elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rock mechanics and effective moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waves in 3D space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I D wave equation (elastic case) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
...
. .
..
.
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
.
.
. ..
. . .
. ...
.
. . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . ..
. .
.. ...
.
.
.
.
.
58
59
59
61
63
64
66
66
67
69
70
70

CON1'Pfi'S
XIII
72
73
74
81
84
85
85
88
2.3. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
llledium...........
95
.....................
2.2.5.
~t.......
Olapter 3
WAVE PROPAGATION AND VIBRATION EFFECI'S
IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA
(IIIIWimeasioaal)
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
100
100
101
102
3.3.3.
w~ propaaadoa .
3.3.3.1.
3.3.3.2.
to,....._.. ................
die.....,.
104
104
lOS
107
107
108
112
114
ll7
117
123
123
124
CONTENTS
XIV
. . . . . . . . . . . , .
128
128
132
132
134
13 5
139
3.7. Conclusions..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
141
Appendix 3.1.
142
. . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. . . . .
Chapter 4
145
146
146
148
148
151
4.1.1. Diffac:tddes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2. Measurement prindples 111111 experimental techniques .
4.1.2.1. Velocity measurements . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1.1. Attenuation measurements . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. .
. . . . . ... . . .. .. . . . .
Pendulums ......
Resonant bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
161
161
161
163
163
163
170
4.4. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
171
4.2.1. Difl:.Culties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. Geueral priadples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3. Experimeatal setaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3.1.
4.2.3.2.
!....................... ; . . . . . . .
Oaapter 5
175
175
176
176
'/
'XV
CONTI!N1S
5.1.1~
~
5.1.1.3.
5.1.1.4.
5.1.1.5.
5.1.1.6.
5.1.2.
Ac....._: l't8lllts
5.1~1.
......................
5.1.2.5.
5.1~
Summary
5.1.2.2.
5.1.2.3.
5.1~4.
'
5.2.2. Vllodtt. .. .
5.2.2.1. In situ velocity measurements ......
5.2.2.2. Velocities and porosity .............................
5.2.1.3. Velocities and density ....................................
5.2.2.4. Velocities and clay content ...............................
5.2.2.5 Velocities and'compection ......................
5.2.2.6. V,./f/'11 and Poisson's ratio .................................
5.2.17. Summary on in situ velocity measurements ..................
5.2.3. AUraa .._ ........... . .
5.2.3.1. In situ atteouation tneaSUn:DlCilts
5.2.3.2. Results ' ~
5~4.
Caacl d  Ia dta
187
193
198
198
202
202
204
204
207
211
215
215
217
218
218
220
229
229
230
230
230
233
233
237
239
239
240
240
242
242
~
'
Chapter 6
Iatroclucdon ........................................................ .
6.1. Wave propqatlon in saturated porous media. Discontinuity effects ...... .
245
246
6.1~
'
245
249
249
6.1~2.
258
..............
. .'
CONTENTS
XVI
Interface waves . . . . . . . .
Seismic source in the vicinity of a fluid/porous medium interface . . . . .
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
263
263
269
281
283
283
287
287
288
288
6.1.3.1.
6.1.3.1.
.6.1.3.3.
6.2.2.
....................... . .
Energy balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quality factor . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constant Q model in two dimenlions . . . . .
Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface effect of attenuation . . . . . .
290
290
29 5
297
298
Chapter 7
SOME APPLICATIONS
IN PETROLEUM GEOPHYSICS
Introduction ........................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
299
302
7.1.1. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
302
..
. . .
....
.
302
308
309
7.1.3.1.
7.1.3.2.
' .
..
.
.
.
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
..
.
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
.
303
303
306
310
loggiD&.....................................
310
BmLIOGRAPHY........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . .
315
AUTHOR INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
325
SUBJECT INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
329
'"'
~~~       
',..,_/
nomenclature
A subscript (letter or number) after a comma denotes a partial derivative with respect to the
coordinate related to this subscript:
c2 uJC ...
iJu"
""' ,., iJy
~2
""" cy
au,
2
"' ..
OXz
Time derivatives arc denoted by a dot (ftrst derivative) or two dots (second derivative):
.
iJu
iJt
iJ2u
u==
ii=
iJtl
"
oy
i}z
+ (ac~~
ac~~ o+)
ox oy ' cz
an
curl
+_(c+. _a+,
cy
ac~~"
iJz ' oz
iJ2cll
ol+
iy .
ale~~
The real and imaginary parts of a complex quantity are indicated by:
Real part
=(
Imapnary part ... (
)a or Re (
h or Im (
The system used is the Sl system. with a few exceptions (i.e. permeabilities).
The nomenclature below does not include the multiple constants used in the text. These are
generally represented by the characters A, B, C, y etc.
A
a
~
Co
attenuation vector.
tortuosity (Biot theory) (see also t(c/>)).
torsion constant.
hydraulic dift'usivity.
c.
clay content.
c.(h)
c,ft,
i!
I
'~
"
NOMENCLATURE
c
d,
0
o.
D
e
E
F(Q>l
!c
fo
f(t)
G
J ,.(x)
"
%
%
kinetic energy.
skin depth.
dissipation potential.
surface dissipation potential.
thermal diffusivity.
aspect ratio.
Young's modulus.
formation factor.
frequency.
critical Biot frequency.
scattering central frequency.
creep function.
amplitude coefficient including geometric divergence effects.
Bessel functions of the ftrst kind
(n'h order).
permeability (in mD).
hydraulic permeability.
permeability tensor.
k*
K
Ko
K,
Kfl
K,
l
L
M
D
PeG
Pc
Pt
Pelf
Pc
p,
p
P,
p2
Q
Q,o
Qs
QE
Q.ll
Qs,
Qror
Qbiph
Q.~
0
R;
R,.
Rh
R,
IR
r(t)
s
SH
SV
s..
s....
s.
ff
T
lr
t,
t
u
r.
"r."
f~
effective pressure.
confming pressure.
pore pressure.
compressional wave.
compressional wave of the f1rst kind.
compressional wave of the second
kind.
quality factor.
P wave quality factor.
S wave quality factor.
extensional wave quality factor.
Rayleigh wave quality factor.
Stoneley wave quality factor.
global quality factor.
quality factor related to interface fluid
flow.
intrinsic quality factor (viscoelasticity).
volumetric flow rate.
radius of curvature (i = 1,2).
mean radius of curvature.
hydraulic radius.
radius of gyration.
reflection coefficient.
relaxation function.
surface area.
shear wave polarized in the horizontal
plane.
shear wave polarized in the vertical
plane.
water saturation.
irreducible water saturation.
residual saturation.
age of sediment.
period.
transmission coefficient.
surface tension.
tangent vector.
displacement.
mean displacement of continuous
liquid phase.
pore volume.
total sample volume.
solid volume.
~~~~~~~
~
~~
~
NOMENCLATl"RE
;!
f~
\1
V..
V.,.
V
v,.
v,.,
J's
VR
Ys.
VE
V,
v.
V1
V.
w
~
!<?:
z
2
r
b(r)
b
b
bii
.II W
strain potential.
maximum stored energy during a
cycle.
average stored energy during a cycle.
velocity.
compressional wave velocity or P
wave velocity.
velocity of compressional waves of the
second kind (or slow waves).
shear wave velocity or S wave velocity.
Rayleigh wave velocity.
Stoneley wave velocity.
extensional wave velocity.
group velocity.
phase velocity.
velocity in saturating fluid.
velocity in rock matrix.
fdtration velocity vector.
depth.
acoustic impedance.
attenuation.
gamma function.
Dirac distribution.
logarithmic decrement.
logarithmic decrement at pulsation
t;j
,
~
(I
e
I.
A
Jl
\'
.;
.;,.
p
p,
PJ
(I
(1i_:
Cl,
r
rtol
r
cp
cj!
4J
co.
'I'
Kronecker delta.
dissipated energy.
(:)
{}
3
strain.
strain tensor.
angle.
viscosity.
angle.
volumetric strain.
Lame's parameter.
wavelength.
shear modulus.
Poisson's ratio.
fluid content
reduced damping at pulsation co., .
density.
matrix density.
fluid density.
stress.
stress tensor.
pure shear.
rise time.
tortuosity of current lines.
specifiC function used in Biot's theory.
phase.
porosity.
scalar potential.
vector potential.
angular frequency.
integration volume.

.
____,
'~J
general Introduction
Boris Vian
(Autumn in Peking)
The classic laws of elastodynamics and their extension to viscoelastic behavior are
generally postulated for homogeneous and continuous materials. Their application to
porous media requires a sweeping adaptation. Porous media are, by their very essence,
composite and multiphase. Composite because the solid fraction  the skeleton . is
formed of grains whose chemical or crystalline features are often different and multiphase
because this solid fractiort is always ;~ssociated with a gas or liquid phase that occupies the
voids between the grains.
This microscopic heterogeneity of the porous medium induces a complex macroscopic
physical behavior sensitive to slight variations in fluid content or of the solid structure.
The acoustics of porous media are intended to characterize their behavior by synthesizing
between the.rigor of the laws of mechanics and the natural disorder of porous media. The
task is difficult, but this difficulty is correlated to the importance of the applications to
which even partial results can lead. In fact, acoustic analysis is one of the surest means
available for the remote investigation of porous rocks and for the nondestructive testing of
materials.
The ideal fteld of application  at least for its economic benefits  is geophysics. bt the
subdiscipline of acoustics, classic seismics. which predominates, was originally intended to
provide a geometric image of the subsurface, by using the reflection or refraction of
acoustic waves from discontinuities at the boundaries of geologic strata. This procedure
was eminently successful. The prodigious groWth of electronics in the recording of signals
and the computation facilities for their processing now serve to routinely obtain highquality geometric images of the subsurface. This result, which stems from the substantial
improvement in the signal/noise ratio, is essentially achieved by the measurement of
GEl'ERAL
I~TRODL"CIIO"'
different transit times, interpreted in the light of elastodynamics. The acoustics of porous
media as such is never an inherent part of this study.
However, beyond the very success of these purely geometric methods, the need has
gradually emerged to characterize the types of material the acoustic wave has traversed
and even their fluid content. The lithologic and petrophysical approach to the subsurface
by seismic methods, the prospector's old dream. is unfeasible today without a better
knowledge of the acoustics of porous media.
A second major field of applied geophysics is that oi acoustic recordings in oil wells, in
other words seismic logs and well seismics. In this case. the need for familiarity with the
laws governing the interaction of mechanical waves \\ith the porous medium is obvious.
There is no better proof ofthis than the proliferation of experimental work on this subject.
While petroleum geophysics, due to its economic importance, appears to monopolize
the faeld of potential applications, one should not minimize the faeld of nondestructive
testing of porous materials (concretes. vuggy plastics etc.). an area in which the
applications are the most immediate, because measurements in conditions approaching
laboratory conditions are naturally easier to perform. Owing to their composite and
multiphase character, the acoustics of porous media constitutes the hub of several
disciplines, and this is materially reflected by the three authors, whose specialties are
physics, mechanics and geology.
Chapter 1 is devoted to the description and visualization of the porous medium itself.
One example of a natural porous medium, Fontainebleau sandstone, is discussed at the
end of the Chapter.
The simplest multi phase case corresponds to the porous medium totally saturated with
fluid. Chapter 2 provides a theoretical examination of wave propagation in this type of
medium, differentiating between movements within the solid matrix and those of the
saturating fluid. An experimental justifacation of this theory is given at the end of the
Chapter.
To distinguish between fluid and solid movements is to privilege global phenomena (at
the scale of the sample) as opposed to local phenomena (at the scale of the pore and grain).
One way to globally identify local phenomena consists of considering a homogeneous
medium, equivalent to the porous medium observed in terms of mechanical behavior.
From this viewpoint, Chapter 3 attempts a theoretical development of wave propagation
in viscoelastic media, as this type of medium fairly closely simulates the behavior of porous
media. The concept of quality factor is introduced with the use of the main viscoelastic
models.
Since velocities, attenuations and damping are introduced conceptually, it is necessary
to defme them more specifacally. Chapter 4 examines a number of vital defmitions and their
interrelationships. This Chapter describes the main experiments designed to measure
velocities and attenuations in porous media.
Chapter 5 presents the results given in the literature concerning various laboratory
experiments on porous media. The dependence ofvelo:ities and attenuations on different
GE~ERAL INTRODUCTIO~


'
1
porous media
INTRODUCTION
Porous bodies are aggregates of solid elements (grains, matrix etc.) between which the
voids form the pore space itself. These voids within the porous body give rise to the wide
differences in physical behavior between dense solids (such as minerals) and porous
substances, which are complicated assemblages in which the presence of a fluid, even in
very small amounts, adds to the overall complexity.
The ratio of void volume to total volume of the sample is called the porosity. This
petrophysical value is usually easy to defme and to measure. However, the process
become.s far more complicated when one attempts to make a geometric description of the
pore space. While a few specific cases (such as the pore space existing in packed spheres of
the.same diameter) lend themselves easily to quantitative description, most actual pore
spaces are too complex to be dealt with in a strictly geometric manner, and only relative
descriptions are feasible. One mainly tries to highlight how the medium investigated
differs from the spaces most routinely observed. For instance, it is important to draw a
clear distinction in the medium investigated between the pores themselves (namely the
void volumes which store fluids and allow them to flow) and the grain boundaries or
microcracks, which are mainly surfaces marking discontinuities between the solid
elements, and which play a vital role in the mechanical properties.
Faced with the relative failure of a strictly geometric description, progress is possible by
using a physical phenomenon, the capillary equilibria in the pore spaces. The analysis of
these equilibria helps to treat the pore space with a series of simplifications that set the
stage for a more systematic quantification. Conversely, these capillary equilibria are, in
themselves, an important factor in the study of porous bodies. In fact, if two or more fluids
coexist in a porous medium (as in petroleum reservoirs for water, oil and gas; and in the
uppermost layers of the ground for water and air), these capillary effects become decisive
for physical behavior.
One of the major characteristics of most porous Ndies is to allow fluids to flow. We
shall review the concepts of absolute permeability (porous media totally saturated by a
single fluid) and relative permeability (porous media containing two or more immiscible
fluids).
We shall also show how pore spaces are liable to raise problems of scale. An absolute
apparent scale of the porous medium does exist, that of the solid grain forming the
10
POROUS
~fEDL\
skeleton. For a better understanding, however. it is often necessary to replace this absolute
scale by the concept of a scale relative to the physical processes examined. and this relative
scale may be quite different from one process to another.
1.1
POROSITY
1.1.1
By defmition, porosity is the ratio of the pore volume (1",.) to the total volume(1~) of the
body considered. The solid volume (1 ~)is given by 'I~= 1;  1';.. Hence it suffices to
measure two of these three parameters to calculate porosity. The most common
measuring methods are summarized in Table 1.1. Methods (ll and (4), (l) and (5), and (3)
and (5) are generally used, and sometimes (l) and (7) or (3) and (7).
TABLE
1.1
Measured
volume
Total
volume
Text
reference
Measuring method
(I)
(~)
'Y,
Pore
volume
'Y,
Solid
\"olume
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
~

 
ti
POROUS MEDIA
II
Monicard (1965) and Dullien (1979) furnish details about these measuring methods.
In actual fact, these methods are not equivalent. While the determination of total
volume does not raise a theoretical problem (provided that the size of the sample is very
large in comparison with the pore size), the same cannot be said of the determination of the
other two parameters which are closely linked. Techniques (3), (4) and (5) take account
only of the pores connected to the exterior, while methods (6) partly and (7) entirely
account for all the voids.

12
POROUS MEDIA
Setting aside quantitative macroscopic defmitions, if we wish to observe the pore space,
we must have investigative facilities at the scale ofthe pore. For coherent media, it suffices
to saturate the pore space totally with a liquid which can then be solidified. Use is often
made of synthetic resins (including. epoxy) which are injected under vacuum and
polymerize under the effect of time or heat. In this way, the pore space can be analyzed by
the conventional methods of optical microscopy, with thin sections (Plate 1), polished
sections etc. For observation by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), one can also
fabricate moldings of the pore network (replicas) by destroying the mineral phase with
hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, to leave only the resin (Plate 2). The replica
technique offers the advantage over other methods of allowing observations at very high
magnification. and offurnishing a virtually threedimensional view."{he very wide depth
offleld of the SEM serves to obtain stereographic photos [by tilting the preparation under
the microscope between two photos (Plate 6)]. This makes it possible to measure the
...._____ __ _
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
"
'
l
~
POROUS MEDIA
13
thickness of very thin cracks, and even to consider the use of photogrammetric methods to
observe pore geometries. These different techniques are discussed at length in Pittmann
and Duschatko (1970), Caye et al. (1970) and Delfmer (1971).
~,
This pore geometry has been discussed in many works (by G. Cargill in 1984, for
example), because it lends itself well to the preparation of experimental models and to
computer simulations. This is also the theoretical case most closely approaching the pore
spaces frequently encountered in natural media (sandstones) and artificial media (sintered
materials).
In fact, the dense random packing of isogranular spheres is very complex. It is therefore
customary to describe only regular packings (which do not exist in reality for volumes
larger than a few grains). Table 1.2 summarizes the main characteristics of the three
packings most often described.
These regular packings offer us a preliminary view of the geometric complexity of pore
spaces. For each regular packing, the diameter of two types of sphere can be calculated:
(a) The largest sphere inscribable in the widest zones of the pore space (for a cubic
packing, this sphere has~ radius of 0.732, where the unit of length is the grain
radius).
(b) The largest sphere passing through the narrowest pore cha~els (accesses), i.e. the
largest sphere that can .. circulate" freely through the entire pore space concerned
(for the cubic packing, its radius is 0.414).
The radio of these two radii is 0.56 for cubic packing. In this case, it is evidently
unrealistic to try to divide the pore space into two clearly distinct zones: thepores (i.e.
subspherical widenings corresponding to the largest inscribable sphere) and the
"accesses" to these pores, as is often done on twodimensional sections of the pore space.
This ratio is about 0.3 for more compact packings. This shows that the distinction
between accesses" and pores" is inore diffiCult to make than is often believed. Similar
conclusions are drawn by considering the volumetric aspect of the problem. Table 1.2
shows that the largest inscribable sphere represents only a fraction ofless than 45% ofthe
total pore space of the regular packings described. The notion of pores in the sense of
 
Compact
hexagonal
or tetrahedral
Simple
hexagonal
J!
Q,
]
~
~.
.
..,
I~ ~
Sohd phase
crystal
structure
I'~
Tetrahedral
void
J
..
'
nw . '
Simple
rhombus void
Cubic void
{Wj
p ore
structureHl
about
36
25.9
39.6
47.6
p orost't y
(%)
I I
Dense random
packing or hard
spheresf21
:=
~
~
~~
SintJ?Ie
.
Packmg type
'.
t&
around 9
on
average
I2
Numhcror
con tac t
points
h
per sp ere
I octahedral
2 tetrahedral
I ,
'k
2 trigonal
.
Votd type
TARLE 1.2
CIIARA<TEIUSTI<'S OF SOME SPIIERI<'AL I'ACKINCiS
most
rrcquenl
radius
0.29
0.4 I4
0.225
0.528
0.732
Radius
.
o r maxtmum
inscribable
h 01
sp ere
Radius
tmj;.,
0.1 )~
0.414
and 0.155
curvilineartriangular
pore access
pore access
~~
0.414
curvilinear
r' .
ofmaximum
sphere
.
passmg
through
narrowest
pore channels
Fraction
27
45
43
.,
(%)
sph~re
con tamed
. 111
t~em~xtmum
mscnbable
ofpo~osily
15
'
subspherical widenings that are relatively large in comparison with the .. accesses is only
truly meaningful for the intergranular space if the porosity is signiftcantly reduced by the
compaction of natural sediments or by the intense sintering of artiftcial materials.
This points out the limits of a strictly geometric analysis. In practice, the intergranular
medium tends to be considered mainly through a series of equations relating porosity to
other petrophysical parameters. An example of this procedure is given for Fontainebleau
sandstones (see Section 1.6).
~.
1.2.2.2 Ideal
\.._
'
'
POROUS MEDI:\
I__
(_
\.._
~
vug~
medium
The ideal vuggy medium is defmed as a medium whose pore space is formed of spheres
(a complement or inversion of the above intergranular space). This is often the ftrst
geometry considered for porous media. although this case is quite rare in natural
environments. This type of pore space nevertheless exists in vuggy lavas and oomoldic
limestone, for example. It is more often found in vuggy artiftcial media (concrete, glass,
plastic~ In addition to its great simplicity. it displays the feature of being totally devoid of
interpore connections, so long as the spheres are not in mutual contact. Experiments and
calculations related to percolation theory show that a minimum porosity of 30% (in the
simple case of spheres of identical radius) is necessary for the porous phase to be
continuous (Larson et al., 1980). This 30% threshold is very important when investigating
the electric or hydraulic characteristics of this type of medium. For example, fluid
circulation (permeability) remains zero (very low in natural cases) in media with porosities
less than 20 to 30%. and then rises sharply once the threshold is crossed.
"..
....:..
.'
; '
'"<>~
I
:~
;::
i~
I 
~:r
...,
'
~~
1.2.3.1
classif~c:ation
;....
16
POROUS MEDIA
~
1~~
~
~
~
1
PLATE 1
J1
Before making the thin sections, the rocks were saturated with dyed resin. Hence the pore
space appears in red in the photographs. Note that only macroporosity can be identified by
this system of photography.
FABRICSELECilVE POROSITY
. .J
WWL
I :Jl JI1J 
WWL
l 3H:JNV1d
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
\.....
PLATE 2
''
PORE CASTS
(Epoxy replicas)
Scanning Electron Microscope photographs
After the injection of epoxy resin. the entire mineral phase (solid) is destroyed by acids.
Only the resin , representing the pore space, appears in the photographs .
......
......
'"
~,m
\.....
Ground Pyrex
(Compare with photo 3 Plate 4)
Vuggy dolomite
....
]soo ,m
II
...._,
II
I
.......
I
I
Nummulite limestone
(Compare with photo 3 Plate I)
Altered feldspath
18
POROUS MEDIA
PLATE 3
lS
.y
d
e
Video image
Memorized image
te
0
)[
;:
:'
s,
a
IS
A t elevision camera placed behind the microsope (thin sections, polished sections) or an epidiascope
(photography) furnishes a video image which is exceptionally contrasted in the case presented
. (epidiascope). A gray threshold is selected to separate the phases. An image formed of black or white points
(around 400 x 400 points) is memorized. In the general case, this phase separation operation
(segmentation) is often difftcult, and requires a whole series of ftltration operations.
'o
Hexagonal granulometries
:s
;t
)f
,'Y
IS
e.
iP
)l
IS
)f ...'
I),
)[
l.
Structuring element 
A series of additions/subtractions of translated images is used to determine the fraction of the phase
analyzed (black phase: grain) which may contain a given structuring element. The ratio of the area of this
fraction (white in the photograph) to the total area of the phase is measured .
20
POROUS MEDIA
direction oriented by the unit vector u. The assumption that the variables are stationary
requires that this probability is exclusively a function of h:
Cu(h)
= prob { M(x)eA
and
.\1(x +oleA}
(Ll)
(1.2)
The value of h for which C.(h) practically reaches its asymptote t/J is called the range in
the u direction. Like the function c.(h~ this range may be independent of u, as in the case
of statistically isotropic media This distance, which characterizes the zone this
phenomenon influences, is very useful in understanding porous media Figure 1.1 gives
the simplest example of the function c,;(h).lt often occurs that the shape of the curve is
more complex, indicating the complex organization of the porous medium (the "nugget
effect" indicates an abnormal concentration, for example).
c (hi
I
l
Range
Fig. U
Covariance function.
POROUS MEDIA
21
The pore geometries described above display the common feature of being actual threedimensional spaces. This volume accounts for a significant fraction of the pore bodies
considered. However, virtually twodimensional pore geometries exist, such as planar
surfaces of negligible thickness. These are closer to discontinuities in a solid phase than
pores in the commonly accepted sense, and they include fractures, cleavage planes, and
grain boundaries, which are generally grouped under the term of cracks.
Thus defmed, these discontinuities can only be of very limited volumetric importance,
and, if not, the medium would lose all coherence. It is estimated that 0.5% fracture
porosity is a very high value. Yet their mechanical role is vitally important (see for example
Chapter 5).
The visualization of these cracks raises certain practical difficulties. Once observed,
however, by treating them as sets of planes, they can be described more easily than pores.
The low volumetric importance of these cracks often imposes more sophisticated
display methods than for ordinary pore networks. Resin injection methods must account
for the very low permeabilities often involved (low viscosity resins, high injection
pressure). The pore cast technique is mainly used for actual observation (destruction of the
mineral fraction by acids), with stereographic techniques. For observations at lower
magnification. it is sometimes useful to employ ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy
techniques, which help to detect very small amounts of resins containing fluorescent
pigments.
These crack type media a:Iso provide a popular fteld for sample preparation artifacts:
crack propagation under the effect of temperature and pressure during drying, washing or
saturation. But the most difficult point (for natural materials extracted from the subsurface
in boreholes)is the effect on the microcracks of the sudden decompression experienced by
the core when it is raised to the surface. It is often difftcult to differentiate between the
microcracks really present in situ and those created or widened by decompression.
Sometimes, a very meticulous SEM analysis of microcrack planes yields some indications:
microcrystals, micro "pillars", etc., but this only occurs in rare examples. This alteration
of deep borehole samples by decompression is of fundamental importance for the
interpretation of petrophysical measurements (acoustics or permeability of compact
rocks, for example), especially since this microcracking is not necessarily reversible under
the effect of the confming pressure recreated in the laboratory.
By contrast, this artificial microcracking may prove to be a valuable means of
investigating the structure of materials (for example, detection of remanent stresses in
rocks).
Volumetrically "negligible", sensitive to artifacts, and closely dependent on the stress
state of the sample, the crack and fracture pore spaee is often difficult to observe. Its vital
influence on the mechanical properties of the porous mediumjustif1es the efforts required
in this area.
22
POROUS MEDIA
n
I
1.3.1
s:
sl
When two or more immiscible fluids coexist in a pore space, the interfaces between
these fluids and the solid are the locus of capillary processes. Restricting ourselves to twophase mixtures, it may be observed that one of the two fluids spreads preferentially in
contact with the solid (wetting fluid). By contrast, the other fluid tends to minimize its
contact area with the solid (nonwetting fluid). In the case of water and air, for instance, the
water is usually the wetting fluid.
A surface tension t. exists at the interface between the two fluids, inducing a pressure
difference that depends on the mean curvature of the interface. This capillary pressure Pea
is governed by the Laplace equation:
Pea =
r.(;l ;J .
(1.3)
where R 1 and R 2 are the main radii of curvature ofthe interface. The + sign corresponds
to the general case in which the centers of curvature 0 1 and 0 2 are located on the same side
of the interface. The  sign corresponds to the case in which the centers of curvature are
lo~ated on both sides, as may be observed in convex/concave interfaces (Fig. 1.2). In
p*ctice, one mainly speaks of the mean curvature 1 Rm such that:
2
=+Rm Rt R2
(1.4)
02
01
The existence, between the fluids, of this pressure difference, which depends on the shape
of the interfaces, implies that the equilibria existing within a pore space are not random.
The analysis of these capillary equilibria is very useful from several standpoints.
          
g
a
(]
'V
r
(
,_
r.
s
e
..
POROUS MEDIA
23
In the experimental procedures which attempt to reach stable and significant states. it is
not possible to control fluid saturations completely. (The fluid saturation is the ratio of the
volume of fluid f to the total pore volume.) For a given experimental procedure, in fact,
saturation can only vary between defmite limits. The capillary pressure, and hence the
shape of the fluid clusters, may also depend closely on the fluid saturation technique for a
given saturation. This shows that these capillary equilibria are important factors in the
general behavior of a sample, because they interact with the other physical processes
affecting the combination of solid and immiscible fluids.
Capillary equilibria also offer an excellent means to investigate the pore space itself.
These capillary effects enable us to measure a number of characteristics of the pore space
(porosimetry) or to transform the porous geometry allowing measurements on simpler
volumes than on the initial space. We shall merely review a few definitions. The interested
reader can fmd a detailed description of capillary effects in Morrow (1970) or Dullien
(1979).
Wettability. The concept of wettability has been d~fmed above empirically by the
variable aft'mity of a fluid for the solid. It is customary to quantify this affmity by the value
of the contact angle (} between the fluid interface and the solid (Fig. 1.3). This
simplification is only valid for perfectly regular surfaces. In actual pore spaces, this concept
of wettability may become extremely complex (refer to Morrow, 1975).
F~g.
We shall restrict ourselves to the case of perfect wettability (0 = 0), i.e. where a fluid
shows a dearly preponderant affmity for the solid. For commonly encountered clean
porous bodies (rock, glass, etc.), this often occurs for a liquid/gas mixture, in which the gas
is the nonwetting fluid.
Drainage and imbibition. The term drainage is used when a nonwetting fluid, under the
effect of a pressure which counterbalances the capillary forces, invades a porous medium,
expelling the wetting fluid. If the saturation with wetting fluid increases (following a drop
in pressure), the process is one of imbibition.
24
POROUS MEDIA
Pr.wizedgn
...........
...........................
:. :. :. &a;np...:.:.:
...........
.................................
................
................
.
.
..........................
.. uw
_ . Water
The water expelled by the air (drainage) flows along the ceramic and the curve of
capillary pressure (Pea) is plotted against water saturation (S..) (Fig. 1.5).
The fmt drainage or initial drainage (from a watersaturated sample) only begins at a
given capillary pressure (Pace) (threshold pressure). This is the pressure that must be
reached for the air to be able to penetrate into the largest pores of the sample.
By raising pressure Pea the sample progressively empties, and drainage tends to stop
before the wetting fluid (water) has been completely expelled. Although the pressure is
raised, the water saturation no longer decreases. The wetting phase configuration is such
that fluid movements therein become impossible. The water is found in the form of small
clusters interconnected by water films that are so thin that their viscosity is very high. The
sample is in a state of irreducible saturation with wetting fluid (S,.J
.~
he
"
.rv
:ti
('!
.I
e
!
.!I
\,.,.
,, 1.!:
\
If
j
;
;Q
\\'
Ifl.
of
,,,,,, i
:n
lk
if
25
I'Oit.OUS MEDIA
'\
il
il
\~
\ \
,,
\
PCOs8
   Wetting
I
_
pressure
0
20
40
60
Wetting fluid 11tur1tion
..,
100
26
POROUS MEDIA
On the other hand, imbibition corresponds to a progressive increase in the mean radius
of curvature of the wetting fluid 'nonwetting fluid interface. Marked discontinuities may
appear, since fractions of the volume of nonwetting fluid may separate from the main
mass. This can occur, for instance, if certain areas of the pore space are not of sufficient
radius of curvature as would be required to allow the expulsion of the nonwetting phase
located" upstream". These relative narrowings play the role of a capillary valve. When the
capillary pressure drops to p1, function of the largest allowable mean radius or curvature
at the narrowing, the nonwetting phase remains upstream, is disconnected. and forms a
trapped cluster at pressure p1
:c
 .d
sar
"h
'11fi
2t. cos ()
R
11.5)
ius
27
POROUS MEDIA
figure l. 7 shows the porosimetric spectra of various porous media. A single type of
access radius can be seen to exist in certain cases (for example chalk). On the other hand,
many other porous bodies display very clear bimodal spectra (bioclastic limestone, shaly
sandstone). The existence of three or four types of pores can be observed in some cases.
This shows why the interpretation of the physical properties of these media is heavily
influenced by the consideration of this diversity of pore types.
13
!lJ:
enl
!l~.
tb
ue
s ....
,.'
100
10
0.1
Injection pressure (MPal
Le.
'r
(b)
e'
li
Ll
01
I..
.l:
Jo
7.5
75
750
7500
...I
0.1
10
100
Rock type
q,
(%)
mO
White chalk
42
ra
Micritic
limestone
23
\u
to
24
. IC
Pelletal
limestone
30
20
. 3
Crinoidal
limestone
24
250
 1
m~
Oolitic
limestone
33
700
~i~
Bioclastic
. limestone
37
~~
2000
e,
th
Bioclastic
limestone
44
10
500
tS
Oedolomitized
limestone
33
._,
7000
dJ
j(
~~
Slightly shaly
sandstone
25
600
Kaolinitic
sandstone
20
1700
Silt
30
0.1
10
100
c
f
.(
..I
POROUS MEDIA
29
1.3.4.1
Use is made of pairs of wetting/nonwetting fluids of which one of the phases can be
solidified after having reached the desired capillary equilibrium. Two types of pairs are
mainly used.
Wood's metaljvacuuni (Swanson. 1979, Dullien and Dhawan, 1974, for example).
Wood's metal is an alloy of tin and bismuth which melts at 700C and. above 1200C,
displays capillary behavior closely approaching that of mercury. Experiments are then
conducted with the molten metal that are identical to those of mercury porosimetry, and
then, by sudden cooling, the capillary equilibrium thus obtained is frozen. Polished
sections fabricated from the samples thus treated allow easy observation of the location of
the Wood's metal, and hence the determination of the accessible zones of the pore space,
ior a mean curvature that depends on the pressure applied.
Polymerizable synthetic resins (Etienne and Le Fournier, 1967. Zinszner and Meynot,
1982). Before polymerization, synthetic resins are liquids that wet rocks perfectly (in
comparison with air). Using the air/resin pair, this makes it possible to conduct the
drainage and imbibition experiments described above, and, after having reached the
desired state of equilibrium, to polymerize the resin and f1x this state that can then be
analyzed on a thin section or a polished section. The wettabilities of the rock by water or
resin in the presence of air can be considered as identical as a f1rst approximation.
For drainage: a vacuuminjected sample of dyed resin undergoes centrifugation,
draining the resin. The acceleration is selected so as to produce:
(a) either a zone in which a relationship exists between saturation of wetting fluid and
drainage pressure, where the resin occupies the pore volumes whose access radius is
smaller than a radius that depends on the imposed acceleration,
(b) or a state of irreducible saturation, where the resin occupies the same sites as the
water at the end of the drainage tests.
For imbibition: capillary rise is carried out. The base of the sample is placed in the resin
\vhich, by expelling part of the air, gradually iO\ades the sample under the effect of
capillary forces alone. At the f1rst order, the fmal result does not depend on the pair of
fluids used (provided that the wettability contrast is good). Thus a capillary equilibrium is
reached corresponding to the one existing at the end of total imbibition. An example of
this process is thoroughly discussed by Pickell et a/. (1966) and Bousquie (1979).
30
POROUS MEDIA
In a more general manner, the air/resin pair can be used in many cases to simulate the
experiments conducted with air/water and oil/water pairs, to observe and to quantify the
geometries of the clusters of the different phases.
.. r
'fa1
.;OJ
1.3.4.2
Capillary equilibria depend primarily on the geometry ofthe pore spaces and not on the
pair of fluids employed (provided the wettability contrast is clear). We have discussed this
point for imbibition. It is also the case for drainage (apart from the irreducible saturation
zones) if one uses the parameter Puft. cos 6. Based on a very complex pore geometry, it is
then possible to subdivide the space into several fractions corresponding to the capillary
phases. Our investigative resources (thin sections, polished sections) allow only a twodimensional observation, but the capillary effect, even seen in these conditions, integrates
part of the data relative to the third dimension. Two types of preparation are normally
employed:
he
be
i
I
,iz
1.
l.
flc
ch
Drained samples (Plate 4). This helps to analyze the fraction of the pore space connected
by a porosimetric access radi1ls that is larger than the mean radius of curvature
corresponding to the. drainage pressure. Using a porosimetric curve for a sample, one can
select the fraction of pore space related to the process analyzed, and then separate this
phase by drainage to obtain images that are much more easily quantiftable (for example,
by the image analyzer) than the total pore network.
i,n
co
Totally imbibed samples (Plate 4). We have shown above that, after total imbibition, the
nonwetting fluid occupies the zones of the pore space whose maximum mean radius of
curvature was large in comparison with that ofthe "accesses". This reflects a defmition of
the "pore" considered as a widening of the pore space. This notion of a pore, although
very familiar, is actually very complex because it is threedimensional (this point was
raised in Section 1.2.1 for regular packings of spheres). Bubbles of residual nonwetting
fluid show the complexity of the pore space. In pore size analyses based on twodimensional observations, it is often advisable to distinguish this fraction of the pore
space.
wl
01
er
e<
tr
d
Fluid flow in porous media has formed the subject of intensive theoretical and
experimental investigation, and Dullien (1979) can be referred to in this respect. We shall
restrict ourselves here to reviewing the points that are useful for the rest of our study, and
to provide measures for order of magnitude estimates of permeability.
From the outset, it must be stated that, more than any other petrophysical property,
permeability is sensitive to the scale factor. If one measures the flow rate of a fluid through
1:
.r
i
I
,I


'
POROUS MEDIA
31
a rock formation at meter or hectometer scale, one can realize how rare discontinuities
(fault, fracture) can determine the behavior of the formation. These bulk permeabilities or
in situ permeabilities are frequently virtually independent of the type of rock. The reservoir
engineer or hydrologist calculates these transmissivities. If, however, one is interested in
the petrophysical behavior of porous media, the natural permeability of these media must
be considered. This is often called the matrix permeability, and is measured on centimetersized samples free of discontinuities. Our discussion is restricted to this scale.
t~
tJ I.'S
"
1.4.1
trv
{I,_
t'
.liv
1.4.1.1
Permeability was fiTst defmed by Darcy, in the speciflccaseofwater, by showing that the
flow rate per unit area was proportional to the pressure drop in the porous body and to a
characteristic parameter of the .porous body concerned called permeability. The
introduction of the concept of viscosity helps to generalize this law for all fluids,
considering only nonturbulent flow.
Darcy's law in its simplest form is writtenct):
~eo
1~..
niS
....
::r
=~SAp
'1
h..
(1.6)
where
Q =volumetric flow rate in a given direction through a slice of the medium of thickness.
Aland areaS with a pressure difference L1p at the ends of the slice.
" = permeability of the porous medium,
'1 = viscosity of the fluid,
of
,,
Al
n~"
'0.,.._
U= 
II
where
U is the flltration
K/'1 grad p
(1.7)
Permeability is treated as an area, and its unit in the International System is hence the
m 2 But this unit is little used today, because it is disproportionate to the values
encountered in nature. The traditional unit of permeability is the darcy tO), which is
equivalent to the square micron (l darcy is exactly equal to 0.986923 J.UD 2 ), but the
millidarcy (mD) (;;;: 10 Is m 2 ) is frequently used, as it is better adapted to the order of
magnitude of the permeabilities generally observed.
In fluid mechanics experiments in porous media, the permeability is usually calculated
directly from the measurement of the flow rate and the pressure drop. For a rapid
1(
dl
let(l) The expression of Darcy's law given above corresponds to the isotropic case (i.e. " independent of
direction). In practice. however, it is important to note the strong dependence of permeability on direction for
many pore spaces.
:v
~ll
,j
PLATE 4
VISUALIZATION OF CAPILLARY PROPERTIES
Photographs of thin sections of rocks selectively saturated
\\ith dyed resins or Wood's metal by drainage and imbibition
Photo 1
'j!
'
,
I
t
Ai
Blue
Red
Yellow
The very small access radius zones (blue resin) correspond to microporosity in the crinoids
(invisible in transmitted light) and also to intragranular macroporosity. A good intergranular
porosity (red resin) is connected by flow channels smaller than 1 ~m. This is frequently
encountered in wellcemented bioclastic grainstones.
'
Afl
.J
tnOJ
";l
L
~
m
.. .
'0
"lS
POROUS MEDIA
33
11
Sample
Calibrated tube
......_. al
e)
a= 1tR~
s,
Jp
dl
34
POROUS MEDIA
tO
20 30 40
to
10"1
to
to
t0" 2
~ to
to3
e."'
:c
"'
a.
10"
tO.
to
10"
"'
tO," a
0.5
(.)
tO
20
30 40
Porosity (%I
The problem of </JK correlation lies in this ambiguity: porosity is the easiest parameter
to defme and to measure, so that priority tends to be assigned to it in correlations, as
opposed to the access radii, which are more difficult to defme and to measure. Moreover,
for a given type of porous medium, the pore "radius" itself varies with porosity, and it is
above all this correlation which induces the </JK relationship.
In practice, it is necessary to proceed in two steps to understand the
porosity permeability relationship of a given medium: firSt by identifying the different
types of access radius existing in the medium, and then by relating the permeability to the

35
POROUS MEDIA
porosity fraction corresponding to the largest type of access radius. The simplest means of
identification (but experimentally the most costly) is mercury porosimetry. Figure 1. 7
gives examples of porosimetric spectra among which many are bimodal, with differences
in radii often exceeding one order of magnitude. Obviously, only the large access radius
family influences the permeability.
In many cases where mercury porosimetry is unavailable, an attempt can be made to
identify the different types of porosity by direct observation on a thin section or a pore
network casting (Plate 5), followed by a quantitative estimate on a thin section. Once this
analysis is completed, it is generally easy to explain the t/JK relationship by relying on a
pore geometry model such as the intergranular model, which is the most widely used.
1.4.1.3
The intergranular space displays a t/JK relationship that is fairly well known
experimentally, at least for grains of subspherical shape and constant grain size
distribution (Jacquin, 1964, for example). We have shown that, for the permeability of a
network of cylindrical capillaries, the combination of the Darcy and Poiseuille laws give
the equation:
R2
(1.8)
K=t/J
8
For a network of tortuous capillaries of any cross~section, an equation of the same type
is found by introducing the hydraulic radius Rh, the tortuosity of the current lines r:(t/J ),
and a shape parameter A, that is relatively invariable:
e)
= r(t/J)
Rh
tP
(1.9)
.JS,
(1.10)
(3) The tonuosity of a capillary model quantifies the mean developed length (I~) of a current line joining the
two ends of the model, in relation to the real length of the model (I..):
'~
rlt/>)=~
1..
36
POROt:S
~IEDIA
The parameter K/d 2 is a function of lj>", with n varying experimentally in accord with
porosities from n;;?; 7 (l/> < 5~o) to 11 ~ 2 (l/> ~ 30%). In the CarmanKozeny equation, if
tortuosity is constant, the exponent n is 3. and this is observed in sintered glass and
Fontainebleau sandstone for porosities ranging from 15 to 30%. Many natural
intergranular media display porosities between 10 and 25%. Hence an exponent
between 4 and 5 is often used for these media. Ghen the wide scatter observed in
permeability measurements. this value of n corresponds to a" mean" between the low and
high porosities.
></d2
lx1ol
4000
400
40
Sintered giiS$
I
280 pm spheres
o 50 pm sPheres
4
10
20
40
Porosity (%I
Fig. 1.10
c1>
vs ;
correspondence l.
The high exponents observed for low porosities are related to a threshold effect. For the
pores to be interconnected, a critical porosity must be reached (this point may be
statistically modeled by the percolation theory). Experimentally, this critical threshold
appears to lie at about 5% in clean sandstones and some sintered glasses. A certain
terminological ambiguity of this threshold must be clarified. The threshold does not
correspond to a transition from disconnected porosity to connected porosity (see
Section 1.1.2) since, even at very low porosities. physical connections often persist between
the pores. But these connections are so thin that they ~orne insignif1cant in relation to
fluid circulation.
PLATE 5
EXAMPLES OF BIMODAL PORE NETWORKS
(Epoxy pore casts)
f
i
...
10
TI
~tm
Detail of photo I.
This limestone consists of oolites formed themsel ves of very fm.: calcite cr;;stals, between
which abundant microporosity exists. Intergranular macroporosity can be observed
between the oolites. Fluid flow obviously takes place only in this fraction of the pore space.
20
~tm
1
Photo 2  Kaolinitic sandstone.
Detail of phoio 2.
Clusters of kaolinite crystals have developed in some of the intergranular macro pores of
this sandstone, generating a specific porous medium .
38
1.4.2
POROUS MEDIA
Multiphase flows
The simultaneous flow of two or more immiscible fluids in a pore space is difficult to
investigate experimentally, since it requires the measurement of flow rates arid pressures in
all the phases. We have shown that multiphase mixtures are subjected to capillary
pressure effects. The superposition of this capillary effect on the dynamic pressure drop
partly explains this experimental difTlculty. Hence, despite its great practical interest for
the production of hydrocarbon f1elds and the abundance of theoretical and experimental
work already devoted to it, this branch of fluid mechanics in porous media is still the focus
of many discussions. We shall simply review the concept of relative permeability for two
fluids, whose surface tension t, is high and wettability well contrasted.
1.4.2.1
If, in a porous medium, a combination of water (considered as the wetting fluid 1and a
nonwetting fluid is caused to circulate, a steady state is obtained for each flow rate,
characterized by the pressure drop gradients in each of the phases, the flow rate, and the
fluid saturations. By analogy with Darcy's equation, it is possible, for these different states,
to calculate the permeabilities relative to water Kw(S,..) and to nonwetting fluid K""'(S,..).
Dividing these values by K, the singlephase permeability of the medium concerned. yields
the relative permeabilities, for which one example is shown as a function of saturation in
Fig. l.ll.
>
1
.
B.
Nonwetti119 Fluid
0.6
~
a:
0
0
SW;
sr
100
Water saturation (% l
Fig. 1.11
39
POROt:S MEDIA
Note ftrst that, as defmed above, the experiment can only be performed between two
saturation states defmed in Section 1.3.2: irreducible water saturation s. . . and residual
saturation of nonwetting fluid S,. When the sample is in a state of irreducible water
saturation, the water is by defmition immobile and has zero relative permeability. The
water is also limited to very thin ftlms on the walls or to clusters within menisci of very
small radius of curvature. This does not hinder the flow of nonwetting fluid. whose
relative permeability is close to l. In a state of residual saturation with nonwetting fluid,
the situation is reversed, but not symmetrical: the nonwetting fluid is discontinuous and
immobile and exhibits zero relative permeability. Moreover, it occupies the central parts
of the pore network and considerably hampers the flow of water. The relative water
permeability of a porous body in a state of residual saturation with nonwetting fluid is
generally much lower than l (see Fig. l.ll).
Between these two extreme cases, permeabilities depend on saturation and the fluid
setting method. We have shown that, for the same saturation, the shapes ofthe phases may
vary. For the relative permeability to nonwetting fluid, this is generally greater in
drainage than in imbibition. In the latter case. in fact, the nonwetting fluid is partly
discontinuous (clusters of trapped porosity). For relative permeability to water, which is
usually very low, this difference is difficult to pinpoint.
Table 1.3 gives a number of values of relative permeability to water and to oil (non.
wetting) for natural media in a state of irreducible and residual saturation.
y
p
r 
ll
i)
TABLE
1.3
Type of porous
medium
I
~:
1
f
.
J
l
Irreducible
water saturation
Singlephase
permeability
(water)
"(mD)
Sw)
(%
Relative
permeability
to oil
ll
220
22
42
28
15
34
1700
2.4
25
80
1100
20
18
20
20
30
Porosity
% ()
Oil
residual saturation
s,
I Relative
(%1
permeability
to water
58
0.04
1
0.8
0.7
40
32
20
0.3
0.15
0.03
0.18
0.1
33
60
Note that, in a state of irreducible saturation, the relative permeabilities to oil all
approach 1. It is not rare to exceed 1 experimentally when the permeability to oil is
slightly improved by the presence of a ftlm of water on the walls! On the other hand. in a
state of residual oil saturation, the relative permeabilities to water are low and variable
from one rock type to another. No clear relationship exists between singlephase
permeability and relative permeability. For example, compare chalk to fme limestone. for
which the relative permeability is much lower, despite a singlephase permeability that is
ten times greater. These two types of permeability do not depend on the same geometric
characteristics of the pore space.
40
POROUS MEDIA
'
i
1.5.1
.M
e
t
41
POROUS MEDIA
1
1C
'
I
Cc
0111
,.. :z:
i
j
'
..:
~
c
~fd
en.,_
z~O
!iii
80
60
40
2::1
100
....,
/
II
I
0..
20
16
t;
12
''
fi
.i:
~
.t:; :I
0
4
.g
10
that the drawing is not sutTtciently large to clearly defme this saturation. If we had a larger
observation fteld to measure the covariance function, it would exhibit a clear nugget. effect
(C(h) = 0 between O.Sd and 3d).
Hence, for the same very simple medium, a sharp variation is observed in the size of the
homogenization volume for the "porosity parameter and one of the "saturation"
parameters. This may apply to all the remaining variables. As for permeability,
quantification is far more ditTtcult because a twodimensional simplification is unfeasible.
However, it can be understood intuitively that the volume required to defme permeability
is greater than that defming porosity in many cases. For the mechanical parameters
..
_,.
!
l
(moduli), it is possible in principle to use a volume equivalent to that required for porosity,
as long as the material is not cracked. But, if the medium displays cracks, it is the cracks
that are essential for the "'echanical behavior and,. once again, the minimum
homogenization volume may be significantly greater than that corresponding to porosity.
42
POROUS MEDIA
1.5.2
:!
Consequently, when a law of macroscopic behavior is defmed for a given medium, one
must account for these different minimum homogenization volumes. Mechanical
experiments are only .. macroscopically" meaningful ifthe sample is much larger than the
minimum homogenization volume of the parameter analyzed. For cracked media, this
volume may sometimes be considerably underestimated.
In acoustic experiments, the wavelength must be compared with 1he minimum
homogenization volume of the medium, or, more precisely, with the largest of the
minimum volumes for the parameters involved (porosity, saturation, permeability):
(a) If the wavelength is significantly greater than the diameter of this homogenization
volume, the vibration behaves effectively as it would in a homogeneous
macroscopic" medium. The vibration is not sensitive to the microscopic
discontinuities of the porous medium.
1
(
'
~~
1
ty,
k
11'
:y.
POROUS MEDIA
43
,
~
1e
ill'~
I~
i~
~
1.6.1
h.__
Solid skeleton
1e
'
n"IS'C"
\ __ _
I,
l
[)'
lt
sr
\
e'
I
'
'
f
'
l,
~
\_
'
~
"
I.
'
1'
'''\..
1.6.2
Associated with this exceptional simplicity of the solid skeleton is a pore spaCe that is
itself rather simple (apart from the problem of microcracks in certain samples, which is
discussed in Chapter 5 Section 5.1.1.1), making Fontainebleau sandstone a good example
of an intergranular pore space, especially since the cementation, which was highly
variable, provides an uninterrupted range of porosities between 3 and 30%.
~ l
1.6.2.1
~r'
,l..__
~ '
Y
Geometric characteristics
Examples of hexaganal granulometry of the pore space are given in Fig. 1.13. This
granulometry is obtained using a texture analyzer. The y axis gives the percentage of the
pore space accessible to a hexagon of a given ''diameter". Although this provides a
representation identical to a grain size distribution curve, it must be recalled, for practical
interpretation, that this pore size distribution does not actually correspond to
individualized objects.
The porosimetric spectra are given in Fig. 1.14. Note the good correlation between
porosity and modal access radius. Many measurements are available in the porosity
range 8 to 22%, enabling us to observe a linear relationship of the type R,.. = aot/J,
where R,. is the modal radius in Jim, tjJ the porosity in %, and a0 a proportionality factor
approaching 1.
44
POROt:S MEDIA
100
\\,..:\.
.....
0
lj
!8
0 c
C.\!!
80
,..._~
60
O.!
s,!
.. 0
,',.... ..
.
c ..
~;e
~=
4.5%
'..
'....:.'...._:~.:::::__
~ .:':":':........
20
0
50
 ~= 9.5%
'
'.. '\..
',..::.
40
~~
.ti
 ~= 23%
~= 16.5%
200
100
150
"Radius" of reference hexagon (j.tm)
250
; = 21%
\I
.2
!
..
~ = 14.5%
'
H ~
. ~
0"'
~
&.
1.
..,
~
~
~
,. ~
= 9.5%
I
I
= 5.2%
I
.J
I
10 20
0.1
100
~
....
.,.
PLATE 6
EPOXY PORE CASTS OF VARIOUS POROSITIES
FONTAINEBLEAU SA~DSTONES
Stereographic views of
Scanning Electron Microscope photographs
500 11m
= 28 %
= 21 %
r'
r
r
r
r
r
('
,..
(
= 5 %
46
POROUS MEDIA
,I
n=8
://
/ ),,.,n=3
1000
."1'
i
!
'
; ...y
s..
,r
4!
f:
100
10
10"1
't
..f:
I =
$
'
1;~~.....
5
10
15 20 25 30
2
"<
'1
Porosity(%)
15
.//
l: 10
u.
./
0
0
./10
15
20
25
Tot1l porosity(%)
'
'~
'
'
~~

POROL"S MEDIA
t'
47
Fontainebleau sandstone. Slight variations in grain size distribution explain the splitting
of the curve, which nevertheless offers a rare example of good correlation. Note the
variation in exponent n of the equation" = f((jJ") discussed in Section 1.4.1. Between 8
and 25% porosity, the exponent is very close to 3, as in the CarmanKozeny equation.
This point should be observed in the light of the linearity of the 4J vs porosimetric access
radius relationship, and of the equation K = a(j)R 2 for flow in straight capillaries. At lower
porosities, n rises to 7 or 8 (for 4J < 5%1. This can be related to the problems of
percolation threshold already discussed.
1
~
r:
Trapped porosity corresponds to the pore fraction of the space which preserves the nonwetting fluid at the end of total imbibition. We have shown that this trapped porosity
corresponded to widenings of the pore space. By comparing the hexagonal granulometries
(Fig. l.l3) with the porosimetric spectra (Fig. l.l4), one can observe that the pore phase
granulometry decreases more slowly than the access radius with decreasing porosity. In
this case, the relative importance of trapped porosity must rise. This can be observed in
Fig. 1.16, and for samples with porosity lower than 6%, the porosity is entirely trapped (to
within measurement uncertainty). A threshold effect is therefore observed.
Threshold effects at low porosities are fairly common. For intergranular spaces
(Fontainebleau sandstone), the thresholds appear to lie between 4 to 6% porosity, but for
bimodal pore networks, they may occur at a much higher value.

~
'
wave propagation
in saturated porous media
~'
t,,
t
"
.
INTRODUCTION
;f
~
2.1
2.1.1
REVIEW OF ELASTODYNAMICS
Strain tensor
Subject to forces, solid bodies are deformed, and the distances between material points
vary. Let us consider any point of a solid body, represented by its position vector x
(components x 1 = x, x 2 = y, x 3 = z) which, after deformation, becomes the point
(l) It is well worth consulting the works of Landau and Lifchitz(l967), Ewing et al. (1957), Achenbach (1973),
Germain (1973), and Mandel (1974).
50
i~
WAVE PROPAGATION
SATURATED POROUS
~EDIA
u = x' x

,,
...
.....
'
: ; ; M
/M'
I
/
''' . ,
'/" "
...
'
\
I
X'
';
'
'\
,/
.....
Fig. 2.1
i
""
1
d
'
___ , ,
I
,,
~
.~
 VI
li
The distance between two infm1tely close points before deformation was:
11
d/
(2.2)
~
..... Jo
+ dx22 + dx32 )2
(2.3)
1
(2.4)
dl'
e;k
c
p
(2.6)
tl
(e1k) is called the strain tensor. For small deformations, the only case considered here, the
variation in distances between material points, and hence the variation in displacement, is
small compared with the distance itself. In other words, the products of derivatives can be
ignored in comparison with the derivatives themselves. Hence the linearized strain tensor
is written:
1
eit =
2 (u 1,k + uul
tl
(2.7)
1
Let us now consider the variation in length in direction l. This consists in making in (2.5):
d/' 2 = dx~2 , d/ 2 = dx~ et dxf = 0 if k :I I.
This immediately gives :
I)
dx~
= dxi(l + 2 11 )
51
(2.8)
If b(x 1 ) is the difference in norms between dx 1 and dx~ divided by the norm of dx 1 , one
obtains:
dx~2
_,
1
~
"'
(2.9)
;~
+ c5(x 1)] 2 =
+ 2t 11
(2.10)
Assuming small deformations, b(x 1 ) is infmitely small and Eq. (2.10) leads to:
b(x 1) = e11
(2.11)
This shows that, assuming small deformations, the diagonal elements e;; are equal to the
linear dilatation in the corresponding direction i.
If we now examine the transformation of the scalar product ot two vectors dx and dy,
which after deformation become dx' and dy', a similar argument as the one leading to (2.5)
gives< 21 :
dx'. dy'
(2.12)
'.)
.
(i ou) ~
012
(2.1~)
:1
012 = 2e 12
(2.15)
Thus the nondiagonal elements characterize the change in angle between two basic
vectors.
As for any symmetrical tensor, the strain tensor has real eigenvectors. The directions
corresponding to these eigenvectors are called the principal strain directions. These
principal directions are orthogonal (property of eigenvectors) and remain so throughout
the deformation, since, in the reference system built on these directions, the strain tensor is
diagonal. In this reference system, the diagonal terms that we note e1 , e11 and e111 represent
the linear dilatations in the principal directions, and are thus called the principal strains.
e
s
e
r
(2) Equation (2.3) shows that :;;.= strain tensor ~ defmes a bilinear form such that:
c:(dx. dy)
...,.j
The elementary volume, built on the principal directions, is d"' = dx 1 dx 11 dx 111 and is
transformed into:
~;
52
d't"'
(.2.16)
12.17),
e=
.;
(.2.18)
div u
z
ayz
axz
~I
dz
Jt::=::...;;.;.;._x
J
dx
I
azx
The contiguous parts of the body exert elementary surface forces on the faces of this
cube. The j'h component of the force applied to the face whose normal is the ;h direction is
denoted u 1i. The series of (uii) constitutes a tensor called the stress tensor 131 :
q
qJCJC
Uyx
Uxy
Uyy
Uz:x)
Uz:y
Uxz:
Uyz
O'z:z
12.19)
(3) As defmed here, the tensor is the contravariant representative, whose components should be denoted u"" ...
In Cartesian coordinates, however, the contravariant and covariant representatives of a tensor merge and we
adopt the notation u,.,. or u".
'
j

53
Due to the tensorial character ofthe stresses (Mandel, 1974), the i'b component F of the
w tten:
= u;ini
(2.20)
If the quantity F;n;. which corresponds to the projection of this force on the normal, is
positive, this represents a tension, and. if it is negative, a compression. Projections in the
{ plane of the face (such as u;i for j i) are called shear stresses.
Under the action of external forces, a stress f1eld develops within the solid. The f1eld
must satisfy the local equilibrium. This represents the case in which volumetric forces are
absent. Let us now write the equilibrium of an elementary cube (Fig. 2.3) subjected in the
dynamic case to inertia forces  pu; dx 1 dx 2 dx 3 where pis the density. In the 1 direction
this gives:
f
t
dx 2 dx 3
uu

t'
I
(u 21
+ 0'21
+ u2 1.2
dx 3 dx 1 + u 31 dx 1 dx 2  (0' 11 + 0' 11 , 1 dx 1 ) dx 2 dx 3
dx 2 ) dx 1 dx 3  (0' 31 + u 31 , 3 dx 3 ) dx 2 dx 1 = pu; dx 1 dx 2 dx 3
(221)
Hence:
O'u.1
+ a21.2 + u3,.3 =
(2.22)
pu;
x2
0 23 + 11 23,2
+ 0 21.2 dx2
dx2
11 12+ 11 12,1
dxt
~ uu+ott,1 dx1
dx2
11 13+ 0 13,3 dx3
dx1
0
22
L:x,
)(3
(4) Note that, as it has been defmed. this stress tensor relates to the present (i.e. deformed) geometry. Strictly
speaking, the equilibrium equations are all related to this geometry. However, assuming small deformations or,
more precisely, small displacements, the initial and present geometries can be merged in writing this equilibrium.
I
I
_..,1
54
The equilibrium of the moments shows that, in the usual case without volumetric
distribution of moments, the stress tensor is also symmetrical:
= (jji
(fi)
(2.23)
.i
i'
~"
~
!l
= piii
uii.i
(2.24)
Since the stress tensor is symmetrical, a principal reference system can be deftned at each
point in which the stress tensor is diagonal. The diagonal terms u 1, uii and um are called
the principal stresses.
2.1.3
Equilibrium equations alone are inadequate to solve a given problem, because only
three differential equations are available for nine unknowns (six stresses and three
displacemc:nts). The constituent material is thus involved by its constitutive equation,
which links stresses and strains. The simplest equation is the equation of linear elasticity:
=
(fij
(2.25)
cijklekl
This equation is the simplest for the case of reversible behavior. In fact, it corresponds to a
linear response around an equilibrium state.
Owing to the symmetries of the strain and stress tensors, the tensor Ci111 necessarily
satisftes:
ciJ'"
= cjikl = cii'"
(2.26)
= c"lii
(u;1e;1
= uk,ek1)
(2.27)
This reduces the number of components of the tensor of elasticity Ciikl to 21 in the
general case. For the isotropic case, that is to say when all stress directions are equivalent,
only two constants are required, and Hooke's law is obtained:
uii = ),
tr
e bii
+ 2p. eii
(2.28)
where A. and p. are called Lame's coefftcients, J.l is the shear modulus, and the term Jii is
the Kronecker's delta:
Jij = 0
bij = 1
i=Fj
i=j
(2.29)
11
E tr u tJ 11..
q ..  
(2.30)
where E and v are Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, respectively such that:
55
). = (1 + v)(12v)'
J1
= 2(1 + v)
or
(2.31)
v=
3). + 2p
E = J1 :). + J1
1.
2(). +pi"
The quantities introduced all have a simple physical meaning. In a simple compression
(tension) experiment, where only one stress is non zero (for example u 11 = u, the other
u;i = 0), it is easily concluded from (2.30) that:
I..
'I
''I
e22 = e33 = 
= Ee 11
t;i
l' 11 ,
=0
(2.32)
ifi#:j
Hence E characterizes the strain in the direction of the applied stress, while v
characterizes the relative extension in the orthogonal directions. This is represented in
Fig. 2.4 for a unit cube.
:ll
'!
a 11 =a
,c l
1i
I
I
!
alE=
En
, ....
,'
/
+t
I
).
,..,.
,
v , ,J
,.. ,
  
_,''
e22.,w 11
Let us now conduct a pure shear experiment, in other words an experiment where, for
example, u 12 = u 21 = t, with all the other stresses being equal to zero. Equation (2.30)
immediately gives:
21
12
1+ v
= ~:
= 2p'
other
~:iJ =
(2.33)
2p) e = K8
31 tr u = ('I. + 3
.... 4
(2.34)
56
Equation (2.34) thus linearly relates the mean hydrostatic pressure< 5l (1/3 tr u) to the
volumetric strain. K is called the bulk modulus.
In conclusion to this very brief review, note that elastic behavior may be introduced by
assuming the existence of a strain potential 'V(eiJ). For an infmitesi~al strain de;j the
deformation work is by defmition:
av
(2.35)
d'V =  deiJ
OB;j
~~
av
(2.36)
0"=081j
IJ
In the case of small deformations, this potential can be linearized around a reference
state that is assumed to be free of prestresses by only using the quadratic terms, and
assuming isotropy, the potential Eq. (2.28) is written:
2'V = (). + 2J.L)(tr e) 2 + 2J.L(tr e2  (tr e) 2 )
(2.37)
The potential is positive for any deformation, and thus imposes:
tl:t:
''
i
81
i
2J.l
A.+~0
{
J.l~O
or
1
l<v~
~ I
(2.38)
E~O
This was evident from the previous interpretation of the different coefftcients.
J;
iii
Jl
I
''
Linear elasticity
The elastic constitutive law [Eq. (2.25)] is an equation between presenttime values. In
other words, the materials have no chronological memory. This is obviously due to the
reversible, elastic behavior ofthe material. The question arises whether this reversible, and
possibly isotropic, linear behavior applies to rocks.
Figure 2.5 shows the main phases of the behavior of a rock during a simple compression
test along axis ox 1
An examination of Fig. 2.5 shows that characteristic stress values determine the
behavior of a rock in a compression test. For stresses less than o1, thereis a crack closure
phase. This phase is elastic (reversible) since no cracks are created. However. the
stress/strain relationship is not linear (see Ftg. 2.5) at the macroscopic scale. In fact, the
material tends to stiffen due to the closure of cn:.cks at the microscopic scale, and this
closure is reversible. Yet the degree of crack closure depends on its orientation in relation
to the applied stress direction. The deformation of rocks. whose complexity was discussed
, ,
(5) This denomination is due to the fact that (tr u)/3 =  p for a body subjected to hydrostatic pressure p.
.J
57
a,
a,
1
.~
"I
fj
a2 =a3 :o
M
a 1
CriCk initiltion
.q ,, __ _
CriCkclosure
:f!
J!
.,
...
t:
;11
; I
!
,,
Str1in
Fig. l.5 Main phases in the behavior of a rock during a simple compression
test (after Panet, 1976).
tl
e1
in the f1rst Chapter, has no a priori reason to be a linear function of stress in the crack
closure phase.
A linear elastic phase occurs for u 1 varying between o1 and uf, when the crack closure
phase has been achieved. For stresses from o{ to u{.,.a stable crack propagation phase
occurs. This phase is not reversible since cracks are created, and the material retains the
memory of this new cracking. These different phases are clearly exhibited in the curves
showing the volumetric strain 8 = 8 1 + 2t3 or transverse dilatation 8 3 as a function of u 1
lreversible only between 0 and o{ and linear only between o1 and o{). Unstable crack
propagation occurs above u{, followed by fracture when u = uf'. The more homogeneous
the material, the closer of is to uf'.
By using Eqs. (2.30) to (2.~). the different curves help to determine Young's modulus E,
the bulk modulus K, Poisson's ratio v, and the shear modulus p.. Some experimental values
at atmospheric pressure taken from Angenheister (1982) are given in Table 2.1:
TABLE
2.1
.....
 
K
(GPa)
(GPa)
Jl.
E
(GPa)
19.8
59.6
53.2
0.52
18.8
31.9
25.4
0.54
43.0
81.2
65.8
1.20
0.14
0.27
0.29
0.11
58
The lithostatic pressure of in situ rocks generally lies. between 11~ and 11f. The slight
variation in stress L111 due to the propagation of a wave is always such that 11 1 + L111 < 11f.
In fact. Winkler (personal correspondence, 1979) showed that the strain amplitude L1e of
conventional seismic sources (artificial or natural) was Jess than 10 6 in the far field (i.e.
approximately two wavelengths from the source). Given the stress/strain relationship, the
corresponding variation L111 is thus less than 1 bar (0.1 MPa).
Hence. by ignoring the effect of strain rate, it may be considered that elastic behavior
can reasonably be adopted for the problem of wave propagation. This leaves the problem
of the linearity or nonlinearity of this behavior according to whether 11 1 , the experimental
compression, is lower than or greater than cG
Considering the minimum value of L111, the approximation of the nonlinear curve 11 1 (e 1 )
by its tangent to the ordinate 11 1 appears to be perfectly justified 16 l. The remaining problem
is now that the different elastic moduli for a stress 11 1 < cG in the laboratory are not those
in situ (lithostatic pressure, 11 1 > cG). This explains the need for pressurized tests in the
laboratory.
It must be stated that the experiments described above are only static experiments (zero
frequency). The time dependence of the constitutive law for a given stress is a fundamental
factor in the dynamic measurements discussed in this work. This dependence will be dealt
with in subsequent Chapters.
2.1.4.2
In the foregoing Section, the rock was considered to be a homogeneous material with
given elastic moduli (see for example Table 2.1). In fact, as we have pointed out on several
occasions, a rock is an aggregate of solid elements between which the pores may or may
not be saturated with liquid. Each one of the constituents (s.olid and liquid) of the rock is
associated with different moduli. The shape of the pores is the most important property
determining the bulk elastic properties of a rock. It is easy to see why a .. spherical'' pore
will be more resistant to a uniaxial stress than a .. flat" pore or microcrack (see Chapter 5
for experimental examples).
For a given mineralogical composition, the .. bulk" value of the elastic moduli and the
effective value reflect the type and shape ofinclusions and pores in the sample analyzed. An
abundant literature exists concerning the effect of inclusions on the elastic properties of
solids. Eshelby (1957), Kuster and Toksaz (1974) dealt with the general problem of an
ellipsoidal elastic inclusion. Walsh (1965 and 1969) and Wu (1966) tackled the problem of
heterogeneities in the form of ellipsoidal cracks, and the results obtained offered a
satisfactory way to reproduce the behavior of rocks under pressure (see Section 5.1.1.1).
O'Connell and Budiansky (1974) and Budiansky and O'Connell (1976) resumed the same
type of investigation, using a selfconsistent method: the effective modulus is obtained by
an implicit equation, with the pores already assumed to be included in an effective
medium. Finally, Mavko and Nur (1978) discuss inclusions of a more random shape.
;.I
'i I
'!
; i
tl
f:
IJ,
> I
;J \
,,
_, i\
~{
(6) Note that, in a homogeneous linear elastic medium (no defects and invariable elastic constants), the relative
variation in wave velocity as a function of applied stress is totally negligible (the relative variation is comparable
to the deformation created by the stress. Marigo, 1981). In a rock, however, the only signiftcant factor is the
closure of the cracks.
....


''
59
.;,
\';
i'
Wnes in a 3D space
By introducing (2.7) into the constitutive equation (2.28) and then the result into the
equilibrium equations {2.24), the following equations of motion are obtained:
11 curl curl u
== pi
(2.391
u =grad 4>
This equation introduced into (2.39) gives 171 :
J724>
~~ c}S
(2.411
V,.=e: 2~~y
1
(2.4:1
V 8
= ~~ iJ
(2.431
These waves are also called P waves, where P corresponds to primary, because these aT!
the fastest waves likely to propagate in an isotropic linear elastic medium.
Let us now consider motion defmed by a vector potential , such that:
u = curl ,
...4
=8 = r
(2.~'
60
;I
J
}
(2.47)
Vs = (JJ./p)2
'
Equation (2.46) defmes waves propagating at the velocity V5 . These are called shear
waves. They are also called S waves, where S stands for secondary, because they are slower
than the P waves.
Note that the ratio V~/V~ can be written as a function of Poisson's ratio v in the form:
v~
'<
,2(1 v)
v~ =\.1  2v
I
Now, studying the motion of material particles due to the propagation of the wave, by
using the change in variables:
=t V
(lx
+ my + nz)
(2.48)
1
P= t + V (lx + my + nz)
(1
with
+ m2 + n2
= 1,
= Vp
or
Vs
I
F ,x =(FpF'
v .
"'
F = F,p +F.
P>:
etc.
(2.49)
4F,,.1 =0
(2.50)
f(r
lx + my + nz)
lx + my + nz)
+g ( r+===v
(2.51)
For f1xed t, F is constant for the plane lx + my + nz = constant. Hence the waves
defmed by (2.51) are plane waves whose wave fronts are planes lx +my + nz =constant.
For F = 4', Eqs. (2.40) and (2.51) show that the particle motion takes place
perpendicular to the wave fronts. The wave polarization is called longitudinal.
For F = '1', Eqs. (2.44) and (2.51) show that the particle motion takes place in the planes
constituting the wave fronts. This polarization is called transverse.
These results, obtained for plane waves, are actually generally applicable to any wave
fronts (see Appendix 2.1). Polarization is either normal to the wave front for P waves, or in
.J
~~
61
the tangent plane for S waves. This is why P waves and S waves are also called longitudinal
and transverse waves respectively.
At this point, we have assumed that the medium is isotropic (see Table 2.2 for relations
between different elastic parameters). in other words one whose properties are identical in
all directions. This is not generally valid as the properties of a rock are often anisotropic.
The study of wave propagation in the most general linear elastic medium, thus satisfying
(2.25) and not (2.28), calls for a development other than the one carried out in this Chapter.
This development is given in Appendix 2.1.
'
'~
2.1.5.2
Let us consider a rod element of constant crosssection, lying between sections I(x) and
l"(x + dx) and bounded by the surface a..r, with the latter free of load (see Fig. 2.6).
l
;f
~
6I
z
f
'
~'
~
::::1_
l:(udxl
~n +a,,..,
xx
Fig. 2.6
Bar element.
by a single stress uxx. The dynamic equilibrium of the element gives rise to the equation of
motion:
ti)CJC,J<
(2.52)
= pii
= Su = 
V""
Sij
= 0
if
i =F j
(2.53b)
..
u,%% = v~ u
(2.54)
VE=l
(2.55)
where
'
.....
F.
2)
3

3R~ +I
9pV~R~
3K(I  2v)
'
4 8
pV,.V
( 2
3(1  2v)
..
Jl 1(1
2/1(1 + v)
(I tv)(l2v)
2(1 + v)
2v)
).
31 + 2J1
Jl~
KA.
9K3K A.
9KJ1
3K + 11
3v
). I+ v
EJ1
3(3J1 )
A.+ 2J1/3
TAIII.I'
2.2
2v
;>,.
p(V~ 2V~)
(I + v)(l  2v)
3K ~l+v
F.v
I' I
E 2J1
Jl3J1 E
3K E
3K9KE
K 2Jt/3
A.
).
See below
3KE
6K
Ef(2Jt) l
2(3K 1 11)
3K A.
3K 211
2).
I'
,,'~.i.
~

(I + v)(l  2v)
(1 1')
I v
3K l+v
2  2v
21
I' I
).
4J1 E
Jt3J1 E
3K + E
3
K 9KE
K + 4tt/3
3K
A.+ 2J1
A.
2(1 + Jl)
pV~
2
{IV p
H: Young's modulus
v : Poisson's ratio
). : Lame's constant
V,.
K
2
2
R = V., R2 = V2' Rl
p :density
S
(I S
K : hulk modulus
JJ : shear modulus

. 2 + 2v
1\
I  21
:!1

21'
,..p~r;.,..,.'

2 + 21'
JK
).
3KE
9K E
J(K A.)/2
pV~ = J1
.:.r~,'!
~~
r
'
i
!:.
63
Equation (2.54) corresponds to longitudinal waves (without shear) with velocity 1'&,
where E stands for extension. Note that, in comparison with an infinite threedimensional
medium, in which this type of wave propagates at velocity V,. [see Eq. (2.42)], we have:
Vi
. v; =
(l
+ v)(l
 .2v)
1 ,.
(2.56)
Note that this elementary theory ignores the inertial effects induced in the oy and oz
directions by transverse deformations (2.53b). Hence the threedimensional equilibrium
equations (2.24) along these directions cannot be satisfted assuming a uniaxial stress fteld.
In the case of sufftciently low frequencies (large wavelengths in comparison with the
transverse dimensions), these inertia effects remain negligible, and Eq. (2.54) can be
accepted as a fust approximation.
''
t
2.2 WAVE PROPAGATION
IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA: BlOT'S THEORY
i
At this point we have only considered singlephase (solids) media. We shall now extend
the study to fluidsaturated porous media. To do this, we shall present Biot's model and its
experimental confumation by Plona. This will help us to identify an attenuation
mechanism for compressional waves.
In dealing with the problem of acoustic wa'l'e propagation in saturated porous media for
dynamic analysis of the subsurface, two approaches are possible:
The ftrst approach draws on homogenization processes, which help to pass from
microscopic laws to macroscopic laws. The term microscopic is used here to apply to laws
governing mechanisms at the scale of the heterogeneity (of porosity in our case), whereas
macroscopic laws refer to a scale related to the heterogeneous medium concerned,
identifted as representative of the mechanisms investigated. So far as we are concerned
here, this scale is in fact the measurement scale (see Section 1.5). In these preliminary
approach methods, our discussion will be limited, and the reader can refer to the works of
Suquet (1982) and Andrieux (1983) for a more extensive review.
Briefly, we shall note that two homogenization methods essentially exist. One of them is
based on an averaging process: a microscopic problem is fmt resolved at the level of an
elementary cell containing an isolated heterogeneity (a fluidftlled channel in our case).
From the solution to this elementary problem, we then infer the mean value on the cell of
the quantity analyzed (stresses, strains, energies or relative flow velocity) as a function of
the macroscopic value imposed at the cell boundary (strains, stresses or velocities). The
actual heterogeneous medium is then replaced by a ftctitious homogeneous medium. The
response of the latter to an imposed force is the mean value previously calculated. The
function linking them depends spatially on the geometric and mechanical parameters of
the heterogeneities existing in the actual medium. This method is quite effective for low
and medium concentrations of heterogeneities, for which celltocell interaction processes
''"'
l.
:'
..
64
can be ignored. This procedure was used in particular by Biot ( 1956 b) outside the
framework of the theory that we shall present here, to characterize the flow of a fluid in a
porous medium.
The second homogenization method relies on the assumption of periodic repetition of
the microscopic heterogeneous structure, imposing the periodicity of the solutions. By
making this spatial period tend towards zero with respect to the macroscopic scale (small
parameter asymptotic method, Bensoussan et al., 1978), the form of the macroscopic laws
is obtained. This method otTers the advantage of mathematical rigor, its systematic aspect,
and its absence of concentration limitations. It has been used successfully in recent years
(Lhy and SanchezPalencia, 1977, Levy, 1979)for the problem of saturated porous media.
In parti~ular, it h~l~d. to generalize ~ar~ts law in ~onsteadystate con~itions. The
assumption of penodicity may appear hm1tmg, but th1s method seems to Withstand the
comparison with experiments conducted in random media (see Suquet, 1982). The
drawback is that it furnishes only the form of the macroscopic laws, unlike the method
based on average procedure which can provide analytical estimates within its applicability
limits for geometries with simple heterogeneities.
i
fJ
The second approach consists in deliberately ignoring the microscopic level and
assuming that the concepts and principles of continuum mechanics (existence of potentials
and stationary principles in particular) can be applied to measurable macroscopic values.
This older approach is discussed by Biot (1956a, 1962) for problems concerning our
subject. Strictly speaking, it is only justified a posteriori by the agreement of the results that
it provides with those obtained by the above homogenization method.
Despite its more heuristic appearance, we have decided to present the results
concerning porous media through this macroscopic approach, which has more physically
realistic assumptions. In the ftrst part, we shall discuss those assumptions on which it is
based. In the second part, after defining the strain potential and stresses and the
dissipation pseudopotential and kinetic energy, we shall derive the equations of
movement using Hamilton's principle.
In a third part, we shall examine the propagation of waves, their velocities and
attenuations. We will also discuss the existence of a second compressional, or slow, wave,
in addition to the standard compressional and shear waves. We shall then see the extent to
which the mechanisms identified play a significant role, and the experimental and
theoretical developments that they suggest.
2.2.1
Assumptions
The f1rst assumption states that the wavelength is large in comparison with the
dimensions of the macroscopic elementary voluflle. This assumption, which is normally
always satisfied in geophysical applications, is required to make a description of the
processes analyzed by the tools of continuum mechanics. Hence the wavelength is large in
comparison with the dimension of the elementary channels where microscopic flow
occurs. It can then be shown that the stress distribution in the fluid is nearly hydrostatic,
although viscosity plays a major role in the flow (Mandel, 1950).
...

rf
t
Jf
65
The second assumption is that of small displacements both for the fluid and solid
phases. This assumption is fully justified, as the strains in seismic studies (laboratory or
field) are less than l0 6 Hence if u; is the ;th component of the mean macroscopic
displacement, the components of the macroscopic strain tensor can be written to the
nearest second order:
ll;i =
,i
~t
2 (u;.i + uj,;)
(2.57)
The third assumption is that the liquid phase is continuous. Thus the matrix consists of
the solid phase and disconnected pores. In the following discussion, the porosity under
consideration is that of the channels in which the flow occurs. With respect to this
porosity, which we assume to be isotropic and uniform, and which we denote cJ>, the
medium is assumed to be fully saturated.
Let U be the mean displacement of the continuous liquid phase contained in the
macroscopic element. The elementary macroscopic flow rate dO through an area dS with
a normal n and per unit time is given by:
dO=
w. D dS
= c~><iJ u)
(2.58)
where a dot denotes a derivative with respect to time. The vector wis the filtration velocity
vector. Note that, for any macroscopic volume 0 with a boundary S, we have:
w n dS =
div w dO
is given by:
= div w
(2.59)
(2.60)
The fourth assumption concerns the matrix which is assumed to be elastic and isotropic,
with the understanding that the theory can be extended to the anisotropic elastic case.
Hence all the mechanisms of viscous origin related to the matrix (such as those due to the
presence of fluid in the disconnected pores) will not be dealt with. For the description of
these mechanisms, the reader can refer to the works of Walsh (1969) and Budiansky and
O'Connell (1976), or even the more formal work of Biot (1962). The anisotropic case was
examined in a general theoretical manner by Biot and Willis (1957).
The fmal assumption concerns the absence of any coupling and, in particular, the
absence of thermomechanical coupling. Note however that this coupling has been
discussed by Biot ( 1977).
......
66
2~2.2
2.2.2.1
Equations of movement
Strain potential and stresses
Since the perturbation caused by wave propagation is a rapid phenomenon, the process
is adiabatic and, from the general concepts of fluid mechanics, it is reasonable to
presume (see, for example, Mandel, 1974) the existence of an internal volumetric potential
V, such that its differential represents the deformation work in an infmitesimal
macroscopic transformation. The previous assumptions give rise to the fact that the
potential can only depend on the components ofthe strain tensor eii and on the increase in
fluid content e. These variables are normal variables, and for any infmitesimal
transformation defmed by the increments deu, d~. we have:
av
av
+a[ de
'i
(2.61)
cv
Uij
= C~ ..
I)
(2.62)
cv
P =
ce
>
Assuming small disturbances, the expansion of V can be limited to the quadratic terms
(see Section 2.1.3). The assumption of isotropy implies that this expansion only involves
(for example see Germain, 1973) the flfSt two invariants of strain tensor 11 = tr e and
12 = 2(tr (8 2 )  In, as well as the variation of fluid content One can therefore write:
e.
2V
= (A.I + 2p)lf + pi 2 
2PMI 1
e+ M e
(2.63)
e.
p>O
i. 1 P 2 M+~p>O
M>O
(2.64)
p = M (<) . = {
I)
,
01
p tr 8 + e)
if
if
i"#j
i=j
(2.65)
~\
,2
67
+ 2p. eii 
aii = i. 0 tr e ~ii
f3P~ii
(2.66)
e =p+f3tre
M
2.2.2.2
Let us introduce the closed or saturated K 1 and open or dry K 0 bulk moduli as a
function of the Lame parameters already defmed :
+ J Jl.
(2.67)
2
.
K o=l.o+3JJ.
(2.68)
KI =
l.f
It is interesting to relate the four parameters {3, M, K 0 and K 1 , which are not
independent (K 0 = K 1  {3 2 M), and the bulk moduli of the fluid K 11 and the solid
skeleton K .
Let us ftrst consider an experiment at zero pressure in the fluid, so that p = 0, and at
imposed macroscopic hydrostatic pressure in the sample, so that  (tr a)/3 = u. From
Eq. (2.66) and the previous considerations, it can be inferred that the actual strain is:
tr e  {
= (1 
f3) tr e =
(1 
/3)Ko
(2.69)
In the fmal analysis, this strain is merely the strain of the solid and hence equal to
/3)
(2.70)
Let us now consider a second experiment in which the mean macroscopic hydrostatic
pressure  (tr a)/3 = p is also the pressure prevailing in the fluid. From Eqs. (2.66) and
(2. 70), it can be inferred that:
(2.71)
 p = K, tr E
68
Recalling that
cp div (U  u) =
 <P div U
+ cp
tr
t:
(2.72}
cp div U
..!!... = M
cp) tr t:
 ({J 
(2.73)
It is also known that, under the assumption of small displacements, the defmition of K 11
yields:
(2.74)
 p = K 11 div U
Replacing in Eq. (2. 73) div U and tr e by their values as a function of p [Eqs. (2. 74) and
(2.71)], we fmd:
{3cp
cp
=+M
K,
(2.75)
K 1,
(2.76)
Kf
1]
cp [ K, K 11 + K, K 0
:0 [~. :IJ + ~. [ ~.  ~]
(2.77)
tr t: =
M~({J
II
(2.78)
Since this must be satisfied whatever the local increase in fluid content eand whatever the
apparent macroscopic volumetric strain tr t: , the previously mentioned equalities are
obtained. P = 1 and i.1 = M. The value of P = 1 introduced in (2.65), jointly with (2.58)
and (2.601, where cp = 1 and tr e = div u, then leads to:
 p = M di\' U
(2.79)

1
2
69
which corresponds to the equation of perfect fluid behavior, for small displacements,
where M is the fluid bulk modulus. This helps to understand why U, the average fluid
displacement, is not identifted with the macroscopic displacement u, when the medium is
totally fluid. In fact, ifU were equal to u, the rise in water content would be~== Oand(2.78)
would only yield ).1 = (JM. Thus (J would not ncecessarily be equal to 1 and one could not
obtain (2. 79). In fact. u is the macroscopic average on the reference geometric element
considered, while U is an average of the displacement oi the fluid contained in this element
and of the fluid which has left or has entered it 18 l.
Simultaneously, in the general case, u is not the average displacement of the skeleton,
but the average, on the reference geometric element, oi the displacement of the fluid part
and of the skeleton part.
2.2.2.3
Dissipation pseudopotential
Dissipations are assumed to result only from the relative fluid/matrix movement. In the
neighborhood of equilibrium, it can be stated that the flow vector wand the associated
force X are linked by a linear equation such as:
w1 =
:KiJXJ
(2.80)
[]) = w:K 1 w
Xi=
ao
ow,
(2.81a)
(2.81b)
The term pseudopotential, due to Eq. (2.81b), recalls that the concept is only justified in
the vicinity of thermodynamic equilibrium. In the isotropic case, the tensor :K  1 is
proportional to unity (!"  1 = :Kl) and the previous equations become :
1 .2
[) = 2: Wi
1 .
w,
X ,:K
(2.82a)
(2.82b)
Darcy's classic law can be recognized in Eq. (2.82b) if :K is identified with the hydraulic
permeability of the medium and force X with the opposite of the pressure gradient. As
shown below, this identification is only possible in steady~state conditions.
(8) This difficulty stems from the fact that the macroscopic des."7iption is a priori Lagrangian, whereas that
concerning the fluid is Eulerian. Nevertheless only small displacemnts are considered for the solid and fluid and
the two descriptions are equivalent.
70
2.2.2.4
Kinetic energy
Since the wavelength A is assumed to be large in comparison with the dimensions of the
macroscopic elementary volume dQ (i.e. dQ  / 3 and l, .1 ~ 1), one can restrict the
expansion of the volumetric density C of kinetic energy to the quadratic terms:
2C = p,ii;U; + 2p.,,..U;Ii;
+ p,..li';li;
{.2.83)
The absence of terms such as w;wi is due to the assumed isotropy. The specific case in
which no overall movement occurs (i.e. w = 0) serves to identify p., with the average
density in Eq. (2.83):
p.,
{2.84)
where p. and p1 are the matrix and fluid densities respectively. The terms Puw and p,.. will be
identif1ed subsequently.
2.2.2.5
Equations of movement
D..=C\1
Hamilton's principle (for example, see Achenbach, 1973) ~tipulates that, among all the
possible paths between any two points in time t 1 and t 2 , the one that prevails will be the
one that makes stationary the integral over time and space of the Lagrangian density and
of the work ofthe dissipated forces, where the latter are derived from a (pseudo)potential.
Ifl depends on the parameters q;, i]; and qi,i and the potential of dissipative forces UJ on i]; . . the variational calculus reflects this condition by the classic Euler equations:
a aL a aa.. cL aiD
++=0
at aq_l
axj aqi,j
cq;
oiJ;
12.86)
 P.i
pii;
+ p.,..,w;
1
= P.,wul + p,..w; + .)('
(.2.87a)
.
W;
(.2.87b)
These equations serve to identify the parameters Puw and Pw If there is no average
relative fluid movement with respect to the overall macroscopic movement (i.e. w = 0): the
f1rst equation is reduced to the equation of movement in a continuous medium (see Section
2.1.2), while the second must be reduced to the equation of movement in a fluid. thus
Puw = p1 . Now if the fluid is at rest (w =  </Ju). the second equation is reduced to:
 P.1 = (p, Pwcf>)ii;; il;

~
  
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
12.88)
t
'~
r
I
71
This shows that, if overall acceleration occurs. ~ force must be exerted on the fluid to
prevent its average displacement. For its inertial rart, this coupling force is:
(p 1 
p,..</>)iif
(2.89)
To describe this coupling effect, similar to the qtass effect added in the analysis of the
movement of an obstacle in a fluid, it is usual tO introduce a parameter a called the
tortuosity parameter 191 such that:
a
12.90)
Pw=;pP!
I
(2.91)
1
I
because the coupling force (1  a)p1 ii1 must o~viously be opposed to the overall
acceleration. This condition (2.91) ensures the n~nnegative character of the quadratic
form associated by (2.83) with the kinetic ener*y density C. Like parameter {J, the
tortuosity a is related not only to porosity but alsd to the geometry of the medium where
the flow occurs. Hence the equation relating a to 4> ~s not biunivocal. Note, however. that a
must tend toward 1 as <P tends towards 1, the medium being reduced to a fluid (zero
coupling). We must stress the fact that the way in '{t'hich this limiting case is reached does
not only depend upon the way <P tends towards 1, ~ut especially upon the geometry of the
porous medium. Thus a coefficient a approachin~ 1 does not necessarily mean that the
medium is close to a fluid. On the other hand, a ptust tend towards infmity as 9 tends
towards zero, as the fluid mass becomes too lqw to oppose the overall mo,ement.
Berryman (1980) investigated the case of solid splterical particles in a fluid. Making an
analogy with the foregoing added mass, he prop<j>sed:
a
1[1 i:]
= l ;j; +
(2.92)
As already observed, the equation linking a w1th <P is not biunivocal and Eq. (2.92)
relates only to the geometry analyzed. Other au hors (Archie, 1942, Johnson and Sen,
1981) related tortuosity a to the concept of form. tion factor F(c/J) by the equation:
a=
F(c/J)c/J,
(2.93)
+ p 1 ii~ + p,.l\i)
(2.94)
=
f(P.i
As previously noted, it is only in the case of st~ady flow ii = w = 0 that Eq. (~.94) is
identif1ed with the classic Darcy's law. In the unstdady case, inertial effects are added and
the comparison of (2.94) with (2.80) shows that the force associated with w1 is:
Xi=  (P.I + P!iii 1+ p,.l\\)
(2.95)
(9) This tortuosity related to a dynamic process is differenl in principle from that defmed in Secuon 1.4.1,
which is only related to the description of the porous mediuiil In reality, these two quantities are of the same
order of magnitude, because the same geometric characteristjc is involved.
72
Hence it should be noted that, even in a case of a zero pressure gradient, a fluid flow can be
generated by inertial forces alone.
It is customary to derive the classic Darcy's law (in steadystate conditions) from the
NavierStokes microscopic equations for a fluid of viscosity '7, by making an analogy with
Poiseuille's 'law (Mandel. 1950). This gives rise to the expression of the hydraulic
permeability or mobility in the form:
K
f='1
(2.96)
where " the absolute permeability, depends only on the geometry of the porous medium.
Note however that, as it appears here, Darcy's law only results from considerations of
linearity in the vicinity of equilibrium. Hence, as already pointed out (Mat heron, 1967), the
linear character of Darcy's law, obtained by the standard procedure mentioned above,
actually only results from the linear character of the NavierStokes equations for flows at
sufficiently low velocity. Only the form (2.96) of f involves the law of linear viscous
behavior which these equations imply.
To conclude, this law in the form of(2.94), as noted in the introduction, can be obtained
by a rigorous homogenization method, once again based on the validity of the NavierStokes equations, but in this case in unsteadystate conditions. Moreo,er, this method
shows that for wavelengths that are large only in comparison with the dimensions of the
elementary flow channels, and no longer in comparison with the dimensions of the
macroscopic element, as required in the method developed here, the permeability is no
longer absolute, but related to the frequency of the wave which generates the flow.
Previously this result had been qualitatively found by Biot (1956 b).
2.2.3
Wave propagation
(2.97a)
(2.97b)
in which we noted :
i.
R
P12
i.1
= tPPJ(1 a),
P22
= acppf,
.\lcfJ(P </>)
(2.97c)
cp2
=f
Note that Eqs. (2.97) can be written for the limit cases of the perfect fluid and the solid.
In fact, if the medium is a perfect fluid, the set of parameters to be considered is
cp = P=a= 1, i.1 = M and 11 = b = 0 (%+ + Xi, '1 = 01. Equation (2.97a) disappears,
and Eq. (2.97b) gives the dynamic equation of perfect fluids under the assumption of small
displacements:
M grad div u = p 1 0
(2.98)
73
Note also that Eq. (2.97a) disappears naturally and not by assuming U = u (see Section 2.2.2.1 ).
Now, if the medium is solid, letting P = (jJ = 0, a . + oo, Eq. (2.97b) then gi\es:
(2.99)
~I
~I
Equation (2.100) is clearly the equation of the dynamics of elastic solids, since the second
member is cancelled owing to (2.99). Note that this cancellation takes place independently
of the manner in which tortuosity tends to infmity and permeability to 0, since the
equations are not related to these asymptotic behaviors.
Moreover, if decoupling occurs (see Section 2.2.4), P= <P and hence r = 0, coupling
between the movements only effectively occurs by inertial effects (a ::F 1) and permeability
effects (Jf' ::F oo ).
11
ij
2.2.3.1
1 ()
+ b(u lJ)
12.100)
Let us f1rst examine the case without dissipation (b = 0) and let us consider waves such .
that:
(Uu)
12.101)
R172cJ)  MiD =
12.102)
"""
"""
R =
"""
(A. + 2J.L
Y
Y) M = (Ptt P12)
"""
P12 P22
12.103)
As the matrix R  l M is positive defmite and symmetrical, it has two real positive
eigenvalues which we denote V~, and V~ . In the eigenvector reference system, Eq. 12.102)
can then be written :
J72cJ)* 
_I 0)
(
v~.
_1_
iD = o
12.104)
o v2P2
74
wave corresponding to the latter case is called the slow wave or the wave of the second
kind. This terminology derives from the fact that the associated velocity Vp,, as shown
below, is much lower than the velocity Vp, of the inphase movement waves, called waves
of the f1rst kind. These waves correspond to classic Pwaves, with which they merge in the
absence of fluid.
Now let us consider the shear waves (S waves) or isovolumetric waves
(div u = div U = 0) such that:
u) =(curl 'I' 1 ) = curl 'I'
(U
curl '1' 2
(2.105)
17 'I' 1
'I' = _
where velocity
Vs
is given by:
Vs
vz1 'I' 1 =
s
(P12)'1'1
(2.106)
P22
=( ~ P12)i
P11
(2.107)
P22
Since the fluid does not respond to shear forces, it only influences the shear wave
through inertial effects. Its movement is evidently in phase with the overall movement [see
(2.106) where P121P22 ~ 0].
We have only discussed the isotropic case here. For the nonisotropic case, the results
naturally extend as follows: along the principal anisotropy directions if a compressional
wave exists in the purely elastic case, two compressional waves, one slow and one
standard, must be considered within the framework ofBiot's theory. From the qualitative
standpoint, the shear waves are altered in the same way as in the isotropic case, in
accordance \\ith the processes that we shall now discuss.
2.2.3.2
Let us now consider the general case with dissipative effects (b =F 0). Introducing (2.101)
into (2.97), we obtain:
R 17 2 $ = A cj,
where
+ Mii>
(2.108)
A=(_::)
(2.109)
Let us examine the case of plane harmonic P waves propagating in the x direction, such
that:
~~>1
~~>2
(2.110)
I
I
T
I
75
where cf> 10 and c1>;z 0 are constants, andw and k are the angular frequency and wave
number respectively. The introduction ofthese equations into (2.108) gives a system of two
equations for cf> 1 0 and cf> 20 The Kramer's determinant of this homogeneous system must
be zero in order for cf> 10 and cf> 20 to have nonzero values. This leads to an equation
linking k with w. This equation allows two solutions k,., and k,. 2 , which correspond to the
flfSt and second kind P waves previously discussed, and which are now complex owing to
attenuation effects:
k,.,(w) = Re k,.,(w)
+ i Im
k,.,(w)
(2.111)
Introduced into (2.110), these equations show that the imaginary part is the attenuation coefficient a.,., such that the corresponding wave amplitude is proportional to
exp ( :x,.,x). while the real part is related to the velocity v,.,:
(Re k,.,(w)) V,.,(w)
=w
(2.112)
V,.=C'I~2J.Ly
Vs
(~t
(2.113)
(2.114)
(2.115)
The attenuation coeffacients are normalized for the compressional and shear waves
respectively by :
21t/c
a,.=
v,.
21t/c
(2.116)
as=
Vs
The curves in Fags. 2.7 to 2.12 represent the relative variations of velocities and
attenuations for the three wave types, with a constant ratio of fluid bulk modulus to solid
bulk modulus (i.e. K 11 / K. = constant) equal to 0.06. This value corresponds to a watersaturated siliceous matrix (Wyllie et al., 1963). We varied the ratio ofthe open system bulk
modulus to the solid bulk modulus (i.e. K 0 / K. = 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9). The broken, solid and
dotted line curves correspond respecti\'ely to the porosities <P = 30, 20 and 10%. The
76
1.0006
WAVE
PROPAG.\T!O~
r
Porosit~'ll.
10
20
1.()()()4
vi'
H I 30
.6~.
Vp
v
1.0002
1.0000 I
se; !1?.7:':':':'
.03
.12
.09
.06
.15
f/fc
l PorosityT ~ %
.0010 Li ......
I 10
......
j20
  I 30
~ .9
K  .6
,,
.9
ap1
p
"
,
a/
.0006
;', .3
, , 2~
.6/77
...
... ,_. ~'.9~

.0002
.03
.06
.09
t/fc
.12
.15
77
.20 , . . .                     ,
~
I
.15
Vp2
.10
Vp
.05
.00~~L~~~
.00
.03
.09
.06
.12
.15
f/fc
.6
.9
1 1
.6
.6
.9
1 1 1
.6
.3
.5
.4
ap2
ap
.3
.2
.1
,.......... I

20
30
.0
.oo
.03
.06
.09
f/fc
.12
.15
78
I. p~~~si~~ .I
1.006 ~
9'>%
10
20
1.004
~I
30
Vs
V 5 1ol
Ko
Forany  Ks
1.002
.,.
,.,. . "'
_,'
_,
.,""
""
.'
... 
1.000
.00
.03
.06
.09
.15
.12
fife
.006 ~~
Porosity
.005
10
20
30
.004
erg
as
.003
.002
For any
.001
;'
....
.000
.00
..
Ko
Ks
.03
.06
.09
fife
.12
.15
T
I
'Cl
'
79
remaining parameters of the theory are inferred from the above by the equations of
Gassmann (2. 70), (2. 75) and (2. 77) for M, fJ and K 1 , and by Berryman's equation (2.92) for
tortuosity.
().0\
For the three wave types, the velocity can be observed to rise with increasing frequency.
This is explained by the fact that the inertial forces increase simultaneously. Indeed, these
inertial forces being different for the fluid and the solid part, they generate a differential
movement between the fluid and the fluid/solid combination due to permeability effects
(Darcy's law). It implies that the overall movement defmed by u involves less fluid,
whatever the type of wave considered. Hence as the mass involved in overall movement
declines progressively with increasing frequency, the velocity increases with frequency.
However, the differential movement thus facilitated by the increase in frequency causes
increasing dissipation. This dissipation is proportional to the square of the angular
frequency. For the three waves, this means increasing attenuation with frequency. Note
also the more highly attenuated character of the slow wave in comparison with the other
two (see scales), a characteristic that also limits the increase in velocity V,., corresponding
to the high frequencies. This leads us to the following paradoxical situation: the more the
phenomenon might tend to occur due to the velocity increasing as the frequency increases,
the more this phenomenon would be attenuated.
l"t~
l~
15
.I
From the general standpoint, note also that permeability only affects the abscissa scale,
normalized by frequency f. defmed by Eq. (2.115). More speciftcally, it can be shown
numerically that, for commonly used fluids (water, glycerine, kerosene), it is the
parameter ,, and hence the viscosity, that is mainly involved, independent of the density
or bulk modulus K 11 . As the permeability~ = K/'1 approaches 0 (or towards infmity), the
frequency f. tends inversely towards infmity (or towards 0). The rise in the curves with
increasing frequency on an absolute scale is accordingly less (or more) pronounced. This
agrees with the physicalevidence: the lower (of ~igher) the.~rmeability, the less (or more)
are the differential movements (fluid,'matrix) privileged and the less (or more) Biofs effects
are pronounced. Once again, however, a paradoxical situation results: the lower the
viscosity 'I and hence the higher the permeability ~.the greater the attenuation. This is
fairly easy to understand, because the lower the viscosity, the more the differential
movement may be pronounced (i.e. less fluid is involved in the overall movement) and
hence wis greater and the dissipation given by (2. 72a) (but tempered by the inverse of ~)
increases. Actually, therefore, there is no para<lox, because Biot's theory takes into
account only the dissipation due to mean differential movements (i.e. those characterized
by w) and not those due to absolute movements of the fluid (i.e. those characterized by U).
The latter becomes preponderant at sufficiently high frequencies, but cannot be taken into
account by the theory developed here, which is limited to the low frequencies (i.e.
f < 0.15/.). For rocks, this shows the need to stipulate the order of magnitude of f. (see
Table 2.3).
It may be observed for water that the frequency f. is extremely variable (30 kHz to
l GHz) but nevertheless always remains very high. However, the curves in Figs. 2.9 and
2.10 show that the slow wave effect can be neglected if the source frequency f is less than
0.15/. (velocity v,., is close to zero!). Hence it is necessary to have a frequency .f. that is
sufftciently low for the slow wave to have some noticeable effect in an infmite medium. The
influence on the interfaces is discussed in Chapter 6.
80
Fontainebleau sandstonem ..
Fontainebleau sandstone''' ..
Tight sand m . ..............
Cordova Cream limcstonel2l .
Sintercd glass 131
Characteristic frequency
Porosity IPermeabili t y
{mD)
(%)
Water
Normal oil
Heavy oil
80 MHz
30kHz
1 GHz
4.5 MHz
42kHz
8 to 400Hz
3 to 15 MHz
100 to 500 GHz
450 to 2 300 MHz
4.2 to 21 MHz
5
20
8
24.5
28.3
to
1000
2 10 2
9
1000
A glance at the situation depicted in the table tends to show that the very porous
Fontainebleau sandstone and sintered glass display the same behavior concerning slow
waves. In fact, the slow wave is also sensitive to the pore radius through the skin effect. This
fact will be discussed in the experimental veriftcation in the next Section.
The curves in Figs. 2. 7 to 2.12 also serve to analyze the influence of the ratio K 0 / K. and
of porosity </J. For the shear wave velocity l'5, since the fluid only responds to shear forces
through viscous effects, the ratio K 0 /K, has no influence. Porosity through the effect of
tortuosity plays a major role. Indeed this effect declines with increasing porosity (see
Berryman's equation). Hence, at a constant ratio f/fc, velocity Vs increases with </J, and
the mass added by the tortuosity effect (see Eq. 2.90) decreases by the same order of
magnitude.
P 1 and P2 wave results can ftrst be considered at constant porosity. At rising K 0 / K, and
constant frequency, the ftrst kind wave velocity Vr, increases, whereas that of the second
kind decreases. This is explained by the fact that the increase in K 0 / K, at constant porosity
corresponds to a pore network in which the elementary pores statistically have an
increasingly lower aspect ratio (i.e. ratio of the smallest length to the largest). The fluid is
accordingly more difftcult to extract at zero pressure (see defmition of p = 1  K 0 f K,). At
a given frequency, this results in a rising apparent bulk modulus for movements in phase
and hence a velocity Vr, that increases with K 0 /K,. For the same reasons, differential
movements out of phase between the fluid and the matrix are increasingly disadvantaged
with increasing K 0 / K,, and the curves corresponding to the second kind wave velocity Vp 2
have an opposite behavior with respect to Vr, curves. On the other hand, for both wave
types, as the ratio K 0 /K. increases, the fluid mass not involved in the overall movement
decreases. Inertial effects then increase the phase differences and hence attenuation
increases with rising K 0 fK .
Now let us consider the situation at constant K 0 /K, and increasing porosity </J. Since
K 0 /K, is constant, the aspect ratio remains constant, but, as the porosity rises, K 0 and
thus K, are assumed to increase in absolute value (as well as K '" since the curves
correspond to constant K 1 ,;K.). Since K, rises, the qualitative effects are the same as those
described above, since the apparent bulk modulus increases from one curve to the other as

'
~
!
I
.
'
81
a function of porosity. Note also that, as for the shear wave, the tortuosity effects decrease
with porosity (less mass added). This merely reinforces the effects discussed above, albeit
slightly (see shear wave).
A number of considerations can already be drawn from the previous analysis to identify
the existence of this slow wave experimentally. It is ftrst necessary for the system to be open
and for the permeability to be sufftciently high (low viscosity) for average fluid movements
relative to the matrix modeled by this theory to be possible, and for the slow wave to be
able to propagate at sufftcient velocities. A critical description of an experiment in which
this slow wave was identified (Piona, 1982) is given in Section 2.2.6.
A fmal remark concerns behavior at low frequencies. In this range, the term Mi:b,
proportional to jl, can be ignored in comparison with the term A$, which is
proportional to f. Equation (2.108) is thus reduced to:
V2 $ = R  1 A$
where
R

1
Knowing that Cl = (
(R + y
 (i.
+ 2p)R 
:J
(2.117)
R y )
i. + 2p + y
Y  Y i.  2p
(2.118)
cPz) =
<P1
cPz
(2.119)
where we noted :
+ 2p)R  Y2 JlM
_ .v
i. + 2!1 + 2 l' + R
_ (i.
C o
A.0
i. I
+ 2p
+ 2p
+
+ 4f3p
_ .v K 0 4/3p
JlM__;;:'::~
KI
(2.120)
CoVzp = p
(2.121)
Thus at low frequency the slow wave corresponds to a diffusive type of propagation
mode, governed by the scalar diffusion equation (2.121) for pressure with a hydraulic
diffusivity coefficient CD. This remark is due to Chandler and Johnson (1981), who
showed that the analysis of Rice and Clearly ( 1976) was also included in the theory of Biot.
This is even more remarkable because Rice and Cleary introduced the fluid bulk modulus
separately from the equation of state of the fluid, whereas Biot's theory treats the matrix .
and fluid on the same level from the outset.
at.
82
which are the stresses exerted on the solid skeleton, and into hydrostatic stresses  pi>ii
which are the stresses pre\"ailing in the fluid, so that:
(2.122)
(jjj =
pi>jj
at 
Accordingly, one may well ask what are the connections between Biot's theory and
Terzaghi's law. If an experiment is performed at zero pressure (p = 0), the total stress
tensor is identif1ed with that of the effective stresses. Equation (2.66) then gives:
p = 0
tr
at= 3K
tr
(2.123)
For low porosities (c/> < .20%), by an elementary theory of effective moduli, it is
moreover easy to show that:
(2.124)
p=O
tr
= 3K,(1  </J) tr 8
at
(2.125)
It is now possible to use Gassmann's equation (2.77) and Eqs. (2.70) and (2.75) to
obtain:
f3
= c/>
K1
(2.126)
K,z
i\1 = c/>
Using (2.122) and (2.1261 and Biofs equation (2.65), the following general identity is
obtained:
(2.127a)
tr afi = 3(1  </J)[K, tr 8 + p]
p =  K 11 div U
(2.127b)
Thus Terzaghi's law is more restrictive than Biot's theory, since Eqs. (2.126) reveal the
presumably additive character of the bulk moduli. In a closed system, the rheological
model attached to the saturated porous medium in relation to compressibility effects
consists of two springs in parallel, with. constants K,(1 </J) and K 11 cj>, concerning the
respective contributions of the skeleton and the fluid. In an open system, only the skeleton
participates (spring with constant K,(l :.___ c/>) = K 0 ), while the share accounted for by the
increase in fluid content in the apparent macroscopic deformation is cf> tr 8 ({3 = cf>). This
assumption of additivity, which is implicit in Terzaghi's law, leads to a decoupling between
the fluid behavior law (2.127b) and that of the skeleton (2.127a). To evaluate the effective
stresses, it is therefore assumed that the medium consists exclusively of the solid skeleton,
leading to the average pressure K. tr e. The pressure effect is subtracted and the result
multiplied by the factor (1  c/>) representing the effective volumetric proportion of solid
skeleton (2.127a). The fluid behavior law (2.127) involves only the volumetric strain of the
fluid, div U, which corresponds to the above decoupling. Note here that the strain tensor 8
concerns the average or macroscopic displacement on the solid/fluid combination (e is not
related to the solid part alone). Moreo,er, Biot's theory concerns only small disturbances,
and in (2.127) 8 is assumed to be small, as well as U, which is a Lagrangian quantity.
_,
;f'
.
t
)2
1
v. = (
p,
).0
+ 2Jl
p.(l  t/>)
i;,~
(2.128)
Vp, =
"
83
(~;'Y
where the effects of inertial coupling due to tortuosity (a = 1) are ignored, together with
any dissipation process. With these assumptions, it is clear that the wave of the ftrst kind
involves only the matrix and occurs at zero pressure (open system). while the wave of the
second kind concerns only the fluid (~i = 0).
This is perfectly understandable, since Terzaghi's law, which is mainly reflected by the
assumption fJ = 4> in relation to Biot's theory, assumes a priori that the action of the fluid
can be considered as an external action exerted on the matrix or solid skeleton. The
equation (2.122) inserted in (2.87a) for steady state conditions therefore leads to:
~at
cxi
_ OX;
op = o
(2.129)
and the action of the fluid on the solid skeleton is reflected by imaginary volumetric forces
of intensity  grad p.
It should also be noted that, with the implicit assumption ofTerzaghi's law (fJ = t/>), if
the fluid bulk modulus is much lower than that of the solid skeleton (K 11 ~ K 0 ), and if
tortuosity effects are taken into account and viscosity effects ignored, the wave velocities
are given by:
1
i.0 + 2Jl
V. _ [
p.(l  t/>)
P, 
Vp
>
+ tf>p1 (1 a
=[KJ,J
ap
Vs =
p.(l t/>)
Jl
+ t/>pf(l a
>J
Jl
(2.130)
84
By reinserting the pressure fteld thus determined in (2.129) (in which gravity forces are
taken into account). we can obtain the equilibrium equations for the solid part alone, with
considerable latitude in selecting the constitutive law.
Hence, apart from the Eqs. (2.130), which are interesting for the determination of
tortuosity, the respecti,e values ofBiot's theory and Terzaghi's law are not concerned with
the same ftelds of application, and these theories are complementary rather than
competitive.
2.2.5
GeerstmaSmit equations
As we have shown. the correct solution for the ftrst kind wave velocity within the
framework of Biot's theory is relatively easy to obtain, but not very practical for any actual
application. Nevertheless, we have pointed out (Table 2.2) the high values of critical
frequencies fc for commonly encountered rocks. This makes it possible to obtain an
approximate solution for the velocities by developing the second order equations in f !fc
(Geerstma and Smit, 1961):
vzp,
v!, +
=
v(!c)
f
0
(2.131)
v; + v~(~)
where 1'0 and V.., are the zero frequency and infmite frequency velocities respectively
within Biot's theor'y'"presented here (low frequency hypothesis).
By implicitly using Gassmann's equation (2.77), these authors obtain the following
expressions for V0 and Vx :
).!..
V0 = (
4 z
Kf+Jl
3
[see Eq. (2.113)]
p
Voc=(p.(lcf>)+~p,lla )
(2.132)
[ K, + J" +
)(
t/>a 1 + 1  Ks
 I1
Pt
K
)])y
_K(l_2cf>a
'
K
(I  K: ~) K, + K''
(2.133)
"""
~~
2
__
85
inertial coupling). and hence no permeability effect. Note also that Eq. (2.133) is reduced to
Eqs. (2.130) using the assumptions:
'
Ko
1 K =
t/J,
K 11 ~ K 0
lj
'f i
I
~
'"""
2.2.6
2.2.6.1
Experimental verifiCation
Qualitative aspects of Biot's model
We have just described a method for modeling wave propagation in a saturated porous
medium. The model presented reveals the existence of three propagation waves within
such a medium, in other words two compressional waves and one shear wave. The
particular feature and main interest of this model reside in the prediction of the second
compressional wave, or slow wave. In fact, this slow wave does not exist in a classic solid
and isotropic medium. Hence it is essential to prove the validity of Biot's theory to identify
the existence of such a slow wave experimentally. We shall ftrst describe the qualitative
procedure that enabled Plona (1980) to verify this theory experimentally, and then go on
to the results obtained.
A saturated porous medium is a medium formed by the interpenetration of two phases.
One of them is the solid phase and constitutes the matrix of the material concerned, and
the second is the liquid phase, constituting the saturating fluid. This interpenetration can
occur in t'to different ways, shown schematically in Fig. 2.13 (Plona, 1982). In one of the
two cases (Fig. 2.13a), a discontinuity exists in the liquid phase, consisting of a group of
disconnected pores. with continuity of the solid phase. In the second case (Fig. 2.13b), both
the liquid and solid phases are continuous. Two types of wave (a compressional wave and
a shear wave) can propagate in an isotropic solid, while only a single type of wave, a
compressional wa,e, can propagate in a liquid. Since a saturated porous medium consists
of two phases, one solid and the second liquid, it therefore appears logical to be able to
observe three waves, namely two compressional waves and one shear wave. For this to be
true, it is necessary for the liquid and solid phases to be continuous. In this way the waves
can propagate within a given phase. This means that the porous medium must be of the
second type described above (Fig. 2.13b). In fact, every natural porous medium possesses
both types of porosity (disconnected and connected~ so that the liquid that participates in
the motion of the slow wave is merely the fraction of liquid contained in the connected
porosity. Finally, it is important to realize that the coarse image by which one considers
that, among the two compressional waves, one moves within the liquid and the second in
the solid, is false. In fact, the porous medium is a material constituted of a solid and a liquid
phase coupled together. A more accurate image can be derived by representing the sample
as a system of two springs whose eigen vibrations consist of one vibration in phase and one
vibration out of phase. These two types of motion have been modeled and discussed
previously in Section 2.2. This remark will enable us to understand more clearly the
necessary conditions for the observation of a progressive slow wave. If the liquid is not
86
2
~
t.
viscous, no viscous coupling force occurs at the liquid/solid interface, while, by contrast, if
the liquid is very viscous, a substantial coupling exists, preventing differential liquid/solid
movement. This clearly shows the importance of the viscosity of the interstitial fluid.
Furthermore, as we well know, the intensity of the viscous coupling force depends on the
incident wave frequency. At infmite frequency, a viscous fluid acts as if it had no viscosity,
whereas at low frequency even low viscosity can give rise to substantial coupling. In fact,
considering the intensity of this viscous force, it can be observed that it decreases rapidly
"ith increasing distance from the liquid/solid interface (Fig. 2.14). Moreover. this effect
can be characterized by a skin depth d3 This skin depth:
{2i1
.J;;;;
d =
(2.134)
is proportional to the square root of the viscosity and inversely proportional to the square
root of the frequency and of the fluid density. This clearly shows that the propagation of
the slow wave becomes even more observable as the fluid viscosity decreases and the wave
frequency increases. The density term in (2.134) is there to remind us of the inertial
problems of setting any mass in motion. Hence it is very important for the observation of
Biot mechanisms and for a given sample that this depth d. should be much smaller than
the average acces radius of the pores.
"'
!I
j:
'l
't.
FLUID
,, I
SOLID
t<O
Fluid
at rest
f:
!l
Wall set
in motion
t>o
,
Trient motion
of the fluid
Fig. 1.14 Fluid velocity proCde due to sudden movement of the walls of the
capillary tube.
In sandstones, for example, the average access radius is relatively large, about l to 5 pm
for permeabilities ranging from a few mD to 100 mD. This implies that, for an ultrasonic
experiment, using water as the saturating fluid, the skin depth d. is about 0.5 to l pm. The
ratio of skin depth to access radius is hence too high to be able to observe the slow wave
directly, as the viscous effects at the fluid/matrix interface have prevailed over the
possibilities of fluid/matrix motion out of phase. This means that the slow wave must be
observed indirectly, for instance by analyzing the changes in signature undergone by the
different recorded signals.
In brief, we have shown that the following properties are required for the observation of
a progressive slow wave(l2):
t, ,r
'libli.
th ...
itt;
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
l(
".
eet
For a clear observation of the two movements described above (in phase and out of
phase), the difference in velocities between fluid and solid must be high enough to ensure
signifacant separation between the two movements. Consequently, it is important to have
a fluid that is much more compressible than the solid matrix.
:v
a{\,
l t
lV 6
tiar
87
~~~~
....
~~
88
2.2.6.2
Experimental results
Having made these preliminary remarks, Plona's experiment appears simple. In effect,
to observe the slow wave, it is necessary to allow fluid and solid movements, and thus to
transmit and record the waves far from the solid. This means avoiding bonding the
transducers to the sample, which would prevent the recording of the slow wave. The
experiment is conducted in a waterfilled tank (Plona, 1980, 1982) (Fig. 2.15) and the angle
of incidence of the signal emitted with respect to the porous medium may vary to observe
Shear wave
Compressional
waves in water
A
i 0
I Receiver I
Fig. :us Diagram showing mode conversions and refractions at the different
interfaces: the reflected waves are not indicated (after Plona and Johnson.
~ 1980 IEEE, New York, NY).
the angular dependence of the process. The transducers employed have a central
frequency of 2.25 MHz. The velocities of the different waves are measured with an
accuracy of 3%. Figure 2.16 (Plona, 1982) shows the results obtained with a sample of
sintered glass of porosity <P = 28%. The diagram in Fig. 2.16a corresponds to the
recording made at normal incidence. At this incidence, only the compressional waves are
generated at the different interfaces between isotropic media. Pulse A corresponds to the
direct arrival, and pulses C, E and G correspond to multiple arrivals (due to multiple
reflections within the sample). Arrivals D and F are new arrivals not observed in a nonporous solid. Arrival D corresponds to the direct arrival of the slow wave. The difference
in arrival time between pulses D and F corresponds to the difference in arrival time
between A and C, C and E, or E and G. Hence arrival F is the first multiple reflection, but
with conversion of the slow wave to a standard compressional wave. This clearly shows us
that the slow wave is compressional (this occurs at normal incidence and the only waves
existing are compressional), and that the slow wave/standard compressional wave
conversion exists. The lower diagram of Fig. 2.16b corresponds to a recording made at
nonnormal incidence. In this case the angle of incidence is smaller than the first critical
angle defmed by:
(}~ =
SID
vw
1 _ _
Vp,
(2.135)
~,
r
ll
89
W'er
Sample
0: 0
1"'~1 m4t.
A
11 1
A:OirctP 1 C, E. G: multiples
W'tr
Sampl+,r0
(b)
e< ep
c
....
..A o.A
50 mY
_;,.I
' '
I
A: Dirct P 1 wave
8: Oirct S wave
0: Oirct slow wave
5ps
Fig. 2.16 Signals recorded at different angles of incidence for a material made
of sintered glass spheres.
L 6 = 0". b. 0 < 6 < ~ (after Plona and Johnson. 1980 IEEE, New
York, NY).
: ~
where
V.., = sound velocity in water,
Vp, = f1rst kind P1 wave velocity in the sample.
Three arrivals are observed, whereas, in the case of a nonporous solid, only two would
have been observed. Arrival A is the standard compressional wave, arrival B is the shear
wave, and arrival D is the slow wave. Figure 2.17 (Plona, 1980) shows the variation in
recordings as a function of angle of incidence. Fig. 2.17a and b resume Fig. 2.16. The
recording in Fig. 2.17c was made with an angle of incidence() between the two critical
angles related to the P1 and S waves, that is to say:
where
O:
(2.136)
.  1:..
_
0: =SID
Js
(2.137)
lij
90
: !
L.
,.;
~~
9 =0
iI
I
i
I
ofo<o:
C 0
mIMIll
B
d)
9'<c 9
\
I
i
50mV\
L___,__
A
IV l
.!_L.
5 .__
a. 8
Of:' c.
< 8<
Of
Plona's results were obtained using various types of porous material. Figure 2.18
(Plona, 1982) offers a glance at the different materials used. The ftrst class of materials
consists of different sintered materials I steel, titanium, Inconel). The second class includes
ceramics produced by different manufacturers (Coors, 3M, Filtros). These ceramics are
normally used as ftltration materials. The third class comprises materials manufactured by
Plona in the Schlumberger laboratories at Ridgefteld. They are sintered glasses whose
 
i1. l
'1:.'
Sintered glass
beads # 1
beads # 2
beads # 3
3 \f55
3 \f40
Coors
Porous steel
Porous titanium
Porous lnconel
Filtros # 1
tP
v,.,
Ys
v,..
28.3
18.5
10.5
34.5
30.0
41.5
48.0
41.0
36.0
40.0
50
20
10
4.05
4.84
5.15
2.76
2.91
3.95
2.74
2.72
2.12
4.65
2.37
2.93
2.97
1.41
1.62
2.16
1.54
1.79
1.15
2.91
1.04
0.82
0.58
0.91
0.96
0.96
0.92
0.91
0.93
0.94
55
40
55
20
30
90
60
...,.
91
=porosity,
= average pore size (IUJI),
I j. = fast compressional velocity (krn/s),
Is =shear velocity (km/s).
lj., =slow compressional velocity (km/s),
ll>
Fig. 2.18 List of the different porous materials analyzed (after Plona. 1982
IEEE, New York, NY).
porosity can be varied. Figure 2.18 shows that all these porous materials display a
behavior of the type described by Biot. The slow wave is always slower than the wave
propagating in the saturating liquid, which is water in this case. The amplitude of the
measured slow wave may be very high. Figure 2.19 provides an example of a seismogram
recorded in a sintered steel with a grain size of20 ~tm. But~ we have seen, the amplitude
also depends on the ratio of the wavelength ofthe signal transmitted to the pore size, or, in
fact. for the materials analyzed, to the grain size. Figure 2.20 highlights this effect. To do
this. the frequency  and hence the wavelength  of the transmitted signal is kept
constant, while the pore size varies. In Figure 2.20a, the pore size is 15 ~tm. Considering
th..: ~kin depth [see Eq. (2.134)], a value of about half a micron is found. already
accounting for a significant fraction of the pore size. Thus an incipient viscous effect and a
tortuosity effect are observable (see the beginning of Chapter 2: as <P tends towards 0, a
tends towards infmity~ which prevent a nonnegligible part ofthe fluid from moving out of
phase with the solid. The slow wave is hence less energetic. By contrast, in Fig. 2.20b, the
amplitude of the slow wave is high. The wavelength/pore size ratio is virtually ideal, and
the viscous effect at the wall is slight and scattering is negligible. In Fig. 2.20c, the pore size
is 175 J!m, while the wavelength for the standard compressional wave is about.! mm. The
substantial scattering ofthis wave obliterates any possibility of observing the other modes.
Another interesting study is the measurement of the variation of the three velocities
obtained as a function of the porosity of the medium concerned. Figure 2.21 gives the
results obtained on sintered glass spheres. It can be seen that the standard compressional
and shear velocities increase with decreasing porosity. This is easy to understand: the
medium becomes increasingly rigid and the P1 and S velocity tend towards the velocity in
the nonporous solid. The mechanism is reversed for the slow wave: a decrease in slow
wave velocity is observed with decreasing porosity. Measurements could only be
il'l
92
~lmtt!.
8
A:
Normal P1 wave
B:
S wave
0: Slowwave
n~.\tt=
A
I'" I~
A
lcl
 r\\ !A. ~
50 mv
2 (L
pedormed with porosities greater than 10%, but a theoretical extension to the value 0 was
obtained on the curve. Since the slow wave is due to the presence of a liquid inside a porous
medium, it is perfectly logical for its velocity to tend towards 0 with decreasing porosity (a
tends towards infmity as 4> tends towards 0).
The experiments described here concern artiftcial materials other than rocks. As we
have alrea4y emphasized, owing to the pore size of a usual rock, it is very difficult, if not
impossible, with usual fluids (such as water) to have a slow wave propagating within a
porous medium, and the slow wave is generally attenuated immediately. Experiments are
currently being conducted by Plona and Johnson and their colleagues to develop a
technique to resolve this problem. The general principle consists in using liquid helium II,
whose viscosity is zero, as the saturating fluid. The preliminary results obtained in these
conditions have revealed the existence of a slow wave in a rock.
The use of liquid helium as the saturating fluid is extremely interesting for two main
reasons. Johnson (1980) showed that the slow wave mechanism was actually the
~'f:
93
generalization of the fourth acoustic wave in superfluid helium II. Moreover, with this
material (i.e. negligible viscosity and fluid compressibility ~ matrix compressibility),
Biot's expressions for the velocities are simplifted and are given by Eq. (2.130), assuming
the applicability of Terzaghi's law (see Johnson and Plona, 1982).
Hence it is possible to measure tortuosity a by using superfluid helium. for which the
above equations are valid to the nearest 0.01% (Johnson et al., 1982). Johnson eta/. f 1982)
also showed that these equations are valid to within 10% for watersaturated sintered
glass.
Incidentally, this parameter can be related to other types of measurements, such as the
refractive index of the fourth wave of a superfluid He II (Johnson and Sen, 19811 or the
electrical conductivity or the formation factor (Johnson et al.. 1982).
6
::!!.
~
l!
2
200m\D
_,,1..'"
Slow wave
Ol,,~
10
20
30
Porosity (%I
40
50
Fig. 2.21 Measured velocities ofP, Sand slow waves vs. porosity for samples
of sintered glass, The P ~ave and S wave velocities in solid glass are 5.69 and
3.46 km/s respectively (after Plona. 1982 IEEE, New York, NY1.
In conclusion, Plona demonstrated the existence of a slow wave very close to the one
predicted by Biot's theory. He showed that this wave could only exist as a propagation
wa,e if the following conditions were satisfted:
(a) Continuity of the solid and liquid phases (i.e. possibility of differential fluid and
liquid motion).
(b) Sufftciently high incident wave frequency and sufl'lciently low fluid viscosity (i.e.
weak wave attenuation mechanism).
(c) Incident wavelength sufl'lciently large in comparison with pore size to avoid
scattering, while the pore size must be adequate to avoid viscous effects at the wall
(skin depth effect).
(d) Very different fluid and solid bulk moduli in order to separate clearly the two
compressional waves.
Moreover, Plona and Johnson (Eq. (2.130)] revealed the possibility of employing
approximate equations to determine the different velocities in the saturated porous
medium. The equations make use of tortuosity a characterizing the geometry of a porous
medium.
...
94
2.3 CONCLUSION
We have considered a theory modeling wave propagation in saturated porous media.
This theory, whose experimental conftrmation has been discussed above. identifted a
number of mechanisms related to the presence of fluids and the permeability of the
medium. It has been shown that these mechanisms occur to a signiftcant extent in the case
of high mobilities and frequencies. The usual permeabilities and viscosities are generally
inadequate to cause them to appear. The frequencies at which the mechanisms described
are invoked tend to be too high (see Table 2.3) to apply the theory, since it is restricted to
wavelengths that are large in comparison with the dimensions of the flow channels where
ftltration occurs.
For a wave propagating in an infmite twophase medium (i.e. one which does not
encounter" boundary conditions). wave attenuation should be looked for in the absolute
local motion of the fluid, and no longer in the motion ofthe fluid with respect to the matrix,
although certain experimental results (for example Morlier and Sarda, 1971) appear to
demonstrate a relationship between permeability and attenuation. Note for the time being
the theoretical work of Datta (1975), Mavko and Nur (1979) and Walsh (1976) who deal
with these problems, which we shall discuss in detail in the subsequent Chapters. Howe,er,
it must be observed that, in these processes, the entire fluid part is involved, both the fluid
found in the disconnected porosity and the fluid in the connected porosity. In addition,
contrary to the framework ofBiot's theory, these mechanisms occur throughout the whole
saturation range.
One may well question the practical interest of Biot's theory for the study of wave
propagation in an infmite medium. However, for the problems in which boundary
conditions are imposed on the flows, pressures and displacements, the phenomena
identifted by Biot's theory, which are mainly related to pressure gradients, must play a
major role. These include the important problems of seismic reflection at interfaces, and
the problems related to surface waves in sonic logging. Geerstma and Smit (1961) made a
theoretical analysis of the problem ofreflection, and showed that a slow wave was always
generated at the interface. This slow wave may account for a nonnegligible portion of the
total energy, although, due to its attenuation, it is not generally observable. Rosenbaum
(1974) pointed out the importance of the role of permeability on the attenuation of
Stoneley waves at the interface of a saturated porous medium and a fluid, in the plane case
and in the case of guided waves in wells. These studies will be discussed in Chapter 6,
which will demonstrate the necessity of a careful analysis of wave propagation for seismic
applications.
Biot's theory also justifies certain general considerations. The assumptions of this
theory include the notion of scale related to wavelength and hence to frequency. The
seismic profiles correspond to low frequencies ( ~ 50 Hz), while sonic logging corresponds
to higher frequencies (~ 10 to 20kHz). In all cases, it is considered that these wa,es
propagate in homogeneous and generally isotropic and stratifted media. In nature, the
media that the wave travels through are porous, inhomogeneous, and anisotropic to
varying degrees. The use of exact laws of propagation should allow a better understanding
of the complexity of these media, so that data can be available on their petrophysical
properties and their fluid content. Strictly speaking, these exact laws do not exist. From a
r
;'l
~'
.j,:. '
'
95
practical point of view, the laws used must always be chosen according to the specif1c
problem investigated (boundary conditions, geometries) to the tool employed
(frequencies, wavelengths, energy), and to the parameters to be quantif1ed (water content.
permeability, porosity).
'
One may be tempted to complicate a model such as Biot's model (for example, by
introducing the viscoelasticity of the matrix) to clarify a number of measurements. In our
opinion, this complication is extremely liable to be prolonged indefmitely, without any
hope of success. In fact, the complexity of the porous medium (see Chapter 1) is such that it
is totally unrealistic to try to construct a general model for porous media. On the other
hand, it is necessary to account for in situ conditions and for the frequency range to be
investigated to adapt the theory to the problem at hand. To each problem corresponds a
different theory, which relies on a specific physical parameter to yield an observable effect.
In the laboratory, it is essential to press forward with a qualitative phenomenological
analysis of the problems (which is the preponderant effect in a given experiment?). an
adjustment of simple models to the experiment, and a suff1cient number of measurements to
acquire statistical knowledge that is virtually "rock type., by "rock type ... As we have
already stressed on several occasions, for the time being, the complexity of the natural
media under consideration dashes any hopes of a unique theory based on continuum
mechanics.
However, in the beginning of this Chapter, we pointed out that, for a given physical
phenomenon, a porous medium could be replaced by an equivalent homogeneous
medium with very specif1c properties. In other words, the porous medium is no longer
considered with its complexity, and only the result of its interaction with a given physical
phenomenon is important. This sets the stage for a new trend in investigating porous
media, which may fmally lead to a clear understanding of certain observed mechanisms.
For problems of acoustic propagation, and for certain types of process, the rock can be
replaced by a homogeneous and linear viscoelastic medium. The study of this type of
medium will be discussed in the next Chapter.
Appendix 2.1
WAVE PROPAGATION
IN A NONISOTROPIC ELASTIC MEDIUM
The introduction of(2.7) into the constitutive law (2.25) of a linear elastic medium, and
the result of this introduction in the equilibrium equations (2.24) gives:
cijkluj.kl
= pii;
(2A.ll
For isotropic media satisfying (2.28), Eq. (2A.l) is merely Eq. (2.39) set in another form.
Let us now consider a wave front of unit normal vector n and normal velocity V at
geometric point M belonging to this front. If f(xt, t) is the equation of the wave front, note
that V is defmed by :
96
j
V=
(2A.2)
[~ u:">2Tand thus represents the velocity of a geometric point moving on the normal n between
time t, when it coincides with M, and a later time t + dt.
Let us now consider acceleration waves, characterized by a jump A of the acceleration
vector when crossing the geometric surface representing the wave front. We shall set:
[ii~c]
= Ale
(2A.3)
where(] represents the ..jump" operator and consists in determining the difference in the
quantity on either side of the wave front. If the second partial derivatives with respect to
time satisfy (2A.3), we know that the second partial derivatives with respect to a space
variable and to another space variable or to time must satisfy the equations of kinematic
compatibility stated by Hadamard (1949). These equations are:
n"n'
[ U~cl]=A.
2
1
}.
U~c=
}.
nt
A.
v 1
(2A.4)
(2A.5)
Alj = C;"i'n"n'
(2A:6)
This represents the acoustic tensor relative to direction n considered. This acoustic tensor
is symmetrical and the associated quadratic form is positive defmite. Consequently, the
endomorphism associated with the acoustic tensor has three mutually orthogonal
eigenvectors associated with the positive eigenvalues A1 = p Vj (J = 1, 2, 3) satisfying:
det (Alj  A 1 <5;) = 0
(2A.7)
(2A.8)
(2A.9)
cii"'
This equation is satisf1ed either ifn and A are colinear, or if their respective coefficients are
zero. The former case corresponds to longitudinal waves. In fact, by setting A = An, which
corresponds to a longitudinal polarization, we have:
P
v; = i. + 211
(2A.l O)
..,....


97
(2A.ll)
The results found for harmonic plane waves, concerning polarizations in an isotropic
elastic medium (see Section 2.1.5), are hence valid for any shape of wave front.
In the most general anisotropic case, in which the tensor Ciitl displays no particular
symmetry apart from the natural symmetries (2.26) and (2.27), the characteristic
polarization directions are normally random and depend continuously on the vector n. It
is only if the material exhibits certain additional particular symmetries that certain
polarization directions are preferential.
Let us thus consider a case of standard anisotropy which is the orthotropy'of revolution
(or transverse anisotropy). Let us assume for the purpose that the orthotropy axis is
parallel to the physical direction OxJ. This means that all the directions are equivalent in
plane (Ox 1 , Ox 2). In this case, it can be shown that, ofthe 21 independent components for
tensor cij/d in the general case (see Section 2.1.3), only five independent components
remain, which are C 1111 = C 2222 , CJJJJ C 1122 , C 22 JJ = CuJJ C 1313 = C 2J 2J The
remaining components that are not inferred from natural symmetries (2.26) and (2.27) are
zero, except C 1212 given by:
1
(2A.l2)
Cu12 = 2 (Cuu Cuu)
Considering (2A.6) in the case of the orthotropy of revolution, it is easy to see that two
types oflongitudinal wave and two types of transverse wave can propagate. To begin with,
when n = nJ is oriented along the orthotropic axis OxJ, a longitudinal wave (A= LlnJ)
with velocity .jC 3333 /p and two transverse waves (A. nJ = 0) with velocity jC1313 /p
= JC 2J 23 /p are seen. Subsequently, if n belongs to the plane normal to the ortbotropy
axis(n. nJ = O),alongitudinalwave(A == Lln)ofvelocityjC 1111 /p == JC 2222 /pandtwo
transverse waves, one polarized along nJ(A =An) with velocity jC 1313 /p = jC2323 /p
identical to the f1rst type of transverse wave, and the second polarized in the plane normal
to the orthotropy axis (A= Lin x n3 ) with velocity
12 ufp. Finally, the four
independent velocities are:
JC
P waves:
Vr==/
n= n3
A= Lin
n . n3 = 0
Vp=/=FF
(2A.l3)
S waves:
A. n =0
n = n3
n . n3 = 0,
n . n3
= 0.
rc;;;;
A n = 0 } Vs == [C;;;; ==
A=LinJ
~p ~p
A = Lin
OJ
J's = ~
T
'
wave propagation
and vibration effects
in viscoelastic med1a
(unidimensional)
INTRODUCTION
We have shown in the previous Chapter that the average motion of the fluid with
respect to an elastic matrix led to invoking a dissipative mechanism and hence to wave
attenuation. However, we showed that, apart from the case in which boundary conditions
are involved, this mechanism could be considered as negligible in most cases. The cause of
dissipation is to be found in the absolute local motion of the particles, both solid and liquid.
This Chapter is devoted to the mechanical modeling of this phenomenon by the
introduction of viscoelastic models. It is not intended to provide orders of magnitude of
the parameters that we shall introduce (which can be found in Chapter 5), nor to discuss
the relevance of these models concerning the behavior of rocks at the passage of a wave.
We again consider the medium to be homogeneous. In other words, the models
developed take account, from a macroscopic standpoint (that of the measurement), of the
average dissipation on a representative volume of fluid and solid, without drawing a
distinction between the share accounted for by the fluid and that relating to the solid. The
fme analysis (microscopic) will be dealt with from a qualitative standpoint in Chapter 5.
The motion considered here is hence the average macroscopic displacement u of the
fluid/matrix combination introduced in the previous Chapter.
In Chapter 2, for the matrix itself, we considered a rigorously elastic constitutive
equation; in other words the material has no strain memory. This is the simplest case. Real
materials, and rocks in particular, macroscopically display irreversibilities of behavior:
they dissipate energy when subjected to deformation.
This dissipation, apart from the Biot type of mechanism (Chapter 2), stems from many
sources. The most probable mechanisms involved for rocks are discussed in Chapter 5.
They include capillary forces, thermal effects, intergranular friction, and local fluid
movements. These microscopic, irreversible effects are therefore numerous and complex,
100
and any macroscopic model (in the sense intended here) that would attempt to
describe them fully, even if available, would be of extreme complexity and of very limited
scope. Consequently, we shall only consider the simplest models here, namely linear
viscoelastic models. In fact, as we shall show in Chapter 5, these models are well suited for
the description of a broad class of dissipative processes, resulting from rapid, smallamplitude variations in strain due to waves that propagate in rocks. These models require
the knowledge not only of the present stress and strain values, but also of past values, and
are therefore called memory models. To investigate and quantify these effects in actual
materials, it is essential to understand what is generally called their delayed behavior. In
this way, the time effects, particularly those associated with strain and stress velocities, are
introduced quite naturally.
The following study is deliberately restricted to uniaxial or unidimensional behavior of
the materials that we will examine. The reader interested in an exposition of the general
case can refer to several works (Fliigge, 1975, Christensen, 1982, Salen.;on, 1983).
3.1
3.1.1
Creep tests
In this type of test, the sample, previously at rest, is subjected to a constant load a 0 from
time t 0 An analysis is made of the variation with time of the strain e(t), or its equivalent,
the creep function f(t) defmed by:
e(t)
= f(t, t 0 ; a 0 )
ao
(3.1)
In the following analysis, we shall consider only materials whose properties do not vary
with time (nonaging materials). For the wave propagation experiments dealt with here,
this assumption can be accepted without restriction in view of the measurement time scale
(i.e. wave passage time). Under this assumption, the function f depends only on the
interval t  t 0 and (3.1) becomes:
e(t)
ao
= f(t  t 0 ;
a0)
(3.2)
Figure 3.1 shows a standard creep experiment. The loading time sequence consists in the
application of a given stress a 0 which is kept constant for the time interval (t0 , t 1 ) during
which no additional stress is applied. The strain response is shown schematically in
Fig. 3.lb. At time t 0 , an instantaneous strain e0 is usually observed such that:
I
I
ao
101
(3.3)
eo=Mo
where M 0 is the instantaneous elastic modulus (Young's, shear, bulk, depending on the
experiment). After t 0 , the strain increases with imposed load, giving rise to creep. This is
the phase that determines the function f defmed by (3.1). At time t 1 , when the stress is
e
Creep
p
1,
=~~~~ _1:::
ao ~

to
t 1
to
tl
(a) Stress
(b) Strain
Fig. 3.1
removed, an instantaneous unloading occurs such that, if e(tl) is the strain just before
unloading. and e(t just after, we have:
Lie
= e(tn 
e(tl)
=
e0
(3.4)
Equation (3.4) is only true because the material is assumed to be nonaging (if not,
Lie :;C  e0 ). After time ti, the strain continues to decrease, leading to recovery. This
recovery may be partial, in which case the strain tends to residual nonzero strain e~ (see
for example Maxwell's model, Fig. 3.10a), or may be total, in which case e00 = 0 (see for
example Voigt's model, Fig. 3.10b).
Bo
= r(t 
t 0 ; e0 )
(3.5)
102
Relaxation
oo
Eo
10
0 to
(tl ,
rOto~
a.,
tl
1
O(ttl
(al Strain
(bl Stress
necessary to apply an instantaneous jump Au in the stress to be imposed, which, for a nonaging material, is .Ju =  u 0 . Subsequently, the stress to be imposed becomes increasingly
low, and tends to a nonzero stress value (partial stress cancellation) or tend to zero (total
stress cancellation).
3.2
Equations (3.1) and (3.5) only assume the nonaging character of the viscoelastic
constitutive law. In addition, linearity consists in assuming that the creep function f and
relaxation function rare independent of u 0 and e0 , namely:
= u 0 f(t t 0 )
u(t) = e0 r(t  t 0 )
e(t)
(3.6a)
(3.6b)
Equations (3.6a) and (3.6b) help to obtain the law oflinear viscoelastic behavior for any
loading history. In fact, linearity implies Boltzmann's superposition "principle" which
states that the effects can be added. This gives:
e(t) =
'f
'f
du
f(t  r) d dr
r
 :o
u(t) =
x:
r(t rl
de
dr
+ ~ f(t r;)(Au);
(3.7a)
+~
r(t rJ(Ae);
(3.7b)
Equations (3.7a) and (3.7b) state that the history of stress u (or strain e) can be
considered as the superposition ofinfmitesimal steps du(r)[or de(r)] and fmite steps (Au);
[or (Ae)J at time r;. The term step means that the quantity involved is imposed and then
~
3
103
kept constant from time t considered. One can then formally write the Eqs. (3.7) more
briefly in the form :
e(t) =
'I
'I
da
f(t  r) d dr
r
:r:
a(t) =
r(t  r)
::c
de
dr
(3.8a)
(3.8b)
where the integrals and derivatives are implicitly understood in the sense of
distributionsu 1 This convention for derivatives and integrals is always presumed in the
following discussion. Moreover, in accordance with geophysics convention, we shall use
Eq. (3.8b) and not Eq. (3.8a), although these equations are obviously equivalent.
Causality implies that stress a(t) will not be influenced by the future of the strain (i.e. by
e(r) for r > t). Equation (3.8b) can then be rewritten in the form :
a(t) =
_,
d
r(t  r) de dr
x
(3.9)
't
for r < 0
(3.10)
Deducing (3.9) from (3.7b) may appear somewhat artificial. However, the introduction
of the formalism of distribution and the constraint of causality is extremely useful in
dealing with discontinuities and for using the Fourier transform instead of the Laplace
transform in applications to dynamics, as we shall show subsequently. Integrating by parts
(in the sense of distributions, both on rand e) and assuming that e(r) = 0 fou <  t 0 [i.e.
e( oo) = 0), (3.9) and (3.10) yield the equation:
+oo
u(t)
= _x
m(t  r)e(T) dT
(3.11)
where
dr
dT
m=
(3.12)
Equation (3.11) shows that a is written in the form of a convolution product (again in the
sense of distributions) that we shall denote more briefly:
a= me
(1) A discontinuity .1/ at timer; for the function f corresponds to a Dirac mass Jfo(rdf/dr, if the latter is considered as a distribution.
(3.13)
104
Complex modulus
Let us consider the Fourier transform F(w) of a function f(t) defmed by 121 :
F(ro) =
Conversely:
f(t) =
+:c
21
1t
(3.14a)
_
00
+X>
(3.l4b)
:10
The use of the Fourier transform in viscoelasticity problems is quite convenient because
we know that the Fourier transform of a convolution product is the product of the Fourier
transforms. Hence, by applying the Fourier transform to Eq. (3.13), we obtain:
(3.15)
I(w) = M(w)E(w)
where M(w), the Fourier transform of m(t), is called the complex modulus. M(w) can be
separated into its real and imaginary parts:
M(ro) = MR(w)
+ iM1(w)
(3.16)
For a linear elastic medium. Eq. (3.13) is nothing other than Hooke's law, which is
written:
(3.17)
u= M0 e
This shows that a linear elastic medium satisfies :
m(t)
= M 0 t5(t), MR = M 0 , M, = 0
(3.18)
will
r
I
I
105
(3.20a)
Inserting (3.20a) in (3.13) and taking the Fourier transform of the equation obtained
yields:
I"(w)
= emM(wo)27tb(w Wo)
(3.20b)
where the Fourier transform of exp (iw0 t) is 2nb(w w0 )(see footnote in Section 3.3.1).
Equation (3.20b) can alternatively be written in the form:
I"(w)
(3.21)
q>;
.
M 1 = IMI sm
q>
(3.22)
R Wo
To return to the time domain, it is necessary to take the inverse Fourier transform of
Eq. (3.20b). The real stress a(t) is the real part of the expression obtained. The inverse
transform (3.14b) then gives rise to:
(3.23a)
a(t)
a(t) = e..,[Mi.(w 0 )
[i(w 0 t
+ q>)]}
(3.23b)
(3.23c)
In the harmonic problem. stress and strain are hence out of phase by a quantity q>
directly related to the viscosity of the medium. This viscosity therefore causes a lag
between response and excitation in the steadystate problem defmed by (3.20a). As the
angular frequency w 0 tends towards 0, the influence of viscosity becomes lesser and the
static limit(41 is obtained by (3.22) and (3.23):
a= e..,MR(O)
(3.24)
(3) The complex notation is e'ident: the physical quantity is the real pan of the complex quantity
e(t) = , cos w 0 t. This will always be understood in the following discussion, if not mentioned.
(41 Note here that, since the inenia terms are ignored in principle (sample of negligible mass). the term static
means that the time is suiTiciently long (pulsation w;;; 1/r very small) for relaxation at imposed strain e., to be
complete, and MR(O) is merely the relaxed modulus (Section 3.4.1).
106
in no way prejudges the elastic energy (reversible) that can be stored by the viscoelastic
material analyzed for a motion defmed by (3.20a) and (3.23 ). Thus it is not because:
a ( t,
= 2mr
roo ;
1, ... )
= 0,
e(t,)
= e.,.MR(w 0 )
(3.25)
=o
that it can be stated that the elastic energy at times t .. is equal to e!MR/2. The evaluation of
this energy can only be undertaken with additional data about the '1 iscoelastic behavior
analyzed. This could, for example, be the case of the rheological models that we shall
examine in Section 3.4.1.
Let us now consider the energy dissipated over a period. This energy is written:
LIW
!: ae dt
(3.26)
since the elastic energy is reversible over a period T = 2n 'w 0 . Considering that the
quantities concerned in (3.26) are real, one obtains from (3.20a) and (3.23):
Ll W = ne!M 1(w 0 )
(3.27)
The energy dissipated per period is hence directly proportional to the imaginary part of
the complex modulus. Note that defmition (3.26) shows that Ll W can be measured by the
area of the closed curve described in the plane [e(t), a(t)] during a period. Eliminating
the time between (3.20a) and (3.23), it can be shown that this curve is an ellipse (Fig. 3.3). In
the plane related to dimensionless coordinates (e(t)/e ... , a(t)/em IMI ), the main axes of the
ellipse are plotted by the major and minor bisectors. The ratio of the halfaxes is
1/tan 2 ({J/2, the major axis being plotted by the major bisector and equivalent to
2 cos 2 qJ/2.
CJ (t)
In the elastic case, the ellipse is reduced to the major axis because, in this case, lf'
IMI = MR. The intersection of the ellipse with the major axis is given by:
107
= 0 and
u.x = pii
The introduction of the behavior Eq. (3.13) into (3.28) gives the equation of
unidimensional waves in linear viscoelasticity by replacing e by oujox. This gives:
13.29)
mu.xx = pii
(3.30a)
In this expression k* is a priori a complex quantity and Eq. (3.30a) can also be written:
u(x, t)
[i(w 0 t  kx)]
(3.30b)
= k(w 0 ) V(w 0 ) =
w0
13.31)
where k and V are the wave number and phase velocity respectively at angular frequency
Wo.
The introduction of Eq. (3.30b) into Eq. (3.29) and the derivation of the Fourier
transform of the result obtained gives:
 (MR
13.32)
By separating Eq. (3.32) into the real and imaginary parts, the following two equalities are
obtained:
k
= Wo
/P(IMI + MR)
21MI2
(3.33a)
108
oc
p(IMI M.J
= Wo
(3.33b)
21MI 2
JMR~wo)
2oc
(3.33c)
M1
(3.33d)
;:= MR
Thus the wave's phase velocity at angular frequency w 0 is given (to the nearest second
order) by the same equation as in elasticity, if care has been taken to replace M 0 [refer to
(3.17)] by MR(w 0 ). Moreover, the ratio M.JMR is again observed to appear in the
expression of attenuation deriving from the dissipati,e character of viscoelasticity.
3.3.3.2
Let us begin by analyzing in the elastic case the qualitative behavior of u(x, t) for a very
simple specific case: u(x, t) corresponds to the superposition of three waves of amplitudes
Ak
Ak
u(k 0 ), lf2u(k 0 ), 1 '2u(k 0 ), and of respective wave numbers k 0 , k 0  2 and k 0 + 2
(angular frequencies. w
u(x, t)
= u(k0 )
0,
w0
Aw
T
and
Wo
Aw) :
T
+~exp[ {(k
0 
~k)x(w0 A;)t]]
= u(k 0 ) [ 1 +cos ( x Ak
2
Aw)] exp [ .
 tT
1(k 0 x w 0 t)]
('"
+ ~;)r]J}
(3.34)
Let us firSt consider the initial timet = 0. In this case, the modulus lu(x, 0)1 is maximum
at x = 0 because, for this value, the three waves are in phase and interfere constructively
(Fig. 3.4). As we deviate from the value x = 0, the waves mutually go out of phase, causing
a modulation oflu(x, 0)1 which decreases the amplitude away from x = 0. The interference
becomes completely destructive when the phase difference between exp (ik 0 x) and
exp [i(k 0
Ak/2)x] is equal to nand lu(x, 0)1 = 0 at x = Ax/2 where Ax is given by:
AxAk
= 4n
(3.35)
This equation indicates that the width Ax of the function lu(x, 0)1 (distance between two
successive zeros) increases with decreasing Ak. In a more general manner, for a signal
109
I
!
II
ko+~
2
ko
koT
llx
T
Fig. 3.4 Example of the composition of three waves. The result is given on the
lower curve [see Eq. (3.34)] (after CohenTannoudji et al., Mecanique
quantique. 1977, Hermann, Paris).
whose spectrum is different from 0 over a band Ak or .1w, this means that the narrower the
band, the more spread out the wave "packet".
Let us now consider a later time. Equation (3.34) shows that the maximum of lu(x, t)l,
which was found at x = 0 at time t = 0, is now at the point :
XM
Aw
(3.36)
Ak t
and not at point x = (w 0 fk 0 )t = V0 t. The physical origin of this result appears in Fig. 3.5.
Part (a) of this ftgure represents the position at time t = 0 of three adjacent maxima (1), (2)
Ak
ko+T
ko
Ak
ko
2
1,,)
1(1)
1(1)
1(2)
1(2)
1(2)
1(1)
1(3)
1(1)
1(3)
1(1)
1(3)
1(2)
1(2)
1(2)
1(3)
1(3)
1(3)
(a)
(b)
xM(O)
xJt(t)
IIO
and (3) for each of the real parts ofthe three waves. The maxima identified by subscript (2)
coincide at x = 0, and constructively interfere and therefore correspond to the peak
ju(x, 0)!. In the case of Fig. 3.5, where the velocity increases with k (the most frequent case),
the maxima (3) of each wave merge. After a certain time interval, the situation shown
schematically in Fig. 3.5b is thus obtained: the maxima with subscript (3) coincide and
give the position of the maximum xM(t) oflu(x, t)l. One can therefore clearly see in Fig. 3.5
that xM(t) is not equal to V0(t) but is given by Eq. (3.36).
In the more general case in which the signal corresponds to a Fourier spectrum of
amplitude U (k), varying slowly with k and being nonzero over a narrow band centered at
k 0 the center of the corresponding wave packet can be obtained in a similar way by the socalled stationary phase method. Without going into mathematical details, which are
unnecessary here, the displacement in the time domain is actually given by the transform
[Eq. (3.14b)]:
u(x, t) =
w(k)t] dk
(3.37)
Since U(k) is assumed to vary slightly. the most significant contribution to the signal
corresponds to constructive interferences in time t at position x. or, for a properly
stationary phase:
(3.38)
ck [kx  w(k)t]iko = 0
Hence for:
XM
= V,(ko)t;
V,(ko)
= dw
dk
(3.39)
ko
where V, is the group velocity of the wave packet centered at k 0 and corresponds to the
velocity at the peak value.
One may well question the relevance ofthe foregoing remarks for the viscoelastic state.
The quantity U(k) is transformed into U(k) exp [ cx(k)x]. To apply the method of the
stationary phase, it is necessary for this quantity, U(k) exp [ cx(k)x]. to vary slightly in
the frequency band considered. This condition is satisfied if the value of cx~k) is small, an
assumption that has been experimentally justified for most rocks (see Section 5.1.2). In this
case, the foregoing argument leading to 13.39) is valid. If not, no conclusions can be drawn
without additional data.
Note however that it is the interference effects that led to the concept of group velocity.
The group velocity V,(k 0 ) is different from the phase velocity V0 when the phase velocity is
frequencydependent. The medium is then stated to be dispersive. In elastic media, the
interferences leading to a dispersive character are of geometric origin and are generally
produced by multiple reflection effects (wave guides). Hence, in an infmite homogeneous
elastic medium, w 0 is always equal to k 0 V0 , the group velocity coincides with the phase
velocity, and the frequency content of a given signal does not change. For an infmite
homogeneous viscoelastic medium, this does not apply, because of dispersion due to
intrinsic dissipation. The group velocity does not coincide with the phase velocity, and,
111
V, = dw
dk
I=
V(ko)
lo
+ ko dV
dk
(3.40a)
ko
or
_!_ __
1 __ ~dvl
V,
V(w 0 1
V 2 (w 0 ) dw
(3.40b)
wo
= (P)
(IHI)
>.
(P
(V+C)
(3.41)
where P is the power per unit area, and IHI the total energy density (sum of the kinetic
energy C and elastic energy V), while the notation ( ) indicates that the average is taken
over a period
T(()
tr
( uu '>
vg = (lf2pu2)
~,(1 '2u~)
(3.421
On the other hand, since the stationarity principle of the Lagrangian C  \ no longer
applies to viscoelastic media due to dissipation, the energy propagation velocity of a
narrowband centered signal is neither the group velocity nor the phase velocity. In the
two or threedimensional case, for a pure monochromatic wave (i.e. no interference
effects) that is not homogeneous (planes of equal phase not parallel to planes of equal
amplitude. see Chapter 6). the energy propagation velocity once again is neither the group
112
velocity [i.e. defmed by (3.40)] nor the phase velocity. Only in infmite homogeneous linear
viscoelastic media do homogeneous monochromatic waves (as always satisfied in
unidimensional conditions) have an energy propagation ,elocity equal to the phase
velocity (Borcherdt, 1973).
From the experimental standpoint, with respect to rocks in an infmite medium where no
interference effects occur (as dispersion of geometric origin is obYiously possible in
viscoelastic media), one must consider the relative importance of the concept of group
velocity.
Since attenuations are often such that the parameter "1. is small (low or medium
attenuations), dispersion of intrinsic origin is also low, and the group and phase velocities
may be merged as a ftrst approximation. Moreover, ifthe ray path for a given experiment is
short, signiftcant dispersion, in effect, has no time to occur. Using Eq. (3.30b), the
attenuation of a monochromatic wave can be obtained by:
1 dA
d
oc =    =    (In A) 16 '
A dxM
dx.\1
(3.43a)
or
a:= _ _
1 _ I n A(x.\1,)
x.\1 2
xM,
A(x.\1,)
(3.43b)
where A is the wave amplitude, and x.v xM, and x.v, different observation positions.
For a wave packet, the general concept of attenuation cannot be extracted from the
dispersion effects discussed above. For moderate attenuations. however, Eqs. (3.43a)
and (3.43b) can be appplied, taking the signal peak value equal to A. The attenuation
determined can then be considered as the attenuation at the central frequency of the signal.
(3.44)
Note that this defmition involves only the complex modulus. It also applies to any
medium modeled by linear viscoelasticity, although it does not draw on any particular
viscoelastic model like those which we shall examine in the next Section (Section 3.4). The
quality factor is dimensionless. Since the imaginary part of the modulus is zero for a nondissipative elastic medium, the factor Q is infmite. By contrast. a zero quality factor implies
an infmitely attenuating medium, without any transmission quality.
(6) The unit of attenuation is the neper per unit length. :x can also be expressed in dB unit lengtl:. and one can
write:
%dB ur:it len,C:
= 8.686
2:~p
unit 1entth
II3
Note that deftnition (3.44) is intrinsic and makes no reference to experiments which lead
to its measurement, experiments which will be examined subsequently.
For the most general linear viscoelastic medium, the developments in the foregoing
sections enable Q to be related to other apparent parameters. The factor Q is fust related to
the phase shift cp(w) between stress and strain measured on a sample subjected to a
harmonic excitation [see Eq. (3.221]:
Q(w) = tan q>(w)
l
Q(w) = cp(w)
Q~ l
(3.45a)
(3.45b)
~1
a=l;,J2 Jl+ 1
~
Wo
(3.46at
Q2
or alternatively
Q = w0
[t _cx ~~]
2
2aV0
w0
(3.46bl
(3.46cl
B = 2nC""'"
(3.471
where C....," and LIC""'" are respectively the maximum kinetic energy and the decrease in
this energy over a wavelength A. C sing (3.30b), it can easily be shown that:
B = 2r.[l  exp ( 2aA)]  l
(3.48al
(3.48bl
(3.491
114
3.3.5
Porous media and rocks will be examined in the light of the viscoelastic models and
discussed in the following Chapters. However, we should like to present here an example
in which the macroscopic origin of viscoelastic modeling can be explained
microscopically. To do this, let us consider a medium in which the porosity consists of
spherical cavities of radius r, isolated from each other (Fig. 3.6).
DiffriCted wave
,"::/

""'
o,
,_,,
1
...
' _,
_..... I
., .....
.....
 .....
0\I
...
I
I
' .....
'
lo'
I
'
'
..... I
,
l(
,/
'o,
'.... _........
(p) . . .. ,
I,0
__ \
Source
...
2r
I
I
0\I
' _....
....
""'
Receiver
Let us now assume that an incident P wave (see Chapter 2) propagates in this medium.
The P and S wave velocities of the medium corresponding to the supposedly elastic matrix
are denoted Vr and JS. The incident wave is expressed by:
u
= u 0 exp
[i(kx  rot)]
(3.50)
= Uxxu
(3.51)
(A
+ 2Jt)U,x
(3.52)
where A. and J1 are the Lame constants (see Chapter 2).
The average incident power over a period, defmed by:
2"
POv =
27t
Jol"' P
dt
(3.53)
POv =
~ (A. + 2Jt)wku~
(3.54)
liS
When the incident wave meets a spherical cavity, an elementary scattering process
occurs. The scattered wave is the superposition of two waves, an S wave and a P wave. This
scattered wave radiates energy in all directions, and this energy is subtracted from the
incident wave energy. The latter is accordingly attenuated. To quantify the elementary
scattered power, it is customary to introduce the notion of scattering crosssection SE
which is the ratio of the average power scattered over a period to the average incident
power per unit area. Hence it has the dimensions of an area.
Many authors have investigated scattering effects by inclusions. Ying and Truell ( 1956)
in particular determined the expression of the scattering crosssection for a spherical
cavity. If the incident wavelength is large in comparison with the cavity radius r, they
found:
SE = gkr6 m
(3.55)
If the spherical cavities are sufficiently distant from each other, i.e. if the number of
spherical cavities n per unit volume is small (in practice, if the porosity is lower than 20%),
it can be considered that no interactions occur between the scattered waves (no
interference, and no multiscattering effects). The scattering crosssections can then be
added (see for example Waterman and Truell, 1961). This additivity of scattering crosssections allows the approximation to the f1rst order of multiple scattering to be made (see
for example Ishimaru, 1978). In this approximation. it is considered that the direct wave is
no longer the incident wave defmed by (3.50), but a wave attenuated by the elementary
scatterers on the path already traveled. More specifically, consider a direct wave of
average power P"v per unit area. In the volume dx d}' dz, the number of spherical cavities is
ii dx dy dz. By defmition of the scattering crosssections and from the principle of their
additivity, the average power lost  dP"r by the direct wave on a path dx satisfies:
 dP"v dy dz = iiSEP"c dx dy dz
(3.56)
from which, by integration:
P"v
rot)]
(3.57)
(3.58)
Equation (3.33d) and the definition of the quality factor Q (3.44) then give rise to:
Qt = iiSE
k
(3.59)
41t
g=9
[ 3+ 40
(V.)s
2+32
Vs
nfVrYl
2 Vr
Vr
4]
If the wavelength is no longer large compared with the cavity radius, the expression of SE differs from (355t and
the frequencydependence to the fourth power disappears.
116
(3.60)
kr < 0.1
(3.61)
An example of a radius of 1 J1. and a P wave velocity of 5000 m/s lead to a frequency limit
fc of about 4 MHz, a limit that is generally an order of magnitude or more above
applications of classic seismics (fteld or laboratory). Moreover, ncan be approximated by
the expression :
cP
n = r3
(3.62)
where is the porosity. This consists in isolating the cavities in the tangent spheres of
radius R = r/ 1 ' 3 Combining (3.55) and (3.59) this gives:
Q 1
c/Jgk3r3
(3.63)
Equation (3.63) shows that Q 1 is proportional to the cube of the frequency, and also to
the cube of the cavity radius. Hence, at the seismic to ultrasonic frequencies, scattering
processes are negligible. They only become important at the very high frequencies.
Emphasis must be placed on the fact that it would be misleading (or useless) to attempt
to reverse the law of viscoelastic behavior defmed by (3.63) in the time domain.
Apart from the high frequency limit fc of the analysis, other dissipative mechanisms with
far more importaJ.l,t effects occur in the low frequency ranges (i.e. f ~ fc), where scattering
processes are negligible. Thus, if the cavities are ftlled with a fluid, it is the viscosity of the
fluid that plays the most important role in dissipation. Walsh (1969) pointed out that a
fluid inclusion in a homogeneous matrix satisfactorily obeys the standard model
developed in Section 3.4.1. The central angular frequency c.o, [see (3.76)] is then equal to
ep.f'f, where e is the aspect ratio< 81 ofthe fluidftlled cavity, '7 the viscosity of the fluid, and J1.
the shear modulus of the matrix. Other authors investigated the problem of wave
propagation for a concentration of cavities ftlled with viscous fluids (in particular Datta,
1975). While these investigations are in themselves interesting in attempting to relate
macroscopic viscous models to microscopic effects whose physical origin is clearly
understood, they are nevertheless limited, because the experimental conftrmations are not
conclusive. This is due to the fact that many other dissipation processes occur. They are
analyzed in Chapter 5.
(8) The aspect ratio is the ratio of the two extreme dimensions of the inclusion: for a sphere this is l, for an
ellipsoid with a major axis a and minor axis c. this is cfa and e ~ l.
.,
:I
117
Rheological models are often used for theoretical support in describing uniaxial
behavior which displays dissipative effects of viscous origin. We shall show their general
interest later. These rheological (viscous) models consist of networks of two elementary
models, the spring and the dashpot shown in Fig. 3.7.
11
IINIIIIN
(a)
a=Ee
(b)
If the force acting on the element is denoted by a and t denotes its extension, the
equations of beha\ior are:
(3.64)
,t
(3.65)
In its simplest form, this equation represents a linear and viscous behavior which
linearly relates the force (or stress) t1 exerted on the element to the extension rate (or strain
rate) e to which the element is subjected.
We shall now examine the case of a commonly used model, the socalled u standard" or
Zener model, shown in Fig. 3.8.1f t 0 and t 1 are the extensions (strains) of the two springs,
using Eqs. (3.64) and (3.65) one obtains:
e = t 0 + e1
a= Eoto
a= Ettt +'let
(3.66)
Eo
11
118
where is the total strain of the model. It is then easy to deduce from (3.66) the equation:
a+ r'X)a
= E 0 r 00
e+ E
00
(3.67)
'I
(3.68)
=++ E 1 Eoo
E0 E 1
E0
a(t) =
0
r(t  r) d dr
oo
(3.69)
1:
= E + (E0
r(t)
=0
00
E aol exp (  r
~)
~0
(3.70)
t < 0
The function r(t) is hence the relaxation function of the standard model, which had been
defmed in general by Eqs. (3.5) and (3.6b). Proceeding as in Section 3.2, one can determine
from (3.69):
a(t)
+oo
= _
with
m(t  r)~:(r) dr
(3.71)
00
.
dr
m=dt
(3.72)
(3.70) and (3.72) can then be used to obtain the complex modulus relative to the Zener
model:
M(w)
= M0
1+r 00 r 0 w 2
2
00
+ zM 0 w
r 0 r,
1 + ! 200 W
(3.73)
Eo _ !!_ M 0 = Er_
to = r :c E
E1'
(3.74)
00
tr
d
~~
119
The quality factor is determined from the defmition (3.44) and Eq. (3.73) by:
Q=
1 + t:/0 t 0 ci
0(t 0 
(3.75)
,,J
The maximum 1/Q representing maximum dissipativity is obtained for the central
angular frequency rom:
w
0.76)
= .ytot:r:
~
and is therefore
1/Q(ro,.,)=
to tao
~
2y t 0 t
(3.77)
00
Figure 3.9 gives the variations of Q and MR(ro) as a function of angular frequency ro.
...r.......
1.1
0.16
,.0_,._
2;r;;:;:..
~MRP(w)
1.0
0.12
0.9
0.08
a1
0.04
0.8
1
""'m ==
;:r;;;:
I
0.7
=r=
3
2
I
1
I
I
7't:
The Zener model represents the network of three elements. Two other simpler models
are defmed by the limit cases. One of them is the KelvinVoigt model, obtained for
E0 ~ oo. This is the prototype of solid rheological models, because the delayed elastic
modulus Eoo is nonzero. The second is the Maxwell model, obtained for 1 ~ 0. This is
the prototype of fluid models. because the delayed elastic modulus tends towards 0; in
other words the delayed strain is infmite and the material "flows" indefmitely (see
Fig. 3.10).
i~
120
~~
;I I
'I
Eo
1f
IfIN
I
lal
Time
.E~
'I
::!:J
I!
en
El
~=I I
I
Time
Fig. 3.10
lbl
Maxwell (a) and KelvinVoigt (b) models and their creep functions.
The Maxwell and KelvinVoigt models are very important because it can be shown
(Mandel, 1966) that any linear viscoelastic solid can be represented by a series network of
KelvinVoigt models and a spring (constant M 00 ), representing the instantaneous
elasticity (Fig. 3.11 ), or in an equivalent manner by a parallel network of Maxwell models
and a spring (constant M 0 ) representing the delayed elasticity. If the representation by
KelvinVoigt models is adopted, in a similar manner to (3.66), this gives the equations:
II
e = e0
=M
00
e0
i= 1
(3.78a)
e1
= E 1e1 + rue1
(3.78b)
For elements in series, the inverse of the resulting complex modulus is the sum of the
inverses of the complex moduli of the elements. For the KelvinVoigt model, (3.78a) leads
to:
MkJJ) = E1 + i'71w
(3.79)
=  + : LM(w)
M(w) M""
1
(3.80)
For harmonic problems, it has been shown (Section 3.3.2) that, for a harmonic strain
e = e,. cos wt, the stress is written :
u=
Bm
(3.811
ir
3
121
llj
llj1
111
1
M_
E1
eo
+
Ej1
Ei
Mj
e1
Ej
ei1
+ cp cp1)
e0 = e.., 
Moo
(3.82)
+ cp)
cos (c.ot
+ iM1;
(3.83)
_1
1
\12 M:ceo
2
+ "1
4 2 E1e1
(3.84)
_ 1 2
2 [cos (c.ot + cp)
\1  2 e.., IMI
Mao
"
1
+ 7' IMl
cos (c.ot
+ cp 
(3.85)
cp1)
. .
"
."
'IJc.o
1
MCC) + 7'1Ml'
7'1Ml
(3.86)
Equations (3. 79), (3.85) and (3.86) then lead successively to:
\1
=~
2 [IMI
4 e... M QO
"
+ L...j
1 e!MR
\1 = 4
[(M2
M2)
Moo + MJ
1
cp1)
(3.87a)
(M2 + EJ M2)]
Mf
20Jt 1m M
SID
+ 41 e! Re
+ cp 
exp (2ic.ot)
(3.87b)
(3.87c)
122
1 oMj
 = IM~ow
M2 cw
J
(3.88)
M2
~! 2
w  =I  2
j Mj
i'1jW
(3.891
(3.90)
Finally this equation introduced into (3.87c) gives the following expression for elastic
energy:
W=
{3.91)
This expression had already been obtained by Bland (1960) and by O'Connell and
Budiansky (1978), but in a less direct manner. Equation (3.91) gives the maximum elastic
energy W""'" in the form :
wmax = 41 e! {
M R+
[r\ M R w eM
CWR)
oM ) p:}
J
2
+ ( M, 
w aw'
(3.92)
Thus, as stressed in Section 3.3.2, the maximum elastic energy, contrary to a classic error
which consists in treating it as 1/2e!MR, depends in the general case on the real and
imaginary parts of the modulus and their derivatives. Based on (3.91), however, the
average elastic energy Wau is written very simply in the form:
Wa., =
f
T
1
2Jt
T=c;
\1 dt =
4 e!MR
(3.93)
This is valid in the general case of viscoelastic models assuming a discrete breakdown as in
Fig. 3.11. Since the energy dissipated per cycle is (see Section 3.3.2):
JW
= ne!M1
(3.94)
Q = 4nWa.,
AW
(3.95)
In the general case of a rheological model, Q can therefore only be defmed from the
average elastic energy and not from the maximum elastic energy. Nevertheless, this is
possible for low and medium attenuations (Q > 10). In fact, the quantities MR and M 1, the
real and imaginary parts of the complex modulus, are related, through their very
defmition, by the KramersKronig integrals (Nowick and Berry, 1972). These
relationships are linear, and it can be shown that, if M 1 = 0, then oMRfow = 0 (see
Appendix 3.1). This result can be understood by noting that the existence of an attenuation
wr
il
123
in a material (M1 :f: 0) imposes the existence of a velocity dispersion [V = V(w) or what is
equivalent MR = M~,(w)]. The functions M,(w) and c.\I.Rfow therefore display equivalent
asymptotic behavior when attenuation becomes low:
Q > lO ou M,
MR
<=>
oMR)
( M,. ow ~ MR
(3.96)
Accordingly we have:
Q > lO
\/,.." ~ 2 e,.MR
(3.97)
which is valid for only low dissipations, contrary to (3.95). Hence in the case of low
attenuations, an approximate expression of the quality factor is:
2n\/,.." Q 1
Q ~ LtW ;
~
(3.98)
However, the demonstrations that led to (3.95) and (3.98) concern viscoelastic materials
for which the representation by KelvinVoigt models corresponds to the discrete
breakdown of Fig. 3.11. The term discrete does not imply that the elements are fmite in
number, but that their characteristics E1 and 'IJ are isolated values on the positive real axis.
The creep spectrum is said to be discrete and the material is said to have a short memory,
because only the present stress and strain time derivatives are involved in the constitutive
equation [see for example Eq. (3.67)]. If this is not the case, the representation by
rheological modeling loses its value, since in particular, Eqs. (3.95) and (3.98) can no
longer be demonstrated (although often accepted) because the discrete summation (3.84)
of the energies by means of hidden parameters such as the strains e0 and e1 is no longer
possible. The material is said to have a long memory, because all the past stress and strain
values are involved in the constitutive equation which is available only in the form of a
convolution product. To overcome this problem and to account for experimental
observations that will be discussed, we can therefore, as in the following Section, defme
the model directly using the qu.ality factor, rather than infer it a priori from a rheological
model. The value of these models (for Constant or Nearly Gonstant Q) is obvious at the
operational level, but it must be kept in mind that. in this new defmition, we lose the
advantage of an explanation of apparent macroscopic behavior by hidden parameters, an
explanation that leads to the development of rheological models.
..~I
124
~I
10' 8
0.01
1/0
10 4
10'4
0.005
0
4.8
v
(km/sl
4.7
Phase velocity
4.6
4.5
10' 4
10'.
10 4
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 3.12 Typical dispersion relations for the inverse of the quality factor and
velocity for the NCQ model (after Liu et al., 1976).
The same result is obtained if the Zener model superposition is no longer discrete but
continuous (Liu et al., 1976). The NCQ modc;l's dispersion equation is then:
V(wl) ~ 1 + _1_ In col
V(co2)
1tQ
w2
(3.99)
CQ model (Constant Q)
The naturally following mathematical step consists of building a model with Q strictly
independent of w. This model was derived by Kjartansson (1979). The practical advantage
of this CQ model in comparison with the NCQ models is clear. For the NCQ models, the
dispersion relations and the frequency dependence of the quality factor are merely
approximate relations, valid only for quality factors over 30. Moreover, the NCQ models
all imply the introduction of a parameter related in some way or other to the frequency
band over which Q is constant. The width and cutoff frequency of this band appear to be
perfectly arbitrary, and the physical implications of this cutoff frequency vary according to
the models (Lomnitz, 1957, Futterman, 1962, Strick, 1967, Liu et al., 1976). The Constant
Q model is very simple mathematically, and is completely specif1ed by two parameters,
.;;r3
125
namely the wave phase velocity at a reference frequency and the value of Q. The creep
function used by Kjartansson ( 1979) has the following form :
0
f(t) =
CQ
t~O
1
M_rtl
1
?v\ Co)
27
(3.101)
t~O
where r is the classic gamma function (see, for example, Abramovitz and Stegun, 1972)
and M 0 is the modulus of the complex modulus at the reference angular frequency
w 0 = 2n/t0
This creep function has already been analyzed by Bland ( 1960). It implies that the
complex modulus is:
2
iw )
M(w) = M 0 ( Wo
2
Y=
w
M 0 I Wo
1 Y exp
9
1 )
(3.102)
(3.103)
Figure 3.13 shows the behavior ofthe creep function vs. time for the Constant Q model.
It is interesting to note the absence of instantaneous elastic strain for this model, unlike the
previous Lomnitz model (1957).
Let us examine the form and properties of the impulse response of this model. To
analyze the impulse response amounts to examining how a Dirac delta function c5(t) is
propagated:
(3.104)
u = u0 c5(t)
This pulse is emitted at a reference abscissa x 0 in a medium satisfying the wave equation
(3.29). Since the plane wave solution is exp (ax) exp [iw(r xfV)], the Fourier
transform of the impulse response (after a travel distance x) is:
H(w) = u0 exp ( tXX) exp ( iw
~)
(3.105)
For the Constant Q model, it is shown using (3.33), (3.102) and (3.103) that:
ex = tan
I: r
(3.106)
....!...:.'
cos
1t}'
(9) The sgn () function is the function which yields the sign of the quantity inside the parentheses.
126
0= 10
0=1
1.2
3
!
8 1.1
~
~
~ 2
c.
..
~
"
u;
II)
.9
.8
10
Time
1.002
"B
1.01
1.001
'a.
10
0= 1000
0=100
c
;;
Time
1.02
c.
.999
.998
.98
0
10
10
Time
Time
The impulse response h(t) is then the inverse Fourier transform of H(w). This response is
shown in Fig. 3.14for a unit pulse(u 0 = !)emitted at x 0 t 0 = QV0 as a function of time tft 0
[see (3.101)].
An important property of the impulse response is i
(X )t"=""Y
1
TocLfococ

V0
(3.107)
where T is the wave travel time for distance x, A the signal width, and A its maximum
amplitude. This relation can be written:
T
A= b(Q) Q
(3.108)
~
~~~
(3.109)
127
0.6r;:,
0=1
i' "
0.4
II~
0.2
o'
10
Time
..i
0.4
!c
0.2
01....'...L.===~L..J
105
100
______ ,
10
,,
15
20
0.6r,
0=100
95
1:
Time
0.6 r             ,
Oc 10
i
!G 0.2~'
0.41
0.2~
0
110
Time
0= 1000
995
II::=
1000
1005
II
1 010
Time
Fig. 3.14 Impulse response for the Constant Q model (after Kjartansson.
(C) 1979 AGU).
Assuming that
expansion:
is small (i.e. Q > 10), /(t) can be approximated by its ftrst order
CQ
(3.110a)
(3.110b)
Moreover:
where
(3.110c)
(3.111)
and hence
In the Lomnitz equation (3.100), the quantity d. inverse of a time, is very large in
comparison with the time resolution of the experiment. Therefore 1 + td ~ td, which
when introduced into (3.1001, implies that:
1
/(t) ~ M (1
NCQ
+ q In td)
(3.112)
128
The same thing may be observed by starting with the dispersion equation (3.106):
v=
Vo
I:J' ~ vo(l ;J
+yIn
(3.113)
3.5 VIBRATIONS
IN VISCOELASTIC MEDIA
3.5.1
u.xx
1 ..
(3.114)
=Vi u
t<0
(3.115)
Zt = t 
VE
z2
= t + VE
(3.116)
~
3
129
0.4ms
.........
I
I
I
I
I
: T .:. T +'~
1 ms
...........
Fig. 3.15 Experimental signal recorded at x = I. The source is a short pulse at
the origin. The sample is a Plexiglas rod. The top recording is a magniftcation
of the frrst milliseconds of the bottom one.
u,x%1%2
This equation implies that the general form of the solution of the wave equation is:
u,.,(x, t)
= t/l(t
;J
+ q>(t +
;J
(3.118)
The function t/1 corresponds to a wave propagating in the direction of increasing x, while
the function q> corresponds to a wave propagating in the direction of decreasing x. These
functions thus correspond to the successive reflections occurring at both ends of the bar (at
x = 0 for t/1, and x = I for q>). More precisely, it can be shown (Courant and Hilbert, 1962,
for example) that the solution to (3.114) and (3.115) is:
00
X )
u,.,(x,t)=f ( t  
vE
+L
f
2nl)
(
v
2nl)]
v
X    +f t X  t+
vE
(3.119)
The f1rst term represents the propagation of the signal imposed at x = 0, while the second
and t~rd terms correspond to the nh reflections at the ends x = I and x = 0. The
beginning of the signal in Fig. 3.15 thus corresponds to the successive reflections of the
original pulse. In relation to (3.119), however, established for an elastic case, the dissipative
processes deform the signal in two ways: on the one hand, energy is lost, and the peak
130
amplitude decreases, and on the other, the signal spreads due to the dispersive character of
the waves (i.e. the velocity depends on the frequency). This spreading corresponds to the
one observed for a Dirac delta function and a CQ model in paragraph 3.4.2.2.
The question arises how to interpret the later appearance of the damped sinusoid. Letus
particularize the function f by a brief excitation modeled by a Dirac 15(t). Equation (3.119)
then gives:
( VEX) + L
u.x(x,t)=b t  
<r.
X 2n/)
b ( t +
 +b ( t X 2n!'J]
(3.120)
VE
n;!
VE
VE
VE
(3.121)
n;l
where k*, the wave number, is given by: k* VE = w. The equation can be expressed
alternatively in the form :
:X:
exp ( 2ik*lp)
(3.122)
p;O
sin k*(l x)
. , .,
[1  exp ( 2ik*lp)], p
Stn .
+
+ oc
(3.123)
(3.124)
where
ucolt =cos k*(l x)
k* sin k*l
lncolt _ _
+ 00
(3.125)
The term ucoll is the coherent part of the signal representing the contribution of
constructive interferences of the reflections to the general signal. The incoherent
part uincolt, however, has no limit. Its phase is random, except precisely at frequencies such
that:
k* _ mn
I
(3.126)
m~
At these frequencies, ucolt tends towards infmity. This fmally gives the schematic spectrum
in Fig. 3.16, whose irregularity results from the contribution of uincolt which varies at each
reflection.
= k ia
a> 0
(3.127)
131
1
!
.~
..
Q.
~
i5
),
.J."
w,
____, '"'3
"'2
Angular frequency
Fig. 3.16 Schematic diagram of the spectrum in the elastic case for any
point x.
When introduced in (3.123), this expression shows that the incoherent part now tends
towards 0, and we obtain:
x)
k sin kl
(3.128)
Hence, in the viscoelastic case, U has a limit whatever the frequency, with local maxima at
frequencies close to:
w,
m1t
k, = VE(w,) = ,
m = 1, 2...
(3.129)
For sufficiently low attenuations, the velocity Vt:(w) can be considered as independent of
the frequency, and the Eqs. (3.129) give the local maxima to the nearest second order. After
a sufficient number of reflections, the signal is mainly composed of damped sinusoids of
angular frequencies w,.. As a rule, attenuation increases with frequency, and the
contributions of the sinusoids to displacement disappear sooner for larger values of m. The
results are shown schematically by the spectra in Fig. 3.17.
Note that the period T in Fig. 3.15 is simply 21t/w 1 = 21/Vt:, a time which clearly
corresponds to a roundtrip of the transient wave, and explains the spacing Tofthe pulses
of the ftrst part of the signal.
One can thus qualitatively explain the experimental result in Fig. 3.15: the original
signal propagates, is reflected successively at the ends, and, due to dissipative effects,
decreases in amplitude. Only the frequencies corresponding to W 111 contribute significantly
to the signal, because they correspond to constructive (in phase) interferences of the
different reflections, and thus give a signal with a sufftciently high amplitude to be able to
propagate without being attenuated too rapidly. To directly attempt to derive the pseudosteady state asymptotic solution requires making a modal analysis ofthe system, in other
words ignoring the transient conditions and developing the solution on the normal modes
132
defmed by the characteristic angular frequencies w,. This modal analysis will be examined
in the next Section.
a
=a
~
E
~
".
i5
"'t
"',
"'2
Angular frequency
Normal modes
Let us consider an elastic rod and determine the standing waves of angular frequency w
which may be established therein. The corresponding displacement can be taken in the
form:
u(x, t) = Re [u(x) exp (iwt)]
(3.130)
The introduction of (3.130) in (3.114) gives:
u,xx
+ k2 u =
k =
(I)
VE
(3.131)
+ B cos
kx
To obtain the asymptotic solution for a bar free at both ends, it is necessary to satisfy the
boundary conditions:
or
u,..,(x = 0 or x = l, t) = 0
(3.132)
A=O, sinkl=O
(3.133)
leading to the characteristic angular frequencies (or eigenvalues) and to the normal
modes:
.
mn
mn
mnx
k, =  , w, =   VE, u,(x) =cos  ,
m = 1, 2...
(3.134)
1
1
1
133
which are precisely the angular frequencies ro, discussed in the previous Section which
correspond to constructive interferences.
The term .. normal modes" arises from the fact that these modes are mutually
orthogonal, in the sense of the integral scalar product:
(2/l) J:u,u" dx = {
m :F n
m=n
(3.135)
This orthogonality means that the inertial forces in modem, proportional to w!u,, do
not contribute to the displacements u" of mode n :F m.
Let us now consider a viscoelastic bar subjected to linear external excitation p(x, r). The
equation of motion is (Section 3.3.3.1):
a2 u
s1 p(x, t)
(3.136)
where Sis the crosssection of the bar. By applying the Fourier transform we obtain:
d2U
pw 2 U
=
S P(x, ro)
(3.137)
Let us now consider the associated elastic bar defmed by the modulus M(w) = M(O) = M 0
1
and the velocity VE = (.\10 / p)2. Let us break down the solution of the viscoelastic problem
to the normal modes of this associated elastic bar :
U=
L a,(w)u,(x)
(3.138)
"'
where u..,(x) is defmed by (3.134). We multiply (3.138) by u" and integrate. The
orthogonality of the normal modes (3.135) gives the following as the expression for the
generalized coordinate a,.(ro):
ff
U(x, w)u, dx
a.,.(ro) =
(3.139)
u! dx
2
ddxU
2 u., dx =  pw
1
Uu.., d~  S
Pu., dx
(3.140a)
u dx
U ddx;'
+ pw2
1
Uu., dx =  S
Pu., dx
(3.140b)
2
+ w.,
v2
u,. = 0
(3.141)
134
a,.(w)
P(x, w)u,.(x) dx
(3.142)
where
R,. = pS
f u! dx
(3.143)
For the extension modes examined here, R,. = p Sl/2. However, we shall leave R,. aside,
because the previous developments remain valid for other types of vibration (bending,
torsion, etc.) which do not necessarily satisfy R,. = constant. These other types of
vibration will be analyzed experimentally in the next Chapter.
3.5.2.2
(3.144)
L..
.. = 1
27tP0
u,.(x 0 )u,.(x)
~( _
)
u W
Wo
(3.145)
By introducing M(w) = .\fR(w) + i.\11(w) into (3.145) and inverting the expression, we
obtain the time domain expression. where we have formally replaced w 0 by w:
U (X,
t)
~
1
.,;;: 1
P0
2
R,.w,. [(MR/M0
w 2 /w!) 2
(3.146)
+ (MJIM0 ) 2]2
(3.147)
Let us now consider free vibrations, obtained by an impact. The excitation, assumed to be
exerted at x = 0, is thus:
= P0 b(x)b(t)
P(x, w) = P0 b(x)
p(x, t)
(3.148)
U=
L _!l_
u,.(O)u,.(x) .
,. R,.w! M(ro)/M 0
w 2 fw!
(3.149)
Without any additional assumption about M(w), it is impossible to proceed further. Let us
therefore consider the case in which damping is slight. In this case, in the vicinity of an
angular frequency w,., one can write:
(f) ::: (1)'" '
M(w)
MR(ro,.)[1
+ 2ie,.J
(3.150)
r
I
I~
WAVE PROPAGATION
135
VISCOELASTIC MEDIA
2e .. ~ .\.f,(w.,.)
(3.151)
.\.f~~.(w.,.)
Due to the slight damping, the maxima of(3.149) are clearly separated, and it is possible to
invert (3.149) in the time domain:
u(x, r) =
m:l
RPo
2
mWm
u..(O)u.,.(x) exp (
(3.152)
This equation corresponds to the qualitative result of the experiment in Section 3.5.1.
u(t)
u(t
+ 2nfw...
(3.153)
!
Tm=211/W
.1
1[
= b,.
Q~1
u ltol ~mwm(ttol
Llto+T I /
~mf
(3.154)
136
For slight damping, the quality factor is thus related simply to reduced damping and to the
logarithmic decrement. The quality factor is obtained in the vicinity of the characteristic
angular frequency Wm
In the case of the impact experiment previously described, the first characteristic
frequency is the ohly one to make a significant contribution [factor 1/w! in (3.152)]. Hence
only Q(wd can be determined. To obtain the quality factor at higher frequencies by the
logarithmic decrement, it is preferable fJCSt to subject the bar to forced excitations near the
desired angular frequency wm, and then interrupt the excitation. The free vibrations then
occur at the desired angular frequency given the adequate initial conditions.
Let us now consider the case offorced vibrations. Each term of the series (3.146) can be
placed in the form:
Po
u..,(x, t) =  R
2 cos (wt  rpm)A..,u,.(x)u,.(x 0 )
,.w,.
(3.155)
A,.=
[(Ma/M0
(3.156)
w 2 /w!} 2 + (M.fM 0 ) 2 ]2
Assuming slight damping (Q ~ 1), we know from the KramersKronig relations that
Ma ~ M 0 (see Section 3.4.1 and Appendix 3.1) and the amplitude term is reduced to:
1
A,.~
[(1 
(3.157)
A!(Wr)
A!(Wu)
=
w..,
w,.
=
A (1)
(3.158)
Q~
w,.
wu  w 1
= w.., = _1_
A..,w
2e,
Q~ 1
(3.159)
where A,w = wu w 1 quantifies the spectrum width and rises with increased damping.
 
137
0.4
0.2
ol
I
1000
. "'
:r
1500
=:e'
2000
2500
Frequency (Hz)
F;=w I
3000
'
1
3500
'
J
4000
F.quency (Hzl
The measurement of the phase difference between excitation and displacement offers
another means to determine ru1 and wu. In fact, for MR;;;; M 0 , the expression of tan cp.,.
(3.147) immediately shows that:
tan cp.,(w 11 ) = tan cp,..(ru1) = 1
(3.160)
I
I
138
a= 011 _n
AM(O}
VV2AM(0}
n,
Fig. 3.21
n=
"'m
nu
; f
2"
AW =
du
(3.161)
P0 dt"' (x 0 , t) dt
The introduction of Eq. (3.155) for u,(x0 , t) into the foregoing equation gives:
Ll W
1tP~
,.w,. [(MR/M0 
(3.162)
ru 2 /ru!) 2 + (M1/M 0 ) 2 ]2
For rheological models, the average elastic energy V,., in the case of slight damping, for
which MR ~ M 0 , can be written from (3.93) in the form:
V,.,=4M
1 0
f'
s!dx
(3.163)
OX
Introducing the expression of s,., taken from (3.155), in (3.163), and substituting the
expression ofsin cp, deduced from (3.141), we obtain, after a few calculations:
47tV,..,
Q ::::LIW
Q~
(3.164)
~

~
139
I
I
This shows that the local expression (3.95) can be generally applied to the resonant bar
with the difference that Eq. (3.164) for the resonant bar is valid only for dampings such
that Q ~ 1, whereas (3.95) was valid assuming rheological models alone. Simultaneously,
it can be shown that:
27tV""'.x
Q ~ AW
Q~ 1
(3.165)
QE
QK
1+ v
3(1 v)
~= Qp
Qs
(3.166)
2(1  2v)
Qs
The Poisson's ratio vis obtained from the velocities by the equation:
v=
v~  2 v~
2
2 =
2(Vp V 5 )
Vi 
2 v~
2
2Vs
(3.167)
TABLE
SUMMARY OF QUALITY FA<TOR
Parameters
concerned
Ct,
w,
tiC.,.,., C...,... A, et
Propagation
Propagation
Harmonic excitation on sample
Vav tiW
Harmonic excitation on resonant
bar
\!max tiW
DEFINITIONS
Viscoelastic
models
Sections
All
3.3.4
Q ~ 2etV
All
3.3.4
Q ~ 2nC..,..
LICmax
All
3.3.4
Q ~ 4nVa
LIW
Rheological
AnyQ
Q~l
I
Q=tan cp
Q~
Q =~(I C(2~)
2etV
w2
Possible experiments
Harmonic excitation on sample
cp
3.1
(Q = M,jM1)
c_..
=(1exp [2etA])
Lie_..
4nV
=
tiW
cp
(I)
3.4.1
3.5.3
2nV max
 tiW
Q~
3.4.1
Rheological
15.,
'"'
~ ~~
35.3
Q~ w,.,
Ll.,w
1t
Q~
15.,
Q~
2~ ..
All
3.5.3
All
3.5.3
All
3.5.3
141
V,. =
V2
v:(4 Vi 3Vi
Vi)
Vi
V~(3V~ 4V~)
v~
E
Vi
(3.168)
2
2
4 2
VK=V,.3Vs
Q,.=
Q5
"''
K
I+ Jill
v~
2
Vs
(3.169)
Finally, it can be shown that one of the following relations always occurs:
= Q,. = QE = Qs.
3. 7 CONCLUSIONS
In this Chapter we have considered the problem of wave propagation in viscoelastic
media mainly from the phenomenological standpoint.
More speciftcally, experiments (creep, relaxation) ftrst led us to the laws of linear
viscoelastic behavior defmed by the convolution product (3.9). In some cases, it was
possible to obtain a representation of these laws by the rheological models developed in
Section 3.4.1. In most cases, however, the creep and relaxation functions are only
implicitly known through the quality factor Q, and only over limited frequency bands.
Nevertheless, the physical origins of the validity of these different models are not generally
established in an indisputable manner. Note that the use of a linear \iscoelastic model
enabled us to defme the quality factor Q in the form MR/M 1, and to relate the different
ways to defme various quality factors which, a priori cannot be deduCed from each other
by the equations in Table 3.1. Hence, for the linear viscoelastic model. the quality factor
concept is quite independent of the type of experiment concerned, and is an intrinsic
parameter of the medium. For linear nonviscoelastic models, the defmitions of Table 3.1
normally allow a characterization of various damping effects rather than one damping
effect. Thus Biot's theory clearly leads to the notion of attenuation ex in propagation, and
hence to a quality factor (c.o/2cxV), and yet this quality factor is not equivalent to the one
that could be determined by an experiment with a resonant bar (White, 1983). From the
practical standpoint, the "quality factor" parameters obtained by experiment can
subsequently be compared with each other in the light of the assumption of linear
142
viscoelastic behavior. It is clear that this is merely a model that may not necessarily
represent reality. Laboratory experiments nevertheless show that, as a ftrst
approximation, this model is satisfactory and can serve to analyze field problems, for
example.
The many causes of dissipation, and their relative preponderance according to the
frequency range analyzed, normally preclude any attempts to make a too sophisticated
defmition of a complex modulus. and hence a factor Q (and even more the creep and
relaxation functions), by refming the models developed in this Chapter. The procedure
required can be identif1ed clearly. It proceeds from a dual standpoint. experimental and
theoretical. From the experimental standpoint, it consists of analyzing the variations of
the quality factor for each type of rock, which appears to be the most interesting quantity
to measure, apart from velocities, as a function ofvarious parameters (frequency, porosity,
water content, etc.), for which care has been taken, as much as possible, to isolate these
effects in an ad hoc experiment.
From the theoretical standpoint, it consists of a careful study to understand the major
physical effects responsible for the observed attenuation at the frequency studied. This
makes it possible to model the processes, or rather represent them by viscoelastic models
such as those developed in this Chapter. These models thus appear more as working tools
rather than as an end in themselves. Adapted to the rocks analyzed, they can therefore
provide guidance for a mathematical modeling of the processes involved, not only at the
level of the laboratory sample, but at the level of f1eld seismics. We shall discuss these
points in their various aspects in the subsequent Chapters.
Appendix 3.1
+JC
= _cc
m(t  r)e(r) dr
(3A.l)
(3A.2)
Since the complex modulus is the Fourier transform of min the sense of distributions:
+or:: dr
M(w) = MR(w) + i.\11(w) =
d exp ( iwt) dt
(3A.3)
0::
M1(w)
=
+[
f

+:x:
Xl
o::dr
d cos wt dt
0::
(3A.4)
3
143
since the discontinuity of the relaxation function rat t = 0 is a Dirac delta function r 0 c5(t)
for its derivative, considered in the sense of distributions. In (3A.4), unlike (3A.3), we deal
with integrals of ordinary functions. Similarly, one can introduce (see Section 3.3.2) a
function such that :
~>+ao
e(t) =
df
j(t  t)O'(t) dr
.. :o
f
f
+ao
+ iJ1(w)
simultaneously in the
df
d cos wt dt
t
ao
+:o
J 1(w) = 
(3A.5)
j=dt
(3A.6)
df
d sin wt dt
t
X)
,_
(3A.7)
In fact, we know (see, for example, Sections 3.2 and 3.4.1) that the instantaneous or
unrelaxed modulus r 0 = r(t + o+) and the delayed or relaxed modulus r x = r(t + oo)
correspond respectively to the moduli Mao (inf10ite angular frequency) and M 0 (zero
angular frequency) in the Fourier domain. By eliminating the relaxation and creep
functions between (3A.4) and (3A.6), we obtain (see, for example, Nowick and Berry, 1972)
the socalled KramersKronig relations:
1
2w
M aW
( ) = Mo+
2
M 1(w) =n:
la(w)
J 1(w)
n:
ao
1t
00
M 1() d

(Ma()  Mo)
1 +2 .
= v.YJao
1t 0
'w
= :_
i"' (
00
J()
Mao
2  ( l )
1 )
la()
(l)
2
OC
wl 
.
(l)
(3A.9)
 2d

(3A.8)
where the integrals are taken as principal values. Thus with Eq. (3A.8), one can show that,
if M 1 = 0, then Ma(w) = M 0 is a constant.

.....1
1.
<
<':1
;;,1~
1.
.").,~f~H
~..,.
~,J
.,;,
4
experimental techniques for
measuring velocties and attenuations
'
INTRODUCTION
, __
"
.....
'
The prnioul Chapter attempted to show that the concepts of velocity and attenuation
were complex, even at the lewl of their dcf'mitiou. We have stressod that eac;h of these
definitions stemmed from a different experimental technique, and that. mathematically,
the deftnitions could be coqsidered to be equivalent for low or medium attenuations. This
statement is true from the mathematical standpoint: in other words, for each experiment,
each measuriag metftOCI was idealized formodeliil;.ln fact. the many interference effects,
or, more simply. experimental dift'tculties encountered, mean that the measured quantity is
not exactly the one anticipated or that it contains a substantial error. For instance, the
l'DC81UleiDCIIIt of aueauatioa :M quilc d6cult. ovea ita the laboratory. It is nec:enary to
extract tho.._ we WMl ftoiD . aWitolt.,..:of illlelfenuas~ ~
multiple nleclioM. ........ etc.)wlaoletl'ccts MOIRORI or less foraeeable and imply
the aeed lor ~ This llmlals tlae impoetaace. of a souad knowledp of
expcriJnoaaalteeluaiquaforiiWUUriaavelocityandaueauaboaforaaoocJ undentancliDJ
oldie reliability ~ oftbe .... aad to he able to GOmpue various sots of uta
found in tlac literature.
Three maia caM&oria o(.meuuremata can. be dist~: .
(a) Measurements us~ travolioa waVes.
(b) Measurements usin& vibratiaa systems.
(c) Measumnents usia& stress/strain curves which are distinguished from the second
catqory, althoup it uses an cquivttent ~~tation system.
For each~ we shall examine tbteom:ctions to be applied to the raw data;
146
4.1 MEASUREMENTS
'USING WAVE PROPAGATION
4.1.1 Difficulties
Measuring methods using travdiag. waves are especialLy interesting because, by
defmition, the mechanisms involved are propagation processes.~imilar to those of seismic
exploration. Naturally, for laboratory measurements, the frequency range is totally
different (around I MHz) as compared with the frequencies used in the fteld (50 Hz in
seismics and 10kHz in logging) (see Ftg. 4.1). The wavelengths are hence quite different,
and the mechanisms responsible for the deformation of ultrasonic and seismic signals are
not necessarily the same. Furthermore, the velocity dispersion processes associated with
the presence of attenuations become significant. Exploration geophysicists are thoroughly
familiar with the problems encoun~.in tryW, to ~late a seismic section to a sonic
log (Goetz er al., 1979). The extrapolation of the results obtained in the laboratory to the
fteld is therefore a difficult problem.
e.mq.,
I
10'1
100
SEISMIC
~it 4.l
lchoiiiiUI.... , .....,..
EJqltoq1ioft
I
10
,'o;
ACOuSTIC
. ;I
tal ..
1o
l.illiloreiDry
I
101
~,
10"
ULTRASOtiiC
.FUQUCDCf.~ of ~.~ur.cn&L,
NeverthelesstJaemetllodsthat\Vemddcscrib'eareWOtrllall)ta,..blctof'llllet__..
aswellaslaboratorylifnals.lnthe'fieli.a.Gfeft'ectstlfstwebotltdle.,.....tioft
and shape of tksipal itself. For scillllic prGpaptkm, tile naaitt ditcuuciee .
from the
ignorance of the distance traveled by dlle wave. 11lil waw.ce.uinlfdtlftnot follow the
straipt ray path generally 8JIUM, 'but rather a eutVeCl path~ to''thc
prOifeSSive variation in the acoustic pMpertiesoftlte formationsaw:ouatered. Moreover,
even if straight ray paths are assumed, the depth of the different interfaeet is unknoWb. At
best, if the multiple refteiOM have been elinlllrated cort11atly. one may determine the
travel time to the different interfaces. The int~~l vel~y ~t~~n two i~terfaces is then
determined by the maximum likelihood enctgy metftod. Fin~:Y, iq ~g,J seismics, the
existence of a poorlyknown weatb~ :z:one (WZ), w~icb, .is iDJwnioaen~us and .
attenuating, further adds to the djfftCul~ in ~Cnninins the vel()Qty. In brief, it is
assumed that we can distinguish variatiOnS of 1'Yo to 2o/o on seismic velocities, but that the
absolute value of these velocities .is only known widaill 100.4. As lot acoustic loging, the
formations encountered by the propaptins wave are better known, but mechanisms such
as wave scattering at the fractures may give rise to errors in the velocity (e.s. cycle
skipping). In the case of very high attenuations, the signal received may be very weak and
the velocity measurement very disturbed. We shall be discussing a laboratory example
below.
.ra
...
"'
'
T
..__..
/
'~'
I
 }t"I
I
I

147
We have jUst descrit'Jed some of the dilfle'bltiet eac6Untered in the fteld in the
measurement of velocity; Hence itisdear that the~t ofattftuationwiHbe ~
motedift1cvltlto adlieft.lnfact, tile attenuation ofbtlerest to us is the tnrrlPISic attenuation
of the medium, namely that relafe(Hoflle interadion between the wave and the porous
medium and its saturating flui~ u opposed to the extrinsic attenuation. which depends
on the geometry of the beds and on the source (scattering. internal multiples. geometric
divergence, etc.). In the fteld, in fact,the simple propagation of the wave in the rock
formation is modified by,pttering. and by internal multiples that constitute energy losses
unrelated to the lois dUe 'to the iM1uticity c:Jf tfN,media tl"''fetsecl. It is~ difficult to
correct these drects (Schoenberger and Levin. 1974~ ~is why reliable attenuation
measurements in the freld are taken either in wellknown aDdllomoseneohs regions, using
welltoweU propap~a. for cupaple. or by .~JeCOI'diaas obtained ia.t.he wella and by
~rial siinaJa that have. travclo4 . . . .._t.patbs. A second major source of
dilf~eulty is tbe ~of~
ItisacocraUY NIUDlCd that the initial
wave.ftoJ&til~whereK.U.:r.it~~tnJir~ Tbismattcris welllaaown
to sipal pr~l .ptb~ w~ to ~ tlaeir nKX)rdiags for seomctric
diver~, apply a U.. Am!diooio r' (~here /l. f!l Oaad ~the t ~nPectcd
for a spboric:al wave. The ~ tbc qJIJDCrical value of the factor , remains
CJDpirical..AAotllef ~of problems io ~a. .ualio~ais4be biahnoise level in.
di..or
scisaait~ TM~of.iad~~oot~lyrclatcdtotbe
desired~ For~plc.iathe~,..U~ica,~wavcs(pstudoRayJeiab or
Stoneley) could constitute .. noise" if one were interested in the refracted S arrival. This
rapid description of the processes involved in the deformation of the signal points out the
extreme difr)tUky obtainina meaain,.ul resUlts in the raeld.
or

,_
beam "'tb,
leas....._
'._.../
th..,
,_
148
VELOClT~ AND~TIENUATIOl"S
depended on the inverse of the quali.Ut ~r ofthe ~rial used. and on the frequency
employed. A lars,c; part of~ diff:ul~ listed abQvct can be .solved experimentally.
Ne,ertheless, attenuation measuremc:a.ts by wav pr9DQ&tiOO remain a ~ult matter,
albeit easy to design and implemeat. The reliability of!~ methods and the acx:uracy of
the measurements of the quality factor are at bc;lt .10%.
~xpe~
tecltaiques
,Ai
Velocity m_easantaeats
eetuatidtl
.1~
~.
1
t"'
t
0 .........
. ."'
,. '" .
?'lf'
1
T. ..).
0.5
!
.......,.._.(MHZ)
Fig. 4.2 Signal in time (left) and in the frequency domain (right) used for the
model.
.,
i~.
i
J
'
;;,
''
"'
"../
..
~Mix.M_.,ItiYI~IitlMfli'WlMSAf.f*"'*tllliS
'
v
'
Vo(;;y
i' = tan 1
'
''
._.,
'"../
'
,_
"'"
'
(4.2)
7t
'
(4.1)
with
'~
'
149
The greatest dicrence in phase velocity for the two samples is therefore obtained at the
maximum sipikaftt bquency. Frequencies lbove t0 /2n propapte faster in tile more
attenuatina . mediUm (Q 10) than in the less tenuatina medium
(Q 100). The ()ppOJite occurs rot frequencies below m0 /2x. The lipal, which bu
traveled throUJh dMUDOCiiUDl orquality factor Q 10 hence anivesbefore the ODe that bu
traveled tbrouah the medium or quality factor Q ... 100. and will be wider. This is lhowu in
Fig. 4.3. To~~~~UU~Wdae~illpropapU. tiiDcbotwecn tbc twosipall.and hence
the dilenmce in propaptioo velocity, it is necessary to set a level bdCMV which it is
impossible to distinpish the signal from the noise. H this level is set at 1/o, the relative
differeDce ill velocitic$ is 4.2%. whereas if the level is set at 4.%. tbis difference is .educed to
1.7%. l'bis~ is obsetft'Me on actual slPIJs,lll<l it iS verj dftkult tomeasUR
the velodty accurately on a sipil that is
ttiptly noisy(~. 4.5).1t....., also be
observed that the first
'ofeaCil tlte two sfaaals do not correspotr<! 'to the same
average frtqycmcy. After propaaa~~n, in,lact, .~ liaftali display a diffemrt spectrum
amvaiS
(FiJ. 4.4).
or
even
~~~~~~~~_.~~
Ju
oI
1.1 h2>r
'
''
G.I
~'
'~
1.'
0
'
"'
tO .
..
15
20
TiiM (Ia)
'
life. 43
'
'
150
0.5


Initial signll
"
0100
(l_~"
~,
'
0.6
Ffc. itA
F~CMtfal
material.
"
quality factor has varied (for example, by changins the saturatiot\). For average
attenuations (Q ~ 10 to 20~ an .. error" of the foregoing type of about l% can be t!xpected
due to the technique employed.
Nevertheless, the determination of propaption time remains the. CISSential problem.
Figure 4.5 shows an exnmee~ple. TJte actual signal emitted has propagated through
II
"
o.s
0
.,
 
I
I
I
.....
O.S ..
1
51'S
_,
Time ~Psi
Fil 4.5
"
.,
"
'_,
,
~~~_J
'
..
'~
"'
~~~....~~~
1$1
Yet 1llCUIJ'femcftts ttrat are~ more pllysic:allynteanla&fUI (phase \'elocity) and more
accUrate can be perfOrmed by develepins a spedftcsy*'in
\'dt)'cities (see, for example,
for
Trueftdal.,I969);Wewillbritflyd~prepolidbyRoaezaadBader(t984)
cere..........
~
an
~
Acot.dc
'
lftllliftlltlniiA
...
ChlnMIA
''
,._
cl'nlctor
........
'
, .. ,,
'._/
"
'
'
hJuluJ metlunJs
In pulseecho methods, the sipal emittec;l by a''pie:~XN~Iectrieayltal bonded to the
1
sample underaocs muffipte refleCtiotls at. t~ ~
~plane
the
attenuation is determined from the ~ 1Un&ifkude o( two sutcessive multiple
retlec:tions :
.. .
L
ittt41'face.
'
..l..tn(~)
.
2L
r
''
\_
~~
;,
'
wa
(4.3)
__________
'
lS2
where
L = sample length,
A 1 = spectral amplitude of a multiple reflection,
A 2 = spectral amplitUde of the next trmltiple refleCtiOn.
,. '
,
Note that, as we showed in Section 3.3.3.2, thisequan~~ valid only for tl:te QaSC of an
atteo.uation that isJtQ~ t091alp"'and ~a m~odlr.o~tiC siB~.~ PlCthod 8$SWDCS
negligible losses. at the, d~ intc!f{ac;cs. e~i~y the. tr~/bOod/sample
interfac:es. ~ver, iUS4UI.QOS~ ~t l<.ls~ a conditio~t r_.y rcalizcd for
e~riJneats without any ~~ ~ FF1o 4:7 S:ehematically s~ws the
experimcatal setup.
~
,
SLm:::I=~~I
.>
f.
l
~
.'
l
J
'
'
1i. .
'tted
.. by theFinally
transducer.
propaga
.. tioo dit~'nam
. ely
thatthickness
thew.aveol the
th'
sample.
one ID\IIIt
e ~that:tbe
rcftec:ti.S
on the edges
of
the sample res.W..,~.&MCMCU.Vff\;'1 it
. ,:" ftoalbe.toua:e arri",arv.*
direct signal, 01' have negligible energy'm Com
it. Tliis problem is in fact fairly
difticult to solve, and involves the theory of bounaecl ~ The interested reader can
refer _to HostCD and ~mP,fJ (l~f4~ . ; , . ~v. ,.d .
. . ;r ,1.. ,
.
W10kler and Plona (1982) used a Jllodirtcation of'dlis technique; Tbaii' ~pd consisted
in comparing the reflections obtained at the two interfaces formed by a fnt bUffer and the
top of the sample, and a second buffer and the bottom ofthe sample (Fig. 4.8~ The overall
system could then be placed in a hippressure ce1f. for dffs setup, attenuation is Jiwn
by.:
enu.
I.
.
F
tt~.Yt J4(f) '
2' .
oc = 2L ln IR 12 (w)l :A'(ro) tt  R, 1{~)lt
(4.4)
where
L
== Jength of ~e,~
.. ,
...
A(w).. A'(co) oo;,~~t~ of tpe tw~ ~1ons tQ be a>m~d.
~1 2 (w)
= retlcct4oa ~t 1'1 ~rftce 1/2.
R23 (w)
== reflection codttcicnt at interface 2/3.
It should be noted in Eq. (4.4) tha~ tbC ~tion coefficients depend on freq~y. This
is due to the anelastic character of' tlie materials concerned (see Section 6.2). Various
..
,
'\
.......
[. :
.:
ns
~1~
'9L61 "sRWpwdwd .S) ~ ~ liDW ~,...'*!P 3!11~ (:) pue q ._6.t "I!.:J)
as1l:) J(W UJ laAtaJ pn JOU!1D511~ ,qtuilii~ . ....., lUOJP.P OIAl lOJ J)Op.JOOQJ
SfHI!I oql lupedQIO:) ~rp UOf,lRQll1t amttOQl. Ol a{qiJIOd l! Ia~ INJ. .lpOJCl
Pm"'.
sr....
ms:.rcfiiawforttlg.~~~A***.tlJO'tw
aqiao ,.nq~ub,sdlaoii.Mt1'.fq ~~IJ,..._,,.....WMM.f~ fJUO*~
(Mip,q.,,...,., ~),.,.., ...,.,....,.l 'q
.
uOflvnuaue
~ :M{l JO tuauwnsam JO .(:)e.Jn:X)y
~a~dum__.,..., .........._,UWJ~'fqfnod aa suo~~ saovpaJUJ
JU~:,)JP.patp Jlt su~oo lu!Jdno:) puw iUJl:,)ll1tOS ft1pi\I~OO~ lsnm suo~
~)l:lel'
+k...tt
I
I
~.1~.....
I
I
:
l ..._ ,
..~~~~~~~~
.... AIICidJov
~~~~====r
154
Tarif, 1986). In fact. for all transmission methods, one of the most reliable techniques for
obtaining the atten~tion from the recorded signals consists in comparing the spectral
~lUnplitudes at dift'~ren.t frequencies. Because attenuation implie5 a preferential loss of the
h(gft" f~quencies. a change in the total spectrum will therefo~ occur. The spectral
amplitude of a wave can be written (Ward and Toksoi, 19711:
(4.5)
.,
where
G
x0
= distance traveled,
A,(f)
= attenuation coeft'tciettt.
= receiYer response.
The ratio of spec:;tral amptit~<tes for two different distances is therefore written:
A 1(f, Xt)
In
It is also
A2
(f
'x2
) = rx(f)[x 2
x 1]
G1
(4.6)
+ ln G
;
,.
1tf'
rx(f) = Q(f) V
...
(4.7)
of
For a given source, the width of tM! 'frequency speCtn0n the transmitted signal is
rela~ivelytitnited~ so1bt~ft em lSt ~!Mto be iftd:epend'eM el'fteqBeftCY. WC shall
pro\ide an expet'bnetrtal jdifie:atift Ofttfisiamtmpt'ioe itt Chaplet S; 'Bquation (4.6) is
theref'ote' writtea:'
', " '
.... +U
x,> (x
A2(f, :cJ), ,Qf
;1C
.,,
The term
In
GV~
is
1 .... :
~~v + 118 ~
G:
'
(4.8)
:r.
. ,
'
.4:2(/....~:2)
The same method. stiahtly modified, was applied successfully by Tok50z et al. (1979),
(Fig. 4.10). They comp8ted the spectra obtained for a reference sample and the studied
sample, both samples being of the same length and geometry.
These spectral comparison ~niqueJ are routinel~ employed.in, the laboratory and in
the fteld. They require a signal as uncontaminated as possible by otkr arrivals. Here also,
if the studied material is highly attenuating, the signal recorded after propagation widens,
the frequency content decreases, and the attenuation measurement becomes less accurate.
In Fig. 4.11, the signal width is 3 J.lS for a Q of 200 and 9 J.lS for a Q of 3.5 after propagation
through a Co~t QIJ}e<iilJPL ~t4e si&JuU~~ ~oo,wide. .reRcc:tion~ oa the edges of
the sample.and multiple reflectioas<COntaminatc the tail.ofthesipal reccivf. Mo~over,
the signal amplitude becomes very low at hith attenuation, and backgroU1ld noise then
.,
/''\
....,
.
:;;,~
'.../,
~'t'dltill.iSiJ1IIMI~~
!
c
''
.I
i
'
.5
'
''
.,__
~
lJ
1St'
sw
1.0t II
"
::
o.n: v\
.5
I I 'I
"
I
I
I
I
ot
I
I
...
sw
1.0
0.5
1.5
,_.Mf!CY CMHzl
Fr~CMHtl
'
'
1.0
""'
'
'
''~
___,
'''
betomes annoyina. For sliJhdy attcnuatina materials, the spectral ratio method is
inaccurate, since the llope of the rclfC$Sion JUte if _toot~.
the main diftic:ulties or
these measurements lD the laboratory aacltb the faelchrites &OIIil eouplina problems. In
the field. another difficulty may arise ftOaa CIODtamiaatioD by iaterferina tipals in
borehola:,H...ver,the major ~ty,~_ .,_$PDCIJalJ&tio tectmique..arisea
with pometMdiYfflllalll
.,~J\onplanar
wave fronts. Corrections arc therefore Dledecl for ablolutc 0 measun:meots. These
corrections are lbeoretically siJDple, bat involw: tedious c:aJculationa. Papadakis (1976)
computed these types of correction for bomopoeousliquid media and his mults do
not seem to tit the data for solid materials (Tarif. 1986). Hence. the abtolute accurac:y of Q
measurements Jiven in Table 4.1 must' iaterpreted cautiously, especiaUy for hip Q
values.
It is also important~ mention d)e tilJC
~Uf: bued on an empirical equation of
Gladwin and Stacey (19741:
o.e.or
pr..._ ..........................
'
'
 f 
'
~
tnne
to +
r:
c {r l
d~Jl41K . . . . on
wave rl5c
'(5ee FiJ. 4.12),
travel time,
t 0 , C two constafttl de.,..._t ea tbo ...._
T
'
'
.
'
ck 

frequency and
.(4.9)
156
02IDO
~
fi
i I I I\
I
<
~.5b
_,I
...
I
5
I
10
'
I
15
I
20
Tlmo Clal
OU
I Or__}
OJ
.
.:.u
~i'
!,,1
e',~i:.,"f'c~
I"
''
Tlm!l""'
:.
~.
in
of
dift'emlt attenuation and' for. tlle>illiM'flli&ilt siltill ~ Q IIIIOdllt;
m a
teria
ls.
""
?
l'uu4.t
0RDEil OF MAG~1Tt:'DE OF ACCURACY OS THE MEASUllEMENT OF Q BY SPECTilAL RATIOS
....
.fQ.'Q (%)
Remark
>
}()00.0
SOOAI
so
10 to 20%
Preferential
operf.tint
range
100
;;; SO%
>SO%
very inaccurate
~
..
""
'"
',~~~
.,
"~
;4
:II!CDIN,...,,_..
.....,'""!!I~llttp_.~~~
IS?
''
"'
I
Tm.
~
~
Kjartansson (1979), showed that a similar theoretical equation could be derived for the
Constant (2 model (i.e: a quality 'factor independont off~) and for a Dirac pulse,
namely:
T'
Q =C(4.10)
T
'...."
where
T' = pseudoperiod of the wave,
C ;:; constant (for a Jivcn source).
As a aeneral nlle for BllJ, source, Eq. (4.9) remains empirical. In general, the timeintegrated form of the cquatieo is used :
.
T
,T ""' To + C Q
(4.11)
''

Blair and Spathis (1982). showed thaf...guantity To is a flUlCtiOft of the source, but
cannot be relate4 simply to its rise time,t nil: ~oconstant C is a sliptly variable
function of Q (f~ Q > 20) and alsO depends on,_. source (Blair and Spatbis, 1982).
Stewart, 1984, theoretically calculated Eq. (4.11) for a llarae number of artificial sources
(window, Dirac, and intermediate sources). and showed that. the constant C could vary
from 2 for a Heaviside funcmon to 0.~ for a Dirac delta rui.ction.
Hence, assuming a relationship ofthc.type~.11) between rise time and quality factor, an
attenuation measurement c:an be obtained from the rise time, if the values of the
constantl r 0 and Care lalowllbyatlpetimatoaa rd'erelltl sample. Uafortunatcly, the
relationship betWeen me time and quality Mfer it not as simple as Eq. (4.11) implies.
Figures 4.13 and 4.14 show a synthetic example (Tarif and Bourbie, 1986). The
relationship between r and Q is clearly a onetoone correspondc~ and approximately
ill die slope C aM ill the ordinate intetolpl (t 0 ) with
linear, but a chaaae
dccrcasit'lg Q :
T
Q < IS t ~ o.G7l + 8.295 Q
oecun
Q > ~s r
"..
=o.tS6 + oJs7 QT
158
f
=i 0.5
.1
c)l
'rd
.,
10
F~IMHzl
TimtU&sl
Fi& .C.U A theomical reference .,aiJOill used in FiJ. 4.14. The central
frequency is 1.35 MHz. Time domain signal (left I. Frequency domain (right).
""'
11.8
~
1J1.2
= 0.114 +0.311 T
a:
, ,.o~+o:~1e 0
"'
..
0
:r
3
"
~
;s
Fit 41.C Rise time t~t as a f..... of T/IJ. The diffenma rise times
computed using the Constant Q~ aD4 the signal of fig. 4.13.
In practice; this makes the applieatioa of th4: method di~uk. It becomes necessary to
know the entire cur1e t = t(Q) to be really able to obtain an absolute value oti Q in all
cases. Naturally it is always possible to compare the quality factor Q for two
measurements : the greater the rise time, the greater the attenuation.
Tarifand Bourbie(l986) point out a possible solution to this problem. They show that
the curvet= t(Q) can be simulated point by point using a Constant Q model. and that
~
"'
~~
.,
"' '
:;rr
_D ci_\..~......:v....,
...___~
I
'../
'../
'.....
'.__/
,_/
''
''
'~
,__
~'
159
this simulati9n is el~y comparable to ':the true curve, the essential point bcins tha't the
initial souni in the simUlation m~t bC as close as possible to the soul'<lC used in the
experiment. In the field. a Jood kno.1edF of the IOUI'<lC is often difticult to obtain.
Nevertheless, in the case ofacoustiC 10J8ihg tOots with several transmitters and receivefs: it
is always possible to usc, for example, t~ arriY~al corresponding to the shortest offset as a
soul'<lC sipal. In this case, the attenuati<ms observed are related the attenuation the
ref'erenc:c olfset.
,
It is also important to Stipulate that t~ numerical measurement of ri5e time depends
coasiderably on the sipal/noise ratio. Hen<:e it is ,esSelltial to smooth the, first quarter
period uaed to measure rise time. It appatrs that smoothing by a fd'th
polynomial is
adequate (Tarif and Bourbie, 1986). Figure 4.15 compares the rise time and spectral ratio
methods for laboratory samples of Fontainebleau sandstone.
to
or
desree
_/

1.8
1.4
'.._/
~~
11.2
.!
a:
''
.8
~
.8
'
...
'
'
""'
..
'~
Fie 415
'~
'
Trwet*/Q . .
''
It is oblervable that both ;mtt~ are more or less .valent. tn fact, the abscissa
(value of Q) of the pobtJ in
4.t'$1S o~taineC;l ~y lilc;aiuriDJ tbupec:tral ratio, whereas
the ordinate (t) is aleasured on the reCorded sipaJ. A onet~ ~pondcnce is
obtained between t aDd T /Q which can be approximated by the straiaht line:
r...
t
0.451
+ 0.208 Q
""
Note that for high values of Q (Q > SO) both methods are equally inaccurate. This is
because, at a Jive:n sampliaa rate, the rise time is too coanely sampled to measure slight
attenuation. Similarly, the slope of the spectral ratio is very low, and it is therefore diflicult
to make an accurate measurement, as we have already noted.
For values of Q < SO. the accuraey of both measurements appears to be more or less
identical. However for large attenuations, the rise time method, which utilizes only the ftrst
''
''
~'
''
'
,_
160
quarter period, is much less subject to the pro~ of jnterfering signals that may influence
the spectral ratio method.. I~ must be. kept iq ..Und that a quarter period may not be
representative of, the frequency content of si,aluUs several periods in leilgth. Hence, the rise
time analysis before and after propaption ~)' not accurately measure the signal as a
whole. One physically unrealistic example is :sh'en in Fia. 4.16, in which the rise time
decreases after propaption throuah an ~tte~uating m~um. As a rule; however, the
situation is much more favorable. Let us recall that, as for the spectral ratio technique,
aeometric diffraction (irregular wave fronts ~ue tp the fQ1ite size of transducers and
samples) remains a concemfor rise time measurements (Tarit 1986). Finally, in the fi~ld, it
appears that the application of the rise tune ptcthOd. yields better results than spectral
ratios (Arditty et al., 198.2).
,

'
,, .cJH l
..
j:
A 1\
vo
>:,
"
''',.i_{+...
,,,.
,_
"
at.atiaa<JDOCtium.
The frequency range for the application of these techniques(wave propaption) depends
. on the type of cxpelinlent ~oncemed In the 1d, the freqUFncies used are around a few
kHz for well seism.ks. and a f'eW dozeJ'l.lt~ for cpnvepJioliil seismia,. In the laboratory, the
sources are generally piezoelectric trU5d~ aod their trequ~llCY content is about
500 i:Hz to S MHz. . .
.
.
.
"
. ......_,
._
""'\
'
...;p
..
~~
'J
'.._/
ft!alf~~
l61
'"
4.2.1
~
''
'
Diffacaldes
As for propaption methods, we shaH fint dalya the dift'tculties of application of these
measurements from the aeneral standpoint. The main handicap of these methods results
from the fact that, by their very clefmition. they involve standing waves. whereas the only
waves anaJtaed in the ftetd .......... aws. It may prove dift'teuk te apply the results
obtained for standing waves to traveling waves. espcfcially for attenuation measurements.
Nevmhllea,tlte J*Yious.a.pter lhowedaat it asf!OIIible torelaw
two. t)!pCS of
meatOfelllent eM a
if &be attenua&ioll was aot too
great.
In practice, many ..iftt~M'fem~Ge" ll&tltl illaybee.,citidby ,_...... vet. Forexample.
in a poNMtatwated
..._....._. Wbta1i1ataayaiw rile tor..a,.W~DCDtsofthe
pen~ fluid ilt reletion to dae skeletal lluae or liot typo. aovemeats (W!Ute, 1983) w:~
influence the intrinsiC' at11eoalioa.Htt nt(IIIM Section4.2.3.2). However, it is
customary to operate at frequencia of about 1 to 10 kHz, which happen to be near the
frequency of acoustic louinJ. It is .V.~ to operate at much lower frequencies near
SO liz which will be of interest in . . . . stta4ies.
t._
bidioul ...,_,__.rod

"'
'
"~'....
.i"'
4.2.2,. ~ ....~..
Two methods of measurement are discuAed, one \ISing forced vibl'atiou and the other
Ulia1 free vibrations. For free oscillationl, the sample il vibrated at one of its NSOnant
frequencies for a short period of time. ~s the ~t of the decay in
displacement amplitHe for,~succeuin )I!ICUdoperioda, as ~ showed in Chapter 3
(Fig. 3.18), aives the value of attenuation u a function of the logarithmic decrement or the
quality futor Q:
,}c
.. ,
1C .
A2
'IC
~:In;;
",
where A 1 and A 2 are the signal amplitudes for two consecutive oscillations. Assuming that
the displacement amplitude decay isexp (Ill), which is reasonable for attenuations that
are not larp (see Section 3.$.3), one call also write:
Q::,: :
'....
...__,.
'
(4.12)
(4.13)
162
T~tQUES
,;.,
''
2L/
Y=Af....;.;......
.
n
.
(4.14)
. (.
~)
 IP\
In this equation,
J.,.
'
<
Y~smod'ulus,ptheshearlbOd..,,.aa,lhttbe~Theterm~exteaeional
mode" means that the rod is subjected to a longitudinal extension/compression force. The
term .,.shear JBOde" mea~~~ that the roclit subjec&ed te a shear Ioree.
For the ftfturahnode(the 1'0d issetJ.jeded m lMDdi.q.foroe). the ~vo no
lORBer equidilcMt.l'hctnPII8t. . :wlbcity is tllM of..lbe extouional w~ aJ14l,.&he
frequeneyfvelecity relationship is .Wen t., SdniiDer al. (1~.7~: : .
. ,. , _; ~<.
~
Y
27t1Jf
1111 .......;2'
J;,
'<,
~
::.
(4.15)
where
= resonance frequency,
,. ..,.,.
To obtain the attenuation value with forced oscillations, whatever the mode anafyzed,
the frequency spectrum is scanned in or4tr to d~be the resonance peak entirely (see
Fig. 3.21), and the value of Q is thea given by one of the equations of Section 3.5, for
example; .
(t)
Q=~
(4.16)
where co is the resonance angular frequency and Aw the width of the resonance peak of the
displacement at 1/.j2 times the maximum height of this peak.
....
..._......_
....
'
~~T ..
''
"..."
~frbjl~~,~~
lli3
'"../
'
4.2.3.1
Pendulums
The farst category has been used for many years tor rocks (e.g. Pesclnick and
Outerbridge. 1961 ). The experiment consists or subjleting a vertically suspended rock bar
to a harmonic excitation, with a hip ..,... ofillatia mass, possibly attached to the
lower end to increase the resonance period of the system (the sample{mertiamass
combination) (tee FiJ. 4.17). ~To avoid plal'inB tile 8l1llple uacler tellsion, some
experimenters balance the sample(mcrtiamass ~bination by a co1111ler'WeiJht acting
through a pulley by \\'bich alterations of the vibration of the system are avoided. Two
vibration modes are possible, the torsional mode and tbe bcndina mode. In the torsional
mode, tbe fundamental resonance frequency oftbe ovenllsystcm is in~ly proportional
to the square root of the system's moment of inertia:
1ft
"../
"'
where I is tbe moment of polar inertia, and~ is a torsioa constant. The moment of inertia
and torsion constant are related to tbe cbaracteristicdimcuioas oftbe sample (length and
diameter). The veloclty is measured by means of the fi&i.4itY modulus which, for a
cylindrical rod clamped atone end and free at the otbcr one ~b Land diameter d, is:
'~
3.
'
The
Sl21L 2
,~
"'
(4.17)
p=
'~
(4.18)
( < 10 2 Hz), and is rlbt normally used for frequllltildl. . lhaft tO Hz. Theexprasion
"''
system is aaueb more corpplicatcd and theafeN will 1lOt t.e tiveft. The mtensted reader
can refer to the work'ofSehreibcr et al. (1973~
In cOildusion, the use of pendulums is relatively cas)', and ODe oftJae oftlJ dift'aculties
consists ofminimilina all tile encrJY losses other tbaa._.OCI.WIIiiaam the rock. It is also
possible to use small salftples and to make meuurements at ~ low frequencies.
However, the current trend leans more to the use of the resonant bar technique, which we
shall examine in detail below.
''
'._,
__
...''
'~
""
4.2.3.2
Resonant bar
As we have just emphasized, thiS it aarretldy tbi Molt' widely used experimental setup
today. The experiment consists in subjectiq a rock bar,ltept horizontal either by supports
or by suspensions (Fig. 4.18), to a harmonic excitation.
164
TECH:.<IQl:ES
fO~. r,I~Sl:RING
'
"
Rkiii!IPfe
Lgemoment
of inertia
. ?J
Simplified
dilaru1
(by
sz:ti
pc~n
La..nns
from
Sf:lsmit
waves: r(lt/imiM,
..
0
I
I
..
f
.
~/~
I
I
I
fi
2~. 4,
7
R.
:Rockllllllllt
A W1 W2 : We9!tund Inertia erm
c
::Air coli
' J
:: l'ivoc tnd IIIPIIbire
ROCI<Mftlllle
~c.n. ...............
.
SWe~encll*l......
Soriile clamp
.(b)
: Light source
:!Minor
:Scale
(c)
Fia 4.17
1961 AGU).
T~on ~ndulwns.
~
'
',~
...

(.'
. .
.'
..............
piii.(IJu..........., It! JMIW .met UOPwtPP n R
OSIIIIW:) ~uq ~dW!S. 'sUO!...WUlJ IAOf.puw 1110!11lf1PIO INJ JO ;no ttp 10.:1
i6J't '1!.:1 all) IUOpWffFISO poo.IOJ 'PfA\ J0 (~"J ...S ~ J Act J*!W!I I! fwul!s
a~pu n) SUO!PJIIPSO aq 11)J4l ~
lflt{f110 u ,a o.ocJc1o a.p
Ol ~Uoq )(1!1' p:llS lfiWS V .<q p;ortpu! PJaiJ aJfllupft~ Aq 11J S! IUOUD08fdi!Q
"Jltq ~JJO pua pol~X~;~l OJ popuoq I! ~dlf1RUS.i 's!1P op 0~ i6L6l 'laJlf'I'!A\) p;ISft
'*" aq
*' _,
AI~
,JO sprpw JOJ ~'lSD ~(U.Q AIJBJaUaJ ~ SlaOJn,ps ~ JAOf Na~&~Jnq ~ 3fl8l'OJJP
JO (S~6J 'lUVH,O ~~Ul '.\quqn0J. ~~l.a!'i .(q palp~ aq 8'1:) IUOfl11.J'l!A ~'1.1
Q
w:;;..===~;~~=_7,1
Ii
1~

166
J=2L
(4.19)
where
V = wave phase \'elocity.
= bar length.
..,
For a given sample, it is possible to alter the resonance frequen.:y by changing the length
ofthe bar. As we have s,bown. three~ ~n be excited: the lolljitudinal mode (the rod is
subjected to a t.ensioa}c:olnprcssion ~~.~ torsio~;tatmoc,te ud the bendina mode. The
loagitudinaland headina modes cmable the tnC!MUrement of Y ouaa's modultll E thrOUJh
velocity"=
mode enables the measuremat of the shear modulus (p) lhroup velocity Vs, and quality
factor Qs. The values v,. and Q,. are calculated from the measured vatue1 using the
equations in SectiQIJ 3.6. A. aumbor 9( "'""'ectiOJIJ must be applied to the rcsoaaace
frequency values to obtain absolute volecity ~t$. By usia& the uniclimcasional
wave equation, we have ignored the inertial effects in transverse directions, and we must
correct for lateral extension. Strictly speaking, it is necessary to analyze the bar in three
dimensions. These calculations show tht a ratio of wavelength to bar diameter
determines the mapitude of the eo~TCCtion to be made to a.efrequency and modulus
values. Equations and charts oftbese corrections can be foun4 Uitpinner and Tefft ( 1961)
and in Schreiber er ol. ( 1973). A .. slenderness" ratio of 10 (length diameter) issuflkient for
these corrections to be negUgible for harmonicS or a ..atively to~. order. The samples can
also be jacketed for tests under ,pressuwe aMt "M a $"'en saturatiod, a jacketing which
requires further e>.~ti~~ (Ga~r: ~! oiJ 964 and Winkkr. 1979). In the laboratory, it
is difl'acult to analyze samples ~ tbiJJJ nt .lo~ and consequently to 10 down to
frequencies lower than SOO Hz. Trttmq~JJ97'1) l'CCOIIUnended the use of the addition of
end masses &o efl'cdively lower tbe frequency by chaftliQg the momeet of iaedia and only
slightly alter the fiaidity of the S)'Jtem. This apin requires specihc corrcc:tioas (Birch and
Bancroft, 1938). To study variation :::=nifal PfOperties as a function ofexcitation
frequency, it is necessary to analya b .
. of a hilh order. However, these harmonics
interfere with each other and tbe inftuence o( one harinonic on its neighbors can be
observed to increase as its order rises and (2 decreascis. He~. the resonance peak, which
was previously symmetrical, becomes asymnietrlcal (FiJ, 4.2C)t.
It may be observed that the effect is m~able (as)'Dlltl~ri4:&1 peak) iftbc quality factor
is less than or equal to 10.
Other corrections must be mde when working with rock samples To begin with,
differential movements may exist between the;fluid and solid in a saturated sample (see
Biot's theory, Chapter 2). Ia a resonan,t bar, f&teral exteasion processes are capable of
generating these movements (W..ite, lft3). f.ig.are 4.21 illustrates a test to identify this
phenomenon. The attenuation and veloctlyirl a homogeneous bar of Vosges sandstone of
porosity 22% and permeability close to 100 mD were measured accurately as a function of
saturation (solid curve). This bar was then cut lonjatUdinally into four plates. These plates
were then bonded together and a very thin aluminum foil inserted between them to
'
'
.~
~.
_,
..,
'"''
~
OOl ,
...
.....
01.
. ..
t"L
t..............,...
I'L
................
00&
01
01.
"'
l
I
01
OS
0
OOL OOO &
OSL
~
JO
.n
~lllml JMIOI*
P:~::r:~:..,.....r~....,..~~...,....,.;.::;:..,.
L91
168
guarantee total impermeability from one plate to another. The attenuation and velocity
were then measured on this foliated bat (dotted curve). The lensth and diameter of both
bars (homogeneous and foliated) were the same. It may he observed that the attenuation at
very high saturations(> 85%) has~ by 35/o, whereas for saturations less than
80%, the decrease is only 17%. Certain problems were added to the measurement, such as
rigidiftcation (and hence an increase in velocity) of the bar due to~the introduction of the
. aluminum foil Nevertheless, this result appears to ascribe some importance to the Biot
process in this type of experiment, with high water saturation (i.e. high relative
permeability).
One must also note that a rock is not a truly homopneous ()bject, and the velocity and
attenuation measurCd using the ~~91= peak may not necesSarily be indicative of the
average velocity and attenuation Of tllC'sample.
Figure 4.22 shows the manrement taba 011 sample oonsistiq of a piece of
aluminum and a piece of plexipas oftbetame''fenath bonded tOfetber. The velocity and
attenuation measured on the ftrst harmonic are very close to the velocity and attenuation
of plexiglas alone.
It is therefore essential to have samplefas homogeneous as possible, a criterion of
homogeneity being tlae regularity of the frequency distance bet~een resonance peaks.
(
3045
I
10.5
~
12040
;I
I Jl
o~.L
...,
3GIIIt
I
I ~
I!
c.:.
1020
 .. ':A
, _ _ (Hal
,.., ,..,
181100
Fig. 4.ll Experimental recording of resonance peaks vs. frequency for a twoelement bar (aluminumfplexipas).
Another problem related to measurements on rock samples isthenonlinearity of the Qstrain relationship. If ~ deformation caused by excitation is excessive, the Qstrain
relationship becomes nonliflear and ~g: iatriuically different from fteld studies far
from the source (see next_ Chapter)..Fisure 4.~3 sh()WS one example of the change in a
resonance peak at high amplitude of deformation. 'Qais ch8Jlle shows the dependence of
velocity and quality factor on t)ac."tr,ain &JQPlitude (Fig. 4.24).
The resonance bar method, as well as the pendulum method (see paragr. 4.2.3.1~ is
reliable and matively easy to it'rlJ'le.t. Aceuraoy oliM meaatare111ientd ~ iS between 5
and 10% for Q leSs tllan 1~. P'orlmver uenuations(fl > tOO;forft.amPle), the accuracy
declines. In the extreme case, for metal~ (or Which Q is nearly infinite ( > 10,000), the
......,
.........
D .;.,o
Z'
: lUOJP3D 1!~ S!'P UJ top!OOJM ~~'(ON& ~(I'A A1pop\ MpJO hwlft038 ~tt.L
ptnoqs lDW!JadX:J
(6L61
{ZHt kluenbai:J
...,
i.
'
'"""
'"""'
'
.
..
'"""
"
,....,
~'""'
170
TECHNIQUES
FO~
""'
Q == L1W
"'
,
~.
~
(4.20)
where V.., is the average energy stored during a loading cycle and L1 W is the energy
dissipated per loading cycle.
Spem:er ( 1981) (Fig. 4.25) directly measured the phase difference between stress and
strain at even higher frequencies and lower strains~ For the phase difference measurement,
the quality"fact()r is given by:
I
QtanqJ
"'
',
"'
.......,
(4.21)
The velocity is obtained by measurilll the elastif; modulus relating stress and strain. The
ratio between stress all4l stnllti lives tlie uttplitude of Young's modulus (dilatation waves)
V=!J
with
(4.22)
"'
I ,,
1,
21EI 2
""'
V.==
,
~[lEI+
a]
(4.23)
'
_!
'
..
~,,
,
"""""''"'
.,
'',_~
171
"
.,
SECTION THROUGH
THE LABORATORY APPARATUS
A.ftoclc$1111111e
B.,__......._,
,_~
C. m.lace:ment ltlnlduclr
D. Elaltromtldl.... Jbaker
E. Shaker uble
F. Tllble extender
G. Tlble .nsfon
H. S1llel billet
.
I. 8aetam _ . .
J.
T.. tndplate .
K. Cleinping ri. .
L. Filllurefortlla~
'~
........_..tubbar,...
M. Flelcllle
'
~....,_,
\..../
'..._/
'~
~
'
4.4' CONCLUSIONS
'.../
"'
~
'
"~
____.
The many ttclmiques for measuring attenuatioa are dift'acult to ~pltmcnt, both in the
fteld and jn tile laboratory, and the accuracy or..ul11ment is atncrallY not very high.
Moreover, Che freqt;ICilcy range uied in these methods varies, as well as the type of wave
involved (ltalldina or travelins waves). Velocities, however, can be measured quite
accurately (a f%1 Neyerthelcss,.tlteJypc of V41locity IMUure4 (phase velocity. group
velocity) .aries from one technique to another, and the analysis of velocity dispersion is
only feasible for atandinawave experiments in which the phase velocity is measured
directly. For propaption experimejts, any accurate mcasvmnent of velocity require$ its
own experimentat setlp, since systelnS for the sim\lltaneous measurement of velocity and
attenuation arc not suffiCiently acanate for both parameters. The. main results are.
summariied in Table 4.2.
"
"
'
~
...._)
r
TABLE
4.2
Field of application.
Type or method
Method
r.eid
Laboratory
Standinj wavel
. Vibration
..
Ease or
implementution
Pendulum
LF, a rew Hz
No
esonant bar
a''tHz 10kHz
..
No
DkHz to S MHz
No('l)
~::.
..
Puhc...M:1.0
Fairly easy
thue.wcity
Fairly easy
Pbue~y
Easy
~~
...
...,,<
...
~
,,,
&rOUP
..,.,
Trasll!li111illut:
S)(l kHz to
5 MHz SeismM:at
"
'
..
tT
.. dift'elilnoe
Di~
cycle
A rew Hz to a few No
dozen Hz
l"luhc:
) ' )
)
mumncnt Up to 400Hz
ofphuc

OlciJIionl
I forCed . ..
free
"'
prttpqa
No
'
..
time
.phue
.poup:'
>".J
.:~11oft
Stl'fl!l/ftrain
Oscillations
foR:ed
free
lion
....
"Pr~tien
Measuring
tcchftiquc
Measured
velocity
propaga
'
Dift'R:Uk
 phase velocity
Di5sipated 'energy
Difftcult
 phase velocity
Phase difference
t1 I:
)'
i
J
 
(continued)
Reliability
Stras/strain
Plwe
difl'erence
Suwr.tARY
Reliability
and acx:uracy
oaQ
and accuraq
Method
oilY
Corrections
Remarks
Yes
0.5% ifQ > 20
I %ifQ<20
Yes
Yes
0.5% ifQ> 20
l%ifQ<20
1 ifQ< 3
Yes
Yes but tabulated
... 5%ifQ < IOOanciQ > 3
PuJie.eeho
2 .. 3% depeadiq 08 Q.
ReliabiB if Q aot too low.
ltelatiw meesrementJ
more HOCUratc
Coupliaa problema'''
imply uareliatlility.
Accuracy > 10 %.
Relatie ntea!Mtremenl5
more ~KX'Ufllte
Traft~~millsion
I to 2 ~. depeftdina on Q.
ltdiable if Q > 10
,,_,.cycle
YCII
lto 2
s to 10 ;.
YCII
Sliafll
YCII
Sliaht if
accurate
Standing wave~~
Vibration
lt.esollant bar
Travelifta waves
Propaption
(((\
Pendulum
((,

TABLE 4.2
Type of method
~.
Torsion. bendina
Low frequency measure
ments
5%forQ~20
Blues
if
Torsioa, bending
Low frequency measurements
system
system
accurate
ul' rcprodlleibility, sitK:c it ill very dill'oc:ult lu ublain 1he nhnlull: value nl Q.
'"
'
'
'''
WcNe
resu~s
and mechanisms
''
'
''
~J
'
"
~
INTROOOCI'ION
We have 10 far ill&roduced a number oftlleorctieai(Cbapters 2 ud 3) and experimental
(Cbapter 4) toelseaabliaa usto raodelaad raNK dal lllllduaaioal propcrtios of porous
media. We also dlowed iD Chapler 1 that to .,..U of~ JMdia in the absolute IOMC
wu relatively ........... A timple conaeptsucrhtltat of porosity must be split up ialo .
a large number of categories.
In this Chapter, we have decided to begin by .,..,..... a mambcr of result$ of acoustic
measurements in the laboratory by hiahliahtina the influence of a number of important
parameters. Usina this qualitative knowledp, we shall then try to understand the
mechanisms responsible for the process~~~.... deal with 'tile inverse
problem, that is to say in situ measurements for which the unknowns are the properties of
the propaptiaa media. We shall show how certain lderatuq aauks cu be used and
provide some of the most widely employed CRJpirk:al ~~ns.
'
j"
"
'
''.'
'
"
,___.
___.
"~
',...
'
a funcrioll of such pltl'lltftetert a porosity, aturat.ion aild prasuro. 'f'hey also cleak with
the problems raised by the measurement of intrinsic attenuation. At the same time, Nafe
and Drake hepn anatp.ina ~tics. in 09IU RQOI' lledimcnts. with a partic;ular focus on
the preblem of colllf)IClion. This type or ......... ~ down ia dae 19(i()s. but similar
ia~iJations were revived in the early t91Gsby_ re~ inchtdina Domenico and
Nur, whose studies of variatiOns of velOCity as i fUnction of prdSure, saturation and
176
interstitial fluid viscosity are wellknown. At the present time. many areas draw on the
knowledge of velocities and, though more rarely, of attenuations. These include many
subjects in civil engineering and geophysics. Concerns and motivations are different in
each of these areas: they involve the analysis of thermal mechanisms for geothermal
energy, high pressure, high temperature and time measurements for nuclear energy, zero
pressure measurements in soil mechanics, and quality control of concrete for construction.
Yet the primary area for research on velocities and attenuations remains petroleum
geophysics. The considerable growth and the pioneering role played by the petroleum
laboratories arc nat rally grounded on the fundamental importance of seistnic reflection
surveys for petroleu exploration, and on acoustic logging in wells. This also explains
s, and especially sandstones (whose importance as reservoirs is well
why sedimentary r
known), offered the ost popular area for experimental research. In the following pages,
we shall try to avoid estricting ourselves to experimental curves available for sandstones.
pointed out that few investigations dealing with carbonate rocks,
However, it must
clays and shales exis in the literature. One must realize that the results presented concern
clearly defmed samp es, and that these~rnalts.can only be extrapolated to other samples
with all due precaut ons.
We shall fust examine the results obtained by velocity investigations, which will enable
us to highlight a number of
trellds. We shall thea demonstrate the difftculty of
deflfting a siftlle "WJocitY'parameter oharactcri:re the bdha,ior of a giWil sample. We
shall then go on to ~ts of afteiR'Ja!Wn. The interpretation of theBe resUlts by
means of physical meciNMtsms will follOw. FiftaDy ,..., ,shall take the .tewpoint el the
investigator and develop some empirical laws for velocities and attenuatioDI and give
their limitations, for various. in~.
'""'
~.
'""'
.v
S.l.t
5.1.1.1
Velocities_. Jlllllt es
Rocks in the earth's crust are srib,;ect't6 high stresses. To understand the processes
observed, it is therefore essential to understand the role of pressure on acoustic
parameters. To begin with, we shall examine the effects of different types of pressure on
velocity, namely confming pressure Pc (pressure to which the sample is subjected), pore
pressure Pp (pressure of tJte. flp1.4. i.,nsia.F the por~~ and the differ~ntial or effective
pressure" Pefl ( = p ._ pP)fH. We Wilt~ ~bow the e1fes'Ct of a uniaxial stress.
a. Effective pressure
Figures 5.1 and 5.2 aivo a ~"r of c~amplcs of V.Jriati<ms of velocity. vs. eft"octive
pressure for ry and satwatcd. 5JUQ'II ~ experiments were made by ultral9ftic
methods. In every ~.aa i~_in v~ocity ~s with increasina etrectivc pressure,
..
...__
.
~
"
""
......
 T
\.....''
...............
v,
;
l4
::!
js
l:
Vs
Vs
100
2110
300
EffectiM ,....,. CMhl
408
2a.....a......'......1'...J
0
(a)
7
Webnlck 'dolomite
i::!
'c~
'
fs
...
>
''
108
200
300
Efhctivt ..,_.. CMhl
1iI'Oytrlrutt
.
v,
8
Vp
J.

~ 3
.,..
400
(I)
"
...
I>
I '
S.t.
vs
~,
100
200
EffMtlve ,.._.. fMPal
5
\_
300
(a)
!3
l&
Vp
'~
......_,,_..,.. .,
I>
3".,a.'..J
'4
s.t.ll'id dry
0
'
10
20
30
Effectlwe.,....,. CMPtl
'
40
<')
vs
___.__
2
0
100
200
Effective,_,,. {Mhl
Fit.~~ J~UCDQ; of poreaape o ~14fttivc prure ~hips
(after Nur and Murphy, edited by lrutin and Hsieh, 1981 and Nur, personal
correspondence).
a. Microcracked rocks (ultrasonic measurements).
Ia. Massillon sandstone (resonant bar), Solcnhofen limestone (ultrasonic
measurements).
'
.___
4
Pierre shtle
Sit.
~'...
.~
........ "'
.,.,.
..
",..P Dry
~s.t.
Vs
110
100
150
Ch..k
3.5
sw
=306%
~~~~==;1~
::::;
10
seo
3
},
,"1,<
fu
>
$w
10 .
40
20
80
~to
100_ _ _..___ _ _
1.5 .__
0
10
~..
_ _ _;r..;,;.;_ _ _L.....J
20
30
Effective ,..._,. IMflll
40
"
i".'.
,...~u~,
~:.f.i
h'L~.
~~{11,
J;;~ ;<:t..,n;,
h~: :Y~:r~en~
._.~
''
'
~.
'
179
increase occurs in Solenhofcn limestone, whereas cbc P wave vcloacy rises from 4 to
6 km/s for dry Westerly granite. 1'he iftereue in I' waw wlocily vs. eectiYe 9fC8IUie is
much smaller for a saturated sample than tot a dry ....,te.. and tbis applies to all the
samples in Fia. 5.1. On the other hand, the shear waw veloCity is vinually unaffected by
the presence of water in the medium. Also observable is the existence of a maximum
pressure above which the Velocity reriWns constant Howewr in Piem shale (FiJ. 5.2), no
plateau can be obSetwd at maximum pressure applied:
The samples shown in Fij. 5.1 are 6lirfy weU4cnowtt porous media (see Chapter 1).
Granites, dolomite and Bedford limestone are well known for their essentially microctack
porosity. Solenhofen limestone and MusiiJon S8ftdttone, however; exhibit a pore apace
consistina of pores with aspect ra1irGI dOle to t.mc~~ we call ~spherical" porosity, aad
cracts are uncommon. The samples in Fit. 5.2 display c:oniJ)Iel pen apaoea, eitber
because of the presence of clays or due to the pbysicc:M:hemical sensitivity of the c:alcite
making up the chalk.
Til~ Fig. S.l showsthat the effect ofeonftaiq ~is direCtly related to the number
of cracks (twodimensional pores whid'r tend to desteuily) existinJ in the sample. Denis
et al. (1979) measured the ultrasonic velodties of dry samples at atmospheric pressure and
succeeded in calculatiag a fraeturina index (eontinuity illdex). Fiptt 5.3 illustrates the
'
'
~A'MI)~
'~
'
'',_...
0.&
''
o.
"
~
Yo
0.1
0.2
''
''
0.1
Crack~ tX tO~ol
""
F'IJ. 5.3
''
''.
&V V1
V0
0, Oak. aJl ~tone; FO,, duqitt; Jl~.. 9!~.ap; TO, Tro~ sranitc; WD,
Webatuclt. dolomtte; WG, Welterly JfU'ife: "'' "Stone Jranitt: CO, Casc:o
Jl.
,_,......../
gnmfte.
'.
'~
''
180
~LTS.
AND MECHANISMS
extent. of fracture porosity by the inc~ia velocity ,with ~~The .ordinate in the
diagram represents the normalizl0d4i&rcnce bctw,eeothe compressional velocity without
pnssure and that uader a prcuurc of 1 .PPa for dry samples: the ,greater the number of
crackS; dto more the velocity. v.aric$ with pressure.
As already noted, the P~rrc
~pies used in FiJ. 5.l display a different velocity
function dllan Fis. 5.1. The~ RlateJu as a fuiKltion ofp~ure, which represents the
closure of its .. last" crack for the ~pic ;~nc::emod. is not oluervcd for this rock at
120 MPa. In fact, Jones and Waoa (l981) .obMfvcd this phe1lome.non continuing up to
0.4 GPL It is possible. &Nt tbc .~ in velocity as a function of pressure shows. in
addition to thccontinuousdosurcofthc ~a.:ks,.an aJipment of the day crystals in
the miDimwa shear streaJtb plueflosaya, 1982);aa.Jk. tlae$CCOnd examplein Fia. 5.2. is
very c:omplicated ~ the stnacture 8f ~ material ~ ac:cordiq to the pressure
applied (creep). We shall .net 10 .into
detail for Qjthcr Pierre shale or chalk.
assuming that the variation in velocity versus pressure are only important if the strw:ture
of the material iavestiptedis aot GMqcct itq:venibly: by the ~L For clays as well
as c:balk, tbore is goect reason. to s~ :At~ in the CUfVe of velocity vs. cft"~ive
.le.
'
furtlaer
pr.essurc. .
We have mown that the increase in velocity with prasure resultS from tbc closure of the
cracks, and that this closure is reflected by a greater rigidity of the material under pressure
(i.e. an increase in the correspondins elastic modulus~ In fact, it must be remembered that
any velocity V can be expressed in the form:
v=
Jo/;
(5.1)
~.
where M is the elastic modulus, aad p the density, and that, consequently, at constant p,
an increase in elastic modulus implies
in velocity. The behavior of cracks and pores
under confmina pressure was modeled by Walsh (1965, 1969) and Wu (1966) for a pore or
crack included in a matrix. The equations ~ by K, the bulk modulus. and p., the
shear modulus of the rock for the dry sample are the follo\\illl:
arise
(t + !.)e ,
_!_ (1 + !.) ,
_!_ == _1
K K1
.!_
JJ
(S.2)
(5.3)
JJJ
where K 1 and p 1 are tbe solid moduli, e the aspect ratio oftbe pore or crack (e = 1 for a
sphere, e ~ 1 for a crack), tj) the porosity, and A and B are constants depending on the
characteristics of the medium an4 close to 1.
For the saturated sample:
1
1
.
(5.4)
K ~ K; (l + A'tj))
.!_
JJ
~ _!_
P1
(1 + !.),e
B'
(5.5)
where .A.' llDd I!" arc consta~ts deP.eqdrw on K 1 and Jlt ($D4 ft,U.id bulk .modulus for A')
and close to l.lt can be seen that, if e = t, the eff'ect of the pore on the moduli is negliJible
.,
''
r
f. ;
~
'
!
f8l
to
2, the effect on
for low porosities (about the order ofmasnitude of ). However, i(e ==
the bulk modulus of the dry sample isconsiderable. On the other hand, it is nepgible for a
saturater.i sample. For a livcn sample, it i$ necessa11 to integrate the effects of type (5.2) to
(S.S) for all the pores and cracks. The more pressure is applied. the more cracks are closed
and the less the moduli are altered.
EquatiOns (5.:zrn,~s.S,.als9 bclp to understand the di8'ercn<lc in ~havior between a dry
and a saturated sample. At a Biven paasure, a dry sample is less rigid than a satufated
sample. For a saturated sample, in flct, the compressibility of water resists the pressure
and increases the elastic modulus. At pressures over a certain threshold, however, for
which the velOCity is constant, the effects of water and air become equivalent. This
thresbol4pasurc is obviously not the same for water and air. Ia tbccucohhear waves,
which do not propagate in liquids, the addition of water in the sample implies practically
no chanp, and the velocities are the same for dry and saturated samples, subject to density
effects.Satuntedsamplesdisplay.tiptlylowerveloeitiesthalldrysamplea[~eeEq. (S.t)].
On the othet hand, Pierre shale (Fia. 5:2) exhibits silftilar;.,..Wor whoa .._lulry and
saturated. This may be due to the compressibility,ofthe clay minerals. Nevertheless, dry
measurements must bc~dered with some circumspection. The samples Were dried at
SO'"C under vacuum tor months, and this coulct ha~ altered their characteristics.
Using the foreaoing curves;one.can calculate the variations ofthe PoiiSOJJ't ratio with
effective pressure. One example is pven in Fia. 5.4 for Berea sandstone. Note the
eMrcmely low values (which may evell be negative) for dry rocks at low pressure, and the .
abnormally high values for saturated rocks.
"'
oine
0.35.,_,.
;..
.... lllldllone
A Dry
DW....,ppO
W..,pctoMPa
20
...,
to'
 ..
10
Ftc 5.4
In
4.0
4:0
MassiHon undstone
''~
~ 3 ~
Vp
>
.1::
'
....
Pc80MI'I _,
~
Vs
1~.:,:...__ _
1.5
..
13.0
f
~ 2.5
2.oL,.
...
v,
2.5
"s
2.0
20
40
60
lttectM.,.... ....,
80
20
_,.._~'''
..........
40
60
60
5.0
3.8
4.5
v,
3.4
.,p...,
4.0
13.2
St ,._, SlndttoM
Ys
13.0
13.5
>
>
2.8
3.0
Vs
2.5
2.8
.J.l
L
20
40
60
..,~o
80
20
40
60
110
FJa. 5.5 y.locity/efl'ective pressure relaUQRSh,ips for cases of zero pore pressure
(p., ... ()) ana '(l()Ditant confaning pressure
(p, = 80 MPa) (ultrasonic measurements)
(after Jonea; 1983).
,;,
...... ....._
4
~Pett=Pc
13.5
~
PeffilinMJita
Peff=21 MPe
Peft14r.'IPI .
Peff=7 MPa
3
Peff=O
.
0
20
40
80
~;
,_.,"
J
4
3.8 .               ,
...
a
13.4
,, .. ,
3.5
Pp""41 MP
.,=o
i<It
1
~
v,
Drv
""_,.,. t
I.
4
1.1L
Pp = 0
p,1MP
"
100
,,41 ...
lu
Pp =41 MP
,,,1 w.
a
Ju
fJA,
"p,=41MP
50
1:.
,.
2.5
12
32
..
, , .. 1 . ..
__..~
21
150
Cclnflnlnt,...,,. ......""
50
7t
IH.ctlw.....MP8
'~
......_,.....,_,_.fllaalion
1'bi:
c.
. , _ ,  . . . . . . . .,_..~
184
VN
1~

'
a!WII
uf
4.4
25
20
,,
4.2
tO
4.8
'
sv
3:1F._
SH
3.t
30
:::4.015
~.8 L
o
<;.
3.1
~
L.a..
..
::: &
,.... .,.,
;...................,...............
j_
~d
~~
2.7~::
:?;;;tee;:
,,c
td '.to!
to
At low stresses, the cracks perpendicular to the stress are closed preferentially, inducing
a clear anisotropy in the sample. In Fig. 5.8a, at stresses lower than half of the failure
strength of the Westerly granite investigated, the Wteeity inereases (closure of the cracks).
It then drops sharply at high stressel. . . .mt ef craeks). The velocities are lllClUUrCid in a
direction perpendicular to the streala As. Ub, byeon.tnst, the wlocities are measured
in all the direeticms afid.at IDlJICh ..._. lttelacS (pndudias any aution of cradcs). The
anisotropy induced by the uniaxiAl sUms is dearly shown by the diffe~WJCC in velocity
measurements in each direction.
Stereoscopic setup
PAV, qJ= 6%
sw
100%
sw
100%
() 1 Atm.Press : 5 MPa
(m/s}
1Cl0qo
5400
I 5435
20
32
500/).m
z 220,
qJ_= 3.8%
(5"
Atm.Press. 5 MPa I
(m~sl 4358
1001o
172
14800
84
I
186
. t
..V~ONffliiDry
GN1SS0ry
..,. ...............
~
.\:~_ _
~6
f)t
14
(J
'
~~
o i~ ~tl Unudalt
.L'AtiliaU.
;;'a ,
'
tl ,
....,..... ~~"
.40 .: .
'
'
'.:,'.~~:....:w
.,,
' .,
Cal
...........
1110
er~~~~
.,.~~
Sw100%
3
Vp4SO
.v,4fSo
_v33
l::':!.
~
i>
v22 = Vn
v21
L:.':
v,3 =V31
't
2 0I
"~
..
'
....
Aaother~~.pp&~~~ un~~~tC,.,of~~pvcn in
S.9. N~
DIn twoF~iaiD~~able
ultrasonic methods at a central frequency of 500 kHz with and without uniaxial stress of
SO MPa. The velocities and atteauations behaved differently under the effect of the
uniaxial stress, and the velocities are quite different for the two samples.
Figure 5.9 allows a qualitative explanation. The pore casts (see Chapter l) are also quite
different. In addition to a "threedimensional" porosity, one of the two samples (Z220)
shows abundant grain boundaries that act like cracks. At zero stress, these cracks make
r'
,,~
' f~t
'.
"
"
atsOl'tt'AMY' r.M.if..\t...MiP'
18?
the skeleton compressible, hence the low \elocity (and high attenuation). The application
<t
".;!!"
of a uniaxial stnsspartly dotes the cracks (those perpendicular to the stress direction) and
the velocity riles substntially.
These induced anisotropies arc naturally quite dierent froiJl the intrinsic velocity
anisotropies frequently observed ill rocks. three examples of which are given in Fig. 5.1 0.
''
'
"
Natural porous media are always saturated with fluids and the influence of these fluids
on acoustic propertia is essential. We will prescnt farst the effect of water/air saturation,
and then ao on to the other saturating fluids, cmphasizittg the role of the viscosity of these
fluids.
'
'
"' '
"
"
s.t.ndi011
As already shown (fi& S, 1 for ~x~ple). velogty measurements arc quite different for
dry"< 21 or 100% lablrated samples. Fipre 5.11 gives aa eumple of velocity
measurements venus pressure for dry, partially. and fully saturated Massillon sandstone.
For P waves at partial saturation, the velocity is lower than the .. dry" velocity, which is
lower than the velocity at l<XWe sataratiOn. The qualitative explanation is simple : for P
L,
'
Masillon undrtone
'.._
Dry .
...
Fullyut.
Dry
;:!a
'''
I I I I I
'
~;n'
'._/
''
"
0
0
10
20
30
t'he
(2) Ccmlictirallie Ulbltuib ~aallle lCim ..dry .. Pfe\ails amoq the cfilerent tUdlots. 'For sOme. tlae
t.n. ... , .ellfllidlto.....,yeliMditMMIIJ(I.e. ,;m tbe,.....4f......_ifa dae rock.lldlol1lld ia _,...
aobcric
we,..un
..,._IICIC:!ItfCiiq
oo~. For~ "Po~ ~,UIIdv VICIIUIL As
llaow
further on in this Section, the water adsorbed plays a fundamental rote on the velocities (and attenuations). This
ambipity or te!'JftinolOI)' may explain certain apparent c:ontradictions in the variOus experimental results.
._.,
~,
188
,..................
1
'"'
11.5 1311Hz
8 3
~
40
20
......,_._
:Ia
eo
..............
.,, "''
2~~~~
100
80
.......,.....__
.:a.
2
~ ~.,
1.8
'111.8
l~
VE 159111187 Hzl
~ooooo
11
tto ......1
1.4
~
Ju
::>
v5 1315 . eu Hd
w..aw.tionl"l
v 5 13115385 Hzl
Ve 1571 847Hz)
L...

0.8
....~
to
...
~~
40
~eo
ro
80
',
till .
increasing the velecity..F:or S waves, it may be ummed that the liquid bas M effect on
velocities and that the eft'eet observed is exd~rvely a density effect; For granite, the
experiments ofNur and ~urphy (FiJ~ 5.12) show that the "dry" velocity is lower than the
velocity at partial saturatfop, which iS lo\11er than 't~ velocity 100"/o saturation. In this
case, the porosity is too low for the density effect t<fhie greater thatt the matrix stiffening
effect Figure 5.13 summarizes scbematicillly(this result (at ultrasonic frequencies).
Figure 5.12 shows the variations of velocity as a function of saturation for different types
ofrock. The measurements were taken at afroospheric pr~u,e andJlsina the resonant
bar. The frequencies employed wcce ~* i to lO,kHz: The difcrent satwatioa levls
were achieved by drying. For sandst()ne, ~ dry" velocity cart'tle ~ to be hiJher than
all the other velocities.
.
.
at
"'
~
''~
,
~ ~
' !
'119
Nr 111UmiGn (S)
100
50
Pc!l35MPa
''
''....
'
''
10.<f<21'A
''
''~
''
'
''
.............. "',
!10
100
Ffa. U3
''
'
''...
With rcsptet to puita. ~ty JDa'lllll with utur.U.n for satuutions above
20o/.. For all dterects..._., tho.,.,.,wa~;~ it virtQily~t of water
satutatioa tlftor the &au. tNds 2%. ~_Nutilio,n ~aadAoao, ~ ia very porous. a
sliabt demucl in velocitil,a iJ observed dC to, &be densilJ effect~ JSq. (5.1)].
Ia dba,orous saacilloae.lor r~a& bar~ Umilarbebavioris observed
to daat clel4.:ribe4 by .Gfesory (1976).1or ~waves (Fi& S.l3) :even if the
loqitudinal v~ia Fil S.l2 aretonsional veloeiQaaad aot P wave vcloQtic$(~
QMptcr4).
ltilntativelycuyto,apltliatbtbelaavlorof~ia . . . .iUoa.saadstoneforwater
saturations .t 2 to 100~. From the qualitative standpoint, in fact, the clastic modulus
is iadependent of saturatioD for saturation froua 2 to 95%, 'ililereas the density
(p = (1  fl)p. + t;p1 S. p. is the dtrtsity of the solid, p1 the density of the liquid, S..,
water saturation)ibcreases with saturation, leadin.s to a slipt decrease in velocity. At total
' ~aturatioa. dae water ~ tends to . . _ the material (for lonlitudinal
wavet).aad thewtocityrisa.:For Sftftlnoluidcectooeun, asw U.C altudystated.
"
......
(3) 1k dality of aid aelfiafHe ill .oaapariloll.with dlole of the hid and solid.
'
190
Gassmann's equation [see Section 2.2.2.2, Eq. (2.77)] serves to quantify this type of
process. In the case of total saturation, this equation can obviously be adapted by
replacing the fluid bulk modulus by:
1
1
l
/(=(1S,..)K+S ... K
(5.6)
/It
/1
<H,
..
flz
where K 11 , and K 111 are the bulk moduli of the two fluids, and S,.. is the saturation with
fluid 2. This presumes that one of the two fluids (fluid 1) is totally included in the second
(fluid 2).
The use of Eqs. (2.77) and (5.6) jives a behavior similaT to that observed for Massillon
sandstone at water saturations of 2 to 100%. In fact, these equations constitute the zerofrequency approximation of the eqvationsdeveloped by Biot (sec Chapter 2, Eq. (2132)].
For measurements taken at ultrasonic frequencies (sec Fig. 5.13 for example), the
application of Eq. (2.132) does not ,yield a very good result (sec Fig. 5.14a~
In Fig. 5.14b, Domenico (1976), uses the GeerstmaSmit .. high frequency" equation
[see Section 2.2.5, Eq. (2.133)] in which be varies the tortuosity parameter from 1 to
inftnity. The result is not better than itt the case of Fig. 5.14a. Various reasons can be
postulated for the disagreement. To begin with, the equation used does not account for
permeability effects, and, at a jiven tonuosity, the permeability effect is negli@ible only if
f/1. is greater than 5 (Gecrstma, 1961). Possibly even more important is the fact that this
equation presumes a por~ity uniformly distributed throughout the sample, and that any
gas is totally included in the fluid. In fact, partial saturation of the sample is not uniform
(see for example Bourbie and Zinszner,1984). Gas may~ occur in a partly continuous
form, in which case the sample is truly threephase and requires a more sophisticated Biot
theory (Brutsaert, 1964). Even so, the nonuniformity makes analysis difftcult. The
GeerstmaSIIlit equations are interestJna to describe overilt1 behavior, but are defmitely
not intended for systematic use.,
Note that neither Gassmann's nor the GeerstmaSmit equations help to explain the
behavior of velocities at low saturation and at frequencies in the neishborhood of 1 kHz
(Fig. 5.12). To explain tbe~ble ftrilltion in velOCity at very lew sataration, Oark
er at. (1980)invokedehydrati0ft ndstifreftins Of day miaerals that are in~tact with the
grains. This explanation is ~. tieeause a velocity variation df'!M same type
was observed 1ft porous glss (\tycOt) and in sand (Hardin et al., 1963). materials
from which clay mitlenils are afMieiftt. Two mechanisms may explain the behavior of
velocities at very low saturation. To 1e8in with, the surface ora quartz snriD possesses a
suffteient negative ~to ioni!e the tltinftlm ofwater covering ittParts, 1984). HelrlCe it
appears that the pore surface of all sands and sandstones is hydroxylated. A doUble,
charged layer is fOrmed betWeen the wateniht Ole silicate SUffiCe (Fig. 5'. ts and Murphy,
1982b) with. molecules of water
'
6
'si/
'si/
~
.The .
hydropn bonds between the surflce b)!droxyls ...amoleeulcs of water are broken which
leads toaclissipatioD.ofentrl)'(teeSeeticm S.U.lb; Tittl8anlldll.,19B0,5peaccr.1981),
and the free surface energy, namely the work required to produce an increase in free
surface area, is decreased by the breakaae of these bonds. The. adsorbed water also exerts a
signiftcant effect in reducina this free energy(Murphy, 1982 b). The twofold deereate in free
'
~
'
~
~fi'J.jfj; ~~
t9t'
ju
~j
' s*..
~
.tij
1.1 , ....
1
.~
,,_:,,.
8
~
20
~;
. ..
JO
100
.....
'
......,...Vp I
4.
.~'
fu~
'
','
f Coltlpulllll
.,_"'*
v,
.I
'
''
181
,,
'

10
so
 t
s
 tt'
10
~
eo
w.... _.....,",
JO
.,
too
tbl .
~_;
'
'
.,__._.,.
,,,.
.......
.,._........
192
R~UL~
ANQ MECQANISMS
consideration, such as the adhesive forces between the grains. Initially, the sand is dry and
the solid skeleton nonrigid: velocity is therefore.low. As soon as a small amount of water
is added, capillary forces act between the grain.,
the solid skeleton exhibits greater
rigidity. By adding water further, these forces disappear and the apparent rigidity (and
hence velocity) decreases and then becomes virtually ~t until high saturation. At
high saturation, the incompressibility of the flui4 itself plays a role and the velocity again
rises. The qualitative variation in velocity in theund pile is hence dosely comparable to
the variation observed in laboratory experimonts on rock samples (see for example
Fig. 5.12) except for "infmitesimal" saturationsf'very dry.. to .. dry"). In lalldstones, a
capillary mechanism of the type d~~ abowe is therefore plausible, as the capillary
preesure at low saturation guarantees better cohesion of the material.
FiaaUy, it should be noted that ttae ~ ~~ PJ:OPQIICCI (cbemiRI boPds and
capillary forces) are both related to the speCifiC surface atea of the porous medium, and we
shaD show that this remark raises a; problem for attenualiott at low saturation.
Ia conclusion, for dry rocks (saturation less than 2%); substantial variatiort in velocity is
observed, which can be explained by a decrease in the
sui:f'a6e energy, resulting from
the combination of a variation in capillary pressure and an adsorption mechanism. In all
cases, we have seen that the~ ofvelocitl on saturation,is v~y Jliabt, both for P
waves and for S waves. aa4b water saturatiOIIS bonreea >10 ed 90%. Couoq._.tly,
velocities are not aood indicators of the quantity ef ... pniiMlDt in .... pons.
aoo
tree
b.
The type of saturating fluid influences the acoustic wave velOcity. if only because of
the compressibility of the fluid. An example of this variation in velocity is given in
tippee. tbcftuidv~y.(andhcnce
Fig. 5.16. ~urthermorc,u is*t.IJ ~...
its temperature) intl'4Cqa:s tbl: v~ cyeo _,o thafl !be ~ type of aaturatina
fluid. This is wby ~~Y}tcuapcf.'ture relat~ are diseuiiCMl in the aext Sef;tion.
in.,.
........
... .,..

......
~._~._~~~~~._~.
.,
if~
~................
i:
0
,, .. 3 ...
Pp3MI'
Yp
aoc
~.12PC
tSOOC
0
10
20
,_,3 ...
'1,
'
30
40
50 0
2S0e
0
~
~ '~
o tSOOC
10
20
250C
1250C
, ISOOC
30
40
50 0
10
30
40
50
;:
s
':.
"
JIIUIIfl AN~
193
'
'"._..
a.
Tempa'tlt,.e
Velocity varies slightly with temperature. For example, the velocity in distilled water
increases by 11o as the temperature rises from 10 to IOOOC (Kaye and Laby, 1973) and the
velocity in quartz decreues by 0.4% as the temperatures varies by IOO"C (Carmicbacl,
Vol. Ill, 1984). This shows that temperature exerts a very slight intrinsic eft'ect on velocity.
In fact, a number ofextrinsic factors cause the velocity to vary with temperature, and these
indude di&renees in compressibility between the clitferen.t matrix dameatl aad banc:e
dierences in pressure, chanps in the viscotity of tlie'tauttatHra fluid, and phase cbangcs.
.......
''
~'~
........
1...
Ju~
1
.o ...
'
'~
'
'
f1l. 5.17.
'
''../
'"
_......
?iF
..........
_.
. . ___.:
,::po_..,. '
~p '
~~!_
Wet
1Clo
 '
c:.tlnlnt......,. CW.)
'
400
1100
Compressio.
Col
aaJ ~tics vs. temperature in Water.ly puitc.
For lowporosityroeks such as pauite and pbbro (FiS. 5;17) the decrease in velocity
with temperature is nearly alwaytieu than 5% for a tcmpanture inaeasc of about lOO'C
(Carmicblcl. Vol. II, 1912). F . , . 5.18 and S.l9 o&r a nuaber of...,... of velocity
variations with temperatUI'f'for Jaip porOiity sandstones. It may be observed that, for dry
and watersaturated ..tones, vciOClity ~with risina temperature. The~
in velocity observed in Fig. S.19d 'at partial~,:._. from aa irrewnible
structund chanFin the r9'k, ~ aJlwn VfltY clearly by the hytt~ f.ucpt in this
specific
the deeroale ia 'ftlleaity is .ery fairly slipt. For a tempcratu(e rise of
lOO"C, the velocity varies by a maxiuium ota fC'fl perwnt anoon as the confuainapn~~SUre
is~
.
obecnred in sandltoncs ._, ~ be explained by the dilremn
Velocity
thermal expansion ~ts betwcea the~ COilstQ,nts of the solid, wbich include
clays and .,artz.
case.
vanalioris
~~
3CJCIIDc
4000C
3.5
Vp
J... cro_o_O.....C.....a....,.
.......
~.sa'
13.2& ...
~
I!
.2
il
.........~~
;;:
s.
'...o.
13
~1.75
,.
Vs
(.)
&
eo
40
20
US
Temper.cu,. C0c1
""';,:.
........._
)1,.
3.8
3.6
J3.4
I
I
w..rlllVt'atMI
1.80
J.,.
'
it . '
'ii
... J
p,=4.5MPa
...............
~'c10Mh
.:l
3.2
20
_..
4&
(al
~~
rflna.
.....
10
1.2
>
r..
220C 0.95 cp
&aC'C
jl.~.I:C'
e . IMat 0.34cp
6
_PpO.SM,_
lei
120
I
I
1.8
1.4
100
2.2t'
:I
2.0
Ju
J
10
T....,.cur.t'cl
. Pp"'Pc O.SMPa
...... ..,...
20
eo
40
(b)
A.
Ve
10
itooc o.aq,
15
20
20
(dl
40
60
10
100
T.....,...,. lOCI
140
~.
"'~
''
'"
~
''../
'
"~
~

(~'
RI!SUL1i
AMI)
"
""'
~'.
195
b.
1 + (CO'f/1Jlo) 2
p l'o l'oll't + ((J)'f/tl'o)'
(5.1)
'../
'~
""
while the bulk modulus K varies sliptly.ln this equation Jlo is the relaxed shear modulus
(at c :1:: 0) equal to the solid modutus, 1'1 the relaxed modulus oftbe composite, and e the
aspect ratio of the iaclusion. This shows that an inclusion of viscous ftuid in this model
behaves approximately like a standard (or bner) model (tee Ctlaptcl' 3). Qualitatively,
increasins the temperature is equivaltnl to loweriq the fluid viscosity, and thus. reduces
the rigidity of the material and its velocity.
VISCosity etrects are still noduli)' W1dentood, and recent investiptions. especially those
of Nur et al. (1984) may laelp te clarify thee results. Hence, we will leave tbe subject for
future discussion.
c.
'...
'
~~
'~
"'
'"
'"
r~MM,cJi.,ge
The ftnal effect on the viscosity variation fl a phue chanae, either by vaporization or by
solidiftcation. Timur{1968) observed an increue in velocity in watersaturated rock when
the water fr'*(tee Fia .5.22). Spetzler; and Andenon(l.)eblierved a wide variation in P
and S wave velocities when partial meltins bepn. Experiments due to DeVilbiss (1980)
and Tosaya et al. (1985) on different types of rock show a signifant increase in velocity at
the watersteam transition staae (Fia. 5.22).
_
This effeet lw beea oblervtd to be stroapr in lou porous and less permeable materials
(e.g. Jranite), than ill porousend permeable materials (e.J. sandstone). It is possible that
the specifac behavior ~compact materials result from a nonuniform distribution of the
of the pru. cha.nac.ln low ~rmeability media and for relatively
pore pressure at the
Bedford irnest
1.0
t.O
Vp
o. 
0.7
J!.u

J
0.8.
Vs
0.8
' j
2
Log v~ lpoiMI
(a)
10
2.5 ~..,
1Qil" GivaN~
~0
G.7
P6
   IO"Giyowol
 o.v...
2.25
v,
>
1.5
........... :: . a
~
20
20
II
rated
~~Nur,l~.
1.25
(e)
Lot~
f')
,,
80 60
2
4
2
1.75
80
80
100
TemperatureiOcl
~~esoaant
'"
1<.Riw ....
3.6
'
V..,..,....oil ....
p.JOW..
'10.W.
u
.
3.2
1 3
II
2.8
100Sell
.....
f
J ~J
.....::
...101* lr
50% oi
10
1 1CIO
flO
~... (fig
bl'
................. ell
2.4
. .  ,..,.. ..
2
0
50
100
150
T......tocl
f.5
.o
lOG
hence
,_
,_.
r
_y
y
I
y
y
'
r
:
4.1
,''.:/?U.~
t_P
'I
........,
!'4.8
6Temp./
.. 4.4
4.2
ICI
WATIR
4
~
34
20 tl
11
II
0.
'
~ 112182024.21
....... t"Q
,.,
1.1
WATER
SftAM
i
!u
1
...............
'0......, ......
&SIIftt ............
. ,M
0.7
Jl'
~u
0.2
0.4
...
..... ..,..,.. ,
0.1
0.8
1.2
1.4
1.8
.. lbl
"
Timur, 1968).
Ia. P and S wave velocities in StPeter and Berea sandstones and Westerly
aranite (ultrasonic measurements) (after DeVilbiss, 1980).
198
RESULTS AND
MECHANIS~S
'
highfrequency waves, the assumption that the pore pressure is not uniform is reasonable.
Finally, the compressional vei9Cities display virtually no variation at the time of the
water/steam transition in samples which are only partially watersaturated (Tosaya eta/.,
1985).
I
I
I
I
Ii
,: ._.'
{ ,(,.,'
~"..Jt~'~~~ ~
~.~,.dii / ~.(f
'"' :r
~:.J:J'>
~);
.1li
,j:
.d
~
"(Z861 '.(qdlnl'( ~l,P) ~um l111JUl!S lOJ (lqi!J111) (ZH~ J11q lU11U~l pu11
.(q palft~ ~!=KJpA JO sUOI!JlldUIO::J rs"lt.!l
CIOl
08
UO!lt..,... *'M
01
Ot>
.,
t'
0&
.......
0
l:
l"l:
Ot>
<
<
c)
CZH toiOl: DLU 31 J\
r
00&
1i'
I ~I UO!ltJftltl *'M
.,
...
tatiiiA tat14MIWIIS,
5
........ "t'IM .s
001
IZHliOil"'l SJ\
.(~)
(ZH!il11)$1\
001
.I
1i'
1"
oao
O.,c& "dllieJ.
~"'
uopi.IIIPI ......
01
001
,_
0.1'...J.
""
~~.
.. 
o.u._l.
~,
........ UO!Ut\UO:I
200
1.6
2.9
l~~
"i
j
2.&
1.5
SlemWhite.,..,..
Ultr~ ~
27
li
!u
::!!u
UID"IIJRic
f1.2
l
j'' ~= I
~.red
pr.tic:bd
.....,..
6~,. ~o
2.4
100
eo
eo
<!)
1.4
~0
...
0.9
btt
/;'
1.0
20
40
~
;/C,.,.t
10
20
'
. . . .8Niitone
30 40
Timefhounl
50
eo
70
,
Fig. 5.14 Influence of frequency on velocities as a function of saturation.
Baaed on the lowfrequency velocity ....ta (resonant ber), the ultrasonic
veiQc:iaies are computed with a Constant Q DiCrdel Note that Sierra White
granite appears to display Constant Q behavior contrary to Berea
sandstone. In Berea sandstone, water ~turation is not computed, and only
drying time is given (after De Vtlbiss. 1910).
~.
_.......
4
. . . .11011....._
Dry<,
..,.cMPal
3.1
........_........
20
"W'
............., ........
........
f3.8
20 .............
::!!
10:::.
13A
5
....._,
__..
..............
' ......=::::.........
..
.....
2.5~
..... 10
3
0
500
1000
1tao
2000
21100
Fr.qu~~~Cy CkHzl
Fit 5.15
lntl~
l
!
iI
i
I
I
.....
~
I
(1861 "P.SH pu1t U!JIU&
'q ~u.J '.(qcilnV( puv Jnl'( JatP!)~,i'Ba.p p.,_
UO(I!ftWW "41
_,1JPU111
. . . . . . 1Pl'1 spwno~lm'BW
6L6l ~ ., 111 l~I~A\ nl.J'B) ff!:top.qno!tUOlD pD 900
. nt
.
.
.()~UO~Utf~ ~ ~1t.f
.
.
' :
' JO
'
'* .
...
...............
~.
I
0
so
'~ftc
i
: .
'
'"'
'~~
(e}
....... 1:
l
j
~~~st
LOl
'
~;
..
OLtrl:
ON&
OILZ
' <
''
"'..vC..oa~9~~
0
 '""
' .WIIfiiN
Oltrt"!
ooa
r~~r+~
'
OLK
202
showed theoretically that the 8{aintosfain friction proc;ess was a threshold mechanism
involving a nonlinear relationship between velocity and straia nu will be discussed
further in Section 5.1.2.5.
To conclude, Winkler's calculations (personal communication) showed that the strain
amplitude of standard' seismic sources was less .than to in far f~eld for any source
employed (artiftcial or natur~and hence for the range of uses in geophysics, velocity can
be considered to be independent of strain.
II
I
I
I
5.1.1.6 Slmunary
We have shown the following properties concernin& variations in velocity as a function
of physical paramet~rs:
Velocity increases with coafiDia& 1'ft'SSUe aftd differential pressure. The pressure
parameter is the ditTerential or efl'ective pressure, which is equal to the difference between
the conftning pi'CS$ure and the pore plSIIre. Grain contacts and cracks play an essential
role in this increase; hence, for crackfree rocks, velocity is virtually independent of
pressure.
Velocity depends sliahtly on water saturation for twophase water/air mixtures and
water saturations that are neither too IQW ( < 10%)nor toobiab (> 90%). For dry and
100% saturated samples, velocity increases signiftcantly.
The viscosity of the saturatina fhttd is a parameter that strongly influences velocity.
Velocity increases with viscosity.
The role of temperature is slight. An increase of lOO"C in temperature causes a
decrease in velocity of only a few per cent.
Phase changes of the fluid in a porous medium cause the velocity to vary
substantially.
Velocity depends on frequency ils.JD~liis meditiln; and thus increases slightly
with it.
For the low strain usplitudes used in seismic experiment$, velocity is independent of
strain.
l
f
I
I
I
i'
I
j
I
I
I
I
I
'../
~r~
.''
Gqnfte
.,;_ pv
t'~
1 ':
~r~
i~"'t2
..............
'
20
10
40
.30
\......
20
.., .
:fr;; f
w~~_.~J
0
tiG
wo
ttiG
200
Conflllllle ,._. .......
fbi
~1
~
15
~~
tO
I~
I "
J..
5 0~~~~~~J
50
..
110
aoo
Confinilll~twa)
lei
C 1968 AGU).
.. Berea sandstone and c. Colorado' shale (ultrasoaic ..uremcnts). A
clistinetioll is tnade .lle:NIIiin wa plltdel alld ~ to tile
baldiJt8 (der .Jota&oa adlolcako e,lM ACM.ij.
..s
lldfonll.__
80
110
a,..
'
!10
tOO
200
Olfferenliat .,._.IMI'al.
FiJ. 5.28
~
204
5.1.2.1
Attenuations and
pre~&Ures
~
p
~ PAV= 6%
5001&HI
3001
00'1 =0
90
1p 1110
60
30
..
..
.,~1'1=l
40
60
80
100
Fit 5.29
120
,~.
~=3.8%
cr 1= 0
cr = 5 MPI
1
o o, io
60
20
0...~
~.4>
240
ecr1 = 5MPa
z 220
Qi
500kHz
o L'~'~
20
40
60
80
100
sandstones of Fi& 5~.are aulyzocl feN atteauaU. hy tlw ultrasoaic thod. As for the
velocities, it can be observfd that the lllDChtollewitlaout pain contalctsil unaffected by the
uniaxial stress, and that its attenuation is very slight By contrast the sandstone with grain
contacts and very high attenuation is very sensitive to the uniaxial stress.
I'
I
I
Wflter/.U sat,.atiOII
.;,;
..
~,;';~;! ,;:;'.;.:;.~h.'j .~
'''
';,~tr>'
j..J': ~

u..Hion~
MassiUoa.....(~
bar).~ W'aatJer U!Cl Mur.
eo
40
1000
Op
''
1979 AGU).
30
tO
20
EHwtM....CMh)
lff20
30
!'
OL~.L~~~
0
20
30
EffwttM.,.CMh)
. ..,
..
70r~~
eo
,..,., sandnDM
50
Dry
Q
25
76
40
tOO
Confilliftl , _ . . (MPal
30
Nllilliolllldnone
W..UIIntld
aad TobOz.
C 1980 AGU).
so
100
150
Dltt.rantial , _ . .....
""
Fie 5.30
pressure.
20
206
~ r~
 18.1"
Fontainebleau sandstone
(after JouriMe and Ziasmer.
1985).
320
tt:'
240
180
(1.5 3kHz)
~1
~
_..._ ....__../
J
FontliMbleeu~
80
0.
f
I
.,
t,
eo
eo
100
100
Sierra Wl'ltte granite
.,
60'
1
40
20
0
0
20
40
80
80
100
.Watar......,..~)
10
r~,
Vyoor porous gl
lfle
0
0
of
saturation
20
on
40
60
Water taturation I" I
attenuation.
Resonant
80
100
bar
,

'
:!OT
.........._
'.
20
o....... ....._,
0 c:.lno ..,._:
10
15
~
10
0
.,
2
3
..... volatl..
b.
Figure 5.32 provides an iHustration ofthis. AttenUation rises with the addition of liquid.
and increase$ accordina to the type 0( sample. Fiaure 5.32b shows t~ this increase
depellds on the types of fluid present in the porous medium, Fluids consisting of polar
moleeules inc:rease attenuation more substantially than other fluids.
c.
s.tw.n. tee~
Several techniques are available to obtain a Jiven saturation. For a water lair mixture,
for t~xample, the saturated sample can be dried, eeetrifuaed, or depi'CSiurized to introduce
the liquid. All these techniques yield a different distribution of the two ftuids in the porous
medium (sec Fig. S.33bJ. Attenuation measui'CIDWltS depend heavily on the saturation
tecbniques (see FiJ. 5.lla), Ud the attenuation peat shifts or disappears dependin1on the
saturatien technique employed~
a. ,,...,_.e
Fipres 5.34 and S.35 show a decreaic..il} attCJWation with risinl temperature. This
decrease is much pnter than that of velt'Jtify,. sift<:e attenuatioo varies by a fKtor of S
between 20 aftd 1OOOC (Fig. 5.36}. Tbe eti'Kt Of temperature appears to be less significant at .
partial saturations.
b.
J'isctnity
50
100
ll; IliA)
200
50
112
250 ~ : Ill
300
.,
10
;..,.,
~t~
#;t
.
....;
.~
..
JiG;
157
'
10
~'
..
"
.......
.. . .
..
.
4 p
mm
50
100
150
tm
CENTRIFUGE
(b)
(a)
.......,,,
'
..
"
. ' A "
'\
__
~ti.J., ) :
10
58
117
o Ill
liO

. . . . .#)
..
'It.
. .1
a,
"' ... ,.
~:i.:t
~~':_.,,
: f
~:,~..:
"'
;.,;. ;.,7~"'
'#
::....
... ,.......:.,....
,. . ..
. ~ : ., .......
..!' ........,. ~
., ' ...
,~~
...~.....
....,. '...
.,r.
..,.,.
.,':.....
..
: :.::
~
~!'.:.:
~
,~
, ...,,.1
DEPRESSURIZATION
5w"'7~
~
.....
''7... .., .
.'..........'.....
f!. ,::;:
.....
::,.
...... .....
.. ' .
.
~..,, .'.., ..: ','
...
............,. . .
~
'1
;. p .
I
100
100
200
2110
300
I ~150
:ws
~. t , \ if
~ A
.~
;
.~
... .
90
GENTRfl=UGE
.........atloft '"'
itt
~~~<::"'"
DEP.RESSURI%ATION
Sw=SR
... ., . :.:
100
200
2liO
300
Zl
..:
lt. Redrawn SEM photographs. Fluid distributions in the pore space are displayed by epoxy
injection. Air bubbles are shown in black.
a. Ultrasonic measurements.
v=:
90
CENTRIFUGE
............... "',
70
DRYING
10
ll!
J>\i
J...
Waterion"'l
70
DEPRESSURIZATION
I!!
90
100
'\.....~
_,
'~
'
40
50
P11 0.SMPa
i
40
Pc"'10MPII
"
~30
Pp4.5 . . .
G.IScp
0.52cp
0.34cp
O.cp
~30
~.
20
...
"
10
fl
tO
_,. I
*IV
20
Etteetiw ..,_,.tMN
'
t
40
'
.,
10
r........,,.eoc,
Pc = PpO.S MPa
''
40
6 E
e S
.0
lf!l30
~ Ttmf*ature /
E t
s 'r..,..,._'
20
'
10
10
100
120
t40
.t......... tocl
'
AI
......
,,.,
50
.,
100
'
40
Fia 5.35.
20
_,.in
120
~.
..
11
0.5
I~ o
4
2

'I
!~
I
10
...;4
2
Viscosity
TO
'
of saturating
fluid viscosity on attenuation.
Bedford limestone (ultrasonic
measurements) (after Nur.
C 1971 AGU).
100
.
'
1000
a
10
4
2
0
4
2
8
Viscosity !Poise IOf*:elel
10.
140
~==30%
120
'
24kHz
Glycwot 11turation 80%
.100
ipso
Fig. 5.39 Influence of saturating
fluid viscosity (temperature) on
attenuation in a partially
glycerolsaturated Boise sandstone (JCIOnant bar) (after Nur
et al., 1984).
'In
40
.,
20
. o' , ,
80
,
20
20
60
,
100
Temperlture (CI
.,
"
'
~,~~
~T
I
mut~~,,~~
J2
"v..ltlon
1
11I'
z
2tl
V...laoilund
0.11
1.
.............,......
~I
...._s
13
1.
!1
J
Pc10MPe
Temp.110c
ASelnt ......
lrine awreM
llu
0.4
J,fl
I
I
0
0.2
0.4
0.8
0.1
1.2
1.4
1.8
Pore....IMI'al
ol I'
0
11
, __
Pen,_. IMPel
lbl
'
GO
attaauation
The existellCe of one or more attenuation peaks appears to bedeilonstrated clearly by the
results given. These peaks are intrinsic to the liquid itself.
c.
Pluu~ clttllw~
As already discussed. temperature can cause phase changes within the porous medium.
As in the case of velocities, changes in attenuation as a function. of phase ~F of the
saturating ftuici are sigaif~nL Fipre SAO ofers two examples. A wicle. variation in
attenuation is observed at tbe vapor/liquid transition.
These wide variations are only observed on samples that are totally saturated with
liquid. For partially watersaturated samples, these \ariations are not observed (Tosaya et
al., 1985).
212
Gr.,ite +GIY<*ine
30>oG.,;N
6
Quartzite
~20
~a
10
e
..,.
QD
tb
COil
,_
10
0.1
100
Frequency (mHzl
9
Dry a.r.. sandstone
8~
7t
..  4~~1
s
50
""'

30
o:
~ 3J
tp '
;J"O%
o.,
s
~ 2ti'
E
20
~
lPc'
=0..5.MPa
aS Pc., 10 MPa
2 ..,. E
S
I
0 .
0
oE
I
. .
I
10
=t
'
Pp
tip .. a5
J .
tip o
Gh
Frequency (kHzl
Fi&~
1tc 10 Wa
Frequency (kHz)
"
r
~
125
.;.
100
.oe
t..
"') )\
Mlllltlon ldltone
75
1
50
'
':t:~
25
1::
0
O.Q2
0.1 0.2
20 ~~'''=,__
0
10
f'*IUifiCY {kHz)
L
11
tp
 
12
8
4
,.20 r[~w.;_100,._,.;...,J
b. Porous glass (Vycor) with
different saturations.
11
/...., s
12
//~
F /
E
'
~
Vyoor,poraul ....
I
'
fr~Q~MMY
11
13
15
CkHzl
'
50
WinptiiWldiUIM lletlltiUd
40
7kHz
200kHz
10
~20
'
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
. 5tlllc:IM ...........
eo
10
...
214
RESULTS AND
"l

70
MEC'HA~"ISMS
50
~]
_~
3D
20
,  . .
eo
40
10
10
100
20
eo
40
w uturMien I")
10
100
125
MaliliO'I undstone
1()0
Drv
_:
75
~
50
.,
..,"
25
,., ,/""
""
0.5
1
1.5
F,..y lltHI)
2.5
r".
....______
,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
r
''

"
1 $
'I
)1
~
fl
I
I
....:::::::.
215
'
~
fD
3(M)!
P.
=R
(5.8)
where
R pain radius,
P. = density of the material,
M = elastic modulus of the wave,
and, in the case of sqdstoneS. the fttquencyf.o is around 3 MHz.
5.1~5
AttelmatioM _. ltnias
As we ba"' seen, ~ocities arc independent o(sttam for the strain range observed iR
ppbysics ( < 10 6 ). Attenuation bebaves silaUrly (Fip. 5.47 to 5.49):
"'
(a) For deformations lower than a threshold ' of about 10 6 Q does not vary with
strain.
(b) The threshold e. increucs with risiaa prcssu~e and decreases with inacuina water
saturation.
(c) For e peater than e., attenuation decreases with risiag pressure and increucs with
incrcasinJ water saturation.
The dependence of attenuation on strain resultia,a from adtreshold.eeot, namely gftinto&rain friction (Mavko, 1979), appears to be Jlelligible at seismic strains.
'
'
'._.'
.'
AtteauatiOa decreases db risina efteetive pressure, sinc:e the effects of pore pressure
and conf'taina pressure are not inetependen( The p n oontacts and cracks play an
important role, and their presence causes su\Jitu~ attenuation and considerable
dependence of attenuation on pressure.
100
10
~ ~:::
1
~
~~
f
.
'
~\
"
0.1
~
0.01
to&
to7
to"
,~
...............,.s
108
..,3
.._,
10
 llndstone
Pc1MPa
~
Fig. 5.48 Influence of straia am
plitude on attenuation. Berea
sandstone under different confining and pore pressures (resonant
bar) (after Winkler et al. Cl 1979
Macmillan Journals Ltd~
o
.....
0.
_ _ _ _ _...,;,.,...,..:. Pc 5 MPa
...,.
Strain amp! itl,lde
50
t e M...mon Sw II S 70Hz
6 Millon Sw = 0 S  1 kHz
40
~o
OttfWII
'~w
1~30
r.
o~
~~ i
~ <,.oo"''
__________._________~._L~
7
8
s
plitude on attenuation for different saturatiQlls (t~nion pendulwn~ Massillon sandstone (after
Nur and Murphy, edited by
J,ru.lixl and Hsieb. 1981) and
Ottawa sand (alter Stott, 1979).
__
~,
4
"'
~"'
rj
I:;
"
I  '
'~
'
...,.,.,~ND'~Nars
217
_,oil
.ter
sandstone.
''
'
'
5.1.3 A.__:_.lllisms
We aucaeclod in aeasuria& the attenuation)IIII'WIDOtet' eheracterizinathe loss of energy
a ,.._ wave duriJtl ita. propqlltioa du'oulla a &iven materiaL We thus
obsened that this pa,....r, jult like velocity, varied: cxmsiderably and depoDded
strODIIy Oft lecll ~ tetaplntUe udnother physical dfccts. It remains to
undentaJHlho9i thiS loss ofeaeraya:cars. How does tMinteraction between the wave and
underpM by
218
the porous medium dilsipate enersy tlarough a Joule dfect? What is alae souroe of the
intrinsicaUenuatioa?Which mechaliismsarc N8pOnSiblc under the coaditions that are of
interest to teismic exploration? UDJite velocity, attenuation il still.poorty uaderstood.
and many mochanisms that we dcscftbc in attempting 10 answer diose qwatioos are
merely hypotheses. This. area ofrodc physics is: jn a staa of constant cbansc.
We will ftrst examine the role ofintergranularf'rietion. which was tbefocusofimportant
work in the 1970s (Walsh, 19(4 Jobnston et al., 1979). We lhall then exlnsidcr ~everal
linear mechanisms, distinguishing those that apply to .. dry" rocks (in laboratory
conditions) and those applicable to partially or fUlly saturated rocks.
5.1.3.1 lnterpuutar f~
Recent experimental measurements (Wiftkler et Jil., 1979, Wialcler and Nur, 1982,
Stewart et al., 1983, Murphy, 1982 b, Stoll, 1979) were made at strains ranghlJfrom to
to to, and revealed the iadoponcloace of velomy aiJd ~tioa .............. from
strain amplitude, if the ta~r is less than 10 6 (fjas 5.26 agd 5.47 to 5.49). Moreover, we
have mentioned that Mavko (1979) shows that intergranular friction is a .. nonlinear
mechanism with a threshold effect. This mechanism is triggered only if the deformation
amplitude is higher than a given value. Finally, the Winkler and Nur calculations (1982)
also served to show that the strain amplitude in seismic experiments was always less than
10 6 Hence all these .facts suggest that intergranular friction is not an important
phenomenon in the attenuation of seismic waves.
Yet Figs. 5.26and 5.47 to 5.49 bavelbotbown.thejmportancc=ofthe presence of water,
even in very smallproportions, in altering both the threshol$1 and the amplitude of
variation in mechanical properties as a fUnction of strain. this implies a sort of lubrication
achieved by the ftrst layers of water 'between the dift'ercnt arams.
5.1.3.2 Att'mws
~"
/"
'..'
''
~I
...
219
lOr,
'''
...
.......;.
10
,;
~
''
50
''
lf940
3D
'
20
'toL_.~~~~~~~~
,10
.... llllntioft ~)
'
n.. 5.51
''
\_./
1%. 1bis peat pollibly results from the ,,...._..,. depeDdeace of 1000/Q. If ibe
were .taken at coastaat lro.qucac:,, tllc _pe would probably be absent.
However, tbia explaaation requires ~ ~af~PUtioa.
We shall now cumioc a munber of pouible mcd1anisms offering aa qualitative
explaDatioD of attaluatiop behavior at low ~n.
~
'
'
....._,
'
''
'
'
c,.,._ ,_.
lt. lluMIIP sf
lu shown above for velockjes, the porous surface
all suds and sandstones is
bydroxylated. Tittmann et al. (1980)and SpeDCOf{l981) augcstcd that part of the energy is
diuipated by the bnakagc of hydrolia ~..eca tbe . awfagc'h)'droxyls and the
water moleculc:s, thus subJtantially doc:rouiag the fRJC surface encrJY. This attenuation
model is directly depeadent on the specific surface aQa of the porous medium: the greater
the specific area, the
Val~ of,apeciftc area and attenuation in
Vycor (Fig. S.43) and in Massillon sandstone are as~ follows:
or
Ji** . ......,
"'
~ate&
Attenuation
(tr/Jf
"~
'"'
~
'../
Vyoor ............................ .
Mauilloa~ ............... .
a :ZOO
10
1000/Q
~
;; 10 to 25
1,.
220
~.
C11piOtuy forc~s
We have shown for velocities that in the case of low saturations capillary forces may
play an important role. For attenuation at very low water saturations, part of the energy
dissipated may also result from capillary mechanisms. The mec:banism involved is again
associated with the specifK: lPlfaa: area of the porous medium, and the Vycor/sandstone
problem (see previous paragr.) again appears to arise. In fact, the vlue of attenuation due
to capillary forces depends considerably on the microstructue of the porous medium
(surface roughness, aspect ratio and size of capillary tubes) and the specif1c area per se
plays a minor role.
. Attenuation is hence the combination ofmicrocapillary hysteresis (viscous dissipation
on rough surfaces combined with the breakaac of ch~ bonds) and of mechanisms
linked to the motion of Ouids (' saturations pater than 1 to 2%).
c.
~.
"
~.
..
70
Miitalllon sandstone
2a
80
~.
60
!.!2
"
30
20
10
20
40
60
80
100
Wdlttltiii'Mion~l
"
.,
"
....,
'../
,:1
'
_,
:t
ld!IVlti'
"* tid!a~A. . .
121
(Qi 1 ) is always greater than shear attenuation (Qi 1 ) except at very JUab saturation
( > 97% ~ Also observable (Fia. s;43) is a wide variation of Qi 1 and Qi 1 as a function of
frequency, with a peak at around 5. kHz. Finally, as we have shown (Fig. 5.4S), the
attenuation peak as a function of saturation varies in position and amplitude with
frequency. These properties (peat at 5 kHz, satur~on, depebdence) arc approximately
independent of the type of rock analyied, or rather, the dcpendetl4:C on the type of rock is
very slight in compari~n with cQnaes in porosity and permeability (see Table 5.1).
We shall review tbct.111eehanisms that arc m01fcommonly used today to explain these
experimental
L
res~tlts.
DUItditHH ;, ,....,,
As discussed above in Section 5.l.3.2a,: tbis mechanism appears to be inadequate.
i!t

c. Cqilltlry forces .
At low saturations, the iPfluaiC:e 'O(t;:apillary:forccs was due to a sort of microcapillary
hysteresis. At high saturatio tlia mechanism is heace <*taialy less active, and cannot
possibly explain 'the attenuation pt8k observed (see FiB S.S2).
'
d.
Tlln11t0rela..,
''~
'"'
hl
h~
'~
..__._
....
~~
fg
TAIIU:
5.1
Type
of sample
(md)
Maximum
attenuation
....
lnvcstljatcd
rrequency
freq~ncy
"
20
617
2kHz
20
tooo
2 k,Jfz
ll
;;l:O.S kHz
;;. O.$.kHz
'().017 kHz
;;.0.5 kHz
Expc;ri.entat
conditions
'"
4>.4
Reference
kHz~3.5:.tHz
Nav sandstone . ..
Spor~ liniestone ...
OWa *!a aruite .....
14
3 Hz500 Jk
.. .
3Hz~ HZ
3 Hz'OOHJ
3Hz Hz
...
23
737
4to.kUz
JO HztOk~
28
0.01
7109kHz
1 kHzf2 'kHz
20
500
3 to 6kHz
1kHz8kHz
Ma.'lllilkm
~~andatonc
!i
1111
)
)
~r
.._..
;,
~i
:,
$
h  pore halfwidth,
D &bermal dift'usivity of the composite material.
e.
"'
'
'
'..._..
2l3
where
~~
'
amfl.n iA~~~
I''
o.sr~r~~.r,,
aA
son. 1979b).
01
:=:
.d'::
,

~
71== :=;=
'
J't
~:
'
t
Ftwquiftey Cwrl
!fJ!
Fit 5.54 Tlleoretical
thermoelastic ..uenuation vs. saturation and for dilrerent
cfepdls (alter KlartaassoD, tmb~ .
....
8.1
Fie .5.58
Theotetical
t~
samples.
lp
200
300
Tempemure C"CI
~~~~~~~~~~~'
;;:
"'
,_,..,.._~
l2S
''"
rr~r~r,~~~~
..,..tGHI
''
50
0

40
"
"'
'
<i(
'"
20
'
'
10
''
.,
0..___,__....___._ _,__.__....._...._....,.,___.___,
0
~
'
'
'
,____.'"
~
100
saturatioa.lil tile case fl FOillaiadlleau saaclstooe(fi&. 5.3la) we fmct one example of the
same ptOCIIII. 'l1!le additionofthltftnUte tOOAI ofwaterftlls the ~fain contacts of the pore
networt.leadilla to a wry apid rile iD attftuatkm. In an interpretative sense, Fis. S.3lb
for aranite is analoaous to the very low saturation behavior of Fontainebleau sandstoJle.
At very low saturations, as we have shown. other attenuation mechanisms are also
invoked (hydroxyl bonds. capillary forces~
Ft.UI/IOU IMrtilll c~
This mechanism, associated with Biot's theory (Chapter 21. accounts for relative
movements of the ftuid and solid. It is a bulk mechanism bic:h, u we haw streaed,
requires a hiahly permeable sample. This theory predicts _a substantial frequcacy
depende~ of attenuation in the ranse 10 to 100kHz for materials such as Massillon
sandstone. At the seismic fiequenclcs and at common permeabilities, the losses predicted
by this ~octet are insisftiftc:ant. Moreover, MOchizuki (1982), recently showed that this
mechanism implied attenuation values that were too low in comparison with the
fortaoina data. The equations of Biot ( 1956) and Mochizuki (1982) show tbat the c:titical
frequeaey ia proportioaa1 to tbe fluid ~ aacl that attenuation clecreaset with tisina
viscosity. Thil result ia in eontradictic,.urith,tbc experimental results of Jones and Nur
(19U) for oumple (FiJ. 5.57).
t
"
....,_.....
40
Fla 5.56
\,__..,"
"
20
226
ll
(GPIII
~
615
40
g.
~30r
20
10
0.2
Pc= 10MPa
pp=4.5 MPa
'
0.4 0.6
"
fNqiMncy X
Dyn~~nic
'
Finally, this model predicts a dependence of the c:cntral frequency on the inverse of
permeability, a dependenc:c that has never been actually observed (see Table 5.1).
~
JrUCOIII
! ,
which
Jiven by:
eva
_mecba.., ep
f/
Q)e 
(5.1())
where
For water, cue is about 109 to 1012 Hz in satura1ed sandstones. However., for rocks in the
state of partial melt, this mechanism may~ important at the seismic frequencies.
._ Rep.djlu
This is the fluid flux between the peaks aad trdups ofa strain wave, or the flux from a
high stress regioll" to a low s&ntss repon ". 'Fhi$mochanism concems a group or several
pores. It depends on the permeability of the rock and the wave amplitude. The transmitted
',

=T
""'~.....
'
..........
....
227
wave period lllust be or the l8llle order ofmapaudc utho PRBSurcrcluation time for the
mechanism to be siplifacant. MaximutD aatenuation is obtaiaed when the period alld
relaxation time are identical. or for a frequency given by:
y2
I= 4n2Co
(5.11)
where Y is the seismic velocity and C 0 the hydraulic dift'usivity. We have for the hydraulic
diffusivity41 :
CD= KKt,
"
(5.12)
where " is the pcrmeab,ility~ ~the porQSity, K 11..the bulk moclulus of the fluid and 'I its
viscosity.
'
For the usual values o(
the
fGftgoia)a
parameters:
._,
:
;
'
I a too ~Hz
'
This frequCncy is hiper ~l'l t~'one fouo4 in,~ abQve Jne4$Urements. Furthermore, it
depends linearly on the inverse permeability, Wbidl is not experimentally observed (see
Table 5.1). Fipally~ the depeadelieeof'frequcncton\tiscosityiS theinverseotth&t observed
by Jones and Nur (1983){Yaa. SS1). Hence~~ does not appear appropriate.
or
'
be..,......
'
Ji .!
f&,
b";;
~5.13)
where
b dime~'ofthe fluid dr()P,
K [I  bulk modtd"s or the ftuid,
p1
ftQid density.
(4) c, coeft'tc:ient is actually the one cWmed by Eq. (2.120) if TerzaJhi's hypothesis is made [M ""' K fl{
Eq. (2.126)] and 10  i.1
'
228
This limit frequency is about l GHz ill sandstollCI and sands. The central relaxation
frequency is given by (Palmer aad Trawma. 1981):
s
/,= K e
(5.14)
.,
where
e  aspect ratio,
K. =bulk modulus of the skeleton,
'I = fluid viscosity.
For high porosity sandstone, this frequency is about 1 to 10kHz, and the attenuation
amplitude is approximately the S&lDe as that in Massillon sandstone at 500 Hz.
This mechanism thus qualitatively explains tlie frequency dependehce obseived in rock
samples. We shall now examine the clefendence of attenual;ion on saturation. At total
saturation, in compression, the intentitial liq~id offers resistance due to its low
compressibility, and low pressure gradients are aenerated inside the porous medium. The
resulting attenuation is therefore sli&ht By contrast, in s~. the pr~ure gradients
generated are ~ter and the R$ult~ llttelluation is hiaJlef. Henee the result that Qi 1 is
greater than Qi 1 at total saturatio~ (Fi,P. 5.31 aild s.52).
, At partial saturation, the problem is totaUy dift'ereilt. The watjr,as mixture in the pores
is highly compressible, and the extensional attenuation (Qi 1 ) dominates (Q 1 > Qi 1 ).
Also the existence of an attenuation peak as a function of saturation is observed. This peak
occurs in the Massillon sandstone investigated by Murphy,1982, at;awater satwation of
about 80o/e.lt can al.sobo._.Wi&. S.<W that thepotitioa
peak varies by S% for
frequencies varyina from 570 to 810 Hz. Qualitasi_.,; dais implies a resonance
mechanism "ithiP the intorarama&ar.... At a tivu ~. tbetwophuo water/air
mixture dissipates a muiaum or atcriY if iA it _._ too oomPfC'IIIiWe aor too
iac'ompi'CNible. If the pon11 .,._aie too muea W. tha.biiJa ~bility of~ air
prevents any Ouici aetion, 8114 'tC!C .., enoru 4iltipatioA .ia the caVity. If the pores
conWn too little air, the ~y or tlackwate~. ftllitt.dlc passqc ol the wave,
Attenuation i$ virtuallyiadependeat of UI1Ptatioa. fQr satJtrations from 2to 60% in
Massillon sanc:lttoae (f'ia. S.Sl). From.& to l% ill fact, the JDiQrocacks . . . . .te the
elfect acl gcu.crate a moderate a~. From2 to fiO%. these JDiercMn.cks are still
saturated and the avcraae attenuatioa temaiDa the 111M On tbo other hand, the larae
pores are not suft'tciently watersaturated for "squish flow" processes to occur. In sintered
glass (Vycor, Fig. 5.31c) which does not possess microcracks, it has been observed that
compressional attenuation consists of a Clearly deftned peak corresponding to a single
family of pore size (the maximum inscribable sphere of Chapter 1).
......
of'_.._
Hence the squirt flow" process appears to partially and qualitatively explain the
attenuation behavior observed. However, no theory i~ ye~ ,.dequate to provide a more
quantitative 'iew of the process. It should therefore come as no surjrlse that, given the
complexity of the porous medium, no single global or local model based on arains and
spherical cavities can be adapted in detail to the fme description of mechanical behavior.
The question remains whether it is necessary to complicate the models used ad infinitum.
j
~
..
~~T
\_/
ialttif.AWJ~
229
Intrecluction
"'
it is essential to be able to measure velOc:ities and atteauations in situ for many pnctical
reasons. For example, the reconsttuction Of tile subsuiface acometry requires the
blowlecfae of velocities in situ. We areiliterested here in the r1ationship between acoustic
measuremelltl ad petrophJiical dwactotistic:t Of in Jitu materials. In fact, considering
the rite in oil prices UftOaJ other factors, the need 'bas arisen in petroleum popb)'lic:s to
determine not only the 'pometry of the beds, l>ut also their lithology, fluid content,
porosity and permeability. Sonic weD louin& ori&fnally intended as a .. simple"
conftrmation of depth for seismic sections, bas been 0.0 to approach those problems due
to its finer depth resolution. It is clear that the in situ mciasurement of acoustic properties is
an inverse problem widt ftiiiPICl to laboratory JRea~UN~DCDts. In the laboratory~ the
petrophysical proportiel(porosity aadpenatabitity.ofthesampleare weD known and She
meuuremeat isintonded to oblerw the wriatioa in acoustic: propertie$ as a fuaction of
physical parameters (twessule. temperatare). Ia the fteld, by contrast, the s;hysical
conditions (pressure, temperature) are relatively well known, and the geopbytic:ilt is
illterestcd in determining the petrophysical cbaraeteristics of the formations from the
.._
'
'./.
'~.
"..i
of years.
'
ddcb:
.._.
~
'
But the most important poiD& is &bat the frequencies employed in the laboratory are
often quite different from 'dlele employed in situ, namely about SO Hz for seismic
proapectina and 10 tlb for Well lolling. The ebaraetoristie waveleftgth in seismic
prospecting is thus quite dilrcrbt from the ~ waYCJenath in the laboratory,
aDd, since the resolution of the measurement is proportional to this wavc:!ength, in situ
meuuremeats tlwt itftelrate fonutioa
that are tarely wUform. Fmally, the
c:onstderlable frequeftcy depeDCieMe of the pt111ill (espeCially attenuation, aee for
example Fit 5.4Sr~tt ~ direCt uttapdtalten of labOratory rei\llts to the fteld;
Howewr, laboratory ~ ~ the existence of Jimit vahtea for
velockiel ad a~ uader.(Ap. S.l 'ad J.27foreumple). These limit values
are usually ealklid tetmibal wloch:les .  tltmtdal atte~ntatkms (Wyllie tt al., 1951) and
occur at efrectiw pNIIUI'II of abOUt lOO'M~ ~n1 to sediment thickaeDes in
kilometen.
j

~___,
230
In practice, and particularly for velocities, users have developed a number of empirical
laws, enabling them to deal with thcr inverse prot)~ they face. We shall examine the
results obtained for velocities, amt theft 'for attenuations, and draw conclusions on the
usefulness of these empirical taws.
~'
5.2.2 Velocities
::.,;.....,4
5.2.2.1
""
.._
wisbina to familiarize ~If with _seismic re~on measurina techniques can refer for
example to the work of CQrdier (1~83). In wdlloain& the determination of velocity is
standard, as the distance traveled is ac:cura~ly known. The absolute accuracy is very hiah,
about 1%.
~
The
1t;
==+v v, v,.
,~
(S.lS)
where 4> is the porosity, ~the \'etocity ofJhc qturated rock, ~i the velocity in the fluid, and
V,. the velocity in the rock matrix. This meaDS ~bat, if the type of rock, saturating ftuid and
velocity are kno1m, the porosity can be catculated. The matrix velocities are given below
for three major families of 'fOCks (from Schtmilberaer Co., 1971).
v.
(mfs)
Dolomites ................ ,
S488to S950
6!tOO to 1000
7000.to 1925
This extremc.l.y ~pie equat.ioD noaed1eless requires many precautions for its use. The
vcloQties are :quito different at shallow cicptbdrom those aivcn by Eq. (5.15). Fiaurc 5.59
shows that, at biah.poroliUu. thee~~ poiJUadeYiatefrom theaverase.curve (it ia
not possible to apply a suftlcieot stress to~ uoconsolidatod.samplc,s, and the concept of
terminal velocity boc:omes mea~). Fisuro 5.61 dearly shows that, at atmospheric
pressure, the velocities of Fontaiacbleau ~roaes differ substan&ially from the average
velocity (up to 40%). The apP.ication of a uaiuial stress of S MPa reduces tllis deviation
from the average velocity to a maximum of 15 to 20%.
i'
I
I',
~,
''
'i.''"' t,: ~ (
Velocity Cllmltl
3.5
4.6
'~<<I "!
:~
Ytllollty lkmltl
35
110
30
80
25
_60
~
20
~so
g
:
15
40
............
10
e Tripolhl
W......S
90
.,
Trwel
tm. Clts/ftl
120
110
100
eo
70
QI
5()
110
140
120
100
10
F~&
1.1'
30
25
!:zo
~
J
~
11
10
6
0 ''
1).2
II
o.a
Poillon's ratio
~.
FJa. 5.60
lS" I
10
40
'
35
,.,
1977).
200
110
160
140 , .
J
. . ' ..
'
..
'
I
40
232
5.5
?:
.:
.....
Sw=100%
4.5
500kHZ
3.5
3
20 .:
15
10
30
25
PorCIIity "')
,,. .:1
..
!5
8?: ...5
l
...t
... I
4
3.5
Sw100%
....
500kHz
<..',
u
0
15
20
Porosity I'K. I
10
25
30
The only intrinsic velocity being teqnina} velocity, it is the only 'one that should be
introduced into an equation such as that of Wyllie. Thu&~ndercompacted materials fail to
satisfy Wyllie's equation. Moreover, it has been pointed Qut that, at very high and very low
porosities, Eq. (5.15) is 'inadequate. Jd,Oy authors have proposed a modified Wyllie
equation, such as Nafe and Drake(1963) arid more recently Raymer et a/.(1980). The latter
propose the following equatipns :._,
Consolidated rocks:
.<35%
V =(I 
(5.16)
t/>
lt/>
~::~*""'"?VI"
pv p1 v 1
p.Vr
(5.17)
.,
>"
....
1
I
~tt~tliD~~
133
The comparison with Wyllie's equation is given in Fig. 5.62. Figure 5.63 gives a
porosity /velocity Idationship for uncoasolidat61 ocean floor scdimcats, and Fig. 5.64
shows a correlation with experimental data and average regression lines for sandstones,
limestones and dolomites.
To a certain degree, it is therefore possible to relate velocities and porosity in a
biunivocal manner. The extrapolation of porosity from velocity will have to be performed
with precaution, as Eqs. (5.1 5), (5.16) and (5.17) are empirical experimental relationships
and not physical laws.
(5.18)
where
p ==density in aJcm 3 ,
V = velocity in m/s.
Moreover, we know that the density of a given totally saturated material is related to the
densities of the matrix p., of the saturatiq Ruid p1 , and the porosity t/J:
p .. p,(l 
+ tflp,
(5.19)
Equation (5.18) .:an therefore be transformed by means of 4. (5.19) into a Wyllie type
of equation:
(5.20)
V V( p., Pt)
v,.,
+ 5.8
+ 3.7
(5.21)
(5.22)
234
R!:SULTS AND
M~CHANISMS
100'
80
~60
i2
j_40
20
O''"
80
60
..,
I
120
140
,.,
I
180
200
Fig. 5.62
Velocity (kmlsl
100
Fft. $.0
4!
Rt 1M
C\f
oo/
al.. 1980).
c:4,
Vlloclty lkmls)
% /O
oolacD
7.5 8.5
," I
3.5
2.5
,,
... .

4o
e~
i3G
~
40~~._~~
180
110
200
210
4.5
so~~~~~T~,r~~
0/0 0
'
o
u s
l~
... ,
.,..
~ le1Urftld
. , ...
10
0
40
50
80
70
80
90
100
Travel tm. fj.q(ft)
110
120
130
140
....,7
 ,, 
"~ ~
f1a. 5.65
~ Compreuional velocity/
daiJity rdatioaabip iD various
sedimcau (after Na(c and Drake.
'
I
i:!!.
~
I
3
"'~
1~_.~
1
2
3
llulkchNity
7
14
f.
....
'
2.5
1.5
or
1974).
1.1
2.4
2.1
'._..
2.8
6r~
3.5
Vs
Vp
Peff 40 MPI
6.5
Pett=40MPa
s.too"
s.=100"
.>/.
4.5
"jj
~
2
3.5
31
Jh.
20
40
'
80
1.5 1
'
80
20
40
"\
60
(a)
(b)
'
80
v,.
PctOMh
0"
4 .............
.f
10
11
'20
POI'OIIty
Fft. 5.68
"'J
25
30
''
USULTS
AND~
237
These eqations allow a better estanation of porosities if the velocities aaa tbe ~verage
day C01ltent kaowa. They olwioully depend on the differeatial. preuure applied.
Finally, h1ce the fonlaoiDi eqpations, . tltey empirically enable the eVIIIaation of one
parameter if the mnaininJ two are bown.
V,.==B(~n
(5.23)
where
~ depth in meters,
B = constant equal to 46.6 for Faust's samples,
v,.  compressional velocity in m/s,
~ == age of the sediment in years.
In carbonate sections, a general equation of type I5.23) is difftcQit to determine. This is
because tu role of compaclioa isleas uniform titan in shale and sahd sections. Jowsky
(1970) nevertheless proposed a qepession of the'ame type (Fia S.70). or sands, Gardner
et al. (1974) and Domenico (1977) proposed the ,elocity/deptll relationships shoym in
Fis S.7L.:Siilhl~amobservable in comparison with faust"s rclatioe that result
from specific pressure aacl coatpacd6n elwacteristics.ltiliatefestinj to note that a power
f.
'
where tit the vertical propaption time, offers a auess at the type of lediments analyzed. If
the law applies, it is pneratly a normally compacted shale and sand section. If not, it may
consist of carbonates or evaporites. or even of hi&hlY tectonized rocks, or series that have
undergoae erosion after b\lrial. In this latter case velocities are higher than the ones given
by Faust's relation. If velocities are lower, the formation may consist ofundercompacted
shales or very biJb porosity series.
Finally, as we pointed out for~ previous relations deanna with in situ velocities this is
only an empirical law to qproximaiHhe depee of compaction of deep sediments. Several
variations of Faust's relation exist, and these are neither more or less accurate, but merely
indicative of slightly differetrt sediments.
;;4
l
!
D .luralicTri.aic
oea.us
A~OE
"~
0''lln
o Tertlety
......._,
Qlpth ClPnt
0.5
.,,
e
~
1u
2
...('
....onn.. ,
''
e
~
J
._.,,...
lrlne...ct
Fig. 5.71 Compressional velocity/depth relationship for different types of sand (after
Domenico, 1977).
2.5
, _ OM!ocity (kllllsl
3.5
'"~
s
5.2.1.6
,.
dSULW'Atlt
~'
239
The ratio ( v,. /V5 ) of lonsitudinal velOcities ( V,.) to transverse velocities ( V1 ) corresponds
onetoone with Poisson's ratio v:
Jj.""
1$
J2(l 
Y)
(5.24a)
1  2v
or
,. = O.S(V,./Vsf 
(S.24b)
(V,./I's)l. 1
............
.we
Dry~_. . . . . . . . . . .
'
.
0
0.1
l'
0.2
.~~
~.3
OA
o.a
......... ,.tlo
J11e. 5.71
penonal correaponcleDee~
._/
'
Hip values of Poisson's ratio ( > 0.35) (or high ratios Y,/l's) correspond to
UllCOIUOlidatcd rocks. Compact rocks dispJe;y P~'arati9!1~ 02 aaci0.3S.Yt'bile
ps sands have a very low Poisson's ratio, about O.l.ln watersaturated sands, by contrast,
Poislea's natio ia about 0.4. A awnbcr of average values of P aod S wave velocities are
pvea in Table 5.2. 1be for:qoiaa c:orrelalions bctweea ~ type of rock,. saturation and
Poissen's ratio (Fig. 5.72) are merely indicative values .Uowiaa the ppbysicist to focus
on the polosical cbarac:tcristics of.tbc rOICks inVC!It.i8ted.
'
r=
3.E
.__/
.__/
All the empirical equations that we have pointed out show that, if v,. is known, or
preferably v,. and J's, a pas can be made u to the Bthol()ay arid the porosity (but virtually
nothins about the saturation) of the material stUdied. This is not illtended to determine
precise values but to set limits between which dW: true nsponse. should lie. It is also
important to point out that, strictly spcakins, tbe foreaoina equations are strictly
applicable only to the samples investigated. since variations exist from one type of sample
to another.
240
5.2
Type of formation
Scree, vegetal soil ............
Dry sands ..................
Wet sands ..................
Saturated shales and clays .....
Marls ........... , .........
Saturated shale and sand sections
Porous and saturated sandstones
Litnestones ................
Chalk ......................
Salt ........................
Anhydrite ..................
Dolomite ...................
Granite .....................
Basalt ..... , ................
Gneiss ......................
Coal .......................
Water .... :: ...............
Ice .........................
Oil ............. .............
WAVES
Pwave
velocity
(m/s)
S wave
velocity
(m/s)
Density
(g/cm 3 )
300700
4001200
15002000
11 ()()..2500
100300
1.72.4
1.51.7
1.92.1
2.02.4
212.6
2.12.4
2.12.4
2.427
1.82.3
2.12.3
293
2.52.9
2.52.7
2.73.1
2.52.7
1.31.8
1
0.9
0.60.9
~~
100SOO
400600
200800
7501500
500150
8001800
20803500
35006000 20003300
23002600 11001300
45005500 25003100
4000SSOO 22003100
35006500 19003600
4!006000 .25003300
284103400
~
44005:200 21c.3200
22002700 10001400
14501500
34003800 17004900
1200125<>
...
'
Density of
constituent crvstal
(g/cml).
2.65 quartz
2.65 quartz
2.65
271
2.71
21
quartz
calcite
calcite
halite
'

!.2.3 Attenuations
~.1.3.1'
Ia situ .......................
~'
'~
(S) The EVA tool (Elf Aquitaine trademark) has S transmitters and 12 receivers.
(((
..._
(((((
,'.),'.
~~~
...~

V.U.IIF.S Of
Type of rock
Location
Limon (Colonulo)
Depth
1m)
Measurement
frequency
(Hz)
Q,.
apparent
50450
32
SOll
2
181
Sandy day
Clay/saM
()..3
330
30150
IS0300
50400
Clay/saad
117D1770
Saadlaad . . . .
1'7102070
" 125
So.at.....T8aJ
Sandbaab.Jftll tiltyahale
Southeast Texat
Mostly . .
Sand (23%} aad clay
Sand (2C)4l afld
20102850
9$01560
JSf01800
t8Ci).2100
..
Ofl'shore lovisiana.
(~
.
/1':
Southeast Teaas
Hcauf~t
Loam/saitdfcl&y
Sands and..._
Houstottt.

clal
Sand(~ aifd'~)'
Sea (('anada)
otfshore
SiliccoU. chaJit
6GOIS60
50400
50400
"125
"us
" 80
" 80
c;80
c;80
15
136
67
> 273
28
52
>'273 .,
30
41
> 273
>1020
._ RO
1540
4()..70
!i4CJ 1193
9451311
12S
425
278442
50001 5,000
4425H2
on avcraJlC
50001 5,000
2H
15901755
~1320
Baltimore

'_:
___
TAILI! 5.3
Q MF.A.~IRF.Il IN SF.Il1MI1NT!I
0225
Pierre sllale
28
55
References
corrected
McDonald
(1958)
..
Tudos
(1969)
et
and
Reid
"5
,.:
(
,,;
:;
Haup(I9Bt)
;:
46
> 273
34
94
43
67
68
on average
at.
'
67
> 273
31
109
> 273
37
Goldberg (1985)
( l,
~
242
5.2.3.2
Results
The pessimism expressed above must be moderated by the results obtained in the
laboratory. In fact, attenuation is a difftcult parameter to measure. but provides
considerable infonnation concerning the medium investigated. especially with respect to.
saturation. Figure S.73 shows that knowledge of attcmuations and velocities provides a
better defmition of saturation than that allowed by knowledge of velocities alone.
.4 ~
,r
0
0
Vp
I
0
01>0
oO
r...itlon Andst
Drv
6 . .,
2 1
P'illly a1Ur~
Fully a1Ureted
Sierr White gr.nite
, t::
0 Plrt;.Hy a1Ur~
Drv
2.0
1.5
Drv
l
I
::j
1.5
2.5
~to
0,
0~
0.0
Pattilllly . . .reted
0 fully~1MI
6
'(6
I
1.5
Orv
0 f'ltrt;.Hy 1Ur111MI
.... 0
0
9_
2.5
Vp/Vs
Vp/Vs
Cl
(bl
"""te
Although. oa the averap.~tenua~ rises with porosity, Figures S.i4 aad S.1S show
that attenuation/porosity. relationships appear to be less simple than velocity/porosity
relationships. Hence, with. the attenuat;iort parameter,lhe possibility exists of obtaining
comple11lentar)' data ab"Gut the porous medium. Nur n Gl. (1980) pointed out that S wave
attenuation and permeal>ility couldtJe correlated; Wesball discuss a possible explanation
of this in the next Chapter.
.
.
.
~
.4
,__,~
'
j
243
1000r
o,
L1.0
tocl
\00
' ...
....
lgneoulll'ld rocks
*Me_...e.lc
101
..
Ll"*'
....._
....... _ol
10
0,1
Porolity
FiJ. 5.74
(~I
1979~
'~
500 L
400
1
1~:t
100 L
Op (500 kHzl
a1 =0
sw = 100%
.,..
10
'
15
Op (&00 kHzl
200
= 5MPa
Sw= 100~
a,
!..!!!9 150
Op
260
,.
!10
'
20
25
30
...
10
Porality(~)
'
100
15
20
25
PorOiity (~1.
...
30
v~r
~
~
.
i
'f.
:':l
',,;,
.. ;
~~
i
waves and intertaces
'.../
INTRODUCI'ION
'./
'.."_
"''
_/
"'
....
..__/
~
"../
~
''
....,
____
_/
~,
246
c~todynamic
seiamics in which a source is immersed in a fluid and acts near a permeable interface.
6.1.1
Boundary conditions
,
lSI
"
M.dlum1
Medlum2
(6.1) '
The second condition is the CODICI'Vation of fluid mass and hence the continuity of' the
flow through the interface. This amounts to writins the continuity of the filtration velocity
component in the direction n, which we shall denote w,.:
w
11
.:.ell,.
= W!lln
"'I
I
I
I
"
(6.2)
The fmal conditions to be expressed are the socalled natural conditions, derived from
Hamilton's principle and ~with the~Mcroetopk:ltresseso17 and pressures P''' at the
interface. These conditions were obtaieed by Deietiowia aad Sk.alak (1963). We shall
adopt a presentation here ,tbae is close te their oWn, but in agreement with that of
Chapter 2.
Just as in Section 2.2.2.3, where we defaned a volumetric pseudopotential ofdissipation,
we shall also define here a peeudopomuial of dissipation per unit a~ea o. relatie to the
interface, defined by :
D,=1~
2rc, "
(6.3)
where " has the dimension of a hydraulic permeability per unit length. The parameter "
characterizes the permeability of the interface,, and hence the interCOftftCCtion of the two
porous media (iee Fig. 6.2).
'""
''
r
l
.,.,..~ 't111'1t1VMB
2i47
Fipre6.2acorrespoadstoacueinwbidlaUdacbannelaaamllllicate(thl'illterfaceis
said to be opcB) aDd " is theNfore illfmite (K, co, ao dissipation). Fipre 6.2c n:p~aents
the cue of aeoaled iMerfacoaad K, 0, 10tbat, u shown lator on,
O(no filtration).
Figure 6~ (0 < K, < co) com.ponds to an iatermecliate cue. Tbaa ill a borehole. the
parameter K, can model the effect of a ''mudcake";orof a tlooded zoae. if the latter is
sufkitntly thin to be treated u a resion without thickness.
w.
Open lnwflce
................
Medium 1
lllldium2
._,
Cal
rzz::J sOlid
(bl
ph.
(cJ
c:JUquldpt._
Fi&. 6.l Simp~ cJil&rap ohn intorfacc botwee&. two porous media (after
Deresiewic!:i and'Stllal; 1963).
' ,. ' '
,
The variational formulation of Chapter 2 can then be resumed, addint the surface
potential t() the velumettio 4illip.don poteDdaa dclft1led by &q. (4S.3~ Hamilton's
principle al'wAy& leads tothnalile lieN eqMdont reiMed to tk medium concerned [i.e.
uu t111 Mld p ~. w,."f'', .,  flf, I lor 2 m (2.87}]. FurthermoN. under
conditio(6.1)and(6.l). dletoll...._ift1e8ral iiiMMIId IIIICUGelled:
'
'
d.t
d.t  0
(6.4)
portioG of dac, 4atc.rf8cc S is IUtJittarJ, iq. (6.4) daw:_. ...,....t41J ~ the nullity ol the
two intcaraJa. Thus from tbe lint oae.:
~Jln1
o1Jn1
(6.S)
Condition (6.5) represents the 'continuity of the macroacopic stress vector at the
interface crossing. This is the equivalent of:
~~~
on a surface where the surface force ~ is. imposed. The
W11 a  K,(pCll p(ll)
~
~~
~
condition gives:
(6.7)
Condition(6.7), in which iJp  ,C2l  p(l) represents the difference in pressure prevailing
on either side of the interfac:c (or of a mudcake), is nothiq other than Darcy's law
governing the fluid flow across the interface. It may therefore be noted that, for
';'
2118
(open interfKC~the fmitcness ef:tbe flow gives rise to a zero pressure difference
(~p pl 21  rP 1  0). For " 0 (sealed interface). no flow is obtained (w.  0).
It is dear that " depends notoaly on the eeotaet geometry between lbe two media; but
must also depend oa the frequency (iloanbaum. 1974).. if the latter cornsponds to a
wavdeagththat is not large in comparison with the dimeosioDJ of the elementary volume,
but only in comparison with those of the. channels in wbicb the Oow takes place. In this
case. permeability is no longer absolute but relative to the frequency, on which it depends
(BioL 1956 b). The experimental determination of " for application to .actual cases
(mudcalce for example), is nonetheless a delicate matter. Hence aU the theoretical
investigations consider oaly the limiting cases " "" 0 and " = <X> (Geerstma and Smit,
1961. Rosenbaum. 1974, Feq aiad Johnsoo, 1983). .
Equations (6.1), (6.2), (6.S)and(6.7) are knee the socalled nat1,U'al boundary conditions
that must be satislied at .tbo interface or two saturated porous media. It must be
emphasized that, contrary to the inconect preaontation adopted by Deresiewicz and
Slcalalc (1963). for a Hamiltonian fQnnuJation of the problem, o~ Cannot, independent of
this formulation, introduc:x: the constitliti\'ic equation (6.7) govetning tbe ftow at the
interface. In fact, this equation is a consequence of Hamilton's principle. To apply the
principle, it is necessary to account for all dissipations, adding the potential of dissipation
per unit area (6.3) to the volumetric poten&ials of dissipation. Giveri their clear physical
signiftcance, one could obviously hav~ introduced (6..5) and postulated (6.7). However,
a pan from the fact that this presentation woUld not bcin~t with the Hamiltonian
presentation of the theory developed in Chapter 2, the procedure would also have
obscured the socalled natural character of (6.5) and (6. 7), by conferring on them a more
heuristic value.
Two specifiC eases "iH be~ below. F~ eoaaiGor the case or a {fee surface.
Equations (6.1) and (6.2) then . . . . . .r. Equatioa(66) iueplaced .by Eq. (4.6). where we
ICIC j, ==
Ia t6.:7), P' 21 0 and bene~ p .. p' 11 0, ~\IICtolal interc()niiiOetion exists
(open interface, '" cc ). Ia the cue :Of a. frce. udae.. ;mC i*lCiitio arc. tilus:
"  JO
o.
tln=O
Free surface { . 11 1
p==O
(6.8)
The second cue tonsidered ii that Of the reftection. attlle iBtetfaee of a pOrous 'Bledium
(medium l)ilndofaftuidmedium{tliedhlm 2).1nthisc:aseEq. (6.1)cfisappean.Moreo~.
since the fluid corresponds to unit porosity, the ftltration vector seen from thetluid side is
reduced to \\1 21 = Ul 21  fl1 1 ' where iq 2J is the average fluid velocity. Furthermore, the
stresses in the fluid are reduced to a hydrostatic pressure, whereas (6.7) remains
unchanged. Finally we obtain:
w = W. 11 n = (UP1
II
Interface
Porous mediUm l~fluid2
w. =
p<21
......
il.ll)n.
I
I
(6.9)
 "(p(l)  pill)
'
.,
........
'=''r
~
tl49
WA81 A.'IMIIli'MIIS
...
'~
''
~
~,
'''
v"
.''
''
"'
Let us farst introduce the ratio Z of acoustic impedances correspondinl to the incident
wave:
"'
z _!.e.!!!
.__.
In (6.10). Vis the wave velocity for a closed meclium (i.e. no relative motion between the
ftuid and the overall movement). With the notations from Chapter 2, it may be recalled
(6.10)
(pY).
~=
C''; l#J)'
l
Incident $ wave:
Ys (~Y
(6.11)
(1) It is always possible to approaima&e ,vave frpD~ ~ ~y low curvature loc:aUy by tlMir taaaent
planes. For any wave front. a couJ)Iitla OCICUfs ~'thf lriSftt pometry and the iaterface, and it is Uceual')' to
employ 6Der theories such u til<* oh&)'S (Cerveny ~r Iii., 1917).
~
''
...
250
al
41
= 2nfc =;;;:
(6.12)
PpJf
where~
""'
WCN
For an S wave at normal incidence, only the S waves are evidently transmitted and
reflected. lbe coefftcients are then given by:
zz (. ~w ~w )z
2[ z2. .( w. w )2
T :1 + Z I +.4(1+ zl' 7t al,_ Q7
R
1 z [
T+Z 1 + (1 + Zf
y1
y2
exp (i tan
where
}' = <I>Pt
...,
8,.)
(6.13)
,.
9.1 d
i2
'
_ ]
:.Zzi ( ;; "yz ~)
(6.14)
(J))
(J)
OT = z ( 21'1 ;
1+
(1)1
These equations correspond to an expansion to the nearest second order in wfw< [i.e. up
to (w/wc) 2 ]. Note, to begin with, that, if w  0, the classic reflection (1  Z)/(1 + Z) and
transmission 2/(1 + Z) cocfticimts are obtained: Moreover. they depend on w2 , thus
differing from the same problem in viscoelasticity (see Section 6.2.3.2).
The flow conditions at the interface, characterized by the parameter Ks. have no effect on
reflection and transmission of the S waves. This is nonaal. ~cause shear waves induce no
pressure and hence no flow at the interlace. The influence of Biot's mechanisms is only felt
by the dissipation induced by the competitive effects of permeability and inertial forces,
thus the only forces responsible for flow in the media. but not across the interface. Thus
transmission is complete (T = 1) in the ftrst ord~r term of w d if Z = 1. In the second
order term of wfw<, the order in which the twophase character prevails for the case of S
""'
...,,
..,
...,
..,
~
""
.
~,
' ,i
""
:..
2Sl
ft"'WIAD~
'
waves, it is also necessary that the quantity ,Pp1 /pof = :Kp}lp be continuous
[substitution of(6.12) and(6.14) into (6.13)]. In fact, this quantity quantifies the foregoing
competitive effects. These d'ects must .then act similarly in both media in order for the
phase dift'crcncc between Ruid motion and macroscopic motion to be the same on either
side of the interface, and for transmission to be complete.
b. CIIIC of a iltciMIII P1 wc
The tr&Mmisaion and rctlcction codlieieata corrcspOildina to aa W:idont P1 wavoand a
transmitted or rcftected ~wave arc denoted yw and ~. Tbc sublaiptj is 1 fot waves of
the r.m kind and 2 for dlc wave of the seconcl kind or slow wave. For rcftected and
transmitted P w~ves, we !)btain : "
.. . .
..
., . .
1
R'u
fUl 
1Z
1
+ z (1 + 60 ) exp (i tan  1 80 )
,m
1 z) exp [ i tan (1~
 z8 )]
+2Z(~18
1
0
(6.1S)
where
(6.16)
with
'[(1  pm)rrryJ
fJ
l
. .
m== fJM g=
.1.1 + 21',
(6.17)
for media l and 2 and where fJ and M arc the coefftcients of 1Siot"$ theory (see Chapter 2.
Section 2.2.2.1 ).:;
, ~
For reflected ud tralll.itte&t 1\ waYCS:
TC 21
"'
where
81 =
Jj(t ~
Z
m1
m1
m2
80
Bz == (~ :. 1 . ~~2 ) 1  z2 Bo
1 + Z rc.p 1 V,, m1  m2 ~ .
.
.1 fla ~:flit
.. .,zZ (lz
oft
,~
(6.19)
2S2
with
4, t/131fPt
p(p,fp m)
(6.20}
In (6.20). q is a shape factor that depends on the geometry ottbe pore network. It
from a more elaborate theory than the one developed in Chapter 2 (Biot, 1956
average value is
Among other factors, it is related to tortuosity" by
ah,
acoefticient eharacceriziog thecapitlary CI'OSSaectioa (Ia ~ 8 fot' ein:uJar JeCbOIII, h
for infmite pennyshaped cracks).
r
JS.
concerned is felt to the first order in (Q)/0>1i for tb.e ftlflection of a P1 wave, as opposed to
the case of the reflection of an SV wave, for which the influence is only felt at tbe frrst order
in (.1)/0Je. This inftuence is mainly exerted through the contrast, of tbe quantity m defmed by
(6.17). Ifthis quantity]J continuous (i.e. m1  ,.2 ), Eq. (6.16) gives 80 = 0 and Eqs. (6.17)
then show that the reflection coeft"tcicnts AC 1 ' and transmission coefticients TC1 1 are
reduced to the classic cocfticicnts of elastodynamic:s (1  Z)/(1 + Z) and 2/(1 + Z). This is
understandable considerina tJle ~QCC
Let us recall the defmition of the
macroscopic stress (see Chapter 2):
or ....
t~,1 =
If we set
t~.,
(6.21)
tr ~ ==
mt
(6.22)
We have just shown that the contrast Am= m 1  m2 uerted a considerable influence
on the reflection and tran~on coeftic:icntuelative to the P1 wave corresponding to the
classic compressional wave in elastodynamics. Thus total transmission occurs for .1m = 0.
However, even when m1 = m2 slow waves er MCODd kind P2 waves are always generated.
This is understandable because it is tho ~tual movement of the interface (and not the
additional macroscopic stress, which is 'zero for m1 == m2 ) which generates slow waves in
return. For m 1 = m2 , this effect nevertheless depends on w/O>c to the first order (factor
8182) whereas it depends on (w/w1 112 in the general
case. .
~r;_
'' '
~".;.
''
~
'
253'
WAVII . . DSI~
It shoulcl ftnaUy be noted that the permeability .of tbe interface .rc, bu ao eft'ect (to the
tirst onlcr in CIJ/of} ncept t1uuaJb the factor f 1 82 [aee (6.18)]. aad hence only for slow
waYeL This is UDCientaa4able becaute it is always the mac:t'OICOI'ic moW~DCtDt of tbe
interface that can generate a fluid flow MI'OII:dlc iDtelface ill the ctirectioa Gppt)Sitc to the
propaption direction of the iacident waws.
Equations (<6.12) and (6.1S) to (6.19} pvc Dllults correspoadiag to a number of limit .
cases. Let us therel'orc auume thatoeeofdle two media is impermeable. Tbis correspoads
to Ulumina for this medium aa iBflnite ~ anautar frequency [.1'" = 0 in
(6.12)]. Now let u assume that the iDc:ideat waw canes from tlae permeable medium (i.e.
crfz ..,. + GO). This does not aeacnto U}' aipifiamt~YC ChaJlF for tbe problem of
the iacideat S wave.(aft w.~ .... +eo (6..UO. Fer th8 problem of an im:idcnt P
waw from. a pcrmcabk naedium,. _Ecp. (6.1S) ta {6.1sa) show that, to tbe aearat second
order in ...;;;;r;;i:
Hll==lZ
1 + z
y<u.~
t +Z
p;
Rll _ ~
; ..,...
(0
(
.d .....up
l+Z of
Jt)2
(6.23)
...;;;;r;;i
ym ~ on (J)/iff).
Another interestinlspeciftecase is tbe one in which one of the two mec:f'1a is a'ftuid.ln the
limitina cue ol a. fluid, the parameters introctuced into Biot'a theory (Chapter 2) are
reduced to:
ll ==0
;.1 == M
fl1
a l
~ ... +ex>
..,
'
,_
(6.~4)
'~
254.
slows down its proBR*ion by giriag rise to shear stresses of viscous orilin at the
liquid solid interi'ace. In tbecue of a luid medium. this interface does not exist, and the
assumptiOA of a perfect luid can be ablined. because disaipatiOA within the Ruid is
nqligible far from the walls lor I~ viscoJity Ruids.
Substituting (6.24) into (6.1 5) to (6.19) to determine the case of the Ruid/porous medium
interface is in fact irrelevant, becaual, accordins to (6.24), w" + 0 and the limited
developments in w/aJ~ for tludluicl pbue are ao loftFr valid. The entire problem lllUst
therefore be reconsidered, butitasedoaboulldary eonditions(6.9), to develop a function of
wlaf whtn of is the characteristic aagutar frequency of the other pcnneabte medium.
Geerstma and Smit (19tH) pafonaed the Corresponding computation. The qualitative
results agree with the tJC110l'81 reaul&s, .ia other words the pneration of reflected and
transmitted P1 waves with a firit order eotrective term in j(i{ai, the generation of a slow
P2 wave in the permeable medium with a ftrst order coefftcient in j(i{ai.
c.
porpsity t; = 29.7%
permeability K = 1900 ml>
Teapot sandstone
Berea
~ndstorie
porosity
pel'JDel.~ty
i 9o/o
K
= 200 mD
1 cP
to* kl/arl
lSOO m/s
GraiDS (silica)
Density ..........................................
Bulk modulus ...................... ~ ..................
Matrix
Berea sandstone
P wave velocity
S wave velocity
T~pot sandstone
P wave velocity
s wave velocit:r
F oxhills sandstone
P wave: velocity
2650 kg/m 3
3.19 x 1010 kg/m/s 2
................................ ..
....................................... .
3670 mjs
2170 mis
3048 m/s
186S m/s
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ..
44SOm/s
2S1S m/s
...
:;;r~
"'
'....
~~~yft)'~OW..
255
In the ftrst case. we consider an incident P wave (Fie. 6.3) and an incidentS wave
(Fig. 6.4) coming from one of the two porous media.
P1l
lA(1)
Parmedium1
tRC2l
JOl
'
yC11
rnecllurft 2
6r,
'
1<2)1
'5
Prop.tf2
IJ2
~
,,
0
~'!.~!~_:..
""
.....................................
~
rl' . . . .
F......,....CIIHzt
28
30
ofthe~lilileclioecoetftcleM
R'dtbe 1\ wave
....._.toModulwa
the elutk rel'ectioa .....(ot tbt P, wawt a fuDctieD
(cue an
wave). Tbe curves identilted as
... U
''
\0.
..,_lilftdatJFOldtills Uflllltt.
or
frequency
or incident P1
Me
follows:
porous medium (I)/porous II'IO!Itium (., The wave approaches from
medium (1). Note that. for the reftec:tion and traDsmission <:Oeffic:ients 11< 11,
ym and 2l, the quantities
A.. A. ., ,
and
are lower
T<
IT(2)1
T_.
than 10%. The symbol el stands for elastic: and meus that the reflection or
tnnvri,;Oil coeffiCieats are~ at. ia..betwelm two dutic
media or that daae ooctT&<;icnts are QQIDPIUid.at ZeFO frequency.
'
lntbe IICODCI caK, we consider an iacililent I' wave comiat from the Suid medium
(water) (Fig. 6.S).
To identify the differences betweea poroclulielllobavior aa4 purely elastic behavior in
terms of wave roflectioa and trui!lsioa. Fip. 6.3_to 6.S show. as a functioe, ofliequency
(up to ~ut 30 kHz. i.e. frcqueQel used in aco~ wdlloqiq expcrhDcnts): '
(a) The modulus of the mative .deviations of poro'elastic Rfltction R", and
256
transmissiQn T 1il coeft'tcients ofthe P1 wave(i = l)and the Swave(i = S)in relation
to the elastic reflection (R.,) and transmission (T.,) coefticients (i.e. at zero frequency
hence zero Biot effect) (Fags. 6.4 abd 6.S).
(b) The modulus of the reflection R', and transmission "fC3tcoell'lcionts of the P2 wave
related to the elastic reflection and transmission coafticients respectively of the P1
wave (Figs. 6.3 and 6.5).
s
RfSI
...._medium1
...._medium2
4r~~
jR(S) _
RJ
laJ "2
0 1
Fie 6.4
 .1
'f ...... ~~fioldlit
..,"
............
:r.;;r.~
30
20
10
fN~a~lncvlkHz)
IRfSlR~ l
$...,_
A.,
or the poroelastic
Tbe~ideQcif'IOd:u
~.
?::,:_~.if
J'J ,
...,....,........,..
yl21
~~~~~~
jattl_ ...~"20
"''"
_____
... _...
.....1......_~=.,__.. .....
...,,...............
:;..,..."..................
..

:~
10
20
Fnquency lkHit
(a)
r~
10
trt'' yJ,.
jTJ
Pro.,.'t '"
5
~
~"::~~
___ :.
.. ,
,. , _ ....   .:.,,,~~~...............

10
<)
10
f~Hzt .
40
.~,
!;.
~"(e)
,..,,12
~~~......
... ~..n.
...........
~
to
io
Frequency lkHzl
F1a
"'
258
is greater than the same deviation in the case of an incident P1 wave (Fig. 6.3) ( ~ 1%)
which is not shown.
As predicted. the effects are much greater if one of the two media is fluid (see scales in
Fig. 6.5) than if both media are porous (see scale in Figs. 6.3 and 6.5).
The reflection Rf2 , and transmission T'n coeff'tcients of the P2 wave are not at all
negligible (Fig. 6.5c and also Fia 6.3) compared with. the reflection and transmission
coefficients of the P1 wave. Thus, in thecase of Teapot sandstone (fig. 6.5c), the ratio of the
transmission coefficient T 121 of the P2 wave and the elastic transmission coefficient ofthe P1
wave reaches 30% at 30kHz in very permeable Teapot sandstone (K = 1900 mD).
Tho deviations are proportional to the squareQf the frequency (Fig. 6.4) in the case of
an incident S wave, aad. to the square root of the frequency (Figs. 6.3 and 6.5) in the case of
an incident P wave. Moreover, the elfocts are stron,er with more permeable media.
It must be emphasized that dle orders of magnitude given above for the transmission
and reflection coefficients concern an open interface. The effects are slight for a sealed
interface (one order higher in w/af).
In the light of these results, it appears that if both media are porous and permeable, or if
one is fluid, the P 2 wave reflection and ta,lnsmission coefficients are not at all negligible.
The generation of reflected or transmitted P 2 waves participates in the total energy
balance and contributes in a nonneJligible manner t~ alter the P 1 wave reflection
coefficients. However, owing to the high attenuation of P 2 waVes in comparisoo with P 1
waves (see Chapter 2), direct observation oftb~former appears to be impossible. Hence
the nonnegligible signature of the P2 waves must be found on other types of wave:
In conclusion, it should be noted that the main influence is exerted on reftection and not
on transmission. and that it must themore appear .Jti the recordings. Th.e two media
considered must nevertheless both be permeable and the interface open for a P2 wave to be
generated with a noticeable effect:
processes in saturated porous media, namely the existence of inhomogeneous waves. The
computations raise no theoretical difficulties, and it suffices to satisfy the boundary
conditions (6.8) by superJ,esing tbe incident wave and the reflected waves necessary to
carry them out. However, the computations remain cumbersome and we shall only stress
the qualitative character of the results obtained by Deresiewicz and Rice (1962).
A wave is defmed by its potential II such that :
II
k* r)
(6.25)
where k* is the wave vector and r the position vector of the point considered. Due to
attcnuatiQn JllCCbanisms,,k is a ~plex v~r:
k* k  iA
(6.26)
(6.27)
,
~
T
2S9
~AV!SANDI~
tAl== A
(6.28)
fkl k
where A, inverse of a Jenath. is an attenuation, whereas k is the wave number such that:
kV = ro
(6.29)
where V is the wave velocity. A wave is said to be inhomogeneous if the \"ectors k and A
arc not colincar. In other words, the planes of equal amplitude (A r = constant) arc not
parallel to the planes of equal phase (k r  constant). These inhomogeneous waves arc
encountered in another coatext '**ly comparable to the one examined here, that of the
reflection at the interface of two viiCOelastic media (Bourbie, 1982, BourbiC and GonzalezSerrano, 1983). This problem wiU be dealt with thoroughly in the next part of this Chapter,
which can be referred to for a more detailed analysis of the inhomopncous character of
the waves.
The most important qualitative results for the problem examined here are the following.
In the case of an incident P1 or SY wave, the charactcristM:s efrcftected waves of the same
type as the incident P1 and SY wave dift'er relativfiy IJiPtly from the same waves rcftected
in elastodynamics. They are homoaencous, sliahtlY dispersive and dissipative, and this
dissipation depends on w/of to the lint order. By contrast, the reflected P2 wave is highly
1
dispersive and depends on (ro/of}io the fu'st order. ltsattenlMtion is proportional to rofw
l .
in a dircctioR panllel to tbe free surface, and to (w/of)l' in the normal direction.
Deresiewicz aftd 6.'e (lf62) auaamcaD)' analyzed the expcrimtwltal da1a ofFatt (1959)
correspondina to a kerosenesaturated ~."tortuosity was assumed to be 1.01. We
Jive here the results~ to an iDddent 1'1 wave 4:w wbidl.thc Biot effects arc
particularly important, especially at low anatcs. of illCidcace (Glose to DOtlD&l incidence).
This is due to the polarization of the wave involvina fluid phase movements pcrpendic~
to the free surf.,.,.
For an incident P1 wave, the variations of phase velocity normalized by velocity Vr as a
function offrcqucncy are in the neiabborhood of 10" and 10 2 respectively for reflected
P1 and SV waves. For the retlected P2 wave, these.variations arc about to (see Fia. 6.6).
Apin note the sliaht difereDces between the dispersive eharactcristic:s of the
inhomoaeaeous waves (see F"tJ. 6.6, solid curves) and the dispersi:re characteristics of the
homogentous 'WtWeS (dotted curves in the same ftgarc), analyzed in Chapter 2, and
propaptina in the same porous medium (kerosenesaturated Sandstone), albeit infmite,
namely in the absence or diJcontinuities.
The attenuations arc much hi8her in the direction perpendicular to the free surface thart
in the parallel direction. This was forelceablc, sinc:e. durina these .reflections, the Biot
effects occur, especially for flows normal to the discontinuities. It seems clear that, during
reflection, the free surface condition will considerably favor the differential movement of
the liquid phase in relation to the solid phase, essentially in a normal direction to thC
surface. The difl'erential m~ in tbilntiNc:tionwill theft be the main souroc of energy
dissipation.
For the rcftectcd P1 wave, attenuation characterbed by the ratio A. k is too low to be
signiftcant, this ratio being about to. For the reflected SVwave, this ratio is about 10 2
'
1.()()04
.3
Yp
__:1..2
v,
.::..1
Yp UXI02
lnhofnclaneaus
Vp
'
1.0000
s:
Vt/fc
vm;
.I
:::..
Yp
.49
.48
vm;
wa~
(V,.2 ) and S V wave (J'.)(solid lines) compared with the phase veloCities of the
saae types of. wava(P1 , P2 anclSY)ill the eae olullo........ IDII)de.of
propaption .ia aa iaMR. I&'IJ8dium (dotted ~ 'l'boee ~ are
~ :t \
2L
l
0
I
""'
r,o~
1
..~.
t__.. ...
Fit 6.7 Normal, ceaaponeot of thc atten..UOn Vfllilt"' for the ..aow wave
normalized to the norm of the propagation vector as a func:tion of ,1flfc
(incidence P1. wave) (after ~ and Rice. 1962).
...,
~...___
~
261
30
r
I 
r3
p1
p2
30
10
r,
sv
10
~~
flo.U
20
\fiif:.,: 4t
r2
'
' .. ' . .
Vffc .1
~or~c,or
<
SV wave
1Rve
1962).
Deresiewicz and
Rice,
.
ViTfc. 0
30
10
to
r,
iDc:icJeDce (defmed in relation to  normal to cfie free surface). This results from the
peiMilatiea of perticle 1DotioD J*pCDdicular ~ tbc propaption direction. For the
rcflccted P2 wave, the normal component of attenuation is very hip (see Fia. 6.7) b1U is
pradically independent of ansJ.e of incidence.
or
or
Fipn 6.8 shows the variations anales reflection { 2 and { 3 of reflected P2 and SV
waves as a function of anpc of iaddence C1 of the P1 wave. It is clear that the angle of
reflcction ef the P1 wave is tbe .... as tUt of the iac;idcBt waw. Moreover, DQte that the
variation of ar&ale of nflec&ioa ', .. a ru.:tien of antic of incidence differs from the
clanical SaeiJ.Descartes law of er.t~: This eift'ect 1Mcomcs more pronounced
with increasing deviation from aiOimaJ incidence. The anJies of reflection { 2 and
increuc with the ratio .
the ratio with which the effects due to the twophase
character of the studied media increase. This can be explained by the dispersion of the
reflected waves which, conversely, impoee an increase in the anpe of reftection as a
function of frequency at faxed analc of incidence, to satisfy the SnellDescartes laws.
'1
.;c;r;;,
c,
1.0
l
182
0
(I)
IR1>/
0.2
...
.........
"'
e,
I
180
178
90
f1
30
80
30
0
90
80
r1
0.06
0.04
IR2'!
fife 1.11
.~
0.021
.........
.:t90
A
.1
of
. a:t<::
30
.,
80
r,
o.e
0.4
m,:m
'
~_::I
o____
~

30
0
.!
"'
80
90
r1
'""'"~..
180
jacslj
113
171
l.
tl
Z1.a=
..
30
80
I
I
'.
I
I
90
r1
30
80
r1
Fla. 6.9 Moduli fRt"' and phde 11of reflec:tiot1 ~ts (in potential) of P1
(i 1), P1 .(i 2) and SV (i l ar S) waves u a function of anJle of
incidence ' ' (~ 1'1 wave). ~~Yel ~e in4exod by the nonnaliad
frequency f [. (after Deresiewicz. qd Rice, 1962).
.,

"'~
r
I
~f
'
'WA\U'Aktr~Ad!s
.
....
I
,
::r
~
..
'
...,
_1
:1
.J
263
= l, 2, 3
Ru1 =
(6.30)
1)
in.
Jaterface wues
llylft6h ~~
'
264
W.\VU.AND JNTERFACES
vector and the nonn,alto the$~). The ~~t~tmnity ofthe polari,zation vcctor.describcs an
ellipse in the direct.ioa retfoar near the~ aad PfO&rade in 4cpth. The horizontal
component is cancelled at depth Q.2 118 , where Aa is the associated wavelcagth (sec
Fig. 6.10).
MJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ
JJ)JJW)j)))))))
JC
Prclpegition
~~
ftrOIMIJition
'
AW2
lbl
'
..
We shall now examine what happens to this Raylciab wave if the propaptioo medium
in Fig. 6.10, for the same geometry, is a saturated porous medium described by Biot's
theory. Let us consider potentials of the form:
To identify a surface wave of the Rayleigh type consists of determining whether the
boundary conditions (6.8) can be satisfted by a superposition of waves dtfmed by
potentials of type (6.31). If this is possible, the real part Re(kl) and the imaginary part
Im (kl) in (6.31) respectively defme a Rayleigh wave phase velocity V8 and a corresponding
attenuation ~. in the ox directioa ~
(()
(6.32)
''
WAWiAiM~Aa!s
285
../i ,.2q,
v. ( v!)1(w)1
_4 (~)2(
v~)l (2 _ v~)
1 _ Y,.
g V,.
V
of
Ys .
V
5
6.33>
vl t  2 V2)
 .fi.a {(3 vivi V2vi 2(V2vi.,. . 1)} ==
_(w)
of
~'<
''
"
''."
''
V5
Y,.
V,.
V5
(6.34)
266
,.,......,
1.012
..
_,' .
~,
'"''
10
,.,.....
20
30
f..~
"'"" .......:;/1
...
VR
Vo
.4
1.000
.2 .. ""
,t;"
 , ...
.1198
.4
.2
.........
.......
' _,______
.
.....  ..~.2
Cal
~~
'
.oa
.08
.12
'Ks
.15
fife
I
i
20
~ity
......
15
""''
JO
~.
~~~L . . ~...
!...9!!!
OR
10
,./
~ ,
.2/
.,
,.,
,
..
"'
..
'
....
.6
.4
:
(
I
5
(b)
0 .0
.03
.08
fife
.12"
.15
F'ia 6.11 Phase velocity 'fa) aad ittvreild ctuality factor<') of the Rayleigh
wave. Tbe phase Velocity is~ to the phase velocity in the absence of
dissipation (i.e. at zero n.~). the frequency is. normalized to the
characteristic frequency fc. The curves arc drawnfor varyina ratio Ko!K.
b. Stouky
WIIHS
'""'
''
'
t/Jfhl$ ANfi~Aeil
261
senerat
'
'
K 0 /K.
1.CIOit''
.
YSt
~
Open
1.ooi0
Vo
.til
(a)
0
.01
AMI
.12
.()8
fife
:q~:,
'
.a
_....,_
::ru~l
.
'!Sa.
Ost
. .3KofK.
.
.
L?tttz== .....
_.... ~
..
..
.oe
fife
a;;:;.t J (It)
.12
'
268
The PQrosity is assumed here to.~ 19o/.. and tortuosity is 3 (see Berryman's formula.
Eq. (2.92) in Chapter 2). The ratio of the bulk modulus K I. of t)lc Ouid (water) to the bulk
modulus K. of the solid constituting the matrix (silic.~t.) ~ kept constant and equal to
K 11 /K, = 0.059. The solid curves comspolld to ~e case of tbc open Ouid/solid interface (i.e. JC1 = ao) and the brokeo.liQCS to the case of the scaled or the closed interface
(i.e. "  0). Like tbc R,aylciah wave in the case of porous media. the Stoneley wave is now
dispersive. For a better unders&andjng of the curves obtained. Fig. 6.13 shows
schematically the geometric representation of the increase in the ratio K 0 / K, at constant
porosity.
Poroua medium
fluid
Poruulllllllium
Fluid
Fluid=
Fluid__.
Fluid
Fluid
KJKs "\.1
lowKJK,
,,
......,
'
~
''
"./
'
'''
''
'"./
'
'
"
"~
'
~
"'
'
WA'WIAHB~
'
:!69
the reduction in crosssection throush which the fiUidftiJws toWards the porous medium is
leis drastic. Tbe pteiiUI'e 8f'8dield is tbenlf'ore llal'fOWW, Iivia~ rile to a sanaDer Ouid
cxchaftae between the two mediL The contribution of the~\ wave, as well as the
dilsipation d to Row across the iaterface, is ......... ICCOfCiiatly. 1'llis aplaiDt why,
in contrast to Rayleip waves, the velocity eurveaconapondinsto K 0 /K, 0.3 lie above
those corrapondins to K 0 K,  0.6 and 0.9, and why, at low frequencies. attenuation
(1000/QSr) is less for K0 /K, 0.3 than for hisher Ke/K, ratios. At hip fn:queocies,
however, with increasins K 0 / K,, attenutiOn decNases because the attenuation due to P1
and S waves dominates in this cue. The velocity curve correspondins to K 0 / K, 0.91ies
above that correspondin& to Ko/K, 0.6. because the channels become exceaively thin,
and the pressure sradient prevailins at the interface is inadequate to auarantee sipiftcant
flow as K 0 /K, approaches l.
c. Slulutulrl
As a general conclusion concernina interface waves, we can state that the twophase
cbaracter of saturated porous aaoclia ~Mba 1M RaJleilh and Stoneley waves dispersi\'e.
However, the effects can be iporecl fer the ltayleiala wve, both for Yeloeities and for
attenuation (see scales in Fia. 6.11). The same applies to the velocities for Stoneley waves.
On the other band, the attenuation ofStonelcy waves due to the tv.opbase character is no
longer neJlilible in the case of an open interrace. At low frequencies, in fact, an open
interface leads to Ouid excbanacs IJetween the media, and hence a sipiftcant contribution
of the Pz wave, correspondint to outofphase fluid/matrix movements. Dissipation and
attenuation then reach a maximulllat a liven frequellcy for intermediate values of K 0 / K,
(K 0 /K, 0.6). allowing large pressure ~tadiea:ts anCf SGbstantial fluid exchanges. Inertia
effects become domiaant at IBP fN\quencies, and ateteetl on P, and S waves. 'fbeseefl'ects
are also aecentuated by the open dtaracter of the. ietotface.
For applk:ations to wen loainr. it is iftttrestialto aulya the claaqe cauled by the
twophase character of the medium in comparison with the elastodynamic framework,
wbea a seismic source is plaeed mtt.eYicitdty of a'I\IM/penlable rneclit.tm interface. We
shall examine this problem in the next Section.
'

270
'
WAVI;SANP lNTEI\FACES
The problem is defmed by the pollletry of the propqating media and by the source
characteristics. The geometries aaalyr.ed corrapond. for example. to the folloing
problems: a plaae interfacx betwcea a 8uid and a saturated porous medium t Fig. 6.14._ a
layer of fluid of constant thickness lyina between .two identical saturated porous media
(Fig. 6.1 5), or a circular borehole filled with Ouid in a surrounding formation consisting of
a saturated porous medium (Fig. 6.16).
The sources are defmed by their aeometrical characteristics (point source. line source or
cylindrical source) and the time sipal omitted (Dirac delta function, Ricker wavelet). All
these problems can be dealt with in the same way. We propose below an analytical
resolution algorithm.
~
"
The complete resolution of the problem hence amounts to the determination of all these
potentialfuactions.lt is very coammietlttouse mecbods based on Fouriertype transforms
(Bracewell,1978, for example), in die tilDe and spac:edomainin the twodimensional case,
or of the Hankel type (Oitkinc and Proudnikov, 1978. and Bracewell. 1978, for example) in
the space dom~n in thC threec:timeJlSional case \\<itb cylindrical symmetry. These methods
offer the advantage of considerably simplifyiag the resolution of the systems and fmding
explicit transform solutions.
Hence, in the example in Fia. 6.14 for a popat source, the potentials 41 1 and~ z relative to
the Ouid are defmcd by the following equatioil$ iq cylindrical coordinates and usins the
notations in this f1gure :
~2""
,...
..,t 
v12
'il't
u
d). 4S(r)
== fi(t,.,(z
iJ 11
where
/(t)
VI
= source fu~tion.
= wave velocity in t~ fluid,
nr
for i
= 1,2
(6.35)
~"
~
__
"\
.
P!nt:l
Wft!I*JI.IOof
IJII/J/Il/1111//J!IIJII//fU
.....
1

P!ftl:l
z
9
272
IS(z d)
6 11
ifi=l
if i :#= 1.
Equation (6.35) ex
that the potential fl 1 destftbes the vibratory state in the
infmite fluid in the presen of a so...rce (second member of (6.35) nonzero) and the
potential fl 2 corresponds t the reflected" waves (second member= 0).
After the time Fourier tra sform (t + w) and then the zeroth order Hankel transform
(r + k) of Eq. (6.35), ~ utions of this equation are eafily put into the form:
k
1
fl2
where
h} = k2
'
z, w  2w2
(6.36)
w2
V2 with Re(h1 > 0,
~notes
fl1(k, z, w)
the ouble transform (Fourier and Hankel) of the potential
z, t),
11>20 (/c, w) is an arbitrary runction ot k and w which are the conjugate variables of r
and t in the two foregoing transformations.
fl1(r,
(6.37)
_where
[X] is the unknown column matri'lt' whose elements are unknown transformed
functions [for example fl 20 (k, w)] to be dttermined.
[Y] is a column matrix of the same dimension as X, whose elements depend
exclusively on the source spectrum (freq\acncy and wave number).
[M] is a square matrix depending exclusively on the propagating media (geometrical
and mechanical characteristics) and totaUy independent of the characteristics of the
source.
"
In the absence of a source, the matrix [Y:J is zero and syatem (6.37) is then reduced to:
[M][X) = [0]
(6.38)
where [0] is tbe column matrix composed of demnts that are all zero.
"
_j
...._,
"
,                                 
T
.._,'''
,_
:~
''
ftJmfftiij~'
'
In thisQSC, to deviate from the trivial sOlution {X]  O,correspoildiDJ to all potentials
equal to 0. or to a si*e at rat, it is llecellary tocancdthecletermiuilt ofsystem (6.31)or:
dct [AI)  0
(6.39)
Equation (6.39) actually constitutes the velocity dispersion relation ohhe system, which
describe the dispersion and attenuation functions of the Rayleigh and Stoneley waves.
These characteristic modes are obviously independent of the source.
In the presence of sources, the sotutions to system (6.35) are given by:
''
det (WO]
,  dct [M]
(6.40)
where
X1
'
Since the unknown transformed functions are all perfectly determined by Eq. (6.40), the
vibration of the space is determiDed by takina tbeir inverse transforms. Thus, for example,
ia the cue C'll F'll 6.14, tbe.,..... dillribUtioll iac6eeuid is determiDed .. fDUows:
By clebition:
Pr(r, z, t)  Pr[11 (r; z, r) + 4S~(r, z,' t)] '
'
(6.41)
where f'tckll Mel the fluid dcDiitJ (AcbaaiNichi lJU, forple). HCJl4:0,., Fouriw and
zerotb o. Hankel uaasrona cl (6M). we .obtaia!. ,
\.._
(6.42)
where and 2 were previously detcrmiDed by Bq. (6.40). The pressure distribution in
the ftuid is then obtained by inverse trauaform of Eq. (6.42), ~:
,
, A,r, z, t)  ;.
'
f J
''
The simatations that we pnwat were performed to.y lleeeabaum (1974). based on the
expcrinaeatal data of Wyllie n Gl. ( 1962) (aee Section 6.1.2.lc~ Only two spedficconditions
..
t~'
'
" oo.
" 
o.
To aDalyze the eft'ect ofpermeabDityJllore pndlery'ia each simulation, the results for
each type of sandstone were rcplacecl by die rMitl obbtibed for a fictitious equivalent
material Qf the same dlarKt...... but widllowcr pmacabilitY.:
,_
~'
_...
'~
'
274
WAV~
AND
INT~RfACES
The source employoci is a pressure so~ who~ tfequency spectrum is such that its
phase is zero and its moclulqs.c:oostaat bet~ frequencies / 11 and .f and zero.on either
side of the frequencies f 1 ( < f 11) and f 1 ( > f.). Between f 1 and fs and between / 2 and / 8
the spectrum amplitude rolloff is a cosine taper (see Fig. 6.17).
'a
,,_..,.. 'H
'2
Two JeOIDetries wcte iiM:dipted by ROICilbaum: plaae (fia. 6.14) and cylindrical
geometry (Fig. 6.16). However, it should be recalled that the Biot's effects occur essentially
at discontinuities which, by the bo.undar)' conditions that they imply. induce pressure
gradients which alter the flows. This shows that, on one hand. the geometry of propagating
media can only play a secondary 1'0~ and why, on the other, pcrmeabi1ity and ftow
conditions at the interface have the ~same .qualitatift iRflueac:e for both aeometries. We
shall therefore mainly discuS$ the l'esults concernins a plane interface, but compare them
to the ones obtained for cylindrical syinmetry to emphasize the foregoing remarks.
are
Body waves:
(a) A conical P wave rcfr~ P oa .the interf:ac:e (dcoot~ P below) constitutina the
f~rst arrival.
(b) A conical P wave refracted Son the interface (denoted S) constitutina the second
arrival: this wave only exists if the S wave velocity in the solid is greater than
the P wave velocity in the fluid.
(c) A direct P wave in the fluid (denoted D), which does not .. meet the interface: this
wave is often muted by tbc. StQilcley wave whose velocity is (see Section 6,1.3.1)
close to the wave velocity in~ fluid.
In the case of the cylindrical ~ry (F~g. 6.16) and of the equivalent plane
geometry (Fig. 6.15), ''multireflected n piQed. wa,ves which display an i.Qfinity of modes,
all very dispersive and attenuated, e~ in elastodJ1W11ia (Paillet and White, 1982): the
zeroth mode of these guided waW~. slightly dispersive, is also called the Stoneloy mode
'
"~T
~ Ji
'
 ~I
';
'"
'
'"
,,
1

''.,..
'.,..

1:~
 ;4
WAVES AND~
21S
because, in elastodynamks, the velocity correspoading to the high frequency linut JJ tbe
velocity of the Stoaeley wave (the Wllvelength beiDa very small. the. cwvature Gf the
interface doll not have any eft'ect). Its low frequency limit is the familiar tube wave in
borehole seismology.
In the case of a plane interface. a Stoneley wave (denoted St) previously described in
Section 6.1.3.1, which is nondispersive and nonattenuated in elastodynamics.
In the simulations and actual recordings (acoustic logs) these multirefiected modes
(except the 2CI'oth mode) are very often masked by other arrivals due to their small
amplitude. Hence we shall only analyze the conical P wave, the conical S wave and the
Stoneley wave, whose amplitudes are significant.
Results of 101M . . . . . . . .
Different theoretical sipals are shown in Fip. 6.18 and 6.19 to simulate signals
recorded in Berea sandstone. As a ... the anivals correspond to rather low amplitudes
for the P wave, moderate for the S wave, and very energetic for the Stoneley wave.
Variations of the amplitude ratio obser'Wid fortb.e thtee types ofnvc(P. Sand Stoneley)
in the case of a Jiven porous material, and of those observed in the case ofthe equivalent
material having 11M sune cba.racteristics but very low permeability, are shown in
Figs. 6.20 and 6.21. The sipal is recorded in lbctfluid., the receiver beiDt at 3m from the
source and at the same depth.
Infl~nce
For Teapot and Berea sandstones with high and medium permeability respectively,
high frequency and low frequeacy sources w~ tested. The phenomena are more
pronounced (see Fig. 6.20) at the hiper frequencies, which is expected because high
frequencies favor twophase eft'cCts.
.......
'""
'..~
,__,_
.__.
Infl~nce
''
'
of permetJbility.
Rosenbaum's results are summarized in Table 6.1, which gives the calculated
attenuations per unit lonath obMrved for each type of wave.
.....__._
The effect on the P wave is plllactioally nepaibJe. Therefore for example. in a very
permeable sandstoae (J'apot) atltlnlation is lea than 1 dB/m.
The effect on the J wave is sipificant and relativoly independent of interface Oow
conditions. This is a particularly intmlltina result for the inverse problem of measuring
the mobility of the ftuid directly from fteld data.
The effect of the Stolldey wave is considerable. bul de~nds heavily on the interface ftow
conditions. For the hiJh permeability Teapot sandstone, open interface attenuation is
20 dB/m and sealed interface attenuation is 1 dB/m.
Note that &a results pwa fol: low~ Foxbilli sandstone (JCC Table 6.1) are
only refOI'ellCIO iafoanadoa, aad aN aot .at all OCJIDIW~ to the other raults (Berea and
Teapot saDdttones). 'I'M fnlquency specm.. of the source is much richer in high
,___
'~
"'
"~
~
"'
'.,..
"'
41
O+St
D+St
I
s.lecl
....._
I~
..t
J
I 1110
IC
:=_
~i:
.I
J~
...
1100
"*limO
 .
10110
...
1000
100
Ti!lllelft ...........
1 ~
l~
~
j~
~
1100
~0
l,
~~ere& sandstone aad water. The tranamitter and receiver are near the
interface. and the transmitter/receiver distance is 3 m. The source frequency
spectrum is aiven in fia. 6.17 (/1 0, f 10kHz, 1... lO kHz, / 2
.J.
J,_
&
I
s
O+lt
.....,_
sled
.
'
I
tr
&
~AA.._____L,
.AAA
~,,.~, ~v~
4011
r.
+
  I
mO
li
='l
11::
~i
t:
1
J_,
....
1:J
J
1400
Ji1c. 6.19
~:
=t~ limO
l~
~.
TliMinmerlds
......,
....,._
c.
'
.I
.tUIIfll
=. 2001110
...("""
O+lh
1100
_f
l
~
.
........,
..
'\
~~
('
( (\
.~
II
"'r
(
._.....

BEREA SANDSTONl (IC 20D mOl
,......,_...
1.0
II t'
I!,=,
:.
":
.01 ~
.01
11
__ ,
1.0
.........,.
75
dlstct
Openlnt.t
.___,
0.5
'
:
:::
li r
~s
1.0
~~
,.Q1
1.0
lu
I
._..........,
......
Open ......
31110
._
I!,=
.1
.1
I .. f1
St
. ) t.o
.01
,01 ______ L
11
31110
...............
dlltMiatlcml
.5
.1
cllltllllltcml
.01
r
~~
1.0
li
r
P.St.S
r
.01
=
Il ' ,.~
J
75
300
Sou___._
~
.01
.01
~:
.1
.01
!
1.0
1.0
.5
i:r l
.
75
..
..........
..........
300
1
I!
a!
"!:::
.1
___ ,
1.0
.5
I1
.1
's
j.OI
.01
e
.Ot ~"''"""75
300
Sourcerw
,011
75
31110
Soun:erealwr
~1
Fig. 6.10 P ~tnd S rerracted wave and Stonelcy wave (St) amplitude variation!! Rll a (unction or
transmitter/i'eceiver distance. These amplitudes are normalized to the amplitudes computed for
an equivalent low permeability (S mD) medium. Case of plane geometry in Berea and Teapot
sandttones (after l.oseabaum, 1974~
L
,L..
,.
._lcml
II
( (\
..( ....,..,.....
____ (
',.
~
FOXHILLS SANDSTONE
St
1.0 ,....
0
"'
~
H
I(
15
t::t::!:::
1.0 ~
~:
l .5 rJ
)
I
.1
20
40
eo
"'
::!!
"@0
...
:z
_j_
.1
2040
so
~Neeiverd..._
>
"'!
St
I
z
Open int..tKe
SNied inwt.ce
10
eo
~""
(em}
0
__:~
..,
1.0 ....
.I
..
2
I(
.5
...
~:::::!
: St
1.0
!t"'
I~~ ~:
I:"
"'~
~
;;l
l,j
St
..
1
I
.1
j!:
r
Ill
'
.1
20
Carnl
=~
. ~
.< :>
2040eo80
~iverd..._
_J
"'
Ill
40
~~
10 80
S o u    d  .  (em}
.0
~
z
..'_...l
<
i
~
I(
1.0
L"
r P,St,S
1.0
.I 1
.5 ~
.1
~~
:';
20
40
Sou~vrr
eo80
d.._ (CI'II}
I ::::::
Ill
P,S
St
"'
.~
s
"'
~z
~
~<
;;l
.1
20 40
_j_
eo
80
Sour~~lcml
E<
F~~o 6.21
r~
' ..
,..
'
(\
TAKLF.
ATTENUATIONS OF INTEIFACI!
P,
6.1
SAND STONI!LF.V WAVF.S C"ALC"ULATF.D I'OR THF. C"ASF. 01' PLANF. (if.OMF.lRY
Type
orroct
Teapot ddstone
1900
BerCallliMktone
200
frequency
spectrum
(mD)
Attenuation
Cettttal
F~equency
Permeability
ofiOUrc:e
IS_, 45kHz
1.2
Pwave
Swave
Stoneley
Open
0.4
3.5
20.s
Sealed
8.9
4.0
0.9
Open
8.9
4.1
11.6
Sealed
0.9
3.5
0.9
Open
ts
5.9
17.1
Sealed
1.S
6.2
~o
Open
~o
3.2
10
Sealed
~e
3.2
~o
Open
~o
~o
J.5
Scaled
~o
~o
~tO
frequcney
IS to 45kHz
0.2
32.5
(dB/In)
Interface
60to 1601Hz
,.
Poxhilts.
samistcine
'"7.
60 to 160kHz
60 '*' 160
tO
T,uu 6.2
CoNI'A&IION
Nl
Sowce
spectrum
Pwave I Swave
0.9
0.9
Stonefey
3.5
Source
spectrum
11.6
4.1
IS to 45 tHz
Sealed
Attctauatlon
~B/mJ
Interface
Open
I(
19 %
AND
P0a //f.
0.2
Attenuation
(dB/m)
Interrace
P wave
Swave
Stoneley
3.4
0.7
2.7
()pea
IS to 45kHz
0.9
Sealed
~~
Plane geometry
(FIJ. 6.14)
(fiJ. 6.!6)
0.6
....

'~~

280
p._.,.
li'ropegetlon
fluid
..
sw
~
fllulcl
Solid
Solid
,.. ........llltllliGft
...... lloc'.......
...........
....................
.........
Dllfhllllllt.......... to
.
................
_.........,
......,..._
.......... ..
.. .................. lkrt
.,
StoneltyPrQPIIIIdan
Proplgltlon
.....................
r.
'
.~
~~~ ~
r o
Dlplh
"''
.....,
Fta. 6.21
Phyiical iaterpretation.
In the case of a refracted S wave at the interface, since the liquid phase does not respond
to shear forces, no pressure aradient occurs and hence there is no fluid exchanse across the
interface. Thus the open or sealed cbal1lcter ofthe interface has a nealigible effect on the S
wave. However, since the interface is set in motion, flow occurs in the porous medium by
inertial coupling (Darcy's law and inertiaUerms), and not by the pressure gradient etTect,
which is zero. Thus differential movement occurs between the fluid and solid skeleton of
the permeable porous medium affectina the S wave attenuation.
Finally, permeability and interface conditions exert a considerable influence on
Stoneley waves, as discussed above (Section 6.1.3.1). However, the effects in the
',
~
"'
.._.
. . . .ANI)ftim!lt.ti'.:!!S
neighborhood of the interfa<:e arc incrcasinpy pronounced for the Stoncley.wave and at.
higher tiequency (lower penetration depth). since Stoae1cy, particle movement is
elliptically polarized and hence ditfcrential movement ocx:urs between the fluid and the
porous medium.
I tifluence of distance
_/
'~
''
'
..__._
''
,_
'.._
All the simulations described above apply to transmitters and receivers very close to the
interfaces. In Fig. 6.23c. the sourc:c is lcK:atoclat 10 em from the interface. and the porous
medium is a highly permeable Teapot sandstone. The effect ofdittance between the sourc:c
and interface is clearly undetectable for the P and S waves(c:o.aaparefigs. 6.23a and 6.23b
with Fig. 6.23c). wlaercaa the same distance (10 em) implies that the Stonelcy wave
amplitude is attenuated by about 30 dB. Stoneley attenuation is approximately the same
as that due to the difference between a sealed interface and an open interface (;;; 20 dB,
Table 6.1). This is expected, because Stoncley amplitude dccreucs exponentially from the
interface. whereas P and S amplitudes decrease as the invcnc of the distance from the
interface.
6.1.3.3
.....
211
Coadullloas
. (tL6t 'Umwefua80lf
5! ~S!P A!**J'U!UJIUQ ~) pu1J NOl. . . . ~~
puaua U;MlaQ acnJjJ9} aQid 11 10j
~~oaq.J. .r9 'lt.!i
owtps
Jltp}{W
c. tlllt.L
01
woo,.....
.ut flll.UI04
'"'ln...;..~o
,__.....
.~
lS>Q
01
....._,_,.,
..u!"'lctl
..,.,..UI
pejft$
lStQ
IIWIOIIIOS
01
'
01
...ul"'lOl
.........
p.,.
'
.ut
liMO
lStO
t
s
01
(JH'Iot=HJ:~,.IJ)
ZH'I 9t>O allll\4adl801f10$
t
d
QIIIOQ8L,.
1' L'&t ,
3NO~NVS .LOdV:i.l.
.,
*AVIS AN&~IWAd!s
283
We have dilcussod the intemum in Biot type media ia tbe tint pan of this Chapt. In
this second part. we shaD examine the chanJCS made by the introdactioa of iat~ in a
viscoelastic medium. We shall develop the arguments in a thneclimeasioul space, and
then. for qualityfactorrelated problems, we shall limit ourselves to the twodimensional
case. We will then calculate reflection and transmission coeft'Jcients and examine in detail
the ditterences with respect to,the elastic case. Tbe problem ~ ielerface waves will be
discussed very rapidly.
~
6.2.1
a=me
(6.44)
(6.4S)
qlj(t) =
wbcrc
61}  K.roooc*cr 4clta;
{ 8,1 o
~I} 1
~
(6.46)
iflt'J
if i j
a,1J"" pu,.
(6.47)
where u1 is the f'A component of the displacement Equation (6.47) caa be ICWI'ittlln by
iDtroducina the constitutive Eq. (6.46) in Eq. {6.47):
(6.48)
284
In this equation, displacement u is a function of the space [r = (x1)] and time (t)
variables. Takina tbe Fourier~ 1Jf (6.4&), we obtain:
 pw 2 U
= ( K(co) +It(~))
an
+ p(co)
V2 U
(6.49)
172 4>
V2 ,
..
+ kJ 2 4> = 0
+ kJ 2 '1' = 0
(6.51a)
(6.5lb)
with
14
pw2
K(co)
(6.52)
+ 4/3Jl(co)
kJ2 = pcol
p(co}
(6.53)
or
co
kf Ys(a>)" V,(m)
Jl~)
r
!
(6.54)
(6.55)
The quantities K(co), p(co), V,.{co), V,(co), kJ and kJ are complex quantities. The chosen
branch for the square roots in Eqs. (6.54) and (6.55) correspond topositive real parts. This
choice will be understood in the ~g discussion.
The general plane wave solution in the time domain of Eqs. (6.51} is:
(6.56)
In this equation, k is a complex vector which we can separate into its rCa1 and imqinary
parts:
k = k iA
(6.57)
where k is the propagation vector and A is the attenuation vector. The solution (6.56) to
Eq. (6.51) is then written:
(6.58)
As a rule, the vectors k and A are not panllel, and in this case the wave is
inhomogeneous. If the angle between k and A is zero, the wave is homogeneous.
'
,
;;or
,_.~
,.,
~
6
'"'
. . . . . . MIDINUIIPAC!ES
PhyiM:ally, the wave ampliludc must no& Daile in dac propaption diRiction.:implying
that the anale 7 between dae wctoa k aacl A must satisfy:
~
O~y<
1be existence of a nonzero anale y expNISCS that the planes with constant phase and
planes of constant amplitude are not parallcl. Fiaure 6.24 shows schematically the
behavior of a homogeneous wave (y  0) at the interface between two attenuating liquid&.
1be transmitted wave is automatically inhomogeneous.

...
''
'
,_
(6.S9a)
~
/X1
k. k  iiiif [Ma  iMJ
M
IMI
(6.S9b)
and
'
\
""'
'
4
M(QJ) K(QJ) + j p(w) l((l)) + 2~t(w)
for a P wave, and
''
~~
\_
M(fO)
for an S wave.
~t((l))
286
WAYI!i!h\ND JNTERFACES
(6.60)
(kx  iAs)2
+ (k:  iAJ2 =
p:;
(6.61)
or
k!2
where V is the complex velocity
+ k: 2 = pro
'
2
_ w2
(6.62)
M y2
~med
,,
by:
V=l=;_
Equation (6.59) enables us to calculate
lkl
IAI =
= { ~ [ Re kt
{
~ [  Re kt
+ (I::J~J
+ (<Re
2 2
kt )
~.
y:
YJ
(6.63)
y
1
(6.64)
'
(0
(6.65)
lkl 2
By means or Eqa. (6.63) and t664), it c:aa be 'Sbelwn that this volocity is higher for a
homogeneous wave than for an inhomogeneous wa'Ve (Borcherdt, 1973). Finally, it is
interesting to note that, in the case or homogeneous waves, the foregoing equations are
simplifaed. If 6 is the angle propagation measured from the vertical (Fig. 6.25) we obtain:
k! =
~ iA,.
j{;
sin 6
(6.66)
II
~r"'k
z
...
A';
II '
k
,
Fig. 6.25 Attenuation and propagation vectors for homogeneous Oeft) and
inhomogeneous (right) waves.
..
~,
"'
.,........
WAV!f'MftntftdFAees
28?
""
(6.67)
lkl
sin 6
. 8 = Vi + Yf k"
v..
SID
(6.68)
(I)
where Va and V. are respectively the real and imaginary parts of the complex velocity
V = foJP and equal to:
(6.69)
v.
6.1.2
('.vt;Mt
(6.70)
6.1.1.1
Energy balance
We have shown that the displacement uWi8flcd Bq. (6.48), or that its Fourier transform
was the solution to Eq. (6.49~ for a plane wave, it is always possible to write Eq. (6.49)
formally as a function of u (see for example Bourbie and GonzalezSemno, 1983):
pi= (K(w)
(6.71)
with 8 div u.
__
11.
By deriving Eq.
(6.71), we obtain a
pl.  ( Ka +
~) .... 8~ + l'tV2. . +
![
(K, +
(6.72)
The .sublcripts R and I indicate the real and imaginary parts respectively of the
quantities considered.
The~ ~ua~ is olQined \lY detenniaina the scalar product of Eq. (6. 72) by lia
(Linds&y, ~~~After tranSrormatioq (llorctierdt, 1973), we obtain:
1 [(~
+(I)
dtv
Pt(litt div
(6.73)
lia)]
288
:r L
E dO+
fn 0 dQ = 
II.
dS
(6.74)
where
E == sum of kinetic and potential .energy densities,
0 = dissipated energy per unit volume,
I =energy flux per unit time.
6.2.2.2
Quality factor
The knowlcdae of these quantities now enables us to calculate the quality factor defmed
in a manner compatible with one of the 1D defmitions. We have decided to defme the
inverse of the quality factor in the same way as Borcherdt (1977), namely:
Q_1
(
)
6 75
Using the results of Borcherdt (1973), the values of the different quality factors are
obtained:
(a) For P and SV waves:
Q_ 1
M1 + llMf/IMI 1 tan1 y
 Ma + ~taMl/21Ml1 aaa1 y
_
'
(6.76)
4
M == M(<O) == K(co) +; #() .l.(co) + l'p(co) ; y = Yr
and for SV waves:
M = M(co) = Jl(co) ; Y == Ysv
Q _1 _
lla[1
6.2.2.3
2p.[t
(6.77)
Q""l == : :
(6.78)
Equations (6. 76) and (6. 77) are the same as Eq. (6.78) in the case of homoaencous waves
(y == 0). For inhomogeneous waves, these equations are different, as the angle y between
the planes of constant phase and oonstant amplitude atfects the value of the quality factor.
'
i \
'
(
I
~~
CottsTANT
TAIU! 6.3
Q llroDBU IN ONI! AND TWO DIMI!NSIONS
SH waves
p(al} = p(CIJo)
QiJ
SV waves
,.(01} _
(w)z'
p(m)
0).
tan.,
p(wo)(':.Y'
p(Ofo<:r'
lw)"'
p(Q))  p(We)(Ct
tan
Qi.J
1 + ltin*"' tan
(t)
M{GJ)
M(oto{:)~
"/sv
P waves
JI(Q)) Jl(to<:r
(2)
M(w) M(roo)
Q;
(iw)a.
Wo
p(w) p(wo)
and
1 + l'(a~o)fM("'o)
,a
I'
Al(w)
(4) Trivial
CllliC
= M(o)(;iw)l<l
; ,
a;' tan
M .. o
Ma
)2'
~
It{) p(~Gi;
Wo
(fw)
Q;'o
XIX
tan 2 "/r
, tan u 2 tan
290
I~"TERF ACES
This is hence no longer an intrinsic property of the material, but a combined property of
the medium and the type of wave analyzed.
It can be shown (Bourbie. 1982) that, in the general case. a rigorous Constant Q model
does not exist in two dimensions for an inhomogeneous P wave. In very specific cases,
where the material analyzed reacts in a nonindependent manner to longitudinal and
shear waves, a Constant Q model exists. The results are summarized in Table 6.3.
Nevertheless, it is important to realize that the variation. as a function of angles i'r i'sv.
y58 , of quality factors Qp1 , Q.S/ and Q5J. defmed by Eqs. (6.76) and (6.77) is slight.
Figures 6.26, 6.27 and 6.28 provide an example of these variations for a particularly
unfavorable case in which attenuations are extremely high. It may be observed that Q ;.1 ,
Qiv1 and Qi,} are independent of the angles }' if these anaies are smaller than 70 to
75 degrees. The hilh values of y, as we will shoW in the next Section. are only obtained in
the case of an incident homogeneous wave for angles close to the critical angle. Hence we
can consider that the quality factor is virtual~ independent of the inhomoaeneity angle y,
which amounts to stating that the quality factor can be assumed to be equal to the
defmition (6.78) even for the twodimensional problem. The Constant Q model of
Kjartansson can be considered as a twodimensional Constant Q model.
Theory
The details of certain calculations, particularly for the case of homogeneous waves, can
be found in Cooper (1967), Lockett (1962), Borcherdt (1977) and Bourbie (1982). Let us
consider an interface between two attenuating media The variables associated with the
medium in which the incident.wave propagates will be denoted with a subscript lor 2
according to whether an incident of reftected ~ariable is involved. The 'ariables associated
with the medium in which the waves are transmitted will be denoted by a prime('). The
computations will be carried out in potentials, since their use simpliftes the wave equation.
Finally, time dependence will be understood and equal to exp (iaJt). The incident wave in
the most general case is the sum of a P wave and an SV wave. If x is the horizontal (i.e.
along the interface) coordinate and z the vertical coordinate, the system of equations to be
resolved is the foJiowing :
(6.79)
(6.80)
hz)]
+ d'z)]
(6.81)
+ h'z)]
(6.82)
(6.83a)
k2
IVll
+ d 2 = .,__
I.+ 2p
k2
+ h2 =
pwl
J.l
Re (h) ~ 0
~,
(6.83b)
,,
'
' 
', __
.30
..;
,.
~'j:;r
. ':'t:,.
Vp=2
<lt> hp = 0) =5
v$ = 1.2
0s lls =ot""s
:.._~~" ~.~
18
1
Osv
.t21::.. . .06
~~_.~~~~._~~L~
~r~
Vp =:
Op hp "'01 = 5
v 5 = ;,2
.24
.18
cl;
.12
..oe
OI
0
Propeption.
,....rian...........
30r~
v5 1,2
Ostts .,.,
.24t
.18[
..;.. .12
..t
'
"'""'
.oe
o~~~_.~~~~~~~
0
w ~ ~ ~ ~
~
~
292
WAVES_ANP
,
y + d'l ...
.P_(I)_
,
k'l
I~RFACES
+ h'l = p w
Re (d') ;;11: 0
(6.83c)
Re (h') ;,:: 0
p'
(6.83d)
In these equations, the quantities k. d, h, k', d' arul h' and the amplitudes are complex
quantities, and are related to the propagation k and attenuation A vectors.
Displacements and stresses are given as a function of potentials by:
(1) Displacements:
a.
o'P
(6.84a)
u% ax
  iJz

:r
a o'P
==+az ox
(6.84b)
(2) Stresses :
... a.. (1 u
. a2
A.
02
2
oz
+ 2P ax cz
a2
0 2 .,
a2 ")
iJxl + (l + 2")
a2"
(6.85a)
= p ( 2 ~~ az  az'' + ax 2
(6.85b)
~,
The reflection and transmission coefftc:ients are obtained by appling the boundary
conditions at the interface. Three alternatives are avMlable. namely a liquid/solid
interface, a solid/liquid interface, and a solid/solid interface. We shalupidly examine the
results of the computations in the three cases.
a.
LitiiiiiiNIItl ~
= 0 and B 1 = B 2 = 0.
a(
= a;x
a.,. u;z
(6.86)
0
We obtain k k' and:
A2
p'd[(h'a k2 ) 2 + 4k 2 d'h'] pd'(h' + P)2
Al == R == p' d[(h~:t  k2)2 + 4k2tl' It'] + ptl'{lt' + k2)2
2
A'
2pd(h'  k')
+ 4k2 d'h'] + pd'(h':
+ P)2
<688)
4p4tl'k(#l'a + k2 )
= Ts = p'd[(h',t k')2 + 4Jc2d'h'] + pd'(h''
+ k2)2
(6.89)
As T r .p'd[(h'
B
Al
(6.87)
k2)2
w.wMMellftiiU'AaS
293
b. Soll4//i411Ul hltajla
Sinc:c the transmitted wave propaptcs in a liquid. we have p' 0, B'
continuity equations arc written:
= 0.
The
" =,;
flu=
t1.,.
(6.90)
a;.
= Rrr =
= 0:
p' d(hz
(6.91)
Bz
_
4kptl4'(h 2  k2)
At R,.s = p'i.(Jil + ~ti)f'+ 4k2d4'hp + pd'(hi _ k 2 )1
(6.92)
At
A'
A1
.t
Jn.'i .. 'h'i .
2pd(h4
111.
u'i
k")
k'2)z
(6.93)
!!!
s.
R,.
JIL4
..1.1 .
s. A'
Bt
'
~
. ... 4 ,.
 41ul'hp(h 2
Az
'~
..,. 4
k2 )
(6.94)
(6.95)
+ k2 )
(6.96)
e. So#U/HIU later/""
The continuity equations are writteft:
u., = ~~~
" = u;
a.,= a'"
 a'.,
Here aaain we find the c:ondition k = k'.
~ ..
__
(6.97)
294
'
B2
Rrs=
A,
(6.98)
A'
T,,=A,
B'
Trs=
A,
(6.99)
where
h
k.
d
d=
 k
d'
 lk4' p'
~,=
R,.,.)
Rrs
,g
I'Jfl
. T,
T rs
wave (A~
k2 )
h'
 k
(h' 2  k)p'
 2kh'p'
(  dk J...

 2kdp
 p(h2  k 2 )
A2
Rsr = 
B,
Ba
Ass='B,
(6.100)
A'
Ts,.=Bt
B'
Tss=
B,
= f!J
(6.101)
where
Jls =
RsrJ
(Tss
Rss
Tsr
{!} =
 hk J
(p(h2k2)
 2kla,4
.,__.

'1
,,
:.t:;
WAVasANDI!\iEaf:ACES  .}
29S
It is interestin& to note that, in aU cases, the condition k == k' must be satisfied. This
implies a generalized SnellDescartes law. In fact, for a single type of wave (P or S), we
have:
~
= kl
~
(6.102)
(6.103)
82
d,
(6.1048)
l'l
= i"t
(6.104b)
An inhomogeneous P (or S) wave is therefore reflected as a P (or S) wave with the same
inhomogeneity angle and with an angle of reflection equal to the angle of incidence. The
values of 8' and i are more complicated, but can be iaferred similarly from the foregoing
equations.
Figures 6.29 and 6.30 show two examples of transmission angles (8', i) in viscoelastic
media, for a solid/liquid interface and a homogeneous iQcident wave. The angle 8' for the
attenuatilla case is very close to the angle 8' for the el&Jtic cue except near the critical
angle of incidence. which in efcct does not exist for the attenuatina case. The angle "'(
increases with angle of incidence up to the .. critical" angle for which y' is approximately
90".
~
'v
'
The foregoing calculations show that the different reflectioa and transmission
coeftcients are complex numbers irrespective of the angle of inc:ideooc. In Fig. 6.31 we
have compared the retlection coeft'ac:icnt for a nonattenuating liquid/solid interface with
the one obtained for the S&me interface, but with an attenuating solid with Constant Q
behavior. The incident wave is assumed to be homogeneous, and the reflection coefac:icnt
for the intcrt'ue betwceaatteDU&tial~ is cak:ulatld for a~ aqular frequency
(co0  1 Hz) in the Constut Q . .  . . VutuaUyu c:Uenmae is obeenedbctween the two
reficction coelftcients for angles less than the critic:al angle, thoup a larger difference
occurs at anaJes greater than the critical angle. The interested reader can fmd other
examples in Bourbii and GonzalezSerrano 11'983) for solid/solid interfaces.

+ P2~'2o
2lt Qot
Qo2
CUo
4 ~t
 _1_,
Qo2
(6105)
Thesubscript 0 indicatesthat the velocities .v, and atteauatioDI (ljQ,) arc taken at a
.
reference anplar fr~ w0
This gtfteral formula clearly explains the effect observed in Fig. 6.31 for a Constant Q
lllOdel, ia other words the modikation of tbe modulus and pbue. However; it also shows
110
""
Vp 1.2
V'p4
vs=1
80
.., 70
l
eo
fso
5
:[ I
~leo
t SOL
J
I
,..,..,.
):
.I
Cp10
O'p=50
o5 =20
'
,_
40
30,
,__
v,= 1.2
V'p=4
V's = 1
'
....
ro
20
80
so
lnclc*>ce .ngte
Ideal
30
40
ro
80
110
ro
20
30
40
80
ro
eo
80
110
f1l. 6.29
Transmission angle vs. angle of incidcacc for a mud/solid interface (after Bourbie, 1982).
Left: elastic case.
Right: viscoelastic case.
110
lt ..~
70.
I ~~
Vp1,2
0,.10
V'p=4
O'p=80
V's1
O'sa20
.._
' "
J
.ro
ro
so
...................
20
30
40
110
i ...
.a
L~
. 1
'5
0135
J
01
to
20
30
40
80
C)<f
80
70
80
110
1101
o
10
20 .
.1
30
40
10
eo
lftcldenoe .,.ie ldll)
rr='
10
80
'
110
Fit 6.31
Modulus and phase of reOection coeffiCient vs. aqle of ioeideD:cc for a liqWd/IOiid
interface.
The solid curve is for the viscoelastic case and the dotted curve for the elastic one.
The velocities are v,, ... 1.5 km/s, v,. = 2.5 km/s and Vs. = 1.2 km/s. The attenuations for the
viscoelastic case are liven by Q,, = oo, Q,.  14 and O.ra 10 (after Bourbie, 1982).
~~
F
j:
wAVIS'.\111)~
297
that the clastic effects (a<iOustic: impedance contruts pV) and anclastic effects can be
decoupled : there is no atteriuadon eect on the rclection caiefticient in the absence of
attenuation contrast at the interface. Moreover, in contrast to the elastic case. if the
acoustic impedances (p V) at the interface are the same. rdlection nevertheless occurs due
to the contrast of the anclastic prOperties.
Bourbie and Nur(t984) experimentally tested the phenomenon of attenuation at the
interface between two media. They tuc:eeecled in shoWing that:
(a) Tbc attenuation cotlU'alt ~ is essentially u amplitude drect.
(b) The interface effect of attenuation on ~ rcOection coefficient is only observable if
the elas&ie reftoctioa cooffleient (p 1 .Vto Ps V20)J<Pt V10 + Pa Y1 o) is small ( < 0.05
so 0.1), wbidl is usually thf ~ in ~ proapectjna.
(c) Tbc atteauation etJeot on nftectiona . . , _ . on the uaJe of incidence and only
occurs for low angles ( < 20 to 30").
'
No .........
'UnaoiiiOiidltld ....
lnterl efftc:t
A.~&~=
a:::::a
elatic
pnltM
I
I"' Ti~ ... uncls
reflection
_.,.,._
O.ot
ol
0
~;........
~
'lr!Ft 111Gb
...a.....JL........__.__
40
,.
1010400
,.. U2
AOU).
Jntcnaee
.
effect
.
"'
I
I
.o..
'"
. J:
1984
i)
..._
s..
,..,..._,uld
. ~.
298
6.3 GENERAL.CONCLUSION
Two types of constitutive laws for rocks have. been cJ,iscuss,ed in this boQk. First we have
considered rocks as a combination of a solid skeleton and pore fluids. In this case,
displacements both in the. fluid and in the solW skeleton were considered (see Chapter 2
and Chapter 6. Section 6.1 ). But the extreme complexity of a porous medium makes this
approach too simplistic in most cases. The macro~c behavior of. rocks could not be
obtained from microscopic laws. Attemativ~ly, we can consider an equivalent
homogeneous material which WCJuld react to acoustic waws like the rock itseU: Linear
viscoelasticity is an appealing model since it ~nts the eect of fluid inlide the rock
and it is relevant to the small strain amplitudes encountered in seismic exploration (see
Chapter 3 and Section 6.2).
For wave propagation in~~ and for the Creque~~ ranae relevant to f~eld
measurements, macroscopic fluid motion with respect to the matrix has a negligible Cft'ect
(see Chapter 2). Rock behavior can be modeled effectively by viscoelasticity. The anelastic
part is then quantified by an intrinsic quality factor Q.,e
In the presence of interfaces such as a borehole wall, macroscopic fluid flow is no longer
negligible. At the mud/borehole interface, the free surface conditions ~e important, and
fluid flow effects modify the wave propagation. Viscoelastic phenomena also add to
macroscopic fluid flow effects. Therefore, to interpret acoustic data in a borehole, it is
necessary to separate the two ~ts. To the r1rst order, they can be considered
independent:
~.
~\
(6.106)
This formula is simila,r:to the one obtained by Goldberg et al. (1984) on simulated data
for P wave refraction. In their example, the total apparent attenuation is approximately
the sum of a borehole iluid. at.tc;nua~p ao4 &Q .attenuation ,ip the viscoelastic medium.
This observation implies that, even t()f p waves, there is Sonic tluid interface effect.
The detenaination of~ aUQW4 a meaaure .of intrinsic ~~ty and mud cake
effects. The determination of Q;;, 1 , which is an intrinsic; parameter, aliQws a measure of
porosity, porous structure and saturatillg fhddaof the rock.
If both terms can be obtained independently from the data. then several properties of
the rock can be understood.
.It is, then, essential for the interp~ of~ acousticloss to model the porous
media as a viscoelastic Biot medium. Unpublished experimental results (Rasolofosaon,
personal correspondence, 1985) support dw1.hypothesis (6.1 06) and show that Q;. 1 sheuld
not be neglected in the interpretadoft of the data.
In situ, it may be diffiCult to oBtain ill4ependefttmeuom of Q; 1 and Q;;;,. The double
effects of attenuation may then become an *tade practical ,apptieationa.
:,.
~,
Q.,,.
(2)
is delmed from attenuatiotus in Yi~asticity. This def'mition issoalewba1 abusive: this quality
factor cannot be related to the other deftnitions, as was possible in viscoelasticity (see Chapter 3}.
.......
'~
'''
"'
some applications
in petrdeum geophysics
INTRODUCI'ION
(
between acoustic waves and porous media. Both velocities and attenuations vary
substantially with porosity, ftuid contont, temperature, and pressm, and it is not always
possible to der1ne the boundaries between the inftuence of the different parameters. Hence
.._
!I
'
'I
I
'
"...
.,__
I
II
I
~
:
I
.._
..._
'~
it is easy to realize the dift'JCUity of the inverse problem, which consists in characterizing the
porous mcdiulll through the chanps occurring in che w.ave traveling through it. Yet this
very diffiCUlty is rdated to the amount of information that we can anticipate from solving
this problem.
The followilla table (fable 7.1) summarizes ~ salient features of the ~elations
developed ia tht ~ Chapters between ~ tbnlc major families of parameters,
namely ex.terDal CODditions (fresat~e, tempctatuu); the characteristics of the porous
medium, and its acoustic ~ (veloi:iity, atteaUation). Of these three poups of
parameters, oaly two are iadepeadent In fact. pressu~ and temperature conditions
inftuence the~ oftbe porounl'liediUID without truly altering the mechanical
propertie!lol'the eoDIIi.tive ~ Tlaedrec:t of pressure and temperature can therefore
be replaced by an eft'ect on the fluid daatacteristics or O$ the pore structure.
Faced with the abundanc:e of ~elationships which
to discourage any detailed
analysis, it is necesaary toproOeed by successive eliminations of variables. Depending on
the major application imolved, this elimination assumes various forms. The Simplest case
is that of JDCaSurenaeats aimed at the nondestructive testiag of materials. In this case, the
external eonditions can be accurately controlled. Knowing the ftllid content, one can then
focus on one cbaractcriiUc of the porous medium. For those analyses, the measurement of
acoustic properties is rdatively auraae and easy, provided the sample aaalyzcd is in
direct coatact with the measuring iastruments (as opposed to remote measurement in f~eld .
studies). Oae can ~ deaip a laqe number of experimeats to explore a specif1c
relationship between particular parameters, keeping the other parameters constant.
Nondestructive testing of materials has been developed, mainly based on velocity
measurements. The additional quantitative consideration of the attenuation factor can
soem

~
.....___._:.___
,,
~
7.1
~~
'~~
~lftellum
Characteristics or
..
(?)
,,
Attenuation
Velocity
averap, strong.
... 
fluid content
Peftneab_iiity . ~ ............
Teatw!e: pn contacts,
c:racb .................
Comptessional
Velocity
Body waves
*(?)
Attenuation
Shear
Acoustic properties
  .,,,
'
..

Temperature
 
prcaare
Effective
External conditions
TUU!
Surface
waves
.,
''
10MB~ . . . . . . . . .
MIIIIJIICII
''"
only help to improve future testins. We give below two examples of possible applications
for petroleum~ &abo..,...:
We showed (in Chapter 5) that microcracb. under low effective stress, substantialy
affect the quality factor Q of a porous medium. Thus attonuation measurements on core
samples from a well can serve to determine the orientation of the micrcxneb" anisotropy,
and consequently furnish data on the state offractur'iq of a reservoir or a description of in
~
situ streslel.
We also pointed out how the velocity and espec:ially theattenuation of ultrasonic
waves could vary as a function of pssaturation and the
distribution of this
ps for a given saturation. This. ofrers a much needeed analytical method to study twopbue flows iD porous media.
or
aeometric
it,....,....,.
taqet.,.._ .,_ ..
T.uu 7.2
5uMMAilY OF
.........,_
:~~e..
~
.I
''"
'j
lI
I
x JOl
14~\~';
10'
ID
, ....
~IMIIII:.
,,
~
.....
..
........... plelpictlii ,,
.....
..~a
.,.
; . .....c
.....
.
xto
.. ,......
.......
106
Two major aroups emcrp, separated by neatly two orders of mapitude in frequency:
..a,,
the~~
'''
302
7.1
7.1.1
Geaeral
7~1.2
"'
~
' 1
L_~~~~~~
'
wave sources. However, a number of sources exist (Marthorw, S wave Vibrators) that
enable the recordiq of shear wave seismic sections.
7.1.2.1
'
303''
The combiacd usc of P and S waves allows the measurement of the P and S wave
velQCitics for a given ~ and hcn4::e the detcnnination of the Poisson's ratio. As we
showed previously (Section S.2.2.6), this ratio provides information about the type of
formation traversed by the wave and helps to limit the problem. Nevertheless, to obtain a
more thoroush knowledge of the litholoQ, it is necessary ,to employ more elaborate
techniques, which no longer Use only the information given by propaptioa time.
''
Two types of attenuatioa caJ1 be disti~ The tint, which we sbaU ~ intrinsic
atteauatipn, has 10 far bcp.our maiawbjfa diacuMion.lt clw~ the aaelasticity
of the material the wave' has
thro\lp._ t1lc second. v.:ltidlwe Shall cafl extrinsic
attenuation, isclw'ac~ ofthepomctr)' of'~ su~ue and Qfthe soUQ:C.lt has two
etrects oa the seismic sipal; an apparatt ndueliOn in amplitude (the missinctner&Y is not
lost but has beea delayed ~ale to.. tbe . . _ , peth.s traveled by the wave). and a frequency
fllterin& dl'ec:t for mul&iple rc~Ject.ioas.. siuai~N. to .~ dJect of iatrinaic a~ten~ti9n
(Schoenberpr aad LeviQ, 1974. M.odol et Gl..lt$2).1~ fact, it is therefore vc[y dift'tcult to
separate intrinsic: and extrinlic aUCB~~
b ~pte Spe0ccr et al, 1?82).
aonc
or
<

(tl
~
304
SO,_E
APPUCATIO~
IN
PET&O~UM
Gl!OJ'HYSICS
a. Seismk #rfllicr.,
Seismic stratigraphy uses the fact that a Jivca ~ ~Cquence (altematina
shale/sand, delta deposits, seabed slumps) corresponds to a given sipature on the seismic
signal, making it possible to obtain qualitative li&hol~te. 1lae IUin iatfation is to use
the extrinsic attenuation of the signal. In fact, a cyclic ~ namely one consisting of a
regular success..ion of beds (fo.r instance sha.le and sand~'ons),. possesses a clearly defined
spectral signature. The low frequencies, those whose w
gths are tona in comparison
with ~ thicknesses, travel as if they were passing thr up one homoaeneous medium,
whereas the hip frequencies undergo multiple ret1 ons within the sequence. The
resulting frequency content is characteristic of the so
and the sequence analyzed (see
for example Morlet et al., 1982).
The morphological analysis of seismic sections is iCOJlductcd by means of various
techniques of amplitude restitution and signal processjng, such as the aJlalytical signal
(Bracewdl; 1971~ Various examples are available in
(Tanaer Ill., 1979,
Sheriff and Tanaer, 1979, Lacaze Ill., :1978,
et til., 1979). Note that this
tecbuiquc is oaly applicable to clearly defined p
teq\IOftCIS, aDd that it requires
priorknowJodpeftbepolouiDtMrepoaiiWCICip siaceiO\'eralsequenoeseaahave
the same sipature. Where it does apply, however, tbia ~ terVCS to determine lhe
contours of1be nsenroic and of deposita. Finally. altiMJUih it mainly involves a sublluface
geometric effect (and hence extriasicto the porouuaodiuat), die euminetion not ODly of
arrival ~ " alsolipal shafes is UICiful for the remote lithOlotic determination of the
subsurface.
*litemule
aadiuey
VelocityCODCI ....
The investigations of Domenico (l~4) showocl that tbe refteetiVity of a Shale/Oil sand
interface was quid: different from that of a shale/gas' sand interface. The seismic velocities
vary when a very small ;pnount of gas (S% or even less) is introduced into the system (see
Fig. 7.2~ The reflection amplitude rises liipiftcaatly'hithkcae. Tbis amplitude is not a
linear functioll of the amount of gas preiCilt in the reservoir. Unt'Ortunatcdy, no biunivocal
relationshipexisu between bright spots and the preseilcC ota ps reservoir. Some wells
drilled on bright spots proved to be dry. The local amplitude auoJnaly results in this cae
either from taterat facies variations, or from constructive (or destructive) interference
between near tefld:tors. Hence it is essential' to be able to distinpnh betwee~~ bright spots
with gas and without gas. To do this. all the traCes~ for tbe same reflec:tion point
(corresponding to different transmitterfftlCeiver distances allCl heD<:e to dilferent angles of
incidence) must be used. Recent investiptiOils (Ostrander, 1982 and Backus, 1982) show
the importance of a fmc analysis of amplitude variations with angle of incidence.
Ostrander (1982), for example, pointed out that the gas sands have low Poisson's ratios
"
'
SO~!E
...
j
1
I,
1.0
e
s
.I
I,
"'
"'
E
i=
"
s
s
e
e
.r
e
Fig. 7.1
3r,
;,
3048m
s
a
~
:s
e
a
tl
's
.e
;e
:s
It
>f
N
IS
2.5
e:
?:
g
.,..../1
ro;;:./
.,
=.. 

.....
1828m..,}
1828m
 
,;
>
~"'
610m
1.5
"610m
~~+4~~~~
0
20
40
60
80
100
Fig. 7.2 Longitudinal wave velocity vs. water saturation for gas (solid curves)
and oil sands !dotted curves) at depths of 600, 1800 and 3000 m (after
Domenico, 1 9 ~).
305
306
(see Fig. 5. 72 in Chapter 5) (Poisson's ratio;: 0.1) with respect to shale and sand section
(Poisson's ratio;: 0.3 to 0.4) and causes the P wave reflection amplitude to rise with
increuina anp of ;ncideDcc. He also provides an example. In the case of a lateral facies
variation. no uaiform aria1ioB ill ttfllcUoa amplitude witb an,te of incidence should be
'
A_._ oa1rr11r
The invcsti,ations so far d~ wore only concerned'. with the analysis of the
properties of seismic veloc:ilies.Yet wbow (see SectioQ $.1.1.2) that the P and S wave
v~are relamelyml...._..ltr.&bt~ ofpsforuturations~from 5 to
95%, and thereforeCODSlitute. . . .v.IJ.fODrsaturat~ i.,._(Ors. By~ acoustic
attenuations are biJhf1 ~ to ~ differen~ saturations (see Sectioa 5.1.2.2), and
attenuation readies a peak for a ps sa.atkm from 20 to ~4. Bourbie aod Nur ( 1984);
showed that ~ waves exertea:cwo au.uarion e1rects. t:ft'ect on propaption and
an eect at tbc iaterface (Section 6.1.'.2).: The p~ of an attenuation contrast at an
interface ~ the roftection....... which woukl haft been aecordcd in the
absence of attenuation coatrast 'l"hh ..pitude of dris elfec:t, depends 011 the absolute
value of tbe .. elastic.. Rflection~ ~~ atteDuation).(scc Fig.. 6.9).1'bit attenuation
contrast is only ob~rvable on the amplitude at angles of incidence smaller than 20 to 30".
Moreover. attenuation corttrasts act on the phase of the reflected signal, altering its
behavior as a function of anate of incidence. In the purely crlastic case, a reflection changes
polarity abruptly after ~ing through zero, whereas, in the attenuating case, this change
in polarity occurs as a cqnge of phase (Bourbie, 1982). Figure 7.3 gives an example of this
behavior. A detailed analysis of ttte behavior of relections as a function of angle of
incidence is also necessary. tot in situ atten~ation contrasts, the measurement of the
absolute value of intrinsic attemultion is no longer relevent since the relative variation of
attenuation at the interfac:e suftidently describes the effect. This can then be implemented
easily in synthetic seismoarams (see for example Jones, 1983).
.,,
'
_,
~.
~,
.,
'f
'1
'
"'
~
301
Offset
I ;
II
00
s
I
~~
..
'
_l_
.....
..
mfi
..~;
1r
~
~~~:i: (
.:;! . .
.
~Htt+fttlt++t+tt+4H::Tt
L~~ . .,.
. :!"t ~ . : :
,(~:~:n ~ :n~:r ~ ~
..
~
. ~{{"r ..,.
w~a~to
~
~M
: .
.. u
~' t{
... _{
\{ . ~"SS .
~~;_~
!
..
"'
,...
~~t
.. .
Ill
to
..:,..~:
~~.c."
~> :.
... .
,.
..
;~:.;,a.
... .
..._..
,~
r~.;
t.{!t:l ,. .... ..
~~ .
. ~..
.:~.,
~.: ....'.~'~
..
t~
::..
~~Uh.
~:
.;
..
": ,!"~~~..
:
' .
~R
&
~0
.~. ..:.s::
.
"
'!II
. "'
~
'
.,.
":
<::"
"j .
;.,.
...
u.
"
U_
'
.;
!)
~~
..;
..... '7.3 Example of common midpoint gather. The arrows indicate the
arrival for which a ~bangc in polarity is observed with offset (in Bourbie, 1982,
after Kjartansson, 1979bt.
~~
compo~nts .
.'
A
308
between the different components of velocity, which is not yet fully understood but
appears to result from differential attenuation. Therefore the future of experimental threecomponent analyses should provide a better idea of the anisotropy of the propagating
media.
...uc
Fig. 7.4
..
~~~_J~
~
''
.,
7.1.3.1
309
Dllllttre
~..._/
''
...___
'"'
''
~
Nur0912)SUUOSfOdtileucofaetwocbofroc:eivendurinasteamOoodinaoranyothcr
enhaJK.Od racovcry operatioa. inorclcr to4Cler~Pinc ~ ud attenuations within the
reservoir. The monitorin& of ,ariations in velocities and attenuations would otter a
knowlcdp of the gas phase distribution within the raervoir. A procedure of this type,
adapted to an undc!JrOUnd gas storasc problem, is discussed by Blondin and Mari (1984).
~
zones.
310
7 .1.3.2
a. Nlllurtll frturi~~g
We discussed in Sections S.l.l.l and S.l.2.1 the int~nce offrac:turina on velocities
and attenuations. In a saturated rock. fracturina reduees the velocities and increases the
attenuations. This is one reason why fractured zones are acoustically distinc:t from the
surrounding zones. Other processes are also involved, such as wave scatterina by the
fractured zone, if the transmitted wavelength is about the same as that of tbe fractured unit
block size. Welltowell seismic prospecting is the ideal tool for analyzing these shallow
fractured zones.
Fractured zoaes arc more eeoustically vitiblc with lower effective pr~un:. in other
words at a given depth with increasing pore pressure. This may also cxplaia die hiah
amplitude reflections sometimes observed in deep seismic prospecting in crustal tectonic
zones. If the permeability of the rock surrounding a fractured zone is sutftciently low, the
fractures may preserve overpressures over long time IC81es (see for example tbc Wind
River Range overthrust (nearly 30 km_deep), Jones, 1983).
b.
.
''
..,
(2, EVA, Evaluatlon or Velocities and Attettuations, ElfAifllltlllne trademark, has 5 traftllllitten and 12
recetvers.
r
'
'
~
'
.,
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Experimental .esults
ud in situ show that it is Q/wi/lys possible to
obtain the compressional velocities v,. and $bear velocities Vs of the formation, by using
either a standard source (as in the EVA tool) or by using a dipole or quadrupole source
such as in the Exxon tool (Winbow and Rice. 1984). For the time being, measurements of
attenuation Q,. and Qs are not routine, although interestins results have been obtained in
some speciftc cases (Goldberc et al., 1984b, Huang and Hunter, 1984, Mathieu and .
312
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Tok50z, 1984). These authors clearly point out the relationship existing between the
amplitude ratio of P and S arrivals (Goldbcq et al., 1984) and the Stoneley wave
amplitude (Huang and Hunter 1984, Mathieu and ToksOz, 1984). and the fracturinc and
hence the local fracture permeability. These results should not surprise us. In faa, they
agree completely with the conclusions of Chapter 6, showing the importance of
attenuations (and hence amplitudes) of refracted S and Stoneley waves for the
measurement of a permeability that may not be due to fracture permeability only but to
matrix permeability as well.
The relatively short wavelencths (a feW dozen em). the knowledce of the P and S wave
velocities, and hence of the Poisson's ratio, and a certain approach to permeability, make
these techniques the most promising of all those that
have yet examined. It is in this
type of approach that a sound knowledac of acoustic problems in porous media is
essential to allow maximum use of recordinp of the type shown in Fig. 7.7.
we
<~
'~
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.
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..
dYnamic
~~
~.
~~~~~~~~
.:
''
''
:i
''l'".t.J
:i\
t ":
J.di.i~
3~3
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ss.
..___
'~
~
324
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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P~.37. 337361.1982.
~
""
author index
'..__
"'
'
s..
"'
.._
s.
''
''
'
'.c

248. 252
Danbura, J. s.. 233
Da Prat, G., 192, 196, 197. 207, 211
Datta, s. IC.., 94
Davis, H. T., 17
Davis, L.A., 170, 203, 2ll. 212, 216
DelfiDCI', P., 13, 20
De Martini, D. C., 233
Denis, A., 179
Demiewic:z. H., 246, 247. 248, 250, 258,260.261,
262,264
Desclwnps, M., 152
'._/
_/
._/
326
AUTHOR INDEX
Devaney, A. J .. 215
Fung, Y. C., 53
Hadamard, J., 96
Hardin, B. 0., 190
Hauge, P. S., 241
Hickman, W. B. 31
Hilbert, D., 129
Hosten, B., 152
Huang, C. F., 311, 313
Hunt, E. R., 232, 234
Hunter, J. A., 311, 313
~~
~~
310
/
........
~
~
_...,
A~'iWolix
Landau. L., 49
Lanon. R. G., IS
Lawrpc, M., 239, 240, 304
Le Fournier, J., 29
Levin. F. K . 147, 303
Levine. H . 215
Levy. Th., 64
Lifehitz, E., 49
Lindsay, R. B., 287
Lions. J. L., 64
Liu, H. P., 123, 124
Lockett, F. J., 290
Lockner, D. A., ISS
124
Lomnitz,
Louis. P., 304
m.
Oates. w .. 147
O'Connell, R. J .. 58. 6S, 122
O'Doherty, R. F., 303
O'Hara, S. G., 165
Ostrander, W. J., 304
Outerbridge, W. F., 163, 164
c ..
,_
~~'
"
'~
22'7
'~
Morrow, N. IL, 23
Murphy, W. F. III, 123, 177, 179, 181. 184, 187, 188,
190,191,199,201,206,213,214.216,218,220,
222,227,229
'327
~j
328
Al:THOR INDEX
Reynaud, R . 304
Rice, J. A., 311
Rice, J. R., 81
Staron, Ph., I~
Stegun, I. A., 125, 127
Stewart, R. G., 157
Stewart, R. R., 218
Stoll, R. D., 218
Strick, E., 124
~
313
......~
~""""'
~~
......
:'1
.......
'''
'
''
''
subject irdex
'.,____
''
''
'''"

permeability, 275
""
"'
''
''
"
''
'"'
Caldera, 309
Capmary, Calilarity, 22
desorbtion, 24
equilibrium, 23
force, 191, 220, 221
pressure, 24
visualization, 29, 32
ear.a.Kozeay fonmda, 35,47
Casco (see Gruite)
C...uty prillcifle, 103
Claalt (see u.e.toae)
a ...ca~._.
hydrosen, 219
Pray dellllfacatloll 15, 16
Oay (see also, Sllale), ll, 12, 34, 235, 236240
a...ue ...
Colli, 240
COCGidao (see Saadst011e)
Celoralle(seeSIIIIes)
eo.,.ctloa, 237
CotDctlfllle,23
COIIdaulty bldex, 179
ConloYa ereaaa (see I' eltDae)
C....... l47, 153
inertial, 71, 83, 225
~

tbermomechaDica 65
viscous, 87
rT
COYMiuce, 18, 40
Creep fuctloa, 100, 124, 12S
''
_.. ..:::;
330
SUBJECT INDEX
Dare:,
,,
Fourier.......,_, 104
Foxbills (see s..lstoae)
Fraehuila
'
(hydraulic), 310
(natural), 310
Free 'ribratloas, 134, 161
,,
F~
75,80
(eigen), 130, 131, 136
resonance, 162
sweep, 136, 162
thermal relaxation, 221
Frldloa. 216
c .........
~
~~
,
'
~
'
~
'"'""
~~
~. 16, 17,2?;28,32, 37
Haakel . . . . , _ , 270
attenuation, 243
Bedford
attenuation, 203, 210
ve~ty, 171, 179, 195. 196
chalk, 27, 28, 39
attenuation, 207, 241
velocity, 178, 179,240
Indiana, 207
Oak Hall, 179
porosity/permeability relation., 34
relative permeability, 39
Solenhofen, 177, 179
Speraen, 222
~ty, 179, 230, 234, 235, 231ol40
~ 146,247,255,2&1
''
'
'
~
(minimum volume), 40, 4i, 42
Biot's theory, 63
Hooke's law, S4
HydrauUc fraetwiDI, 310
Hydrogea bollll, 190, 209
Hydroxyla, 190, 219, 225
,:
 ...., . , 18, 19
llllbiWdoa, 23, 29, 32
S6
Madlemadc:al ~. 18
MaxweiiiBCMiel, 119, 120
Mlcroeraeb, 9, 21, 179, 204, 301
MoWIIty, 72
MCNiel
Interface
eff~(attenuation),29S
~(paroal), 16.'t
lrrotadoltal ...,_ellt's. 59
'
331
Jn's.......,26
'
~
~
,_
_,J
332
SUIUECt INDEX
Pressure
confming, 176, 181
differential, 176
effective, 176, 181
hydrostatic, 56, 67
pore, 176, 181
Pyroxeaite, 216
"'
'
.....Utude.
129, 130
Pendulum, 163169, 172, 173
Peak
Racliolarite, 231
RQP,.20, 40
Polseuille's law, 33
Raylftala
..
Poteatial
strain, 56, 66
dissipation, 69
surface dissipation, 246
t
approximation, I t6
(pseudo), 311
wave, 263
Porosimetry (mercury), 26
'
Porosity, 10
clay, II
connected, II
fiSSure, 21
measurement, 10
occluded, 11, 36
total, II, 46
trapped, II, 25
~,
P.elllllddty, lS4
Po~BMtrics~,27,28,44
~.
'
.......,
17~ 173
"'
~
~.
\.____
'
'
"
'
'
'
'
'~
'
'~
\.____
'
''....
''
I
I
' ,,__,
I.
1..~
'
'~
3l3
~11,89,91
Skill,
effect, 86
depth, &7
;;
~IMJD;I
irreductib1e, 24, 39
methods, 207, 208
residual, 25, 39
Seale, IC8hl ......... 40, 94, 302
Scatteriac. 91, 115, 146, 147, I, 197, 211,
214,303
crosssection, II S
Seia1ic p~upediag
borehole, 308
full waveform ~. 3l0 ,
low frequency, 302
'' ,
reflection, 302
reservoir, 302, 308
statigraphic, 304
threecomponent, 306
welltowell, 310
Sbale
Colorado, 203
Pierre, 178, 180, 182, 186, 241
Shape factor, 116, 180
Sllear ..... 162
Sierra White (see Grufte)
s.at.227
Sf(alllt flow, 227
Staq4*,128
~ ............ 110
Stoaeley
mode, 274
wave, 266, 311
Stylolidle, 16
StniD
principal directions, S l
small, Sl, S3
teasor, 49
~eyde,10S
s......
compressional, SS
effective, 81
'I
iI
shear,"
telliOr, S2
traction,SS
Sweep (fnlpleaey). 136, 162
SJDdledc rrf
J
~\
Syttaa
open, 75,79
closed, 75, 79
l'henlapaen\....,., 12
~221,224
306
>./
(
'~
_:J;I
Tor.Honal~, 166
Tortuosity, 35, 71, 80, 81, 83, 93, 191, 252; 254
Traasmission
coefficient, 250, 255263, 290296
modulus, 263,
phase, 263, 295
method, 153, 172, 173
Tripolite, 231
Troy (see Granite)
Tube wave, 275
Vector
'
.,
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.,
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.,.
.,
,
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..
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.,
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