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Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Table of contents
Introduction

--------------------------------------------------------------2

Objectives and instruments ---------------------------------------------- 3


Procedure and Computation --------------------------------------------4
Preliminary data sheet ----------------------------------------------------5
Final data sheet -------------------------------------------------------------7
Pictures ----------------------------------------------------------------------9
Research and discussions ------------------------------------------------10
Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------------12

Introduction

Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone


(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)
Occasions arise on location where the use of offsets from the semi-tangents
to intermediate points on a circular curve are mandatory. The accuracy of
points set by offsets is dependent upon the method used in setting them,
and the practice of placing curve points by lining in stakes by eye and
turning of right-angles by hand methods is unsatisfactory. Even though
tangent offsets are used, the field notes for the curve should be completed
showing the deflections in the normal manner.
The tangent offset method is used to establish the points by directly
measuring from the back or forward tangent. If desired, this can be done
accurately with only a chain, thus eliminating the need to measure the
angles.
Instead of measuring angles and distances along the arc of the curve like we
have done on our field work 1, the tangent offset method establishes the
desired stations with a direct measurement at a right angle from the curves
tangents.

Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone


(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Objectives:
1. To be able to lay a simple curve by using the tape alone.

Instruments:
Tape
Used to measure horizontal
distances as well as slopes. Usually
in 30m, 50m or 100m in length.

Chalk
A soft, white, porous sedimentary
carbonate rock, a form of
limestone composed of the mineral
calcite.

2 range poles
Straight round stalks, 3 to 4 cm thick
and about 2 m long. They are made
of wood or metal. They are used to
mark areas and to set out straight lines
on the field. They are also used to mark
points which must be seen from a
distance, in which case a flag may be
attached to improve the visibility.

Procedures:
3

Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone


(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)
1. The professor gives the following data:
I= ; R= ;
Station PC (preferably not on full station):
Adopt Full Chord length of
2. The professor assigns the location of PC in the field, together with the
direction of the backward tangent. (Note: Be very careful in assigning
the location of station PC and direction of the backward tangent so that
the curve will not be obstructed by any large permanent structure.)
3. The students:
3.1. Compute the cental incremental angle of the simple curve
assigned, Lc and Sta PT.
3.2. Compute the incremental tangent offset distances x and y
of each intermediate stations before going to the field.
3.3. Compute the first offset distances x and y using the
formula:
d
The tangent offset distance x1 must be solved using: x 1=c 1cos ( 1 )
2
d1
The tangent offset distance y1 must be solved using: y 1=c 1sin ( )
2
3.4. Compute the second offset distances x and y using the
formula:
d +D
The tangent offset distance x2 must be solved using: x 2=ccos ( 1
)
2
d +D
The tangent offset distance y2 must be solved using: y 2=csin ( 1
)
2
3.5. Compute the succeeding offset distances x and y using the
formula:
D+ D
)
The tangent offset distance x3 must be solved using: x 3=ccos (
2
or x 3=ccos(D)
D+ D
)
The tangent offset distance y3 must be solved using: y 3=csin (
2
or x 3=csin(D)
3.6. Compute the last offset distances x and y using the formula:
d +D
The tangent offset distance xn must be solved using: x n=ccos ( 2
)
2
d +D
The tangent offset distance yn must be solved using: y n=csin ( 2
)
2
1.7. Lay the curve in the field starting in the position of the PC.
The process explained below assumed that the total length
of the tape will not be exhausted.
2. Station A is now laid on the ground using the procedure below.
4

Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone


(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)
4.1. The front tapeman should hold the 0 mark of the tape at
station
PC.
4.2. The tangent offset tapeman (man at station A) should hold
and
locate the length x1 mark, and loop the tape and hold
also the next
full meter length.
4.3. The point A tape man should locate and hold the y1 length of
the
tape from the tangent offset tapeman and also loop
the tape and
hold the next full meter length of the
tape. The front tape man
while holding the zero mark of
the tape must also hold the c1 tape
length distance from
point A tape man.
4.4. The front tapeman and tangent offset tapeman should align
themselves in the direction of the back tangent of the
simple
curve.
4.5. The three tapeman should stretch the tape and the point A
tape
man should mark its exact position on the ground with
a marking
pink or a chalk if on pavement.
3. Station B is now laid on the ground using the procedure below.
5.1. The front tapeman holds the 0 mark of the tape at station A.
5.2. The tangent offset tapeman (man at station B) holds and
locates
the length x2 mark, loop the tape and hold also
the next full meter
length.
5.3. The point B tape man locates and holds the y2 length of the
tape
from the tangent offset tapeman; he also loops
the tape and holds
the next full meter length of the
tape. The front tape man while
holding the zero mark of
the tape also holds the c tape length
distance from
point B tape man.
5.4 The front tape man and tangent offset tape man align
themselves
in the direction along the prolongation of
line PC to A.
4. Station C and other full station are now laid on the ground using the
same procedures a to d.
5. Station PT is laid in the same manner as above but this time with a
chord length of only c2.
6. Determine the percentage of error bu using the formula:
computed long chord lengthmeasured longchord length
error =
computed long chord length

Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone


(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone


(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Final Data Sheet


Field Work 2

Laying of Simple Curve by Using the Tape


Alone (Incremental Chord and Tangent
Offset Method)
Date: Oct 13, 2015
Group No.: 4
Time: 12:00pm
Location: Luneta Park
Weather: Cloudy
Professor: Engr. Ira Balmoris

A. Data Supplied:
I= 65
R= 80m
Station of the PC: 29 + 928
Adopt Full Chord Length of 20 m
STATION
CHORD
OCCUPIED OBSERVED
PC

12

20

20

20

20

PT

18.76

CENTRAL
ANGLE
0 48
41.89
14 25
6.22
14 21
20.83
15 52
14.3
15 52
14.3
15 52
26.61

OFFSET DISTANCES
X
Y
12

0.17

19.37

4.98

19.38

4.96

19.24

5.47

19.24

5.47

18.04

5.13

Computed Length of the Chord: 85.97 m


Actual Length of the Chord: not applicable
B. Computation:
Computed

C1 =( 29+940 ) ( 29+928 )=12 m

C2 : Lc=( 65 ) ( 80 )
=90.737
180
PT= (29+ 940 ) + ( 0+090.757 )=30+018.76
C2 =18.76

( )

Laying of a simple curve by using the tape alone


(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Measured

C1 =12.93m
C=24.5324.34=20.57 m
C=24.5324.34=20.19 m
C=46.3624.71=21.65 m
C=42.8224.71=21.11 m
C2 =41.3623.17=18.19 m

x 1=12cos

14.47
=12 m
17.4

y 1=12 sin

14.47
=0.17 m
17.4

14.47 +14.36
14.47+14.36
=19.36 m y 2=20 sin
=4.98 m
2
2
14.36+14.36
14.36+14.36
x 3=20 cos
=19.38 m y 3=20 sin
=4.96 m
2
2
17.4+14.36
17.4 +14.36
x 4=20 cos
=19.24 m y 4=20 sin
=5.47 m
2
2
17.4+14.36
17.4 +14.36
x 5=20 cos
=19.24 m y 5=20 sin
=5.47 m
2
2
x 2=20 cos

x 6=18.76 cos

17.4+14.36
17.4+14.36
=18.04 m y 6=18.76 sin
=5.13 m
2
2

PCPT =114.66 m

110.76114.66

100=3.52
110.76

error =

Pictures:

Measuring the offset of


Point A to back tangent.

Lay outing station B by


maintaining a right
angle from station A
having B as the right
angle.

Lay outing station C


using station B as guide.

Research and
Discussions
Conclusion: