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# Section 1.

## 10 • Mathematical Modeling and Variation 31

Name______________________________________________
Section 1.10 Mathematical Modeling and Variation

## Objective: In this lesson you learned how to write mathematical models

for direct, inverse, and joint variation.

## Directly proportional If y = kx for some nonzero constant k, then y is directly

proportional to x, or is said to vary directly as x.

Sum of square differences The sum of the squares of the differences between actual
data values and model values.
Least squares regression line The best fitting linear model with the least sum of
square differences.

## I. Introduction (Page 103) What you should learn

How to use mathematical
Describe what is meant by “fitting a model to data.” models to approximate
sets of data points
Answers may vary. For instance, fitting a model to data means
finding a mathematical model, such as a polynomial function or
a rational function, that provides a good fit for given data. To
judge whether a model is a “good fit”, compare actual values of
the dependent variable to the values given by the model.

II. Least Squares Regression and Graphing Utilities (Page 104) What you should learn
How to use the
To find the least squares regression line for a set of data, . . . regression feature of a
approximate it visually by plotting the data points and drawing graphing utility to find
the equation of a least
the line that appears to fit best, or enter the data points into a squares regression line
calculator or computer and use the calculator or computer’s
linear regression feature.

## The correlation coefficient r of a set of data gives a measure of

how well the model fits the data . The closer the
value of | r | is to 1, the better . . . the fit.

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

32 Chapter 1 • Functions and Their Graphs

## Example 1: The numbers (in thousands) of U.S. Air Force

female personnel p on active duty for the years
2000 through 2004 are shown in the table. Use the
regression capabilities of a graphing utility to find
a linear model for the data. Let t represent the year
with t = 0 corresponding to 2000.
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
p 66.8 67.6 71.5 73.5 73.8
(Source: U.S. Department of Defense)

p = 1.99t + 66.66

## III. Direct Variation (Page 105)

What you should learn
How to write
When a variable y is directly proportional to a variable x, the
mathematical models for
constant of variation is . . . the nonzero constant k in the direct variation
equation y = kx . Another name
for the constant of variation is the constant of
proportionality .

zero .

## Example 2: If y varies directly as x, and y is 6 when x is 4, find

the value of y when x is 20.
y = 30

IV. Direct Variation as an nth Power (Page 106) What you should learn
How to write
If y = kxn for some nonzero constant k, then describe the mathematical models for
relationship between y and x in two different ways. direct variation as an nth
power
y varies directly as the nth power of x, or y is directly
proportional to the nth power of x

## Example 3: If y is directly proportional to the third power of x,

and y is 750 when x is 10, find the value of y when
x is 8.
y = 384

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

Section 1.10 • Mathematical Modeling and Variation 33
Name______________________________________________
IV. Inverse Variation (Page 107) What you should learn
How to write
If y varies inversely as x, then x and y are related by an equation mathematical models for
of the form y = k/x , where k is some nonzero inverse variation
constant.

## If y varies inversely as x, then another way to describe this

relationship is that y is inversely proportional to x.

## If x and y are related by an equation of the form y = k/xn, then y

varies inversely as the nth power of x
or y is inversely proportional to the nth power of x .

## Example 4: If y varies inversely as x, and y is 4 when x is 16,

find the value of y when x is 10.
y = 6.4

## V. Joint Variation (Page 108) What you should learn

How to write
If z varies jointly as x and y, then z = kxy for some constant mathematical models for
k . joint variation

## Another way to say that z varies jointly as x and y is . . .

to say that z is jointly proportional to x and y.

## Example 5: If z varies jointly as x and y, and if z = 10 when

x = 4 when y = 15, find the value of z when x = 12
and y = 7.
z = 14

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

34 Chapter 1 • Functions and Their Graphs

y y y

x x x

y y y

x x x

Homework Assignment

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Exercises