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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2015

SOIL STABILIZATION USING INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND LIME


M.ADAMS JOE1, A.MARIA RAJESH2
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Engg College, Oman
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, ACEW, Tamilnadu, India.

ABSTRACT
The project deals with stabilization of soil using industrial waste. Unsuitable highway sub grade soil requires stabilization
to improve its properties. Industrial waste sand is used as raw materials when the sand can no longer be reused in the
industry, it is removed from the industry and is removed from the industry and is termed as industrial waste sand.
Ingredients used are Copper slag, cement and lime. Copper slag is a by product of Copper industryLime was bought from
locally available chemical laboratories. The project are planned to conduct various experiment like Specific gravity, sieve
analysis, proctor compaction test, unconfined compressive strength and CBR test to increase strength properties and
behaviour of sub base. Then the results and graphs of various mixes are compared to see their effects in sub base
stabilization. The stabilization technique has an additional benefit of providing an environment friendly way to deal with
industrial waste sand.
Keywords: - Industrial waste sand, Lime, Atterberg limits, Unconfined Compressive Strength and California Bearing
Ratio Test

1. INTRODUCTION
The sub-base is an important layer in both flexible and rigid pavements. It mainly acts as a structural layer helping to
spread the wheel loads so that the subgrade is not over-stressed. It also plays a useful role as a separation layer betThe
projecten the base and the subgrade and provides a good working platform on which the other paving materials can be
transported, laid and compacted. It can also act as a drainage layer. The selection of material and the design of the subbase will depend upon the particular design function of the layer and also the expected in-situ moisture
conditions.Stabilised sub-bases can be used for both flexible and rigid road pavements, although the reasons for doing this
can vary. In order to identify the benefits of stabilising sub-bases, it is necessary to examine the role of the sub-base for
each pavement type. A stabilised, and therefore stiffer, sub-base provides greater load spreading ability and hence reduces
stresses imposed on the subgrade. When stabilised the sub-base provides much of the structural rigidity in the pavement,
and also assists during the compaction of the upper granular layers and hence increases their ability to withstand
deformation.
Indian Resource Council materials have been used successfully in stabilized base and subbase applications as the binder,
the pozzolanic material admixture or as both the fine and coarse aggregate. Slag materials have also been used in
stabilized layers. Slag cement can be used as the binder for stabilized base and subbase layers, while air cooled blast
furnace slag has been used very successfully as fine aggregate. Other Indian Resource Council materials that have been
used successfully in stabilized base applications include industrial waste sand, which have been used as a fine aggregate
and crushed concrete, which is used for both coarse and fine aggregate. One benefit of recycling concrete is that it keeps
high quality natural aggregates in use. In addition, Portland cement concrete pavements can be recycled on site, which
reduces project costs by eliminating the transportation costs associated with removing the old concrete.
The use of Indian Resource Council materials as aggregates in high volume applications like base and subbase
layers reduces the need for mining virgin aggregate and the associated use of water, fuel and reduces carbon dioxide
emissions, while also saving valuable landfill space. At the same time, the performance of these materials is as good or
better then natural materials, which provides added value to the project because of the reduced costs. In addition, the use
slag cement provides strong, cost effective pavement layers while reducing green house gas emissions and energy
consumption compared to cement.

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2015

1.1 SCOPE OF THE WORK


It would have been a very good situation if common industrial wastes can be considered as an alternative to
conventional aggregate materials for highway construction with economical solution. On the basis of this the
Objective and Scope of Work of the Present Thesis has been considered.

Fig 1 : Study Area


Location 1: Tirunelveli
Location 2: Chennalpatti
Location 3: Thattarmadam

Location 4: Pettai
Location 5: Melakulam

2. MATERIALS USED
2.1 Industrial waste sand:
Industrial waste sand is high quality silica sand with uniform physical characteristics. It is a byproduct of
the ferrous and nonferrous metal casting industry, where sand has been used for centuries as a moulding material because
of its unique engineering properties. In modern foundry practice, sand is typically recycled and reused through many
production cycles. Industry estimates are that approximately 100 million tons of sand are used in production annually. Of
that, four (4) to seven (7) million tons are discarded annually and are available to be recycled into other products and
industries.
2.2 Lime:
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. Strictly
speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. The word "lime" originates with its earliest use as building mortar
and has the sense of "sticking or adhering." These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering
materials (including limestone products, concrete and mortar) and as chemical feedstocks, and sugar refining, among
other uses. The rocks and minerals from which these materials are derived, typically limestone or chalk, are composed
primarily of calcium carbonate. They may be cut, crushed or pulverized and chemically altered. "Burning" (calcinations)
converts them into the highly caustic material quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) and, through subsequent addition of water,
into the less caustic (but still strongly alkaline) slaked lime or hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2), the process of
which is called slaking of lime.

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2015

3. EXPERIMENTAL WORK
In this project The project have conducted various experiment to find the stabilisation of the sub base using the
industrial waste and cement the various test conducted to find the stabilisation of the sub base based on the ASTM
procedure are listed below:
3.1 Liquid Limit (ASTM D 4318 05)
3.2 Plastic Limit (ASTM D 4318 10e)
3.3 Sieve Analysis (ASTM D 6913)
3.4 Specific Gravity (ASTM D 6473)
3.5 Standard Proctor Compaction Test (ASTM D 1557)
3.6 Unconfined Compressive Strength (ASTM D 2166)
3.7 California Bearing Ratio Test (ASTM D 1883)
3.1 LIQUID LIMIT:
Liquid limit is defined as the moisture content at
which soil begins to behave as a liquid material and
begins to flow. The importance of the liquid limit test is
to classify soils. Different soils have varying liquid
limits. Also, once must use the plastic limit to determine
its plasticity index.

Fig 2 Liquid limit equipment


3.2 PLASTIC LIMIT
Plastic limit is defined as the loThe projectst moisture
content and expressed as a percentage of the The
projectight of the oven dried soil at which the soil can be
rolled into the threads one-eighth inch in a diameter
without the soil breaking into pieces. This is also the
moisture content of a solid at which a soil changes from
a plastic state to a semisolid state.

Fig 3 Plastic limit equipmen


3.3 SIEVE ANALYSIS:
A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure
used assesses the particle size distribution of a
granular material.

Fig 4 Sieve Analysis equipment

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2015

3.4 SPECIFIC GRAVITY:


Specific gravity is defined as the ration of
the unit The projectight of soil solids unit The
projectight of water. The specific gravity is needed
for various calculation purposes in soil mechanics,
e.g. void ratio, density and unit The projectight

Fig 5 Specific Gravity equipment


3.5 STANDARD PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST:
Compaction is the process of densification
of soil mass by reducing air voids under dynamic
loading. This test is conducted in order to find out the
optimum moisture content and maximum dry density
of the soil.
Fig 6 Standard proctor compaction equipment
3.6
UNCONFINED
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH:
The unconfined compression test is used to
measure the shearing resistance of cohesive soils
which may be undisturbed or remolded specimens.
An axial load is applied using either strain-control or
stress-control condition. The unconfined compressive
strength is defined as the maximum unit stress
obtained within the first 20% strain.

Fig 7 Compressive testing machine


3.7 CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST:
The California bearing ratio (CBR) is a
penetration test for evaluation of the mechanical
strength of road subgrades and base courses. The test
is performed by measuring the pressure required to
penetrate a soil sample with a plunger of standard
area. The measured pressure is then divided by the
pressure required to achieve an equal penetration on a
standard crushed rock material. The CBR rating was
developed for measuring the load-bearing capacity of
soils used for building roads.
Fig 8 California Bearing Ratio Equipment

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2015

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Index Properties
Table : Index Properties of materials
Materials
Index Properties
Specific Gravity (G)
Liquid Limit
(WL)
Plastic Limit
(WP)
Shrinkage Limit (WS)
Sieve Analysis- Coefficient of
curvature ( Cc )

Soil

Lime

Copper slag

2.65 Kg/m3
39 %
28%
8%

2.5 Kg/m3
25 %
23 %
6%

2.22 Kg/m3
30%
25%
15 %

0.54

0.53

0.54

4.2 Mechanical Properties


4.2.1 Standard Proctor Compaction Test
Table 1 Standard proctor compaction test
Optimum
Dry
Location
moisture
density
content in %
in g/cc
Location 1
9.3
1.837
Location 2
11
1.730
Location 3
7.9
1.905
Location 4
10.6
1.806
Location 5
7.25
1.890

Location

Unconfined compressive
strength in kN/m2

Location 1

66

Location 2

180

Location 3

197

Location 4

152

Location 5

167

Fig. 13 unconfined compressive strength


unconfined compressive strength in
kN/m 2

4.2.2 UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH


Table 2 Unconfined compressive strength

Fig 12 Water content in % Vs Dry density

250
197
180

200

167
152

150

100

66

Y-Values

50
0
0

locations

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2015

4.2.3 CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST


Table 3 California bearing ratio test

Location

Fig 14 Penetration in mm Vs load

Bearing
Ratio in %

Location 1

25

Location 2

33

Location 3

17

Location 4

14

Location 5

25

5. CONCLUSION
From the study it is observed that there is an appreciable improvement in the optimum moisture content and
maximum dry density for the soil treated with industrial waste. In terms of material cost, the use of less costly Admixtures
can reduce the required amount of industrial waste. Soils had the greatest improvement with all soils becoming nonplastic with the addition of sufficient amounts of industrial waste. The study after conducting several experiments
revealed the following significances in using lime and industrial waste as a stabilizing agent. The addition of lime and
industrial waste mixes to sub base increases the unconfined compressive strength value more than that by ordinary
methods. The sub base stabilization with lime and industrial waste mixes improves the strength behaviour of sub base. It
can potentially reduce ground improvement costs by adopting this method of stabilization.

REFERENCE
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[2] Akshaya Kumar Sabat, Associate Professor, Subasis Pati Research Scholar Department Of Civil Engineering Institute
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[3] M Anjan Kumar, Giet,Rajamundry & G V R Prasada Raju, Department Of Civil Engineering,Jntu College Of
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[5] Dallas N. Little, Texas A&M University, Eric H. Males, National Lime Association, Jan R. Prusinski, Portland
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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2015

[6] George Rowland Otoko Civil Engineering Department, Rivers State University Of Science And Technology, Port
Harcourt, A Review Of The Stabilization Of Problematic Soils International Journal Of Engineering And Technology
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[8] Mukesh A. Patel,Dr. H. S. Patel A Review On Effects Of Stabilizing Agents For Stabilization Of The projectak Soil
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Treatment Base Pavement, Material And Geotechnical Division, Intercontinental Consultants And Technocrats Private
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