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Page 49

Drilling & Well-logging Course


Porosity - Logs Cross-Plots

Dr. Adel Al-Matary

Well-logging Lab No. 9


Porosity Logs 49

Table 4.13. Log values from Figures 4.1, 4.3, and 4.5, used to determine porosity and lithology.

Depth

Raw Data

Neutron-Density Crossplot

DT

RHOB

PE

NPHI

Lithology

PhiND

11,508

51

2.73

5.0

0.005

Limestone

0.000

11,522

47

2.75

3.2

0.090

Dolomite

0.070

11,545

57

2.67

3.7

0.130

Dolomite

0.110

11,560

48

2.96

4.8

-0.010

Anhydrite

0.000

11,593

50

2.70

5.6

0.000

Limestone

0.000

11,615

51

2.97

5.1

-0.010

Anhydrite

0.000

11,631

67

2.50

3.8

0.290

Dolomite (w/anhydrite?)

0.230

11,645

52

2.82

3.5

0.140

Dolomite (w/anhydrite?)

0.100

11,655

57

2.64

3.5

0.160

Dolomite

0.130

11,665

52

2.68

5.5

0.010

Limestone

0.010

11,696

50

2.76

5.1

0.010

Dolomitic limestone

0.005

Table 4.14. Log values from Figures 4.1, 4.3, and 4.5, used to determine porosity and lithology.

Depth

Raw Data

Neutron-Sonic Crossplot

DT

RHOB

PE

NPHI

Lithology

PhiNS

11,508

51

2.73

5.0

0.005

Sandy limestone

0.000

11,522

47

2.75

3.2

0.090

Dolomite

0.070

11,545

57

2.67

3.7

0.130

Limestone

0.130

11,560

48

2.96

4.8

-0.010

Anhydrite

0.000

11,593

50

2.70

5.6

0.000

Limestone

0.010

11,615

51

2.97

5.1

-0.010

Anhydrite?

0.000

11,631

67

2.50

3.8

0.290

Dolomite

0.240

11,645

52

2.82

3.5

0.140

Dolomite

0.120

11,655

57

2.64

3.5

0.160

Limy dolomite

0.145

11,665

52

2.68

5.5

0.010

Sandy limestone

0.020

11,696

50

2.76

5.1

0.010

Sandy limestone

0.010

ch04_v2.qxd

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Page 66

Drilling & Well-logging Course


Porosity - Logs Cross-Plots

Dr. Adel Al-Matary

Well-logging Lab No. 9

66 ASQUITH AND KRYGOWSKI

Figure 4.11. Neutron-density crossplot.


Lithology and porosity can be determined
from the neutron-density crossplot.
Procedure:
1. The point is located on the plot from
the intersection of the neutron and density
(limestone) values. Density may be bulk
density (left axis of chart) or density
porosity (right axis of chart).
2. The porosity of the point is determined
by its location relative to lines connecting
points of equal porosity on the two
lithology lines between which it is plotted.
Note that the neutron porosity (NPHI)
values in Table 4.13 are decimal fractions,
and the neutron limestone porosity values
in Figure 4.11 are in percent. A value
listed as 0.010 in the table is equal to a
value of 1% on the figure.
3. The lithology of the point is determined
by its location relative to the two lithology
lines, with the proximity to each line an
indication of the percentage of each of the
mineral pairs. Note that the lithology
determination can be ambiguous (e.g., a
point lying between the calcite and
dolomite lines also lies between the quartz
and dolomite lines). Use the smallest
value ma for each lithology to do the
calculations.

Courtesy Halliburton Energy Services, 1994 Halliburton Energy Services

ch04_v2.qxd

8/5/04

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Page 67

Drilling & Well-logging Course


Porosity - Logs Cross-Plots

Dr. Adel Al-Matary

Well-logging Lab No. 9


Porosity Logs 67

Figure 4.12. Neutron-sonic


crossplot.
Lithology and porosity can be determined
from the neutron-sonic crossplot.
Procedure:
1. The point is located on the plot
from the intersection of the neutron
and sonic values.
2. The porosity of the point is
determined by its location relative to
lines connecting points of equal
porosity on the two lithology lines
between which it is plotted. Note
that the neutron porosity (NPHI)
values in Table 4.13 are decimal
fractions, and the neutron limestone
porosity values in Figure 4.12 are in
percent. A value listed as 0.010 in
the table is equal to a value of 1%
on the figure.
3. The lithology of the point is
determined by its location relative to
the two lithology lines, with the
proximity to each line an indication of
the percentage of each of the mineral
pairs. Note that the lithology
determination can be ambiguous
(e.g., a point lying between the
calcite and dolomite lines also lies
between the quartz and dolomite
lines). For this exercise, use the
curves labeled Empirical, which are
based on the Gardner-Hunt-Raymer
equation.
Note: On this graph, anhydrite plots at
the point where neutron limestone
porosity = 1% and interval transit time
= 50 sec/ft.
Courtesy Halliburton Energy Services, 1994 Halliburton Energy Services

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Drilling & Well-logging Course


Porosity - Logs Cross-Plots
50

Dr. Adel Al-Matary

Well-logging Lab No. 9

ASQUITH AND KRYGOWSKI

Table 4.15. Log values from Figures 4.1, 4.3, and 4.5, used to determine porosity and lithology.

Depth

Raw Data

Spectral Density Crossplot

DT

RHOB

PE

NPHI

Lithology

11,508

51

2.73

5.0

0.005

Limestone (w/anhydrite?)

0.000

11,522

47

2.75

3.2

0.090

Dolomite

0.060

11,545

57

2.67

3.7

0.130

Limy dolomite

0.080

11,560

48

2.96

4.8

-0.010

Anhydrite

0.000

11,593

50

2.70

5.6

0.000

Limestone

0.000

11,615

51

2.97

5.1

-0.010

Anhydrite

0.000

11,631

67

2.50

3.8

0.290

Limy dolomite

0.160

11,645

52

2.82

3.5

0.140

Limy dolomite

0.010

11,655

57

2.64

3.5

0.160

Limy dolomite

0.100

11,665

52

2.68

5.5

0.010

Limestone

0.010

11,696

50

2.76

5.1

0.010

Limestone (w/anhydrite?)

0.000

Data plotted on this crossplot show the following


patterns: For a single pure mineralogy, the data plot
around the point representing that mineralogy. For
binary mineral systems, the data plot along a line connecting the two mineralogical members, with the location of the points along the line indicative of the mineral mixture of each point. For ternary systems, the
data plot in a triangle with the three member mineralogies as the vertices of the triangle, and with the
location of each data point in the triangle indicative of
the mineral mixture of that point. Note that porosity is
not predicted from this plot but is determined from the
earlier two-component crossplots.
Although two common mineral triangles are usually used as examples (either quartz/calcite/dolomite or
calcite/dolomite/anhydrite), any three minerals that
plot uniquely on the crossplot can be used. One need
not see data clustered around a particular mineral endpoint to sense the presence of a mineral. The presence
of small amounts of a mineral tend to draw the data
away from the primary mineral (or mineral mixture)
and toward the secondary mineral endpoint.
Table 4.16 shows the calculation of M and N values
and the resulting lithology estimations from Figure
4.15.

PhiSpD

Mineral-identification Plots
These plots rely on the calculation of apparent
matrix values as crossplot parameters. The apparent
matrix values are determined (when done graphically)
through what are essentially crossplots, created to
emphasize matrix values rather than porosity. Apparent matrix density (maa) is determined from an equivalent of the neutron-density crossplot and is shown in
Figure 4.16. Apparent matrix travel time (tmaa) is
determined from an equivalent of the neutron-sonic
crossplot and is shown in Figure 4.17. The calculation
of apparent matrix values (Western Atlas, 1995) is:
4.11
4.12
where:
b = bulk density (from the log)
fl = fluid density
ND = neutron-density crossplot porosity
t = interval transit time (from the log)
tfl = fluid transit time

ch04_v2.qxd

8/5/04

10:53 AM

Page 68

Drilling & Well-logging Course


Porosity - Logs Cross-Plots

Dr. Adel Al-Matary

Well-logging Lab No. 9

68 ASQUITH AND KRYGOWSKI

Figure 4.13. Spectral density crossplot (bulk density and


photoelectric effect).
Lithology and porosity can be determined from the spectraldensity crossplot.
Procedure:
1.The point is located on the plot from the intersection of
the bulk-density and Pe values.
2. The porosity of the point is determined by its location
relative to lines connecting points of equal porosity on the
two lithology lines between which it is plotted.
3. The lithology of the point is determined by its location
relative to the two lithology lines, with the proximity to each
line an indication of the percentage of each of the mineral
pairs. Note that the lithology determination can be
ambiguous (e.g., a point lying between the calcite and
dolomite lines also lies between the quartz and dolomite
lines).

Courtesy Schlumberger Wireline & Testing, 1998 Schlumberger