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Comparison of Test Standards


according to ISO, DIN, ASTM, JIS and BS

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Contents

Foreword

Testing of the thermosetting moulding compounds and moulding materials


Practice-relevant characteristic values, testing - Material - Data base (Campus)
Dimensioning and service properties
Simple tests and their informative quality
Summary

4
4
5
5
5

Tracking test

Diagram
The designer and his tasks

Standardised moulding materials


Survey
Preparation of test specimens

8-9

10
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Comparison of tests

18

52-53
54
55
56-57

Shear modulus (torsion vibration test)


Ashes (residue on ignition)

58-59
60

61

Density ISO 1138


61
Apparent density ISO 60
61
Moulding shrinkage ISO 2577
61
Tensile strength ISO 527
61
Compressive strength ISO 604
61
Flexural strength ISO 178
61
Modulus of elasticity ISO 178
61
Impact- (ISO 179 1eU) and notched impact strength (ISO 179 1eA)
61
Ball indentation hardness DIN/ISO 2039 Part 1
61
Temperature of deflection under load ISO 75
61
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion DIN 53752
61-62
Heat conductivity DIN 52612
62
Maximum application temperature DIN/IEC 216/T 1
62
Surface resistance lEC 93/DIN/VDE 0303 T 30
62
Volume resistivity lEC 93/DIN/VDE 0303T30
62
Electrical strength lEC 243-1/DIN/VDE 0303 T 21
62
Comparative tracking index DIN/IEC 112
62
Flame test UL-Subject 94
62
Water absorption ISO 62
62

Injection moulding according to ISO 3167 Typ A


Multipurpose test specimens ISO 10 724 Definitions
Injection moulding shapes of test specimen
Injection moulding shapes of test specimen (tensile test bars)
Compression moulding according to ISO 295 procedure B
Compression moulding according to ISO 295 Definitions
Moulding conditions Compression moulding according to ISO 295
Test specimens moulds for compression moulding

Definitions: Creep resistance


Arc resistance
Water absorption
Abrasion Abrasion principle drawing

Description of test procedures

Diagrams
of Testing, selection of materials

52

Data catalogue in CAMPUS 3


according to ISO 10350

Density Apparent density


18
Moulding shrinkage and Post shrinkage
19
Tensile strength, tables, graphics
20-21
Elongation
22
Tensile modulus of elasticity (tangent or secant)
23
Flexural strength, graphics
24-25
Tensile modulus of elasticity (tangent or secant)
26
Compressive strength ISO
27
Compressive modulus of elasticity
28
Impact strength (unnotched and notched) according to Charpy or Izod 29
Ball indentation hardness or Rockwell hardness
30
Comparison of hardness tests / Diagrams
31
Shore hardnessD with durometer / Diagrams
32-33
Temperature of deflection under load
34
Heat deformation temperature according to Vicat
35
Heat deformation temperature according to Martens
36
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
37
Thermal conductivity
38-39
Maximum service temperature <50 h / 20000 h / Diagrams
40-41
Surface resistance / Diagrams, Graphic
42-43
Volume resistivity / Diagrams, Graphic
44-45
Relative permittivity and dissipation factor / Diagrams, Graphic
46-47
Electrical strength
48-49
Comparative tracking index (Trecking resistance)
50-51

63

National Standards Organization

64-65

UL flame test

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Before dealing with tests one must first identify


their problems and tasks. Without making any
appraisal, the test serves
to assure a uniform quality,
to make a selection for the economic use of
materials,
to reduce the costs,
or correct dimensioning and design
of a product.

Problems and tasks

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Foreword
Testing of the thermosetting moulding compounds
and moulding materials

Epoxy

12252-3

Melamine-formaldehyde

7708/T9

14528-3

Melamine-phenolic

7708/T10

14529-3

Phenolic

7708/T2

14526-3

Unsaturated
Polyester

7708/T11

14530-3

Table A

Testing technology
Now what has happened in the field of testing
technology?
The first two criteria
determination of the properties of the raw
materials, semi-finished products, finished
products and
supervision of the uniform quality of these
products
are without doubt achieved with few auxiliary
means (flexural strength, impact strength, notched
bar impact strength, HDT etc.).
Hence the designer could proceed according to a
certain rough pattern (Figure 1). However, this is
only possible if characteristic values with which
he can do so are made available to him. The testing
technology is intended to provide help for this.
If we restrict ourselves to thermosetting
compounds, we find that the technical testing
equipment is different; the necessary minimum is
subject to supervision.
When following the arrows in the diagram
(Figure 2), it strikes immediately that the special
attention is focused on the moulding compound.

Typifying and supervision


When the usual standard tests, e.g. the minimum
requirements specified in the standards, are
considered, it can be seen that these serve in the
first place to typify and supervise thermosetting
moulding compounds. A designer certainly needs
more than this numercical overview.
The standard types, e.g. of DIN 7708 Parts 2, 9,
10, 11 (draft) which are the basis of many
discussions are given much too little consideration.
(s. folder 8+9)

Informative quality of standard tests


Can the standard tests provide a comprehensive
picture of the compound?
They are certainly sufficient where physically clearly
defined properties like density, specific heat etc.,
which are independent of the test procedure, are
involved but they are insufficient for characteristic
values required for design purposes. Here it is
absolutely necessary to search for test procedures
which lead to a good correlation of the results to
the practice. It is of no importance how the uniform
quality of the thermo-setting moulding compounds
is tested.
Compounds are rejected as inadequate often
enough because one property value does not
fulfill the requirements although this value is of
no informative value for the particular application.

Other prerequisites

Thus there are sufficient references for instance


to automatic testing devices and rational quality
controls. These can be computer-aided.
It is obvious that
closer tolerances,
reduction of the number of random tests,
higher reliability and accuracy of the values,
comparability of the values
require higher capital investment. However, if the
testing technology is to be in accordance with
good economics a high degree of utilisation is
necessary. A wealth of experience from past years
is not available to everybody.

Practice-relevant characteristic values,


testing - Material - Data base
(CAMPUS)
The question must be asked whether the image
of properties developed decades ago is still
adequate in the present time. It is not possible
either to give a general instruction on how and
which practice-relveant data should be determined.
However, a little schematic could help to make
these decisions (Figure 3). A close look at it would
also reveal the direct relation to what is known as
the data block system for standardising and
reducing tests and test specimens and to
international standardisation.
The plastic data base CAMPUS is a practical
supplement for the standardisation and
rationalisation of plastic tests. On an international
basis, it is the most successful and most widely
used data base for plastic properties.

Many authors mentioned from which parameters


the property values are dependent.
Extensive investigations performed during injection
moulding of thermosetting moulding compounds
demonstrate the problems. However, everything
is done with a view to the minimum requirements
of DIN 7708/T2 (ISO/CD 14526-3 etc.) determined
with standard tests.
It is not clear though whether other prerequisites
have always been fulfilled.
Knowledge and evaluation of the testing
equipment and the charactistic values
determined therewith,
Establishing evaluation criteria based on
experience and
Comparison of properties also with those of the
materials which were determined under the same
conditions and for the same geometries.

Automatic testing devices


A lot has happened in the field of testing technology
during the last few years.

Bakelite-Data base CAMPUS world-wide

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Comparability, reproducibility
When considering a few selected tests on a type
of moulding compound with due regard to the
impact strength and notch impact tests, apparently
haphazardly scattered results are found as a
function of thickness.
In view of the practical performance, a critical
evaluation of the test and its results is therefore
required, with the moulding in the centre. Hence
the following is applicable to thermosetting
compounds:
1.) In the case of fractures of thermosetting
compounds we have to deal chiefly
with brittle fractures so that these can be the
most dangerous failures resulting
in considerable damage and consequential
damage.
2.) Long-term behaviour and service temperature
are subject to general rules which
are derived according to in the single-point
method or from limiting temperature
mesurements on test specimens and hence
can only be empirical values.
The reproducibility of the values obtained in the
tests is a function of the compounds and the
processing parameters. It would be easiest if the
long-time performance the design of mouldings
with the respective service properties could be
inferred from short-time tests without additional
outlay.

Dimensioning and service properties


For the time being, let us keep to the subject of
the characteristic values which, after all, are decisive
for the realisation of a moulding with appropriate
service properties.
The properties are a function of
the molding material,
the processing (technology),
the specimen geometry and
the method of testing.
The manufacturer of the moulding compound is
reponsible for the moulding compound and for
issuing guidelines for the processing thereof.
The Specimen geometry and testing method
(except for in-house pratices) are defined in the
standards, which also permits verification of the
reproducibility. Statistic methods help to get on
where sufficient values are available.
In the testing technology, the following has been
defined many years ago:
1.) Typification of moulding compound supervision
2.) Preparation and geometry of test specimens
(compression moulding, standard specimen bar)

3.) Testing method (flexural, impact strength,


notched impact strength, the old Martens and
the new HDT method)
When examining some examples which go beyond
the minimum requirements, it strikes immediately
that the properties vary more or less with the
thickness. Are these perceptions not sufficient
for the technician or designer?
Evidently not because there is still a very great
number of properties which depend on different
parameters.
The dependency of one property on cure time,
temperature and, for instance the notch depth
illustrates the wealth of information which can be
obtained with standardised test specimens and
tests. However, the reservation must be made that
the values of one compound can only be compared
with those of other compoundss if such values
are established under the same conditions
(including test specimen geometry). The change
from DIN to ISO ensures comparability of
thermoplastic and thermosetting compounds,
provided that specimen geometry and specimen
preparation are identical. The plastic data base
CAMPUS certainly is a practical and helpful
supplement.

Simple tests and their


informative quality
When considering some other types of
thermosetting compound, the same is evidently
applicable. Starting from the characteristic values
obtained on 4 mm thick mulipurpose test specimen
(= minimum requirements of e.g. 7708/T2 adv.
ISO/CD 14526-3 etc.), it is possible to give some
information and identify some interrelationships.
The impact notch test according to Charpy serves
to evaluate the impact strength behaviour of
notched and unnotched test specimen with threepoint bearing under sudden stress. For the notched
bar impact test, the test specimen is provided with
a V-notch.

The test specimen is supported on two abutments


and is suddenly stressed in the middle by the
pendulum hammer. This set-up is termed Charpy
arrangement. The impact work A required for the
destruction of the test specimen results from the
difference between the height of fall and the height
of rise (after destruction of the specimens) and
the weight G of the pendulum hammer.
If impact strength and notched bar impact strength
are identical or almost identical, the compounds
are insensitive to impact.
It is a well known fact that the property values can
be varied significantly by adding suitable fillers
and reinforcing ingredients.
If information is given on the basis of conclusions
from results obtained a long time ago there may
be a nasty awakening. It is necessary that practicerelevant characteristic values are furnished and
used for further searching for suitable testing
methods or that such values are applied.

Summary
The designer needs the characteristic data of
compounds for designing and shaping a product.
These data are to be determined with suitable
testing methods on comparable test specimen.
The Minimum requirements on moulding
compounds or test specimens made thereof permit
only in part conconclusions to be drawn on the
performance of the mouldings. New and practicerelevant test procedures require investments.
New fields of application cannot be opened up
with old, no longer comparable characteristic
values. Standardisation and rationalisation have
been achieved by the worldwide propagation of
CAMPUS. The break-through on an international
level has been achieved with CAMPUS 4. The new
data catalogue is based on ISO 10350. For the
designer, the target-oriented selection of the
moulding compounds has become significantly
easier, more reliable and faster.

As a result of the notch, a concentration of stress


and an inrease of the crack propagation velocity
is achieved at the bottom of the notch. In this way
it is possible to obtain a fracture in tough plastics
even if these do not break when using unnotched
specimen. It must be noted that the marginal zone
of the test specimen is severed by the machining
of the notch in the side zone of the specimen
subjected to tension.
The fracture work required for the destruction of
the specimens of the sizes specially prepared is
determined with a pendulum impact testing
machine in which gravity acts as driving power.

Various test specimens

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Diagramm
The designer and his tasks

Designer
Development and design of a moulding

Properties

Requirement

Material

Testing
short-time, long-time etc.

Experience

Shape and dimension

Moulding

Quality supervision

Consumer
Figure 1

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Diagrams of Testing and selection of materials

Testing

Production

Development

Moulding compound

Moulding

Characteristic values of test specimen

Characteristic values of moulding

Standard test

Service value test

Practice-relevant characteristic values

Data sheets

Data base - CAMPUS 4

Processor / Consumer

Figure 2

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Selection of materials

Identification

Chemical analysis

Type, environmental compatibility, application

Processing

Flow curing, pourability

Machine parameter, surface

Short-time

mechanically, thermally, electrically

Strength, field of application, dimension

Long-time

Tracking modulus, alternating stress

Calculation, safety, dimension

Resistance

Chemicals, weather, temperature

Compatibility, application, ageing

Supplement

Friction

Special requirement (wear)

Figure 3

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Preparation of test specimens


Multipurpose test specimens according to ISO 10724

Preparation of test specimens of thermosetting moulding compounds


by injection moulding according to ISO 3167 type A
Distinction is made between two procedures for
preparing test specimens:
Procedure A:
Injection moulding of test specimens
Procedure B:
Compression moulding of test specimens

Injection moulding (procedure A)

Hold time

The moulding compound shall be injectionmoulded into multipurpose test specimens type
A-ISO 3167. During the process, the following
ranges shall be adhered to:

The hold time shall be so selected that the pressure


within the mould does not suddenly decrease when
the hold pressure is switched off.

Mould cavity temperature, front flow velocity and


compound temperature may be freely selected
within these ranges, provided that the same
processing conditions are applied to all test
specimens prepared from the moulding compound
to be tested and that they are stated together with
the test result.

The selection of the process is determined by


the identification of the moulding compounds or
the information given by the manufacturer.
Injection moulding compounds shall be processed
by injection moulding and compression moulding
compounds by compression moulding.
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable
standards, the compounds shall be processed in
the condition in which they are supplied.
If pretreatment is required such treatment shall
be carried out in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions (e.g. predrying,
preheating, preforming or preplastification).
Pending processing, the moulding compound shall
be stored as specified by the manufacturer.

Hold pressure

The conditions of manufacture shall be stated


together with the properties.

The progression of the pressure inside the mould


should be recorded in accordance with the
recommendations given in ISO 10 724.

The cure time may be freely selected as a function


of the curing behaviour of the moulding compound
to be tested, provided that the same cure time is
applied to all test specimens prepared from the
moulding compound to be tested and that it is
stated together with the test result.
The selected cure time shall ensure that
homogeneous and preferably complete curing is
achieved. (The differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) procedure may be utilised as a procedure
in support for evaluating the curing).

EP

PF

UF

UP

Moulding compounds

F
M

Processing conditions
(injection moulding
procedure A)

Transition from injection pressure to hold pressure


shall be performed in such a way that what is
known as pressure peak is avoided and the injection
phase blends smoothly into the hold phase (to
avoid filling the mould cavity via the hold pressure).

PF

Injection moulding
(procedure A)

The hold pressure shall be kept constant during


the entire hold phase.

Cure time

Mould cavity
temperature C

160 to 170

160 to 170

165 to 175

140 to 150

160 to 180

170 to 190

Front flow velocity


mm s-1

50 to 150

50 to 150

50 to 150

50 to 150

50 to 150

100 to 200

Compound
temperature C

105 to 115

105 to 115

110 to 120

100 to 110

100 to 110

80 to 100

Table 1 Moulding compounds

10

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Multipurpose test specimens ISO 10724

Preparation of test specimens of thermosetting


moulding compounds by injection moulding according to ISO 3167 type A
Definitions
1. Mould-surface temperature

6. Injection speed

7. Melt velocity

The average temperature of the mould-cavity


surface, measured at several points on each half
of the mould cavity after the system has attained
thermal equilibrium and immediately after opening
the mould.

The rate of forward travel, in millimeters per


second, of the plasticizing screw during the
injection stroke. This parameter may be varied
to control the melt velocity.

The velocity of the flow front of the plasticised


compound in the 4 x 10 mm central cross-sectional
area of the mould cavity.

2. Temperature of the plasticized


compound
The temperature of the plasticized compound as
measured in a free shot.
prefarably B2

3. Injection pressure
The maximum pressure applied to the compound
in front of the screw during the injection time.

4. Hold pressure
The pressure applied to the compound in front of
the screw during the hold time.

5. Moulding cycle
The complete sequence of operations in the
moulding processs always required for the
production of one test specimen.
A moulding cycle consists of the following time
intervals:
5.1
Injection time: The time interval from the
beginning of the screw foward
movement until the mould cavity is filled
5.2
Hold time, dwell time: The time interval
from the time the mould cavity is filled
until the screw begins to move back.
5.3
Cure time: The time interval from the end
of the injection until the mould starts
to open.
5.4
Mould open time: The time interval
beginning at the instant the mould starts
to open, including the removal of the
moulding, until the mould is closed again.

P = pressure transmitters (optional)

Figure 1 ISO-injection mould for multipupose test


specimens according to ISO 3167 type A
vf

vf
d
vs
n
S

is the melt velocity, in millimeters per second


is the screw diameter, in millimeters
is the injection speed, in millimeters per second
is the number of mould cavities
is the cross-sectional area, in square millimeters, of the centre of the test specimen

11

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Injection moulding shapes of test specimen

Test specimen basic shapes


old

new

DIN 53470 Ribbed plate for standard bars

ISO 3167 Multipurpose test specimen type A

DIN 53470 Standard plate

DIN 53470 Standard plate

Test specimen oldnew

4 mm thick

Multipurpose test specimen according to ISO 3167,

Test bar 80 x 10 x 4 mm
(Injection moulded or machined
from the multipurpose test specimen type A)

injection moulded: type A


machined: type B

* Impact strength
* Notched bar impact strength
* Tensile impact strength
* Vicat, HDT
* Flammability by oxygen index

* Tensile test
* Tensile modulus
* Tensile creep modulus
* Comparative tracking index
* Vicat, HDT

Test bar type A


ISO 8256
3 mm thick

Multipurpose plate
60 x 60 x 2 or 1 mm

Shrinkage
Penetration test
(*) Water / moisture absorption
colour / surface aspeet
(*) Electrical testing
weathering / ageing
anisotropy tests (e.g. flexural test)

Enviromental testing
(heat ageing, weathering,
chemical resistance)

Test specimen acoording to ISO 10350 (single-point data) and


ISO 11403 (multi-point data) (*:implemented in CAMPUS)

12

Injection moulding
according to ISO 3167 type A

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Injection moulding shapes of test specimen


(tensile test bars)

Test of tensile strength according to ASTM D 638

Test of tensile strength according to DIN 53455 /EN 61

Figure 2

Figure 5

Test of tensile strength according to JIS K 6911

Figure 5a

Figure 3

Test specimen dimensions for thickness T (mm)

Test of tensile strength according to BS-302A

Radius up
to 9,5

Parallel

7 or less

Test specimen geometry


(see drawing)

Type I

Type II

W - Width of narrow cross section


L - Length of narrow cross section
WO - Overall width
LO - Overall length
G - Gauge length c
G - Gauge length
D - Distance between clamps
R - Rounding-off radius
RO - External radius

13
57
19
165
50

115
76

6
57
19
183
50

135
76

more than 7
including 14

4 or less

Type III

Type IV

19
57
29
246
50

115
76

6
33
19
115

25
64
14
25

Tolerance

Minimum radius 76 mm

Gauge length

Gauge length

Rad. up to 9,5

Figure 4

13

0,5
0,5
6
no max
0,25
0,13
5
1
1

Table 2

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Preparation of test specimens


of thermosetting compounds by compression moulding
according to ISO 295 procedure B

The following conditions shall be complied with


during compression moulding:

Compression moulding (procedure B)


Multipurpose test specimens type A-ISO 3167 as
well as compression moulded plates shall be
prepared from the moulding compound in cavity
moulds with loading chamber.

The Mould cavity temperature and the moulding


pressure may be freely selected within these
ranges, provided that the same processing
conditions are applied to all specimens prepared
from the moulding compound to be tested and
that they are stated together with the test result.

It is also possible to prepare the required test


specimens from the compression moulded plates
by milling in due compliance with ISO 2818. In
this process, it must be ensured that the cut faces
are free from burrs and grooves.

Cure time
The cure time may be freely selected as a function
of the cure behaviour of the moulding compound
to be tested, provided that the same cure time is
applied to all test specimens prepared from the
moulding compound to be tested and that it is
indicated together with the test result.

The test specimens shall be prepared according


to ISO 295 from the moulding compound in the
condition as delivered or after pretreatment, e.g.
precompressing (preforming) or preplastification.
If pretreatment is applied, it shall be the same for
all similar test specimens prepared from the
moulding compound to be tested and shall be
indicated together with the test results.

Test specimen compression NewOld

The selected cure time shall ensure that the curing


achieved is homogeneous and as complete as
possible.

Conditions

Pretreatment:
Drying

Permissible if specimens are to


undergo electric tests
Permissible

High-frequency
preheating

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Aminoplastics

Phenolics (PF)

Preforming

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UF

Structure of filler

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PF

Type of moulding material

Permissible if specimens are to


undergo electric tests
Permissible

Permissible

Permissible

Not
recommended

Not
recommended

Permissible

Permissible

Permissible to reduce curing time but modifies material properties

Preplastification

Permissible

Permissible

Permissible

Permissible

Not recommended

Not recommended

Breathing

Permissible

Permissible

Permissible

Permissible

Not nessessary

Not recommended

165 3

150 3

150 3

150 3

150 to 180

130 to 170

20 to 40

20 to 40

20 to 40

20 to 30

6 to 30

Moulding:
Temperature (C)
Pressure (MPa)

25 to 40

40 to 60

Cure time (s)

20 to 60 per mm thickness

20 to 60 per mm thickness

20 to 60 per mm thickness

Mould:
Surface finish

RaH 0,4 m to 0,8 m

RaH 0,4 m to 0,8 m

RaH 0,4 m to 0,8 m

Chrome plating

Preferable

Preferable

Preferable

Preferable

Required

Required

Table 3 Moulding conditions

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Preparation of test specimens


of thermosetting compounds by compression moulding
according to ISO 295 procedure B

Definitions

1. Deviations of temperature
in position
Deviations of temperature existing simultaneously
between various points inside the mould after the
temperature ajustment device has been set at a
given temperature and after a permanent thermal
equilibrium has been reached.

2. Deviations of temperature in time


Deviations of temperature that may occur at a
single given point on the inside of the mould at
various times after the temperature adjustment
device has been set at a given temperature and
after a permanent thermal equilibrium has been
reached.

3. Heating device

5. Compression-moulding press

The heating device is capable of heating the mould


so that the moulding temperature remains constant
and uniform over all parts of the mould within the
specified tolerances.

It is capable of ensuring that the specified pressure


is applied and maintained during the whole of the
curing time. The press may be hand-operated or
programmed.

The mould may be heated either through the platen


or by means of a built-in device (for example,
circulating fluid or electric heating elements).
In the latter case, the mould shall be insulated
from the press platen with a sheet of insulating
material. For practical reasons, it is generally
preferable to heat the mould electrically.

It is preferable to use a ress having two closing


speeds:
- a fast approach speed (for example 200 mm/s
to 400 mm/s) to avoid precure of the compound
before closing;
- a slow closing speed (for example 5 mm/s) to
prevent air or gases from being
entrapped.
NOTE: The oil pressure p , in megapascals, to be
0
applied to obtain the specified pressure p, in
megapascals, is given by the equation:

4. Mould temperature
adjustment device
It is capable of ensuring that the optimum required
temperature is maintained constant over the mould
with a permissible deviation of 3 C, i.e. the
mould temperature shall not vary with time and
position by more than 3 C (see 1. and 2.).

p0 =

p x A1
A

6. Preforming
If the volume of the moulding compound is too
great for the capacity of the loading chamber of
a conventional mould, the compound may be
preformed; the conditions for such preforming
shall be stated in the moulding report.

Compressing moulding Moulding compounds


procedure B

EP

UP

UF

PF

PF
M

Processing conditions
(compression moulding
procedure B)

Mould cavity
temperature C

160 to 170

160 to 170

165 to 175

140 to 150

155 to 175

165 to 175

Moulding pressure
in bar

200 to 300

200 to 300

250 to 350

200 to 300

100 to 200

250 to 350

Moulding pressure
in MPa

20 to 30

20 to 30

25 to 35

20 to 30

10 to 20

25 to 35

Table 4 Moulding conditions

15

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ou
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in
g

Co
m

Moulding conditions Compression moulding


according to ISO 295

1. General

5. Release agents

6. Breathing

Unless special conditions are specified, the


moulding conditions given in table 4 shall be used.

Release agents, i.e. products designed to facilitate


the release of the moulding from the mould, may
be used only if it has been proved that they have
no influence on the moulded specimen properties.
This requirement applies in particular when the
specimens are to be tested for electrical properties,
spectroscopic analysis or adverse taste and colour.

If it is necessary to open the mould for the purpose


of breathing, this shall be noted in the moulding
report.

2. Drying
The Phenolics and aminoplastics may be dried
prior to electrical tests. For drying, the compound
shall be spread out in a thin layer and heated in
accordance with the following temperature and
time schedules:
Phenolics: 30 min at 90 C + 3 C,
or 15 min at 105 C + 3 C;
Aminoplastics 60 min at 90 C + 3 C.
The compound shall be moulded immediately upon
removal from the furnace.

3. High-frequency preheating
High-frequency preheating is permissible in the
case of phenolics and aminoplastics and pelletized
or granular polyesters. It permits a reduction in
curing time. The preheated compound shall be
moulded immediately after preheating.

4. Preplastification
Preplastification is permissible in the case of
phenolics and aminoplastics. It ensures thermal
and mechanical homogenization of the compound.
The preplasticized compound shall be moulded
immediately after preplastification.
For the conditions for the preplastification, an
agreement shall be made between the interested
parties and the conditions shall be stated in the
moulding report.

Test specimens flexural strength, inpact strength, notched impact strength

ld
ou
M

Co

m
pr
ou essi
ld on
in
g

n
tio
ica
tif
as
pl
Pr
e

Hi
gh
pr freq
eh u
ea en
tin cy
g

g
in
m
or
ef
Pr

g
yin
Dr

Ph

ys
i
m cal
at fo
er rm
ial
of

Pretreatment

Granules

Without

Pressure

Preheater power

Cylinder temperature

Temperature

Type

Powder

Time

Temperature

Time

Dynamic pressure

Temperature
measuring device

Number of cavities

Fine powder

Temperature

Weight of preform

Amperage

Screw speed

Pressure

Chrome plated

Size of preform

Number of preforms

Temperature of
compound

Cure time

Heating device

Other

Temperature of
preforms

Breathing

Table 5 - Information to be included in the moulding report

16

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in
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Co
m

Test specimen moulds for compression moulding

Preparation of test specimens


old
new
Compression moulding according to DIN 53470

new

Upper ram

Moulding (standard plate)

Jacket

Upper ram
Moulding (standard plate)

Moulding insert

50

Jacket

old

Compression moulding according to ISO 295

50

Standard
plate

Test specimens - derived forms

Moulding insert
Lower ram

Lower ram

Multipurpose test
specimen

Ribbed plate

Standard plate

Injection moulding according to ISO 10724


Upper ram
Jacket

50

Moulding (ribbed plate)

Moulding insert
Lower ram

blackened areas =
machined areas

ISO injection mould for multipurpose test


specimens according to ISO 3167, type A

Sampling plan
for type tests according to DIN 7708 on test specimens
of compression-moulded standard plate new ISO 295 procedure B

Test specimen compression

Compression moulding according to ISO 295 procedure B

17

Test specimen general

po
un
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FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Density (g/cm3) Apparent density (g/cm3)

Definitions:

Density

Methods:

A) Buoyancy Mesuring
under
cylinder
water
B) Pycnometer
C) Floating
D) Measuring cylinder

60
Apparent
density

ks
ar
Re
m

TM

53479

D-1505

5.2.1

Density

Density

Apparent Density
density

Apparent
density

Measuring
cylinder

Measuring cylinder

Measuring
cylinder

A) Weighing
under water
B) Water displacement
(pycnometer)
C) Aerometer
D) Measuring
cylinder

BS

JI
S

AS

1183

DI
N

No.:

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

IS
O

Test characteristic

5.28

No.:

D 792

Definitions:

Specific gravity

Specific
gravity

1:

Weighing under
water

Weighing
under water

2:

Water
displacement
(pycnometer)

2782

Comparable with
specific gravity, if
gravity is
allowed for.

* JIS = Japanese Industrial Standard; Testing Methods for Thermosetting Plastics;


JIS K 6911-1979 translated and published by Japanese Standards Association

Apparent density

Density

18

Apparent density of
JIS and ISO
comparable

po
un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Moulding shrinkage and Post shrinkage (%)

53464

D 955

5.7

Test specimens:

SG 170 x 10 x 4 mm
P 120 x 10 x 4 mm

120 x 15 x 10 mm

165 x 13 x 7 mm
115 x 6 x 4 mm

90 x 11 x 4 mm

Time:

VS
24 h

NS
168 h

VS
24 h

NS
168 h

VS
24 h

NS
168 h

VS
48 h

NS
168 h

Temperature:

23 C

110 C

23 C

110 C

23 C

110 C

23 C

110 C

Medium:

Air

Air

Air

Air

Evaluation:

Change in length

Change in length

Change in length

Change in length

ks
ar
Re
m

2577

BS

AS

No.:

JI
S

DI
N

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

IS
O

Test characteristic

comparable

Shrinkages in %

Moulding shrinkage

Lw - L
VS = L
100 %
w

Post shrinkage

NS =

Total shrinkage

GS = VS + NS

L - L1
100 %
L

Notch depth

Moulding shrinkage
on commutator

Processing shrinkage along moulding bar

Moulding shrinkage on SG tensile bar

19

Transverse shrinkage on SG
tensile bar

po
un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Tensile strength (N/mm2)

ks
BS

ar

JI
S

D 638

5.18

2782

1 ; 5 ; 10; 50 ; 100 ; 1 ; 5 ; 50;


200 ; 500 mm/min. 500 mm/min.

5 mm/min.

5 mm/min.

Type A according to
ISO 3167, Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

No.:

527

53455 (EN 61)

Speed:

1 ; 5 ; 50 ; 100 ;
500 mm/min.

Test specimens / shape:

Temperature:

Tensile strength

Re
m

AS

DI
N

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

IS
O

Test characteristic

comparable, but
only under same
condition:
test specimen
shape
measured length
test speed

Tensile strength

20

po
un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Tensile strength

Re
sid
(T ual
en s
s tr
at ile eng
va tes th
Te riou t)
st s
-T
em
pe
ra
tu
re
s

Th
er
m
(b al
y U In
L) dex

Residual strength of various engineering plastics

Engineering plastics

100 C
%

150 C
%

200 C
%

Polyphenylenesulfide (PPS)

220

48,3

34,9

4,7

Polyethersulfone

180

85,5

57,7

13,7

Polyamide 66

130

51,3

39,7

7,2

Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)

140

38,1

21,1

PF-Standard (PF 31)

150

83,7

51,2

50,1

PF-Glass fibre

160

71,9

57,6

52,0

PF-Heat resistant

170

75,1

59,7

69,9

Polysulfone

150

86,1

13,1

Polyamideimide

200

72,8

59,1

29,9

Alkyd

180

69,9

62,4

33,3

Polydiallylphthalate

130

94,6

68,7

53,1

Tensile strength (MPa)

Copper-adhesion

Tensile strength (MPa)

PF 6507
annealed
PF 6507
as moulded

PA 6-GF 35

Temperature (C)
Temperature (C)

Tensile strength in correlation to temperature

Tensile strength of PF 6507 and PA6-GF 35 in correlation to temperature

21

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un
ds
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in
g

Co
m

Elongation (%)

ks
ar

JI
S

BS

Re
m

TM
AS

IS
O

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

No.:

527

53455 (EN 61)

D 638

5.18

2782

Speed:

1 ; 5 ; 50 ; 100 ;
500 mm/min.

1 ; 5 ; 10; 50 ;
100 ; 200 ;
500 mm/min.

1 ; 5 ; 50;
500 mm/min.

5 mm/min.

5 mm/min.

Test specimens /
shape:

Type A according to
ISO 3167, Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Temperature:

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

+ 23 C

comparable, but
only under same
condition:
test specimen
shape
measured length
test speed

Elongation (%)

Time (h)

Creep (long term tensile creep) Load: 20 MPa

Tensile strength in correlation to temperature

EP 8405
PF 31
PF 2774
PF 6507
PF 6537
PF 6540
UP 3420
0

0,5

1,5

2,5 %

Strain at rupture (%)

Tension-elongation-Diagram

22

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un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Tensile modulus of elasticity


(tangent or secant) (N/mm2)

No.:

527

53457 (EN61)

D 638

Determined on:

Tangent

Tangent

Tangent

Secant at
0,2 % elongation

Speed:

1 mm/min.

1 mm/min.

1,3 mm/min.

1 mm/min.

Test specimens:

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 5

2782

ASTM, DIN and


ISO are
comparable in the
case of stiff
plastics

so

in
ra
re
ss
% -st

St

Te
n

sil

M e st
Pa re
n

gt

lu
sil
M em
Pa od
u

Te
n

ou

ld

in

co

m
po

un

fe

las

tic

ity

Re
m

ar

ks

69
11
-1
97
9*

BS

AS

IS
O

JI
S

TM

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

EP 8450

14200

80

0,8

MF 156

10000

60

MF 2500

10000

80

MP 183

10000

65

1,3

MP 4165

9000

80

PF 31

9000

60

0,8

PF 1107

9000

70

0,6

PF 2774

10000

70

1,1

PF 2874

10000

75

0,7

PF 6507

10000

105

1,4

PF 6540

10000

120

1,4

UP 3415

13000

65

0,5

UP 802

11000

60

0,7

Tensile test specimen new, moulding test specimen old

Tensile modulus of elasticity, comparative

23

Tension-elongation diagram of different Bakelites FM

po
un
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FM

ou
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in
g

Co
m

Flexural strength
(N/mm2)

ks
ar
BS

Re
m

JI
S

No.:

178

53452

D 790

5.17

2782

Speed:

d/2 = 2 mm/min.

1;2;5;10;20;50;
100 and
200 mm/min.

2,8 mm/min.

N = h/2t 0,2

d/2 = 2 mm/min.

Test specimens:

80 x 10 x 4 mm

80 x 10 x 4 mm
120 x 15 x 10 mm

130 x 13 x 6,4 mm

80 x 10 x 4 mm

95 x 10 x 4 mm

Evaluation:

Breaking stress

Sress at 3,5 %
elongation or
flexural strength

Breaking stress

Breaking stress

Breaking stress

Loading:

3-point-load

3-point-load

3-point-load

3-point-load

3-point-load

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

ISO, DIN, JIS and


BS comparable

Mechanical properties
under short time stress

old

new

Flexural strength DIN 53452

Flexural strength ISO 178

Tensile test
ISO 527

Flexural strength (UPM 1474)

24

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un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Flexural strength

Flexural strength ISO 178

Flexural strength (MPa)

Air

Water/Glycol

Duration (h)

Dynstat-testing device

25

Change of flexural strength PF 6507 after storage

po
un
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FM

ou
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in
g

Co
m

Tensile modulus of elasticity


(tangent or secant) (N/mm2)

ks
ar
BS

No.:

178

53547 (EN 63)

D 790

5.17

2782

Determination on:

Tangent

Tangent

Tangent or
Secant

Tangent

Tangent

Speed:

d/2

16/h mm/min.

2,8 or
1,3 mm/min.

16/h =
1 mm/min.

d/2

Test specimens:

80 x 10 x 4 mm

120 x 10 x 4 mm
(3-P-load)
80 x 10 x 4 mm
(4-P-load)

130 x 13 x 6,4 mm
or
80 x 25 x 3,2 mm

80 x 10 x 4 mm

95 x 10 x 4 mm

Loading:

3-point-load

= 2 mm/min.

3-point-load
4-point-load

3-point-load

Test specimen flexural modus of elasticity

26

3-point-load

= 2 mm/min.

Re
m

JI
S

TM
AS

IS
O

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

Comparable at
three-point
loading,
DIN not
comparable with
ASTM, BS, ISO
and JIS at fourpoint-loading

3-point-load

Test specimen flexural strength old-new

po
un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Compressive strength ISO


(N/mm2)

53554

D 695

5.19

Speed:

Various

Test period 1 min.

1,3 mm/min

Test specimens:

10 x 10 x 4 mm

10 x 10 x 10 mm

12,7 x 12,7 x
25,4 mm or
12,7 mm
h = 25,4 mm

12,7 x 12,7 x
25,4 mm

Evaluation:

Maximum strength

Maximum strength
or strength at
0,5 %, 1 %
deformation

Maximum strength
or strength at
1 %, 10 %
deformation

Maximum strength

ks
ar
not comparable

Compressive stress d

Re
m

604

BS

JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

Compressive strength

1 Brittle plastic
2 Deformable plastic

Upsetting d

Compressive stress-strain diagrams

27

po
un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Compressive modulus of elasticity


(N/mm2)

53457

D 695

Determination on:

Tangent

Tangent

Tangent

Speed:

Various

1% deformation
per min.
(approx.
0,4 mm/min.)

1,3 mm/min.

Test specimens:

10 x 10 x 4 mm

10 x 10 x 10 mm
80 x 12 x 5 mm
3
or 5 mm
or 5 mm

12,7 x 12,7 x
25,4 mm or
12,7 mm ,
h = 25,4 mm

ks
ar
not comparable

BS

Test specimens
compressive strength new-old

Mandrel
Kommutator

Re
m

604

JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

Shell

Copper segment

Support

Test for shaft interference

28

Test specimens commutator

po
un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Impact strength (unnotched and notched)


according to Charpy (kJ/m2) or Izod (J/m2)

179 / 180

53453

D-256

5.20

2782

Pendulum:

0,5/1/4/15 J

0,5/1/4/15 J

not defined

not defined

0,5/1/4/15 J

Unit:

kJ/m2 of the
remaining
cross section

kJ/m2 of the
remaining
cross section

J/m notch

J/m notch

J/m2 notch or kJ/m2


of the remaining
cross section

Method:

180: Izod, test


specimens: 63.5 x
12.7 x 3.2/6.4 mm
or 80 x 10 x 4 mm
Notch: V-shaped
Application:
notched only

A: Izod notched
E: Izod unnotched
Test specimens:
63.5 x 12.7 x
3.2 mm
Notch: V-shaped

Izod notched
Izod unnotched
Test specimens:
63.5 x 12.7 x
3.2 mm
Notch: V-shaped

306A: Izod,
test specimens:
63.5x12.7x 3.2 mm
Notch: V-shaped
(the notch may be
pointed) Application:
notched only

179: Charpy test


specimens:
120 x 15 x 10 mm
or 80 x 10 x 4 mm
or 50 x 6 x 4 mm
Notch: V-shaped
Application: notched
and unnotched

Charpy test
specimens:
120 x 15 x 10 mm
or 50 x 6 x 4 mm
or 15 x 10 x 1.5 4.5 mm
Notch: U-shaped
Application: notched
and unnotched

B: Charpy test
specimens: 127 x
12.7 x 12.7 mm
Notch: V-shaped
Application: notched
(also unnotched for
comparison)

Charpy test
specimens:
90 x 15 x 4 mm
Notch: V-shaped
Application: notched
and unnotched

306 D: Charpy
306 E: Charpy
Test specimens:
120 x 15 x 10 mm
Notch: U-shaped
Application: 306 D
unnotched,
306 E notched

Izod

Re
m

BS

ar

ks

69
11
-1
97
9*
JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

Izod tests
according to
ASTM, and JIS are
comparable when
calculted in kJ/m2.

Charpy tests
according to DIN,
BS and ISO are
comparable;
JIS and ASTM are
not comparable

ISO / 180 1A ISO / 180 1R

Charpy

ISO / 179 1eU

ISO / 179 1eA

Impact strength and notched impact strength

29

Impact strength and notched impact strength

po
un
ds
FM

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Ball indentation hardness or Rockwell hardness


(N/mm2)

ks
ar
Re
m

2039/1

2039/2

53456

D 1822

5.16.1

5.16.2
Rockwell Barcol
hardness hardness

DIN and ISO


2039/1
comparable

Preload:

100 N

100 N

10 N

100 N

98 N

Method:

B: Load
49/132,4/358/
961 N
Ball: 5 mm

R: Load, Ball
12,7 mm
M: Load: 1000 N
Ball: 6,3 mm

Load:
49/132,4/358/
961 N
Ball: 5 mm

R: Load: 600 N
Ball 12,7 mm
M: Load 1000 N
Ball: 6,3 mm

comparable
with ASTM

ASTM, JIS and


ISO 2039/2
comparable

Reading time after:

30 s

15 s

30 s

15 s

15 s

Unit:

daN/mm2

none

daN/mm2

none

PA 6 GF 30

PET GF 30

BS

JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

39-69 N

Ball indentations hardness (MPa)

500

400

300

200

100

0
PBT GF 30

PF 6507

PPS GF 45

MF 2500
PF 2774

MF 1206

Comparsion ball indentation hardness

Ball indentation hardness

30

po
un
ds
M
FM

Py
ra
m
u id
nd ha
er rd
lo ne
ad ss

Sh
or
e
ha
rd
ne
ss

Ro
ck
we
ll
ha
rd
ne
ss

ha
rd
ne
ss
at
io
n
In
de
nt

Scale a

Scale R

Scale L

Scale M

Scale E

Scale K

Ba
rc
o
ty l h
pe ar
No dne
. 8 ss
34 (w
-1 ith
)
Ch
de
ar
vi
a
ce
ha cte
rd ris
ne ti
pr s cs
s
oc
es tes of
s t

ou
ld
in
g

Co
m

Hardness test
Hardness numbers in accordance with various test procedures
for duroplastics and thermoplastics

Truncated cone
Quadratic pyBall
ramid surdmin=
with spherical 12,7 mm
faces = 136 0,79 mm; 35 cap R = 0,1
diam.
mm; 30

Ball
12,7 mm
diam.

Ball
6,35 mm
diam.

Ball
6,35 mm
diam.

Ball
3,175 mm
diam.

Ball
3,175 mm
diam.

Truncated
cone
dmin = 0,157
mm; 26

Test specimen

49 to 961*)

0,5 to 4,9 *)

0,55 to 8,1

0 to 44,5

589

589

589

981

981

1472

65 to 77

Test force in N

DIN 53456

none

DIN 53505

DIN 53505

ASTM D 785

ASTM D 785

ASTM D 785

ASTM D 785

ASTM D 785

ASTM D 785

DIN EN 59
Heat
ASTM D 2583

H/30

HV 9/60

Shore A

Shore D

a HR

HRR

HRL

HRM

HRE

HRK

Characteristic

N/mm2

N/mm2

Dimension

PE ND soft

10 25

10 20

95 >

40 50

(< 110)

< 25

<

<

<

<

<

PE HD hard

40 65

40 50

>

50 70

25 55

50 75

3 30

<

<

<

<

PE-GF

60

45

>

65

50

80

30

<

<

<

<

PP

40 80

45 75

>

65 75

30 70

85 110

40 85

< 60

<

<

<

PP-GF

75 115

75 85

>

70 75

65 90

100 110

70 90

30 65

<

<

<

PP-talc

85 105

80 110

>

75

80 90

100 105

70 75

35 40

<

<

<

PVC hard

95 145

90 120

>

75 80

75 95

110 115

80 95

50 70

<

<

< 10

PVC soft

< 130

0,3 140

55 >

< 82

< 105

< 105 >

< 100

< 100

<

<

<

PS

145 195

155 195

>

80

100 110

120 >

100 110

80 85

< 10

<

20 30

SAN

185 205

175 185

>

85

110 115

125

105

90

15 25

<

35 40

SB

70 140

65 140

>

70 80

60 90

90110>

45 95

< 65

<

<

< 10

ABS

95 120

90 110

>

75 80

85 95

100 110

70 85

25 50

<

<

< 15

ASA

70

65

>

75

65

90

45

15 resp. <

<

<

<

AMMA

250

225

>

88

120

125

115

105

60

15

55

PMMA

185 210

185 210

>

87 88

110

125

115

105

55 60

10 20

50 55

POM

135 175

135 175

>

79 82

95 105

115 120

100 110

80 95

< 40

<

< 15

POM-GF

210

185

>

85

110

120

105

90

40

<

25

PA 6

60 85

50 60

>

75

45 75

95 105

75 85

40 60

<

<

<

PA 66

120

80

>

80

95

115

95

75 80

10 15

<

PA 66-GF

230

150

>

85

115

120

110

100

60

25

40

PA 610

90

80

>

78

80

105

85

55

<

<

<

PA 12

80 100

80 85

>

70 75

75 85

100 110

85 85

50 65

<

<

<

PA 612

105 120

105 120

>

75 80

95

>

95

70 75

<

<

<

PC

115 135

115 130

>

82 85

95 100

120 >

97 105

60 75

< 9

<

10 20

PC-GF

150 190

130 160

>

85 90

105 115

>

105 110

25 90

25 30

<

30 40

PBTP

50 135

45 115

>

70 80

35 95

105 >

85 110

65 95

10 15

<

< 2

PPO/PS

90 175

85 160

>

80 85

80 105

105 120

80 105

40 85

< 15

<

<20

PPO/PS-GF

180 215

160 175

>

85 87

105 110

120

105 110

85 95

20 35

<

30

PEI

240 290

205 210

>

88 90

115 120

125

120

110

55 65

5 20

40 45

PEI/GF

325

270

>

91

120

125

120

110

70

35

50

PF (type 1213)1

380 500

425 510

>

>

108 >

>

107 >

110 115

90 99

< 81

60 70

275 365

260 400

>

>

105 >

>

114 >

103 114

77 92

60 78

54 61

UF (type 131;131.5)1 440 460

420 460

>

>

>

>

>

107 >

100 105

85 90

63 65

400 515

475 580

>

>

105 >

>

114 >

115 >

95 112

77 100

62 72

MP (type 180183)1 350 445

425 525

>

>

110 >

>

115 >

113 >

97 103

79 88

60 67

310 475

>

>

115 >

>

112 >

96 112

61 98

45 83

57 77

PF (type 3185)

MF (type 150157)

UP-GF (type 802804) 300 475

31

*) according to material in each case (see table)


1
) according to ISO/CD 14528/3 etc.

>= 1hardness of material is greater than is measurable with this process


<= 1hardness of material is less than is measurable with this process

Ball
5 mm diam.

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Shore hardness (D) with durometer

ks
ar

53505

D 2240

Durometer
penetrating stamp D:

Cone

Cone

Cone

Test specimens:

> 3 mm thickness

> 3 mm thickness

> 3 mm thickness

BS

Re
m

868

JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

comparable

Pressure weight

Casing

Shore hardness D
Shore A

Penetrating
stamp
Test specimen
Specimen compartment

Penetrating stamp of shore hardness tester


(according to ISO 868)

Shore D

Barcol hardness

32

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95

200

85

180
Heat-shaping resistance

Shore D

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Co
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Shore hardness (D) with durometer Diagrams

75

65
15

20

25

30

35

160

140
15

45

25

Hardening time

35

45

Hardening time

Figure 4. HDT-A as function of hardening time

Figure 1. Shore D as function of hardening time for an MP


moulding compound 183

85

340

a
b
Ball indentation hardness

Shore D

80

75

70

65
0

10

20

330

320
15

30

25

Hardening time

45

100

Shore hardness D to DIN 53505

90

80

Shore D

Figure 5. Ball indentation hardness in accordance with


DIN 53456 (H961/30) as function of hardening time

Figure 2. Shore D as function of time after removal from


mould with a hardening time of 36 s (a). 26 s (b). 16 s (c)

60

40
140

35
Hardening time

160

180

200

90

80

70

60
PBT GF 30
PA 6 GF 30

Tool temperature

Figure 3. Shore D as function of tool temperature


(hardening time 26 s.)
33

PET GF 30

PF 6507

PPS GF 45

MF 2500
PF 2774

MF 1206

Figure 6. Comparison shore hardness D

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Temperature of deflection under load (C)

ks
ar
BS

Re
m

JI
S

No.:

75

53461

D 648

5.35.1

2782

Load:

A = 1,80 N/mm2
B = 0,45 N/mm2
C = 8,00 N/mm2

1,82/0,45 N/mm2

1,82/0,45 N/mm2

1,81/0,45 N/mm2

1,82/0,45 N/mm2

Speed:

120 K/h 1K

120 K/h

120 K/h 0,2 K

120 K/h 1K

120 K/h 1K

Test specimens:

110 x (9,8 - 15) x


(3 - 4,2) mm
80 x 10 x 4 mm

110 x (9,8 - 15) x


(3 - 4,2) mm

110 x (9,8 - 15) x


(3 - 4,2) mm

110 x 12,7 x 3 mm

110 x (9,8 - 15) x


(3 - 4,2) mm

Support:

Bending

Bending

Bending

Bending

Bending

Medium:

Fluid

Fluid

Fluid

Fluid

Fluid

Evaluation:

Temperature
recording at
deflection

Temperature
recording at
deflection

Temperature
recording at
deflection

Temperature
recording at
deflection

Temperature
recording at
deflection

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

comparable if
load
test specimen
shape and
condition
are the same

Thermo-mechanical properties
old

new

Heat deformation temperature


according to Martens DIN 53462

Heat deformation temperature according to ISO 75


Heat transfer by
air or oil

s = 5,00 MPa
s = 1,80 MPa (A);
s = 0,45 MPa (B);
s = 8,00 MPa (C)

Heat deformation temperature (HDT)

34

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Heat deformation temperature according to Vicat (C)

D 1525

Load:

1000 g

A: 9,81 N
B: 49,05 N

1000 (+40-0) g

1000 (+50-0) g

Speed A:

50K/h 5K

50K/h 5K

50K/h 5K

50K/h 5K

120K/h 5K

120K/h 5K

Speed B:

BS

53460

2782

Needle:

1 mm2, round

1 mm2, round

1 mm2, round

1 mm2, round

Test specimens:

10 x 10 mm
and 3 bis 6,4
mm thickness

10 x 10 x
(3-6,4) mm

12,7 x 3,2 mm

9,5 x 9,5 mm

Medium:

Fluid

Air and Fluid

Fluid

Fluid

Evaluation:

like ASTM

like ASTM

Temperature
recording at
1 mm penetration

like ASTM

Re
m

ar

ks

69
11
-1
97
9*

306

JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

Comparable if
measured under
load A and at
speed B fluid bat.

Loading weight

Steel needle
Test specimen

Experimental set-up for determining the Vicat softening temperature

35

Heat deformation temperature testing device (Vicat)

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Heat deformation temperature


according to Martens (C)

No.:

Load:

100/200/600 g
(5 MPa)

Speed:

50 K/h 1 K

Test bar:

120 x 15 x 10 mm
60 x 15 x 4 mm
50 x 6 x 4 mm

Supporting device:

Cantilevered

Medium:

Air

Evaluation:

6 mm deflection

Contact 6 mm

ks
ar
Re
m

BS

JI
S

TM
AS

DI
N
53461

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

IS
O

Test characteristic

5 MPa
Specimen

Principle of Martens test

36

Martens-cabinets

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Coefficient of linear thermal expansion


(K1)

No.:

E 831

DIN 53752
VDE 0304/Part 1

Test specimens:

10 x 10 x 4 mm

30 x 10 x 4 mm

Method:

Dilatometer

Dilatometer
preferably
procedure B

Range:

-30C to
+30C

t1 = 23C
t2 = 80C

D 696

Thermal elongation coefficient in 1/K

Note

The thermal elongation coefficient is a function of


the temperature t (in C) and results from

When the mean thermal elongation coefficient is


to be determined, in particular if the measuring
points are far apart, it must be ensured that there
are no transformation or transition temperatures
between the mesuring points. Measurements are
preferably carried out between the temperatures
t1 = 23 C and t2 = 80 C mostly also longitudinally
and transversely on the test specimen.

a(t) =

dlth
lodt

Procedure A

BS

Re
m

ar

ks

69
11
-1
97
9*
JI
S

AS

TM

Test standard

DI
N

IS
O

Test characteristic

comparable

The above equation is numerically evaluated using


the recorded measured values.

Procedure B
The mean thermal elongation coefficient results
from
a(t1, t2) =

1 l2l1

l0 t2t1

wherein:
l0 length of test specimen at
service temperature t0
l1 length of test specimen at temperature t1
l2 length of test specimen at temperature t2

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion

37

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Thermal conductivity
W/mK

Process:

Process A (1)
s. Figure 1
Process B (2)
s. Figure 2

Process A (1)
Process B (2)
s. Figure 3

Test specimen:

Various
s. (3)

Various

Pre-treatment:

Pre-treatment
s. (4)

Pre-treatment

Evaluation:

Thermal conductivity in W/(mK)

Thermal conductivity in W/(mC)

ks
ar
BS

Re
m

C 177

No.:

JI
S

52612

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

comparable with
same test
specimens and
processes
(see also under (5)

Thermal conductivity = W/mK


EP 8460
MF 156
MP 4165
PF 31
PF 7909
UP 3415
UP 3720
Stahl
Aluminium
Kupfer

0,7
0,7
0,7
0,3
0,5
0,9
0,6
50
210
380

(2) Single plate process (B)


In the single-plate process, the thermal conductivity of a plate-shaped test
specimen with a heating plate arranged on one side is assessed in the so-called
single-plate device. To prevent heat losses, the heating plate is protected on
its free side by means of a heat guard plate and on the rear by means of a
heating collar with the same temperature as the heat guard plate.

(3) Test specimen


(1) Two-plate process (A)
In the two-plate process the average thermal conductivity of two plate-shaped
test specimens arranged symmetrically on both sides of a heating plate is
assessed in the so-called two-plate device. The heat is removed by means of
cooling plates on the opposing outer surfaces of the test specimen. To prevent
lateral heat losses, the heating plate is surrounded by a heating collar with an
inner edge surface at the same temperature as the heating plate.
The heating plate may be circular or square.

The side length of the plate-shaped test specimen must be at least equivalent
to the side length of the heating plate (usually 500 x 500 mm). The permissible
specimen thickness depends on the dimensions of the test device, but must
not drop below a value of 5 mm. The surfaces of rigid test specimens must be
appropriately flat and plane-parallel.

(4) Pre-treatment
Before testing, the test specimens must be dried to the point of mass constancy,
at 105 C or below the distortion temperature of the plastic.

38

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Thermal conductivity

(5) Remarks
Steady process
The plate and tube processes are so-called steady processes: i.e. the measurements are carried out under a steady heat flow.
Non-steady processes
Non-steady processes operate with heating or cooling procedures. The direct
measurement result is generally the thermal conductivity from which the heat
transfer coefficient can be calculated.
N.B.
Measurement of thermal conductivity by the plate process requires special
experience in the field of heat conductvity and temperature measurement.
Other test procedures, e.g. with heat-flow meters, are also possible.

Test arrangement in two-plate device DIN 52612


1 cooling plate 2 test specimen 3 container 4 heating collar
5 heat insulator 6 heating plate

Figure 1

Heating
Unit

E
E1
F
G
H
I

Test arrangement in single-plate device DIN 52612


1 heat guard plate 2 test specimen 3 cooling plate 4 container
5 heating collar 6 heat insulator 7 heating plate

Figure 2

39

A Metering Area
Heater
B Metering Area
Surface Plates
C Guard Heater
D Guard Surface
Plates

Cooling Units
Cooling Unit Surface Plates
Differential Thermocouples
Heating Unit Surface Thermocouples
Cooling Unit Surface Thermocouples
Test Specimens

Metering Section of
Heating Unit

Guard Section of
Heating Unit

ASTM C 177

Figure 3

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Maximum service temperature


< 50 h / 20000 h (C)

216 T1 und T2

53446

Procedure:

Tensile strength,
bending strength,
impact resistance

Tensile strength,
bending strength,
impact resistance

Test specimens:

Type A according to
ISO 3167, Figure 1

Figure 2

Various

Various

Period:

1, 100, 1000,
10.000, 20.000,
100.000 h

1, 100, 1000,
10.000, 20.000,
100.000 h

Evaluation:

Temperature
recording as a
function of time in
the various tests

Temperature
recording as a
function of time in
the various tests

Storage
temperature:

ks
ar
Re
m

BS

JI
S

TM
AS

IE
C
No.:

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
PF 2774 Flexural strength

comparable

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
MF 156 Flexural strength

Time [h]

Time [h]

50 %-decrease

50 %-decrease

Temperature [C]

Temperature [C]

40

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Maximum service temperature

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
MF 150 Flexural strength

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
PF 31 Flexural strength

Time [h]

Time [h]

50 %-decrease

50 %-decrease

Temperature [C]

Temperature [C]

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
UP 3620 Flexural strength

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
UP 3415 Flexural strength
Time [h]

Time [h]

50 %-decrease

50 %-decrease

Temperature [C]

Temperature [C]

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
UP 804 Flexural strength

Thermal resistance diagram


DIN IEC 216
PF 31/PF 6507 Flexural strength
Time [h]

Time [h]

PF 6507

PF 31

50 %-decrease

50 %-decrease

Temperature [C]

Temperature [C]

41

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Surface resistance
(Ohm) (ROA )

JI
S

BS

Re
m

ar

ks

69
11
-1
97
9*

AS

TM

DI
N

Test standard

IE
C

Test characteristic

No.:

93

53482/
VDE 0303, Part 3

D 257

5.13

2782

Test specimens:

Plates, strips, pipes

120 x 120 mm
no thickness
specified

Plates, strips, pipes

Plates

Plate without
indication of
dimensions

Electrodes:

Flat rings or the like


of metal, mercury,
painted, sprayed or
evaporated metal,
argentiferous
contact varnish or
graphite

Various forms

Flat rings or the like


of metal, mercury,
painted, sprayed or
evaporated metal,
argentiferous
contact varnish or
graphite

Flat or other rings


of metal, applied
silver
paint or graphite

Mercury or sprayed
or evaporated metal,
or graphite

Reading time:

1 min.

1 min.

1 min.

1 min.

1 min.

Voltage
applied:

500 V 5 V

100 5 V or
1000 50 V

500 5 V

500 V

500 50 V

comparable

Eps'

Special surface resistance and relative permittivity over frequency dependence

Special surface resistance over frequency dependence

Resistance

Resistance

MP 181

MF 150

Dielectric PF 31
Surface UP 3620
Surface PF 31

Frequency

Frequency

Hz

42

Hz

Dielectric constants

Dielectric UP 3620

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Surface resistance

Electrode 1

Metal tongues
0,3 mm thick

Test specimens

Electrode 2
Test specimen
Electrode 4

Contact points

Electrode arrangement B:
Measurement of surface
resistance between paintedon or vapour-deposited electrodes
a: resilient contacts,
b: electrodes of applied argentiferous
conductive varnish,
c: test specimen

Example of an electrode
arrangement for flat
test specimens

Electrode arrangement A

Characteristic value:
Resistance values in V.
For the electrode arrangements A, B, D and E, the
measured surface resistance values ROA, ROB, ROD
and ROE are indecated in V.
For the electrodearrangement C, the measured
resistance ROG and the electrode dimensions
(dm, g) result in the specific
surface resistance:

dm p
g

ROG

Wherein:
ROG measured resistance in V,
dm mean diameter of the gap in mm,
g
width of the gap in mm.
Note:

Device for electrical tests

Instead of the surface resistance, a reference figure


i. e. the logarithm of the surface resistance, can
also be indicated, for instance, instead of ROA =
1014 only 14 as a reference figure.

43

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Volume resistivity
(Ohm cm) (PD)

ks
ar

JI
S

BS

Re
m

AS

DI
N

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

IE
C

Test characteristic

No.:

93

53482/
VDE 0303 part 3

D 257

5.13

2782

Test specimens:

Plates, strips, pipes

120 x 120 mm,


thickness not
prescribed

Plates, strips, pipes

Disc
100 mm,
thickness 2 mm

Plate without
indication of
dimensions

Electrodes:

like DIN, ASTM


and BS

Protected or
unprotected rings
with metal
electrodes

Protected or
unprotected rings
with metal
electrodes

like DIN, ASTM


and BS

Protected ring with


mercury electrodes,
metal foil or graphite

Reading time:

1 min.

1 min.

1 min.

1 min.

1 min.

Depending on
thickness,
1 V, 10 V, or
100 V

100 5 V
to 1000 50 V

500 5 V

500 V

500 5 V

voltage
applied:

The volume resistivity is calculated from the


measured volume resistivity RD, the measuring area
A and the thickness of the test specimen h as

pD =

RD A
h

comparable

Sample comment: Volume resistivity Measurement values (MP 4165)


Freq. (Hz)
1.0000e+03
1.0000e+02
1.0000e+01
1.0000e-01

C (F)
2.5005e-11
2.5381e-11
2.5932e-11
2.8367e-11

R (Ohms)
6.5888e+08
5.0657e+09
3.2314e+10
9.6430e+11

Rspec. (Ohms cm)


2.0699e+10
1.5914e+11
1.0152e+12
3.0294e+13

Tan ()
9.6604e-03
1.2379e-02
1.8993e-02
5.8184e-02

Eps'
8.9934e+00
9.1287e+00
9.3270e+00
1.0203e+01

Eps'' ( )
8.6880e-02
1.1300e-01
1.7715e-01
5.9363e-01

Z' (Ohms)
6.1483e+04
7.7612e+05
1.1653e+07
3.2535e+09

Z'' (Ohms)
6.3645e+06
6.2698e+07
6.1352e+08
5.5917e+10

Cref (F)
2.5615e-11
2.5615e-11
2.5615e-11
2.5615e-11

Cx (F)
2.0057e-10
2.0062e-10
2.0081e-10
2.0193e-10

Rx (Ohms)
9.9301e+06
9.8752e+07
9.9322e+08
1.0078e+09

44

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Volume resistivity

Dependence on time of resistances

Special
volume
resistivity over frequency dependence
Spezifischer
Durchgangswiderstand

UP 802 Surface
Resistivity

UP 802 Volume
Resistivity

MF 150

PF 51 Surface
PF 51 Volume

Testing time

DA

DC-Measurement

DA

DC-Measurement

EpoxyMoulding-Compounds

2,1 1014

1,9 1014

4,7 1012

3,3 1012

MelaminMoulding-Compounds

5,9 1013

3,4 1013

1,9 1011

1,7 1011

Melamin-PhenolicMoulding-Compounds

7,1 1013

6,4 1013

2,7 1011

2,9 1011

PhenolicMoulding-Compounds

1,9 1012

2,7 1012

7,8 1010

4,1 1010

PolyesterMoulding-Compounds

6,1 1014

4,9 1014

1,1 1013

2,0 1013

PolyamideMoulding-Compounds
dry

6,1 1012

5,9 1012

6,8 1010

6,0 1010

Frequency dependence of resistances

UP 802 Surface
Resistivity

Su
r
re face
sis
V tan
ce

Hz

Su
r
re face
sis
V tan
ce

Material

Vo
lu
re me
si
V stiv
c ity
m

Vo
lu
re me
si
V stiv
c ity
m

Frequency
Frequency (Hz)

UP 802 Volume

PF 51 Surface
PF 51 Volume

Comparison of test results of dielectric analysis (DA)


and direct-current measurements (DC)

45

Frequency

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Relative permittivity (r) and


dissipation factor (tan d)

ks
ar

No.:

250

53483/
VDE 0303 Part 4

D 150

2782

Test secimens:

Plate or foil,
thickness not
prescribed

120 x 120,
thickness not
prescribed

Plate or disc of not


prescribed size,
1.5 mm

Disc 100 mm,


thickness 3 mm

205 A, 206 A:
Plate of 1.6 to
3.2 mm thickness
207 A: 53 mm dia.
disc, thickness
0.5 - 2.5 mm

Electrodes:

like DIN, ASTM


and BS

Metal plate or
cylinder or silver,
graphite, zinc or
metal applied by
evaporation or
painting

Safeguarded or
like DIN, ASTM
unsafeguarded plates and BS
or cylinders, metal
foils, silver, mercury
or vapour-applied
metal

Mercury, metal foil


or brass of round
shape

Temperature:

20 C

20 2 C

20 C

20 5 C or
90 1 C

Voltage and
frequency:

50 Hz to 1 MHz

Voltage not
prescribed,
frequency
15 Hz to
10000 MHz

Voltage not
1 Hz 100 MHz
prescribed, frequency
1 Hz to 100 MHz

The relative permittivity r is determined from the


measured and corrected capacity cx and the
capacity co of the electrode arrangement in air as

Relative permittivity: r =

20 C 2 C

cx
co

cx: Capacity with test specimen


co: Capacity with test specimen

46

Re
m

BS

AS

JI
S

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

IE
C

Test characteristic

BS not comparable
with DIN, ASTM
and JIS which are,
however,
comparable with
each other

205 A: 1000 V or
less at 50 Hz
206A: 100 V
at 800 or 1600 Hz
207 A: Voltage not
prescribed,
frequency
10 kHz to 100 Mhz

The dissipation factor tan is read direct from


the measuring device.

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Relative permittivity (r) and


dissipation factor (tan d)

Dielectric constants of Bakelite moulding compounds PF 51


and UP 802.

VMF-FM

Dielectric constants

Dielectric constants

Dissipation factor Tan (Delta) ( )

Eps'

Relative permittivity and dielectric dissipation over frequency

VMF-FM

Frequency

Frequency

Hz

Dissipation factor tan (d)

Dissipation factors of Bakelite moulding compounds


PF 51 and UP 802

Frequency

Determination of relative permittivity and dissipation factor


Pick-up electrode
Adhesive electrode
Test specimen

To the
voltage source
Insulating feet

Determination of relative permittivity and dissipation factor

47

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Electrical strength
Ed (V/mil, MV/m or kV/mm)

ks
ar

JI
S

BS

Re
m

TM
AS

IE
C

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

No.:

243-1

53481/
VDE 0303 Part 2

D 149

5.11.3

2782

Test specimens:

Plate, foils,
thickness not
prescribed

Plate up to
3 mm
thickness

No prescription
V/mil
(1 mil = 25 mn)

100 mm ,
2 mm thick
100 mm ,
0,8-3 mm thick

102 mm
3,2 mm thick

Electrodes:

Plate K 25 mm
dia. / K 25 mm

Plates of 25, 50, 75 Plate of 25 mm dia.


or 100 mm dia. or
of other shapes

75 mm ,
15 mm thick
25 mm ,
25 mm thick

Stepwise

0,5 - 1 kV/s

500 V/s,
short time

In steps of 20 s
each

In steps of 20 s
each

Medium:

Air or oil
(transformer oil
IEC 296)

Air

Air, gas or oil

Oil

Oil

Temperature:

23 C

20 C

23 C

23 C or
90 C

23 C or
90 C

Voltage
increase

Dielectric strength manual device

not comparable

Dielectric strength manual device

48

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Electrical strength

Disruptive voltage Ud

Metal

Note:
The quality of the transformer oil has a great
influence on the electrical strength.
The requirements on the transformer oil are defined
in IEC 296. Proper predrying of the oil under
vacuum (likewise desribed in IEC 296) is of
particular importance because too low electrical
strengths are already encountered even at only
slight residual humidity.

ca. 15

Test specimen

ca. 25

Specimen thickness mm

Metal

Metal
Test specimen

ca. 25

Ed=

Metal

Electrode arrangements

Test specimen in transformer oil (IEC 296)

Electrical strength

49

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Comparative tracking index


(Trecking resistance CTI, PTI, CTI-M in volts or phases)

DIN/IEC 112
VDE 0303-1

CTI
PTI

VDE 0303-1

D 3638

Is tested also
according to
DIN/IEC 112

Comparative Tracking Index


Proof Tracking Index

Procedure:

Procedures, CTICTI-M-PTI: Which


current results in
short circuit after 50
drops of test
solution:
A = NH4Cl (CTI-PTI)
B = NH4Cl + sodium
salt of a nucleusalkylated naphtalene
sulphonic acid
(CTI-M)

Test specimen:

Minimum
15 x 15 x 3 mm
(plate preferred)

Plate 50 mm
100 mm
Minimum 2,5 mm

Electrodes:

2 electrodes 5 x 2
mm (length 12 mm)

See figure 1

Evaluation:

CTI-175 M,
CTI-250,
PTI 225

CTI-600
CTI-500
etc.

Comparable with
DIN/IEC 112

CTI comparable with


DIN/IEC 112

50

ks
ar

Re
m

BS

JI
S

TM
AS

IE
C
No.:

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

comparable

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Comparative tracking index

ASTM D 3638

Tracking resistance testing

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in
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co

in

vo

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Figure 1

EP 8414

250

EP 8460

600

MF 150

600

MF 2500

600

MP 180

175

MP 181

250

MP 181.5

600

MP 4165

375

PF 13

175

PF 1107

175

PF 1140

175

PF 2736

175

PF 2774

175

PF 2836

225

PF 2874

175

PF 4110

250

Alle UP-FM

600

Tracking resistance-test values

Tracking resistance testing device

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Tracking test
Definitions

1. Tracking

6. Pretreatment

8. Dropper

A tracking path results from the progressing


formation of conductive paths on the surface of
a solid insulating material which are generated by
the joint action of electrical stress and electrolytic
contamination on this surface.

The surface of the test specimen shall be clean


and free from dust, dirt, finger prints, grease, oil,
release agents or other impurities which might
influence the test result. During cleaning, care
shall be taken that swelling, softening, significant
material removal or other damage to the material
are avoided. The kind of pretreatment and cleaning
should be stated in the test report.

The surface between the electrodes shall be wetted


with test solution drops at intervals of (30 5) s.
The drops shall fall in the middle between the
electrodes from a height of 30 to 40 mm. The
volume per drop shall be (20) mm3. Before each
test, the needle or other drop outlets shall be
cleaned and a sufficient number of drops
discharged to ensure that test solution of the
correct concentration is used.

2. Electroerosion
The removal of insulating material by the effect of
electric discharges.

3. Comparative tracking index (CTI)


The numerical value of the highest voltage in volts
at which the material resists the application of 50
drops without any tracking.
Note: The value of each test voltage and the CTI
must be divisible by 25.

4. Proof tracking index (PTI)


The numerical value of the test voltage in volts at
which the material resists the application of 50
drops without any tracking.

5. Test specimens
Any plane surface may be used, provided that the
testing surface is so large that no fluid can flow
off via the specimen edge during the test. Plane
surfaces with the minimum dimensions of 15 x
15 mm are recommended. The specimen thickness
should be 3 mm and stated in the test report.
5a. The CTI value of specimens with thicknesses
< 3 mm are not always comparable. For
instance, when thin specimens are placed on
a metal or glass base, heat can flow off faster
and thereby change the CTI. For this reason
two or, if required, even more specimens must
be stacked in case the thickness is < 3 mm.
5b. The test should be carried out on a surface
without any scratches. If this is not possible,
the results obtained on the scratched surface
shall be reported and a description of the
surface shall be added to the report. Scratches
on the surface contribute to scatter of the test
results. If the creepage current follows the
scratches, a failure may occur at a lower
voltage (or a smaller number of drops) than
if the creepage current flows transversely to
the scratches.

7. Testing equipment
7.1 Electrodes
The two platinum electrodes shall be of rectangular
cross section 5 mm x 2 mm and machined to an
angle of 30 at one end. The edge of the bevelling
shall be slightly rounded.
The electrodes shall be arranged symmetrically in
a vertical plane with a total angle of 60 between
them. The faces opposing each other shall be
vertical and the distance on a plane horizontal
specimen surface shall be (4 0.1) mm.
The bearing pressure of each electrode onto the
surface shall be (1 0.05) N.

7.2 Test circuit


A practically sinusoidal voltage which has a
frequency of 48 to 60 Hz and is variable between
100 and 600 V shall be applied to the electrodes.
The capacity of the voltage source shall be at least
0.5 kVA.
The variable resistor must be capable of limiting
the current intensity between the short-circuited
electrodes to (1.0 0.1) A and the voltage at this
current must not drop by more than 10 %.
An overcurrent release in the test circuit shall trip
when 0.5 A flows longer than 2 s.

8a If the solution remains in the needle between


tests, the concentration increases as a result
of evaporation. By discharging 5 to 20 drops
(depending on the interval between tests),
fluid of excessive concentration is normally
removed.
8b To define the drop size, it must be examined
whether 44 to 50 drops correspond to a
volume of 1 cm2. The drop size must be
checked at regular intervals.

9.Test solutions
Solution A: (0.1 0.002) % by weight ammonium
chloride (NH4Cl) in distilled or deionised water.
The volume resistivity at (23 1) C is (395 5)
V cm.
Solution B: (0.1 + 0.002) % by weight ammonium
cloride and (0.5 + 0.002) % by weight sodium salt
of a nucleus-alkylated naphtalene sulphonic acid
in distilled or deionised water. The volume resistivity
at (23 1) C is (170 5) V cm.
Solution A is the preferred solution.
Solution B shall be used when aggressive
contamination is required. To indicate the utilisation
of solution B, the CTI or the PTI number
shall be followed by the letter M (for example:
CTI 250 M).
If a solution other than solution A or B is used,
this shall be stated in the test report. The results
must not be marked CTI or PTI.
Note:
Tracking is accelerated by the reduction of the
volume resistivity and influenced by the chemical
quality and constitution of the solution.

52

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Tracking test

10. Determination of the CTI

13. Examples

Set a selected voltage value and test with application


of 50 drops or until premature failure.
Repeat the test with a lower or higher voltage at
other points until the highest voltage at which no
failure occured at five points with 50-drop tests
has been determined. The numerical value of this
voltage is the CTI (for instance, CTI 425), provided
that, when testing another set at 5 points with a
25 V lower voltage, no failure occurs at less than
100 drop applications. Some materials do not
meet the afore-mentioned requirements. For such
materials, the highest voltage at which 5 points
resist 100 or more drop applications shall be
determined; the numerical value of this voltage
shall be stated in addition to the CTI, for instance
CTI 425 (375).

Comparative tracking index


CTI: CTI 400, CTI 400 M or CTI 400 (350).
Depth of erosion: CTI 275-1.2, CTI 275 M-1.2
or CTI 275 (200)-1.2.
Proof tracking index
Pass or failure at the defined voltage, for instance:
failure at PTI 175 or failure at PTI 175 M.
Pass or failure at the defined depth of erosion in
conjunction with the defined voltage, for instance:
pass at PTI 250-0.8 or failure at PTI 250
M-0.8.

11. Proof tracking index


If IEC standards for requirements on materials or
for electrical operational equipment or other
standards only specify a short-time test, the tests
according to the determinations in Section 4 shall,
however, only be performed at the single voltage
determined. All specimens of the requested number
of specimens must resist the application of 50
drops without failure.
Five specimens are recommended; in special cases,
this number may be reduced. Voltages to be
preferred are: 175, 250, 300, 375 or 500 V.

12. Determination of erosion


The specimens which have formed no tracking
shall be cleaned from all debris and loose
decomposition products and placed on the base
plate of a roughness mesuring device. Using a
stylus with a hemispherical end, ball diameter 1
mm, the deepest erosion on each specimen shall
be measured with a precision of 0.1 mm.
The highest of the measured values shall be stated
in the test report.
12.1 For the test according to Section 3, erosion
shall be mesured on the five specimens
which were tested at the voltage
corresponding to the CTI.
12.2 For the tests according to Section 4, erosion
shall be measured on the specimens which
resisted application of 50 drops at the defined
voltage.

Moulding compound test specimen

53

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Arc resistance
(Step/s)

JI
S

D 495

5.51

Test specimen:

120 x 120 mm,


Thickness not
prescribed

Plate 3,2 mm thick

Disc 100 mm dia.,


thickness 3 mm

Electrodes:

Carbon 8 mm dia.,

Tungsten bar or
special steel strip

Tungsten bar

Voltage:

220 V

90 to 130 V with
current increase in
steps of
1 min. each

12,5 KV

Evaluation:

Classificaton in
steps L1 to L6,
depending on arc
length

Time in s until failure


of test specimen

Time in s until
failure of test
specimen

Electrode arrangement, front view

(1) Test specimen

ks
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Re
m

AS

53484/
VDE 0303 Part 5

No.:

BS

DI
N

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

IS
O

Test characteristic

not comparable

(2) Electrode (carbon)

Arc resistance according to DIN 53484

Arc resistance according to ASTM D 495

54

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Water absorption

FM

ou
ld
in
g

(%/mg)

62

53495

D 570

5.26.1

2782

Test specimen:

50 mm ,
d = 3 mm or
50 x 50 x 3 mm
or others

50 mm ,
d = 3 mm or
50 x 50 x
1,3,4 mm

51 mm ,
d = 3,2 mm or
76,2 x 25,4 x
3,2 mm

50 mm ,
d = 3 mm

50 mm ,
d = 3 mm or
50 x 50 x 3 mm
or others

Time, cold:

Procedure 1:
Drying for 24
h/50C, then water
absorption
24 h/50C
Procedue 2: as 1but
with subsequent redrying 24 h/50 C

Procedure 1 L:
>24 h/23 C
Procedure 2 L:
>24 h/23 C
Procedure 3 L:
>24 h/23 C

Procedure a =
24 h/23 C
Procedure b =
22 h/23 C
Procedure d =
saturation

Drying
24 h/50 C,
then water
absorption
24 h/50

502 F: Drying
24 h/50 C then
water absorption
24 h/23 C
502 G: as F, but with
subsequent
re-drying 24 h/23 C

Time, boiling:

Procedure 1, 2
and 3:
30 min./100 C

Procedure e =
2 h/100 C
Procedure f =
30 min/100C

No. 5.27.1
Drying
24 h/50 C,
then water
absorption
1 h/100 C

503 B: Drying
24 h/50 C then
water absorption
30 min./100C
503 C: as B, but with
subsequent redrying 24 h/50 C

Time, other:

Note:
Procedure 1: Drying
before testing
Procedure 2: Drying
before and after
testing
Procedure 3:
No drying

Procedure g =
48 h/50 C,
also drying of
specimens
24 h/50C or
1 h/110C before
testing

Unit:

mg

mg or %

mg or %

mg

55

Re
m

BS

ar

ks

69
11
-1
97
9*
JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

The tests with 24hour water


absorption are
comparable if
pretreatment and
aftertreatment are
alike.

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Abrasion
(mm3 or mg)

Test standard

Test specimens:

50 x 50 x 4 mm

2 Round disks
130 mm dia. or octagonals
with 50 mm edge length,
thickness 0.3 - 5 mm

Method A:
76 x 51 mm
Method B:
115 x 45 mm
Thickness not
prescribed

Load:

1000 g

5,4 2 N

A: 5000 g
B: 1500 g

Friction surface:

Bar (120 x 10 x
4 mm) on
plate (50 x 50 x
4 mm)

Abrasive grain on
aluminium oxide

AI2O3 grain size


No. 80, approx.
0.2 mm or other
abrasive grain

RPM:

Step 4 (40 %)

55 6 min-1

Test specimen 32.5,


Disk 23.5

Medium:

Dry

Dry

Dry

Evaluation:

Abrasion after
100,000 strokes
(see drawing)

Abrasion amounts by weight


for the reference material
(mSB) in mg per 100
revolutions are calculated
for each pair of grinding
discs according to the
following equations:

A: cm3 per
1000 rev.

mSB =

m1B m2B

50
ms = m1 m2

ks

D 1242

JI
S

ar

53754

Re
m

AS

Bakelite-Method

BS

DI
N

No.:

TM

Ba
ke
IS lite
O -

69
11
-1
97
9*

et
ho
d

Test characteristic

not
comparable

B: cm3 per
X rev. with abrasive
grain of Y quality

100

Test specimen general

56

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Abrasion

Abrasion (mg) after


100.000 strokes

Abrasion testing device,


typical drawing

Weight

Stroke

Ball bearing
Bar
UP 3415/3415

Plate
Plate: 50 x 50 x 4 mm
Bar: 120 x 10 x 4 mm
Weight: 1 kg
Stroke: 70 mm

UP 3710/3710

Standard plate Standard bar Special plate Special bar

Abrasion test UP 3415 und UP 3710 / Plate-bar

5N
Calibrated frictional wheel CS17

5N

19
Test
specimen

10 - 12

60 U/min

120

Taber abrasion resistance as in ISO 3537

Abrasion test (Bakelite AG)

57

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Shear modulus (torsion vibration test)


(N/mm2)

53445

D 2236

Terst specimens:

60 x 10 x 1 mm or
arbritrary

60 x 10 x 1mm

Length:
25 bis 150 mm
Whide:
2,5 bis 15 mm
Thickness:
0,3 bis 2,5 mm

ks
ar
BS

Re
m

537

JI
S

No.:

IS
O

AS

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

Test characteristic

comparable

Scope
This method of test is designed to enable the shear modulus and the mechanical
damping to be measured as a function of temperature using free torsion
oscillations. By means of this method, measurements are made over a frequency
range from 0,1 to 10 Hz. It is thus possible to determine the mechanical
properties of plastic materials at low deformation stresses and low stressing
speeds over a wide temperature range.
This method is also employed for determining the temperature range over
which a plastics material appears rigid, visco-elastic or rubber-like, and it also
gives information concerning the commencement of plastic flow.

The method provides a means of easily distinguishing thermoplastic, thermosetting


and other cross-linked polymers and between crystalline and amorphous
polymers.
When carried out at one temperature, the method is only of use as a control
test of plastics whose general properties are known. It can thus be employed
to determine whether a given plastics material is soft or rigid at a given
temperature and stressing speed. The shear modulus and the mechanical
damping are physical constants which are independent of the test method,
the apparatus employed and the shape of the test specimen.

Tempering chamber
Clamp
Test specimen
Clamp
Light source
Recorder

Mirror
Disc flywheel
Locking device

Schematic of a torsional vibration device


(procedure A)

Torsional vibration test (shear modulus)

58

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Shear modulus (torsion vibration test)

G': Shear modulus [MPa]

Temperature [C]

Shear modulus, comparative table (duroplastics/thermoplastics)

MP 182-9005-S1
G': Shear modulus
in MPa

Dying-out torsional vibration.


Amplitude A1, as a function of time;
torsional vibration diagram
Temperature in C

Shear modulus MP 182


PF 2535-9005-S1
G': Shear modulus
in MPa

Shear modulus G (N/mm2)

Method

Phenolic-Moulding
compound
PF 2774

Temperature in C

PETP

0,1 - 10 Hz

Shear modulus PF 2535

PP

Temperature
Shearing strain
Shear modulus G=
elastic deformation angle

Definition
Shear modulus

Determination of the shear modulus of plastics

The shear modulus is the quotient of the shearing strain and the resulting elastic deformation
angle with a very low deformation within the elasticity limit: that is, in the Hookes range.

59

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Ashes (residue on ignition)


(%)

No.:

3451 Part 1

60

Sample amount:

10-20 g

>2g

Temperature:

850 25 C
550 25 C

950 20 C
650 20 C

Time:

6h

6h

Crucible size:

60 mm

60 mm

Evaluation:

Ignition loss
in percent
by weight

Ignition loss
in percent
by weight

Ashes test

ks
ar

Re
m

BS

AS

JI
S

TM

69
11
-1
97
9*

Test standard

DI
N

IS
O

Test characteristic

comparable

Ashes test

60

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Description of test procedures

Density ISO 1138

Tensile strength ISO 527

Definition:
Density is the quotient of mass and volume of the
cured moulding material.
Unit of measure: g/cm3
Test procedure:
Weighing the test specimen in air and in water.
Purpose of test:
Possibility of conversion between mass and volume
of mouldings. Possibility of control for uniform
compression.

Definition:
The tensile strength is the maximum tension which
leads to rupture of the test specimen under uniaxial
stress.
Unit of measure: MPa
Test procedure:
The test specimen (shouldered bar) is elongated
at a uniform pulling speed in a longitudinal direction
until rupture occurs.
Purpose of test:
Determination of the strength under tensile stress.

Apparent density ISO 60


Definition:
The apparent density is the quotient of mass and
volume of a loosely poured moulding compound.
Unit of measure: g/cm3
Test procedure:
Weighing the moulding compound which was
poured in a prescribed mannner into a certain test
volume.
Purpose of test:
Control of the uniformity of the moulding
compound grains as well as a reference for
calculating the loading chamber of moulds.

Compressive strength ISO 604


Definition:
The compressive strength is the highest force
under compressive stress related to the starting
cross section of the test specimen.
Unit of measure: MPa
Test procedure:
The test specimen is subjected to a uniformly
increased breaking load till rupture occurs.
Purpose of test:
Determination of the strength under compressive
load.

Moulding shrinkage ISO 2577

Flexural strength ISO 178

Definition:
The moulding shrinkage is the difference between
the dimension of the cold mould and the dimension
of the cooled down moulding. Aftershrinkage is
the difference between the dimension of the cooled
moulding and the dimension of the same moulding
after holding at a certain temperature
(168 h, 110 C).
Unit of measure: %
Test procedure:
Measuring of the test specimen. The shrinkage
values for compression moulding are determined
on the standard bar (120 x 10 x 4 mm). For injection
moulding, the shrinkage values are determined on
the multipurpose specimen (170 x 10 x 4 m)
longitudinally and transverely to the direction of
flow.
Purpose of test:
Important information for the design of moulds,
control of identical mouldings for uniform
processing.
Note:
Besides the respective moulding conditions,
shrinkage and aftershrinkage are influenced by
the moisture contents (volatiles) and the flow
adjustment of the given moulding compound.
Because we offer most of our products with a wide
flow adjustment range, the tolerances for the
shrinkage values are relatively wide. The current
shrinkage values for your flow adjustment will be
indicated on request.

Definition:
The bending strength is the quotient of the bending
moment at rupture of the test specimen and the
sectiom modulus of the latter.
Unit of measure: MPa
Test procedure:
The test specimen resting on two supports is
increasingly loaded in the centre and the force
required to cause rupture is determined (threepoint test).
Purpose of test:
Determination of the strength under bending stress.

Modulus of elasticity ISO 178


Definition:
The modulus of elasticity is the quotient of the
increases in stress and deformation of test
specimens subjected to bending.
Unit of measure: MPa
Test procedure:
The changes in force and deformation are
determined during the bending test.
Purpose of test:
Determination of the stiffnesss under bending
stress.

Impact strength (ISO 179 1eU) and


notched impact strength (ISO 179 1eA)
Definition:
The impact strength is the impact work consumed
by unnotched test specimens and the notched
impact strength the impact work consumed by
notched test specimens.
Unit of measure: kJ/m2
Test procedure:
The impact work consumed for the destruction of
the test specimen is determined by means of a
pendulum hammer.
Purpose of test:
Determination of the toughness and notch
sensitivity under impact stress.

Ball indentation hardness


DIN/ISO 2039 Part 1
Definition:
The ball indentation hardness is the quotient of the
testing force and the surface of the indentation left
by a ball following application of the testing force.
Unit of measure: MPa
Test procedure:
Determination of the depth of penetration into the
test specimen surface.
Purpose of test:
Determination of the surface hardness.

Temperature of deflection
under load ISO 75
Definition:
The heat deformation temperature is the
temperature at which an increasingly heated test
specimen has deflected by a certain amount under
a certain load (medium: oil).
Unit of measure: C
Test procedure: See definition.
Purpose of test: See definition.
Note:
In more recent standards, the deformation under
heat influence according to Martens (DIN 53462)
has been replaced by the heat deformation
temperature HDT (ISO 75). In this procedure, the
measurement is performed at different steps of
loading (0.45; 1.8 and 8 MPa). Both procedures
do not permit to give information on a maximum
application temperature.

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion


DIN 53752
Definition:
The thermal elongation coefficient indicates by
how much the length of a test specimen increases
at a temperature rise by 1 K.

61

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Description of test procedures

Unit of measure: E-6/K


Test procedure:
Measuring the length of a test specimen while it
heats up or cools down according to an optical or
a mechanical procedure (two-point test).
Purpose of test:
Determination of the change in length occurring
during temperature variations.
Note:
Post shrinkage may possibly influence the result
of the measurement.

Heat conductivity DIN 52612


Definition:
Heat conductivity is the flow of heat going through
a layer of a certain thickness in the unit of time,
whilst in a stationary position and with a specific
drop in temperature.
Unit of measure: W/m K
Test procedure:
One measures the flow of heat and the difference
in temperature between the heated and unheated
plates which are situated at both sides of the test
body.
Purpose of test:
Establishing the heat conductivity.

Maximum application temperature


DIN/IEC 216/T 1
Definition:
The maximum application temperature is the
temperature up to which moulding compounds
may be utilised without any significant impairment
of important properties. It is a function of nature
and duration of the influence of temperature,
external loading and the ambient medium.
Unit of measure: C
Test procedure:
Detection of changes in properties (for instance:
bending strength and thermal ageing).
Purpose of test:
Indication of limiting temperatures for short-time
loading (<100 h) and long-time loading 20,000 h.

Surface resistance IEC 93


DIN/VDE 0303 T 30
Definition:
The surface resistance is the electrical resistance
between two electrodes fastened to the surface of
the test specimen.
Unit of measure: Ohm
Test procedure:
Following a water absorption of a specified duration,
the surface resistance is measured with

1000 V DC using resilient metal tongues or silver


electrodes.
Purpose of test:
The surface resistance permits information to be
given on the state of insulation at the surface and
hence on the insulating property of the material.

Volume resistivity
IEC 93 DIN/VDE 0303T30
Definition:
The volume resistivity is the electrical resistance
between certain measuring areas fitted to the upper
and lower sides of the test specimen relative to
its thickness.
Unit of measure: Ohm cm
Test procedure:
Determination of the electrical resistance between
the upper and lower sides of the test plate with
1000 V DC.
Purpose of test:
Information on the electrical insulating property
of a moulding material.

Electrical strength
IEC 243-1 DIN/VDE 0303 T 21
Definition:
The electrical strength is the quotient of the
disruptive voltage and the distance of the electrodes
between which the test specimen is arranged. The
electrical strength is dependent on the wall
thickness. All information is determined on test
specimens with 1 mm wall thickness.
Unit of measure: kV/mm
Test procedure:
The AC voltage applied to the electrodes is
increased at a constant rate up to the disruption
of the test specimen.
Purpose of test:
Information on the performance of the insulating
material with high-voltage applied.

Comparative tracking index


(tracking resistance) DIN/IEC 112
Definition:
The tracking resistance is the resistance of the
insulating material against tracking. A tracking
path is the visible consequence of a local
decomposition under the effect of the electric
current in the presence of conductive impurities.
Unit of measure: CTI/CTI-M/PTI
Test procedure:
Procedure CTI-M. Drops of a certain solution of
electrolytes with a wetting agent are applied
between two electrodes resting on the surface of

62

between two electrodes resting on the surface of


the test specimen. After every 50 drops the test
voltage is stepwise increased up to a point where
a short circuit is imminent. Procedure CTI. The
test is carried out like i the CTI-M procedure, except
that a salt solution without wetting agent is used.
Procedure PTI. Short time test with 50 drops.
Purpose of test:
Possibility of evaluating the performance of the
surface of solid insulating materials under the
influence of creepage currents.

Flame test UL-Subject 94


Definition:
Performance of a test specimen under short-time
influence of flames. Characteristic features are
whether the test specimen burns and the time
after which the flame of the burning test specimen
extinguishes.
Unit of measure: Step/mm
Test procedure:
The test specimen is exposed to a flame for a short
time and after removal of the ignition flame, the
burning time is determined.
Purpose of test:
Evaluation of the performance of moulding
compounds in fire.

Water absorption ISO 62


Definition:
The water absorption is the inrease in weight of
the test specimen after a four-day (one-day)
water absorption.
Unit of measure: mg and %
Test procedure:
Already described in the definition.
Purpose of test:
Evaluation of the performance of moulding
materials under the effect of cold water (23C).

1
1.2

Rheological properties
Melt volume flow rate

Melt volume flow rate

1. Value
Temperature
Load
2. Value
Temperature
Load

1.3

Moulding shrinkage

2.14

Mechanical properties
(Climate 23 C 2 C/50% 5% r.h. according to ISO 291)
Tensile modulus
Yield stress
Elongation
Nominal elongation at break
Stress at 50% elongation
Tensile stress at break
Elongation at break
Tensile creep modulus
Tensile creep modulus
Charpy impact strength
Charpy impact strength
Charpy notched impact strength
Charpy notched impact strength
Tensile impact strength

3
3.1
3.2
3.3

Thermal properties
Melt temperature
Glass transition temperature
Temperature of dimensional stability

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.12
2.13

3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

ISO 1133

Moulding compound

ISO 2577

ISO 527-1
ISO 527-2

po
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st
an con
d dit
s
st up ion
at pl s
em em
en en
ts ta
r

Un
it

Te
st
di spe
m ci
en m
si en
on
si
n

St
an
da
rd

Pr
op
er
ty

No
.i
IS n
O
10
35
0

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Data catalogue in CAMPUS 3 according to ISO 10350

Multipurpose test
specimen according to
ISO 3167
Injection moulded: type A
Machined: type B

cm3/10 min
C
kg
cm3/10 min
C
kg
%

Test conditions according to the particular


material standard

Longitidinal
Transverse

Only thermosets

MPa

1 mm/min
50 mm/min

Elongation 0,05% to 0,25 %

%
MPa
5 mm/min
%
MPa

ISO 899-1
ISO 179/1eU

80 x 10 x 4

ISO 179/1eA

V notch; r=0,25

ISO 8256

80 x 10 x 4

ISO 3146
IEC 1006
ISO 75-1

Moulding compound

80 x 10 x 4

1)

1)

kJ/m

ISO 75-2

Vicat softening point


Coefficient of linear expansion

ISO 75-3
ISO 306
ASTM E 831

10 x 10 x4

Flammability UL 94

UL 94

125 x 13 x 1,6

1)
1/K
Class

125 x 13 x thickness
152 x 13 x thickness and
152 x 152 x thickness
1)
80 x 10 x 4

Flammability UL 94-5V
3.16
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.9
5
5.2
5.3
5.4

see table 1
in ISO 10350

ISO 4589
Flammability by oxygen index
Electrical properties
1
(Climate 23 C 2 C/50% 5 % r. h. according to ISO 291)
IEC 250
Dielectric constant

Plate with the


dimensions 1,0 0,1

2)

Dissipation factor
Volume resistivity
Surface resistivity
Dielectric strength
Comparative figure of tracking
Other properties (23 C 2C)
Water absorption in water at 23 C
Moisture absorption in water at 23 C/50% r.h.
Density
Specific properties of moulding compounds
Viscosity number
Characteristic density (PE only)
Isotaxy index (PE only)
Manufacturing conditions for test specimens
Conditions according to the international
moulding compound standard
Injection moulding
Melt temperature
of thermoplastics
Mould temperature
Melt front velocity
Holding pressure
Injection moulding
Melt temperature
of thermosets
Mould temperature
Melt front velocity
Holding pressure
Post-curing time
Compression moulding
Mould temperature
of thermoplastics
Compression moulding time
Cooling velocity
Demoulding temperature
Compression moulding
Mould temperature
of thermosets
Compression moulding time
Post-curing
Post-curing temperature
of thermosets
Post-curing time

IEC 93

Ohm cm
Ohm
kV/mm

IEC 243-1
IEC 112

15 x 15 x 4

Following
ISO 62
ISO 1183

50 x 50 x 1

ISO 307
1157, 1628
ISO 1872-1
ISO 6427 B

Moulding compound

10 x 10 x 4

2)

45 double V notch, r=1,0


recommended, if at 2.13 n.f.

Process C
Process A
1,8 MPa

DTA or DSC
10 K/min
for rigid materials: 1,8 MPa and

0,45 MPa
8 MPa
Long fibre reinforced
50 K/h, 50 N
Longitudinal
Transverse
At nom. 1,6 mm
Tested thickness
At thickness h
Tested thickness
At thickness h
Tested thickness
Process A

8 MPa; for soft materials:


1,8 MPa and 0,45 MPa

Secant pitch between 23 C


and 55 C
Specification of class from:
NO, HB, V-2, V-1, V-0

Specification: NO, 5VA or 5VB

100 Hz
1 MHz
100 Hz
1 MHz
Contact electrodes
Short-term test in transformer oil according to IEC 296
Test liquid A

g/cm

cm3/g

Test conditions according to material standard

cm /g
Related to basic polymer

Moulding comp.
standard Part 2
ISO 294

ISO 10724

mm/s
MPa
C

If only compression moulding conditions are specified,


all test specimens are to be compression moulded.
If compression moulding and injection moulding
conditions are specified, only plates are to be
compression moulded.

mm/s
MPa
s
C
min
K/min
C
C
min
C
min

ISO 293

ISO 295

1) Eventually taken from the multipurpose test specimen type A

if at 2.12 without failure n.f.

Saturation values

%
1)

1h
1000 h
23 C
-30 C
23 C
-30 C
23 C

if 2.2 available
if 2.2 not available
if 2.2 and 2.5 not available
and 2.7 10 %
Elongation 0,5 %

2) Compression moulded or injection moulded test specimen

63

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National Standards Organization

AAMVA

ABNT

AEA
AECMA

AENOR

AFNOR

AKI

ANAIP

ANSI

ASKI

ASME
ASQC
ASTM
BAM

BGA

BSI

BPS
CAS

CEE

CEFIC

American Association of Motor Vehicle


Administrators (USA), Prfbehrde fr
die Kfz-Industrie in den USA
Ass. Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas,
brasilianisches Norminstitut, A. 13 de
Maio, no 1318 andar, Caixa Postal
1680, CEP 20003 Rio de Janeiro RJ
American Electronics Association (USA)
Association Europenne des
Constructeurs de Matrial Arospatial
(Europ. Prfbehrde fr die Luftfahrt)
As. Espanola de Normalizacion
(spanischer Normverband), Calle
fernandez de la Hoz, 52, 28010 Madrid
Association Franaise de Normalisation
(franz. Normenausschu), Tour Europe,
Cedex 7, 92049 Paris la dfense
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutsche
Kunststoff-Industrie (D), Karlstrae 21,
D-60329 Frankfurt, Tel. 0 69 /
2 55 63 07
Association Espanola de Industriales
de Plasticos (E), Spanischer Verband
der Kunststoff-Verarbeiter, Raimundo
Fernandez Villaverde 57, E-8003 Madrid
American National Standards Institute
Inc. (USA), 1430 Broadway, New York,
N. Y. 10018
Swiss Plastic Industries Federation
(CH), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der
Schweizerischen Kunststoffindustrie
Gesamtverband, Nordstrae 15, CH8006 Zrich (ab 01. 01. 1992 im KVS
aufgegangen)
American Society of Mechanical
Enigeers
American Society for Quality Control
(USA Qualittsgesellschaft)
American Society for Testing and
Materials (USA), (Norminstitut der USA)
Bundesanstalt fr Materialforschung
und -prfung (D), Unter den Eichen 87,
D-12205 Berlin, Tel. 0 30 / 81 04-1, Fax
0 30 / 8 11 20 29
Bundesgesundheitsamt (D), Thieleallee
8292, D-14195 Berlin, Tel. 0 30 /
83 08-0, Fax 0 30 / 83 08-27 41
British Standards Institution (Brit.
Norminstitut), (die Normen werden als
BS bezeichnet), 2 Park Street, London
W1A 2BS
Bureau of Product Standards,
Phillippines
Chemical Abstract Service, Columbus,
Ohio (USA), (Datenbank-InformationsZentrum)
Commission Internationale pour
Rglementation et le Contrle de
lEquipement Electrique (Internat.
Elektriker Verband)
Conseil Europeen des Federation de

lIndustrie Chemique (Europischer


Chemieverband)
CEN
Comit Europen de Normalisation
(Europischer Normenverband). Die
Normen werden als EN-Norm
bezeichnet. CEN gliedert sich in -TC =
Technische Comitees, -SC = SubComitees (Fachbereiche), -WG =
Working Groups (Arbeitsausschsse)
fr die jeweiligen Fachbereiche
- EN Europische Normen, - ENV
Europische Vornormen, - HD
Harmonisierungsdokumente
CENELEC Comit Europeen de Normdialistion
Electric, (Europischer Normenverband
fr die Elektroindustrie)
CIE
Commission Internationale de
lEclairage
COSMT Czech Office for Standards, Metrology
and Testing, Czech Republic
CSA
Canadian Standards Association
(Kanadischer Normverband)
CSBTS
China State Bureau of Technical
Supervision (chinesisches
Norminstistut), PO Box 820, Beijing
CSN
Federal Office for Standards and
Measurements (tschechisches
Norminstitut), Vaclavske Namesti 19,
11347 Prag
CWFG
Chemie
Wirtschaftsfrderungsgesellschaft
mbH, Karlstrae 21, D-60321
Frankfurt/M. (Geschftsstelle fr
CAMPUS-Datenbanken), Tel. 0 69 /
25 56-4 60, Fax 0 69 / 25 56-4 71
DAR
Deutscher Akkreditierungs Rat (D),
Geschst. BAM, Unter den Eichen 87,
D-12205 Berlin, Tel. 0 30 / 81 04-1, Fax
0 30 / 8 11 20 29
DGQ
Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Qualitt e. V.
(D), August-Schanz-Strae 21a, D60433 Frankfurt/M., Tel. 0 69 / 54 80 01
(0), Fax 0 69 / 54 80 01 38
DIN
Deutsches Institut fr Normung e. V.
(D), Burggrafenstrae 6, D-10787
Berlin, Tel. 0 30 / 26 01-23 52, Fax 0 30
/ 26 01-12 31
- DIN-FNK DIN-Fachnormenausschu
Kunststoffe
- DIN-NMP DIN-Fachnormenausschu
Materialprfung
DIS
Draft International Standard
DKE
Deutsche Elektrotechnische
Kommission (D)
DKI
Deutsches-Kunststoff-Institut (D),
Schlogartenstrae 6, D-64289
Darmstadt, Tel. 0 61 51 / 16-0, Fax
0 61 51 / 29 28 55
DQS
Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Zertifizierung
von Qualittssicherungssystemen (D),
(Zusammenschlu v. 7 Verbnden),

64

Burggrafenstrae 6, D-10787 Berlin,


Tel. 0 30 / 2 65 14 74, Fax 0 30 / 26 0119 72
DS
Dansk Standardisierungsgraad
(dnisches Norminstitut), Aurehojvej
12, DK-2900 Hellerup
EG
Kommission d. Europischen
Gemeinschaften, Rue de la Loi 200, B1049 Brssel, Tel. 0 03 22 / 2 35 11 11,
Fax 0 03 22 / 2 35 01 22, Bro D
Zietelmannstrae 22, D-53113 Bonn,
Tel. 02 28 / 53 00 90, Fax 02 28 /
5 30 09 50
EOQC
European Organization for Quality, P.O.
Box 2613, CH-3001 Bern
EPA
Europisches Patentamt, D-80290
Mnchen, Tel. 0 89 / 2 39 90, Fax 0 89
/ 23 99 44 65
ETP
Engineering Thermoplastics
EUROPEN European Organisation for Packaging
and the Environment, Rue de Commerz
2022 B12, B-1040 Brssel
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration (USA
Luftfahrtbehrde)
FGK
Forschungsgesellschaft Kunststoffe e.
V., Schlogartenstrae 6, D-64289
Darmstadt, Tel. 0 61 51 / 16 34 07
FIZ
Fachinformations-Zentrum Chemie (D),
Steinplatz 2, D-10623 Berlin oder
Eggenstein, Leopoldshafenerstrae 2,
D-76149 Karlsruhe (DatenbankInformationszentrum)
FPA
Finnish Plastics Association (Finnischer
Kunststoff-Verband)
FPID
Finnish Plastics Industry Federation
(SL), Finnischer Kunststoff-Verband,
Mariankatu 26 B 9, SL-00170, Helsinki
17
FV
Fachverbnde im GKV (D), Am
Hauptbahnhof 12, D-60329 Frankfurt
(siehe GKV)
GOST
USSR State Committee for Standards
(russisches Norminstitut), Leninsky
Prospekt 9, Moskau 117049
IBN
Institut Belge de Normalisation
(belgisches Norminstitut), Avenue de
Brabanconne 23, B-1040 Brssel
ICONTEC Instituto Colombiano de Normas
Tcnicas, Colombia
IEC
International Electrotechnical
Commission (Internationaler
Elektroverband) 3, rue de Varemb, CH1211 Genve 20
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronicel
Engineers (USA), (USA Normungsstelle
fr die Elektroindustrie)
IFAN
International Federation for the
Application of Standards, Case Postale
56, CH-1211 Genve 20
IFEC
Institut Francais de lEmballage et du
Conditionnement (F)

po
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National Standards Organization

IS
ISIRI

ISO

ISO-DIS
ISOPA

IRS
IUPAC

JICST

JISC

JPIF
KBS

KIAA
MSZH

NAFTA
NEN
NFK

NNI

NSF

OEM
NA
VE
ON

PKN

International Standard
Institute of Standards and Industrial
Research of Iran, Islamic Republic of
Iran
International Standard Organisation
(Internationaler KunststoffNormverband), Case Postale 56, CH1211 Genve 20
Die TC = Technical Committee, sind
die Arbeitsgruppen
ISO-Draft Internationaler Standard =
Normentwurf
European Isocyanate Producers
Association (Europaverband der PURHersteller), B-Brssel
Institutul Roman de Standardizare,
Romania
International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry (unter anderem zustndig
fr international gltige chemische
Nomenklaturen)
Japan Information Center of Science
and Technologie, Tokio (J), (Datenbank
Informationszentrum)
Japanese Industrial Standards
Committee (japanisches Norminstitut),
1-3-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo 1000 PO Japanisches Patentamt
(J)
Japan Plastics Industry Federation
Bureau of Standards (koreanisches
Norminstitut), 2, Chungang-dong,
Kwachon-city, Kyonggi-do 427-010
Korean Industrial Advancement
Administration, Republic of Korea
Magyar Szavanygi Hivtai
(ungarischer Normverband), Postfach
24, 1450 Budapest 9
North American Free Trade Agreement
Nederland Normalisatie-Instituut
(niederlndisches Norminstitut), (NL)
Nederlandse Federatie voor
Kunststoffen (NL), Niederlndischer
Kunststoff-Verband, Polanerbaan 15,
NL-3440 AH Woerden
Nederlands Normalisatie-Instituur
(niederlndisches Norminstitut),
Kalfjeslaan 2, P.O. Box 5059, 2600 GB
Delft
Norges Standardiserings Forbund
(norwegisches Norminstitut), Postboks
7020, Homansbyen, N-0306 Oslo 3
Original Equipment Manufacturer
sterreichischer Normenausschu (A)
(Adresse siehe ON)
sterreichische Vereinigung fr
Elektrotechnik (A)
sterreichisches Normungsinstitut,
Heinestrae 38, Postfach 130, A-1021
Wien
Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny

PKNMiJ

PTB

PWMI

TVK

RAL

SAA

SABS

SAE

SC
SCC

SFS

SIS

SISIR

SKS
SKZ

SNV
SPI

(Polnisches Norminstitut), (PL)


Polish Committee for Standardization
(polnischer Normverband), Ul.
Elektoraina 2, 00-139 Warschau
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
(D), Bundesallee 100, D-38116
Braunschweig, Tel. 05 31 / 5 92-0, Fax
05 31 / 5 92-40 06
Plastics Waste Management Institute
(europische Dachorganisation d.
Kunststofferzeuger f. Kunststoffe u.
Umwelt), Avenue E. van Nieuwenhuse
4, B-1160 Brssel
Technische Vereinigung der Hersteller
und Verarbeiter typisierter KunststoffFormmassen e. V., (kooperatives
Mietglied)
Deutsches Institut fr Gtesicherung
und Kennzeichnung e. V. (D),
Siegburgerstrae 39, D-53119 St.
Augustin, Tel. 0 22 41 / 16 05-0, Fax
0 22 41/ 16 05-11
Standards Association of Australia
(australisches Norminstitut), P.O. Box
458, North Sydney-N-S-W 2059
South African Bureau of Standards
(sdafrikanisches Norminstitut),
Private BAG X191, Pretoria 0001
Society of Automotive Engineers
(USA), (USA-Prfbehrde fr
Automobilindustrie, 400
Commonwealth 3, Drive, Warrendale,
PA 15096
Subcommittee
Standards Council of Canada
(canadisches Norminstitut), 350
Sparks, Street, Suite 1200, Ottawa,
Ontario
Soumen Standardisoimislito
(finnisches Norminstitut), P.O. Box
205, SF-00121 Helsinki
Sveriges
Standardisierungskommission
(schwedisches Norminstitut), Box
3295, S-10366 Stockholm
Singapore Institute of Standards
(Singapur Norminstitut), 1 Science
Parkdrive, Singapur 0511
Savezna Komisija za Standardizaciju
(Jugoslavischer Normverband), (Y)
Sddeutsches Kunststoff-Zentrum,
Institut fr Kunststoffverarbeitung, anwendung und -prfung (D),
Frankfurter Strae 15, D-97082
Wrzburg, Tel. 09 31 / 41 04-0, Fax
09 31 / 4 10 41 77
Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung,
Kirchweg 4, CH-8032 Zrich
Society of Plastics Industry (USA)
(amerikanischer Kunststoffverband),
CI Composites Institute des SPI

65

TC
TV

Technical Committee
Technischer berwachungs-Verein (D)
mit folgenden relevanten Bereichen:
- TV Bayern Arbeitsbereich
Kunststoffprfung, Westendstrae 199,
D-80686 Mnchen
- TV Berlin Kunststoff-Prfstelle
(federfhrend f. KunststoffKraftstoffbehlter), Postfach 11 06 61,
D-10831 Berlin
- TV Rheinland, Zentralabteilung
Werkstofftechnik, Bereich KunststoffTechnik, Am Grauen Stein 20, D-51105
Kln, Tel. 02 21 / 80 60
TV-CERT TV-Zertifizierungsgemeinschaft e. V.,
Reuterstrae 161, D-53113 Bonn, Tel.
02 28 / 9 14 81-40, Fax 02 28 / 9 14 8144
TV
Technische Vereinigung der Hersteller
und Verareiter typisierter KunststoffFormmassen e. V. (D), Rosengasse 8,
D-97070 Wrzburg
UBA
Umweltbundesamt (D), Bismarckplatz
1, D-14193 Berlin 33, Tel. 0 30 / 89 030, Fax 0 30 / 89 03-22 85
UL
Underwriters Laboratory Inc. (Staatlich
anerkanntes Institut fr die Prfung
von Kunststoffen auf Brennbarkeit,
Temperaturbestndigkeit), Northbrook,
IL 60062 (USA)
UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione
(italienisches Norminstitut), Piazza
Armando Diaz 2, I-20123 Mailand
UNICE
Union des Confderations de
lIndustries et des Employers dEurope
(Verband der Europischen Industrie
gegenber den EG-Organen)
UNMS
Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology
and Testing, Slovakia
USCAR United States Council for Automotive
Research
USTAG United States Technical Advisory Group
VCI
Verband der Chemischen Industrie e.
V. (D), Karlstrae 21, D-60329
Frankfurt, (T. u. F. s. VKE)
VDI
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e. V. (D),
Graf-Recke-Strae 84, D-40239
Dsseldorf, Tel. 02 11 / 62 14-0, Fax
02 11 / 6 21 45 75 (darin eine Reihe
von Fachgesellschaften fr die
einzelnen Gebiete)

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Notes

66

Conversion factors:
1 N/mm2
1 J/m
1 kJ/m2
1 N/dm3
1 kgf/mm2
1 kgfcm/cm2
Tension:
1 psi
1 N/mm2
Temperatures:
Conversion of C into F
C x 1,8 + 32 = F

= 10,2 kg/cm2
= 0,102 cmkp/cm
= 1,02 cmkp/cm2
= 0,102 g/m3
= 9,8 N/mm2
= 0,98 kJ/m2
= 0,007 N/mm2
= 1,42 psi
Conversion of F into C
(F - 32) x 0,555 = C

= 1 MPa