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Chemistry Lab Report

Practical 5: Measuring enthalpy changes of neutralisation

Alibek Ysmaiyl
Lab partner: Shynar Tyutenova
Date: 20/11/12,
Session: Thursday a.m.
Tutorial Group: J

Introduction:
This practical is about the heat change of neutralisation reaction, which is the releasing of
energy (heat) by the formation of one mole of water when the acid neutralises the alkali during
the neutralisation reaction [1]. The neutralisation reaction is exothermic (release of energy),
because of formation of water. It means that aqueous hydrogen ions, H+, which are from the acid,
react with the aqueous hydroxide ions, OH-, which are from the alkali forming water. So, the
combination of H+ and OH- ions are exothermic [2].
A net ionic equation is the equation for double replacement reaction (neutralisation reaction)
in which reactant ions are showed while spectator ions are eliminated [3]. As a result, spectator
ions are omitted, whereas the product (net chemical reaction between H+ and OH-) is water.
In this practical, strong acids (HNO3, HCl, H2SO4, ), weak acid (CH3COOH) and strong bases
(NaOH, KOH) were used for neutralisation reaction. The technique which was used is that the
temperatures of acid in polystyrene cup and alkali in a measuring cylinder were measured
separately by electronic thermometer. Following this, the extreme temperature reached after
mixing the reactants was measured also by electronic thermometer.
Assumptions: no heat loss, density of water is equal to density of solution, and heat capacity of
solution is equal to heat capacity of water.
Aim:
To measure enthalpy changes of neutralisation in Acid and Alkali reactions and in
neutralisation of a diprotic acid.
Procedure:
Experiment 1: Varying acids and alkalis
a) 25 cm3 of 2.0M hydrochloric acid were poured into the polystyrene cup and its temperature
was measured. After that, 25 cm3 of 2.0M sodium hydroxide were placed in the measuring
cylinder and its temperature was measured. Then, alkali was added to the acid in the polystyrene
cup, softly stirring for 10-20 seconds in order to well mixing, and its final temperature was
measured.
Other combinations were repeated by the same method:

b) 2.0M hydrochloric acid+2.0M potassium hydroxide


c) 2.0M nitric acid+2.0 M sodium hydroxide
d) 2.0M ethanoic acid+2.0M sodium hydroxide
Experiment 2: Neutralisation of a diprotic acid
a) Firstly, the temperatures of each 25cm3 of 2.0M sulphuric acid in the polystyrene cup and
25cm3 of 2.0M sodium hydroxide in a measuring cylinder were measured, after gently mixing
them with each other.
b) This part of experiment was repeated by the same method, however, 4.0M sodium hydroxide
was used instead of 2.0M sodium hydroxide.
Results:
Table 1. Temperature changes in different solutions
Experiment

Average temperature of

Final temperature, oC

T, K

1a
1b
1c
1d
2a
2b

reactants, oC
22.95
23.4
22.8
23.7
23.2
23.1

36
33.7
32.4
36.1
37.5
54

13.05
10.3
9.6
12.4
14.3
30.9

Discussion:
Calculations:
1a. HCl(aq)+NaOH(aq)NaCl(aq)+H2O(l) (molecular equation)
H++Cl-+Na++OH-Na++Cl-+H2O (ionic equation)
H+(aq)+ OH-(aq) H2O(l) (net ionic equation)
n=C x V= 25 x 10-3 x 2= 50 x 10-3 = 0.05 mol;
Q=-c x m x T;

Hneutr.=Q/n;

n(NaOH)=n(HCl)=n(H2O)

m=V=25+25=50g

Q=-4.18x50x13.05=-2727.45 J
Hneutr.= -2727.45/0.05= -54549J/mol=-54.549KJ/mol.

1b. HCl(aq)+KOH(aq)KCl(aq)+H2O(l)
H++Cl-+K++OH-K++Cl-+H2O (ionic equation)
H+(aq)+ OH-(aq) H2O(l) (net ionic equation)
n=C x V= 25 x 10-3 x 2= 50 x 10-3 = 0.05 mol;
Q=-c x m x T;

Hneutr.=Q/n;

n(NaOH)=n(HCl)=n(H2O)

m=V=25+25=50g

Q=-4.18x50x10.3=-2152.7 J
Hneutr.= -2152.7/0.05= -43054J/mol=-43.054KJ/mol.
1c. HNO3(aq)+NaOH(aq)NaNO3(aq)+H2O(l)
H++NO3-+Na++OH-Na++ NO3-+H2O (ionic equation)
H+(aq)+ OH-(aq) H2O(l) (net ionic equation)
n=C x V= 25 x 10-3 x 2= 50 x 10-3 = 0.05 mol;
Q=-c x m x T;

Hneutr.=Q/n;

n(NaOH)=n(HCl)=n(H2O)

m=V=25+25=50g

Q=-4.18x50x9.6=-2006.4 J
Hneutr.= -2006.4/0.05= -40128J/mol=-40.128KJ/mol.
1d. CH3COOH(aq)+NaOH(aq)CH3COONa(aq)+H2O(l)
H++CH3COO -+Na++OH-Na++ CH3COO-+H2O (ionic equation)
H+(aq)+ OH-(aq) H2O(l) (net ionic equation)
n=C x V= 25 x 10-3 x 2= 50 x 10-3 = 0.05 mol;
Q=-c x m x T;

Hneutr.=Q/n;

n(NaOH)=n(HCl)=n(H2O)

m=V=25+25=50g

Q=-4.18x50x12.4=-2591.6 J
Hneutr.= -2591.6/0.05= -51832J/mol=-51.832KJ/mol.
2a. H2SO4(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Na2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)
2H++SO42-+2Na++2OH-2Na++ SO42-+2H2O (ionic equation)
2H+(aq)+ 2OH-(aq)2 H2O(l) (net ionic equation)

n=C x V= 25 x 10-3 x 2= 50 x 10-3 = 0.05 mol;


Q=-c x m x T;

Hneutr.=Q/n;

n(NaOH)=n(HCl)=n(H2O)

m=V=25+25=50g

Q=-4.18x50x14.3=-2988.7 J
Hneutr.= -2988.7/0.05= -59774J/mol=-59.774KJ/mol.
2b. H2SO4(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Na2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)
2H++SO42-+2Na++2OH-2Na++ SO42-+2H2O (ionic equation)
2H+(aq)+ 2OH-(aq)2 H2O(l) (net ionic equation)
n=C x V= 25 x 10-3 x 2= 50 x 10-3 = 0.05 mol=0.05/1=0.05,ol
n=C x V= 25 x 10-3 x 4= 100 x 10-3 = 0.1 mol=0.1/2=0.05 mol
n (H2O)=0.1mol
Q=-c x m x T;

Hneutr.=Q/n;

m=V=25+25=50g

Q=-4.18x50x30.9=-6458.1 J
Hneutr.= -6458.1/0.1= -64581J/mol=-64.581KJ/mol.
It cannot be denied that in the 1d experiment the temperature change is a little bit higher than
others except 1a experiment. The main reason for this is that the bond breakage of CH3COOH
(C-C, C-H, C=O,C-OH) requires more energy. However, CH3COOH is covalent bond and HCl is
ionic bond, therefore there was a slight difference in temperature change, that is the temperature
change of HCl was a little bit higher than CH3COOH, because the bond breakage of ionic bonds
need more energy than the covalent bond.
The temperature change of 2b experiment was the highest one. Since, the concentration of an
alkali (NaOH) was higher than others (4.0M). So, in this experiment strong base (NaOH) and
strong diprotic acid reacted with each other. It means that diprotic acid formed more hydroxide
ions, H+, that is why more energy is released.
There were some factors which had an impact on the accuracy of the experiment such as
polystyrene cup, mistakes in volume, chemical residues, and the initial temperature of reactants.
Firstly, polystyrene cup was not so thick and dense. Therefore, some heats which are released
were lost from the polystyrene cup. So, this part of experiment could be improved to more
accuracy if the denser polystyrene cup was used. It means that the heat would not be lost, and the

accurate final temperature would be measured. Secondly, there was a mistake in accuracy of
volume about 25cm3, because of not accurate measurement by measuring cylinder. Therefore,
volumetric pipette would be used to be more accurate in measurement of volume. Moreover,
there was used only 1 measuring cylinder and polystyrene cup, which were washed for the
several time. It means that there could be reminded some residues of chemicals, which can effect
on the heat releasing. So, it would be more accurate if a few polystyrene cups and measuring
cylinders were used. In addition, the room temperature of reactants was needed for experiments.
However, the initial temperatures of reactants were approximately 23.4 oC. Therefore, it might
had an impact on the enthalpy of neutralisation.
The pH of 2a experiment will be lower than 7, because diprotic acid was used (more H+
ions) and NaOH is limited. During the reaction, OH- ions would be reacted completely, whereas
there would be excess H+ ions which are nor reacted with OH-.Therefore, the medium of
solution is acidic. In other experiments the pH would be approximately 7.
Conclusion: Taking all points into consideration, it is clear that the final product of
neutralisation reaction is water which is exothermic reaction. Also, the enthalpy changes of acidbase and diprotic acid neutralisation reactions were measured.
Reference list:
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthalpy_of_neutralization, accessed in 27 November, 2014.
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutralization_(chemistry), accessed in 27 November, 2014.
3. http://www.brightstorm.com/science/chemistry/chemical-reactions/net-ionic-equation/,
accessed in 27 Novermber, 2014