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Example # 01

The purpose of this problem is to illustrate how laminate modulii are determined and to compare the
modulii of some composite laminates with those of some common metals.
Material A: 90% 0o, 10 % 90o s

Graphite-Epoxy Type III

Material B: 50% 0o, 50% 45o s

Class-I (Use Fig II-2, II-4)

Material C: 100% 45o s


Answer
Material

Ex (Msi)

Exy (Msi)

A
B
C
Titanium
Aluminum

15.5
10
3
16
10.3

0.9
2.65
4.35
5
3.8

Spec. Wt
(lb/in3)
0.055
0.055
0.055
0.165
0.100

Example # 02
Determine the Lay up of following laminate in terms of

Number of Plies

Ply Orientations

Stacking Sequence

Answer:
For axial loading, the design guideline require 60%/30%/10% for 0 o / 45o / 90o plies.
Use 60%/30%/10%

0o ,45%, 90o ---------- refer to laminate guidelines

Class-1
Ex= 12.3X106 psi from Fig II-1
t

= .0035 from Table II-3

GR-EP, Type

Ex

N=

43,050 T

Ex :

N= (

) = 43,050 PSI

Ex) T = 43050T

lb/in

T = Laminate thickness
43,050T=6267
T= .146
t ply=.0056 from Table II-1
T=n/t

n= T/t ply

= No. of plies=

=26

For Axial loading


Use 0o / 45o / 90o

16/8/2

61%/31%/8%

+ 9 0000 + 0000 - - 0000 + 0000 9 +

[45, 90,-45, 04, 45, 04, - 45] s

Note: the 45o plies and 90o plies are used to resist shear and transverse normal stresses that may exist. However, it is

assumed that the normal stress in the 0-degree direction is predominant, and if we design for it while using
60/30/10 configuration the panel will be safe relative to all stresses.
Analysis:

Only 0o s, 45o s and 90o s have been used to reduce complexity.

The 90o s are used to carry any axial load in the transverse direction not accounted for.

The 45o s are used to carry shear.

The layup is symmetric to eliminate coupling between in-plane strains are curvatures/twists. [B]=0

It is balanced to eliminate coupling between normal strains and shear strains. A16 = A26 = 0

The OS and 90 s are separated by 45s to reduce poissions mismatch (and possible delamination).

No more than 4 plies in any one orientation are stacked together (to prevent possible delamination
between the similarly oriented ply stack and the adjacent plies).

We have avoided placing a similarly oriented ply stack at the outer surface, as such a stuck is more
susceptible to damage.

We have used 45/90/-45 sequence at the outer surface because this sequence is more damage
tolerant.

Major load carrying plies (OS) are protected from possible damage by avoiding placing them at
the outer surface.

It may be necessary to use fabric for the outer ply to provide abrasion resistance (however, this
was not done here).

EXAMPLE 3
Determine a layup that will carry a load of Nx = 4300 lb/in
List all the properties of the panel.

The design guidelines requires %age of ;

Use 60% Os, 30% 45s 10% os


T= Thickness of Lamination = Fx/Ex

Ex= 11.6 X 106 psi from Fig II-2


= .0035 from Table II-3
=

Ex

= .0035 (11.6 x 106 ) = 40,600psi limit stress

:: Nx =

4300 = 40,600t
T=.106

t ply = .0059 from Table II-1

GR-EP Type-III, Class-1, Grade 145

No. of plies = .106/.0059 = 17.95 or 18


Use [12/4/2]

[0000 + 9 0000 - 9 + 0000]

(refer to note in Ex-2)


[O4/+/9/-/O2]

The properties of this panel [67% / 22% / 11%] are:


Ex =12.4 x 106

from fig II-2

Ey = 3.9 x 106

from fig II-2

Gxy = 1.65 x 106

from fig II-4

= .31 from

= Ey/Ex x

EXAMPLE 4

Fig II 7
x = .0975

= .7 x 10-6

= 4.5 x 10-6

from fig II-9


from fig II-9

Material
A
B

Area (in2 )
.25
.25

E (psi)
8 X 106
12 X 106

A(equir)
.25 (8/12) = .167
.25 (12/12) = .25

A Sandwich structure is subjected to


2000 lb/in load in the laminate causes extension (no bending) as above

Determine the tensile force in each laminate.

Determine the average tensile stress in each laminate.

Determine the location of the tensile load resultant.

FA

FB

AA EA

AB EB

FA

FB

AA

AB

FA

FA

FB

= F = 2000 lbs

AB

FA

AA

FA

AA

AA + AB
FB

AB

AA +AB

FA =

(2000X2.5) = 2000 lb

FA =

(2000X2.5) = 3000 lb

= 8000 psi

= 12000 psi

AA +

AB

AA+AB
= 0.659.167)+0.05(0.25)
0.167+0.25
= 0.29

EXAMPLE 5
Determine the valve of the ultimate tensile load for this panel based on the strain allowable (Table II-3)
Assume that bending stresses are negligible.
Skin + Cover: Gr-Ep, Type IV, Class 2, style 3k-70-pw
Inner + outer chords : Gr-Ep, Type III, Class 1, Grade 145
Skin: [(
Cover: [(

45) / (0,90) / (

45)3 /(0,90) / (

45)2 / (0,90)2 / (

45)2 /(0,90)2 / (

45)]s
45)]s
Fabric

Inner Chord: [04/+45/902/-45/02]s


Inner Chord: [0s/+45/-45/90/+45/-45/02]s
Thickness (Table II-1)
Skin: 2/10/2

14(.0083) =0 .116

Cover:

18(.0083) = 0.149

Inner Chord:

20(.0059) = 0.118

Outer Chord:

24(.0059) = 0.142

Modulus &Poissons Ratio (Fig II-2,3 + Fig II 7 + 8)

Skin:

4/20/4

14.3%/71.4%/14.3%

Ex = 4.65 x 106

Cover:

8/20/8

22%/56%/22%

Ex = 5.7 x 106

Inner Chord:

12/4/4

60%/20%/20%

Ex = 11.4 x 106

Outer Chord:

14/8/2

58%/33%/8%

Ex = 11.3 x 106

= .44
= .34
= .21
= .38

Note:
-

= .44 - .34 = 0.1

there will be no

excessive
-

= .44 - .38 = .06

from Poissons mismatch


-

Areas
Skin:

0.116(7) = .812

Cover:

0.149 [7+2(1.15-.116-.149)] = 1.307

Inner Chord

0 .118[1.45-2(.149)] = .136

Outer Chord

0 .142[1.45-2(.149)] = .163

Loads

= .34 - .21 = .13

trouble

P=E

Skin:

P= 4.65 x

(.0035) (.812) = 13215 lbs.

Cover:

P= 5.7 x

(.0035) (1.307) = 26075 lbs.

Inner chord:

P= 11.4 x

(.0035) (.136) = 5426 lbs.

Outer chord:

P= 11.3 x

(.0035) (.163) = 6447 lbs.


51163 lbs.

EXAMPLE 6
If the total load on the panel of problem 5 is 40,000lb, determine the loads in each element. Also determine
the strain and the margin of safety. (Based on ultimate load)
Equivalent Areas

(Transform all element areas to an equivalent amount of skin area)

Skin:

(.812) = .812

Cover:

(1.307) = 1.602

Inner Chord:

(.136) = .333

Outer Chord:

(.163) =

(F) =

(F)

x (F)

Loads

Stresses

= 10,334/.812 = 12,727 psi

= 20,388/1.307 = 15,600 psi

= 4,238/.136 = 31,162 psi

= 5,040/.163 = 30,920 psi


40,000 lbs

Strain

Margin of Safety
MS=

-1

Note: This may also be determining with the loads from an individual element. e.g

From an
individual element. e.g

EXAMPLE 7
The aluminum skin and stiffeners is to be replaced by the composite. The basic aerodynamic cross section
is to remain unchanged. Also, the Stiffnesss EA and GA are to remain unchanged. (Note: since the basic
geometric shape is to remain unchanged, we can work with EA and GA instead of EI and GI. Since the
tensional shear is only reacted by the skin, calculate GA for the skin only.) Use Figures II-2 and II-4 in the
solution.
Aluminum Panel stiffnesses

.08

Since the composite stiffener spacing is 6:


EA = 10.3 x 106 (6 x .20) = 12.36 x 106
The torsional stiffness is determined from the skin only:
GA = 3.9 x 106 (6 x .12) = 2.81 x 106
About the Solution
The determination of the number of plies and the layup configuration for each of the elements of the
elements of the composite replacement is and iterative procedure. This example shows only the final
calculations.
E and G for elements 2,3 and 4
No. of plies

Percentage

Element

14

18

.1062

11

16

22

.1298

73

20

26

.1534

77

4.9x106

3.6 x 106

18 9

13.3 x 106

1.5 x 106

15 8

13.9 x 106

1.4 x 106

78

11

Possible layup for elements 2,3 and 4


2:

45 / 90 /

45 / 0/

3:

[04 / +45 / 04/ -45 / 90]s

4:

[05 / +45/ 05/ -45/ 90]s

45 /

45]s

AE for element 1

12.36 x 106 =

+ 1.7 + 1.7)(.1062)4.9 x 106

+(1.2-.1062-.1062)(.1298)13.3 x 106
+ (1.2-.1062-.1062)(.1532)13.9 x 106
12.36 x 106 = (AE)1 + 4.98 x 106 + 1.71 x 106 + 2.11 x 106
(AE)1 = 3.65 x 106
AG for element 1

2.81 x 106 =

+ [6-(1.2-.1062-.1062)](.1062)(3.6 x 106)
+ (1.2-.1062-.1062)(.1298)(1.5 x 106)

2.81 x 106 =

+ 1.92x 106 + .19x106

= .70x 106

Note: The shear is reacted by the skin only.


E and G for element 1
Assume that the sin is II plies; t = II (.0059) = .0049
A = .0049 (6) = .3894
= 3.65 x 106 from before

= .70 x 106 from before

= .3894

= .3894

Layup for element 1


For

For a balanced layup we use 4 plies of 45 degrees, which corresponds to 4/11 = 36%
For 36% 45s and E = 9.37 x 106 , the % 0s is 44%, which yields 5 plies.
Thus, we have 5/4/2 => 45.5% / 36.4% / 18.1%
This gives E = 9.6 x

and G = 2.15 x

A possible layup is [0/+45/90/-45/04]s


Final check for matching EA and GA

Note: The solution used here is an exercise based on stiffness. Strength, durability,
damage tolerance, buckling, etc are also important criteria.

EXAMPLE# 8
A fiberglass skin is bundle to a Gr-EP chord. Determine the axial stress in both members when going from
a ground temp of 11F to a cruise temp of -65F. Ignore bending.
-------------------------------------------------

--------------

Skin (GL-Ep)

(in/in)

Chord (Graphite-Ep, Type III, Class 1, Grade 145


Direction

No. of plies

20

2
Axial Load

60

20

----------------------------------------

Stress

EXAMPLE 9
Determine the margin of safety for the panel with the elliptic hole (ref fig II 10, 11)
______________________

______

______________________________

Panel Properties
No, of plies = 16

Ply thickness = .0083

Gr-Ep, Type IV, Class II, 3K-70PW

(0, 90)4 / (+- 45)2 / (0, 90)2

Panel thickness = 16(.0083) = .1328


%OS = 12/32 = 37.5
%45S = 8/32 = 25
% 90S = 12/32 = 37.5
E= 7.25 x
Allowable load
P = f(W

D) t

=E

(W

D) t

would be the load if we did not consider stress concentration.

Is the load (taking into account stress


concentration)

Margin of Safety

EXAMPLE # 10
The addition of holes, whether for fasteners or for cutouts, decrees the load that the laminate can take. It is
important to take into account this reduced capability. For the joint shown, determine the pad thickness
required at the fasteners to sustain the load.

Modes of Failure
Bearing:
Net Tension:

Basic Panel Properties

No. of plies = 10
Ply thickness = .015
Basic panel thickness = 10(.015)=.150
%OS=30,%45s=40,%90S=30

Bearing
Assume each row takes 50% of the load.

Net Tension
Figure
II-12,
=

(4800(1.5)=(1.5-.25)t(25000)
3600 = .25t (60,000)

7200=1.25t(25000)

t = .24

t=.23

Pad Configuration
t=.24
t ply=.015

Rivet Shear
Allowable load/fastener=4660 lb

Actual load / fastener=3600 lb


Rivet shear is safe.
Basic Panel Tension
Use
= .005 in/in

New Net Tension (for pad)


%45s=50,

or allowable strain
allowable load = E
= 5250 lb/in

= 4800 lb/in
Note: D/t = .25/.24 = 1.04
Ok, fig II-12

Basic panel

= 1.5/.25 = 6

tension is safe
Example 11
Design a blade stiffened tension panel from Gr-EP, Type II, Class 1 and Grade 145

The skin is to contain integral built-up planks for damage arrestment.

Stiffener spacing is 6

Running load is 12, 700 lb/in

Strain allowable is .0035 in/in (Table II -3)

The skin-plank is to carry 70% of the total section load.

Blade
Unknowns:
1. b --------------------try b=2
2. c --------------------try no. of plies = 25
3. d --------------------use 60/30/10 percentages try b=2
4. e --------------------A=P/E

1. b=2

2. t=25(.0056)=.14
3. 15/8/2

60%/32%/8%

E=12.23x

from Fig II-1

4. A= P/ E
Bt + 2th = P/(12.23 x

)).0035)
P=.30(12700)6=22860lbs

H=.9
[+9-000+000-000-000+000-9+]
Skin and Plank
Unknowns:
1. ts --------------------------- try 50 plies
2. tp --------------------------- try 70 plies, the added plies are 0s
3. d --------------------------- Ply drop off = 6 plies per .2
4. Es --------------------------- 10/80/10 percentage
5. Ep --------------------------- The skin is to contain the integral built-up plank of
interleaved 0-degree plies for crack
6. w ---------------------------- A=P/E
1.

Ts = 50(.0056) = .28

2.

tp = 70 (.0056) = .392

3.

6 plies per .2

d=.67
P=.70(12700)6=53340 lbs

4.

10/80/10

4/40/6

8/80/12

5.1

5.
The added plies are Os because the plank functions in the same manner as the stiffener flange, and
the 0-degree plies act as a damage arrester for the skin.
4+20/40/6 = 24/40/6

6.

34/57/9

E=8.6

AE = P/

P/

EXAMPLE # 12
Determine the allowable flexural load on the beam. The material is Gr Ep, Type III, Class I grade 145.
The flange has 14 plies (4/8/2) and the web has 8 plies (4/4/0).

Answer

Flang
e
Web

Plie
s
14

%
0s
29

%
45s
57

50

50

Aeq

Aeq y

7.6 X
106
10 X 106

0.082
6
.0472

1.15(.0826
)
1.3(.0472)

.095(7.6/7.6)=0.95

1.341
3
.65

.
1274
.
0527

.
0614(10/7.6)=.0808

Maximum Load based on allowable based strain


The web is transformed into an equivalent amount of flange material
by multiplying the thickness by the ratio of Es.

+Aeqd2 )f +
+Aeqd2 )w
= negligible +.0952(.3183)2 +

) +0.811(3.73)2
=0+.0096+.0114+.0113
=.0323 in4
Ff =

Ef

M=1843 lb-in
1843 =

(24)

P = 154 lbs

Maximum load based allowable web strain


we know change the flange into an equivalent amount of web material.
I =0.323

Ew

= .0246 in4

10 x 106 (0.0035) =

M=842

842 =

(24)

P = 70 lbs

therefore we limit the load to 70 lbs

1-Determine the layup:

No. of plies

Ply orientations

Stacking Sequence

4630 lb/in ultimate

GR-EP,
Class-1,
Grade145
TypeII

2- use the figure (skin chord) shown in example 8. If the axial


Tensile load is 8000 lbs ultimate, determine the stress in the chord
Assume the axial strain is uniform over the entire cross section.
Determine the M.S in the chord, omit temperature effects.
Material
Layup

Element 1
TypeIII, Class I, Grade 190
(+9-00+ - 00 + -0)s

Element 2
Type II, ClassI, Grade 145
(+99-0000+0000-00)

The total axial tensile load acting on the cross section shown in P lb/in
determine the axial force and stress acting on each solid laminate (assume axial strains are identical)
Determine the margin of safety if P=9000 lb/in
4- Determine the ultimate tensile load on this panel, based on the strain allowable from table II-3.
Determine the ultimate load and average ultimate strength for each of
the three elements.
1- (+ 9 9 + 9

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 0 0) 50 plies

2- (+ 9 9 + 9 -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ - 0+ 00-00+00-00+00-0) 70 plies
3- (+ 9 000 + 000 000 000+000 9+) 25 plies

5 Repeat the problem 4, but change the skin and plank to type II material. The blade will remain type III
6 If the load acting on the section of example 5 is 8000 lb/in, determine the axial load and stress on each
element.
7- Determine the allowable load, W lb/in for the mechanically fasten joint. Neglect the fastener shear

8- Determine the ultimate load P for the panel with the 3 D Cutout. Use the layup for the problem 7 ( use
t = .0064 in / in)

9Materia
l
Layup

Skin1
Type III, Class I, Grade 95

Skin 2
Type III, Class I, Grade 95

(+9, 00)s

(+ 9, 000 )

The sandwich panel is subjected to an axial load of 2000 lb/in as shown. Determine the axial force carried
by each skin ) assume uniform strain over the cross section) determine the stress resultant in skin I. include
in your description a flow chart of the analysis.
Use the same material and layup information as given in problem -3.
Determine the average compressive stress in element- 2 from the moment M in-lbs
Determine the maximum tensile stress in element 1 from the bending moment M
Determine the allowable value for M based on the strains given in table II-3

Answers:
1- No of plies =40 (10% 0s, 80% -45s, 10 % -90,s)
2-

Skin

= 5390 psi, MS= 0.82

3-

Chord

4-

= 11750 psi, MS= 0.82

= 20900 psi,

= 28400psi, MS = 054

5- P skin = 13940 lbs, P plank = 34700 lbs, P blade = 23950 lbs


6- P = 75370 lbs total
7-

Skin

= 10470 psi,

Plank

= 18950 psi ,

8- W = 1125 lb/in (bearing critical)


9-

= 825,

tB

= 3.2,

tu

= 20360 lbs

blade

= 25850psi, MS= .57

10-

Skin

= 820 lb/in

11-M = 5365 in-lb (based on element 2)