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ALGEBRA TERMINOLOGIES

Algebra - it is the study of generalized arithmetic. In algebra, unknown numbers can


be represented by letters in order to solve equations. For example, 4 + x = 10 is true for
x=6. Algebra (originally called al-jabr, meaning "restoration") was invented in the Middle
East by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (born in Baghdad about AD 825)
during the Middle Ages.

Coefficient - in an expression or equation, a coefficient is a number in front of a variable.


For example, in the expression 8x, the coefficient is 8 (and the variable is x).

Degree of a Polynomial - the degree of a term within a polynomial is the sum of the
exponents of variables that occur in that term (if there is no exponent written on a variable,
such as in 3x, the exponent is one). The degree of a polynomial is the greatest degree of
any term in the polynomial (for instance, for the polynomial 4x2 + 7xyz, the degree is 3
because of the last term).

If a polynomial isn't just a constant and if each term has at most a variable to the first
power (like 4x - 2 or 3y), then it is a first-degree polynomial (also called a linear
polynomial).
If a polynomial's highest degree is two, it is a quadratic (or second-degree)
polynomial (example: 4x2 + 3x + 7).
If a polynomial has more than one variable, then its degree is the sum of the
exponents of the highest-degree term. For example, the polynomial 2xy2 -3xy + 6x 2 has degree 3 (the sum of the xy2 exponents, 1 + 2).

Polynomials are often written in descending order, in which the terms with the largest
powers are written first (like 9x2 - 3x + 6). If they are written with the smallest terms
appearing first, this is ascending order (like 6 - 3x + 9x2).

Equation - an equation is a mathematical statement that contains an equal sign, like ax + b


= c.

Exponent - an exponent is a power that a number is raised to. For example, in 23, the
exponent is 3.

Expression - an algebraic expression consists of one or more variables, constants, and


operations, like 3x-4. Each part of an expression that is added or subtracted is called a term
For example, the expression 4x2-2x+7 has three terms.

Factor - the factor of a number is a number that divides that number exactly. For example,
the factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3 and 6.

Formula - a formula shows a mathematical relationship between expressions.

Fraction - a fraction is a part of a whole, like a half, a third, a quarter, etc. For example, half
of an apple is a fraction of an apple. The top number in a fraction is called the numerator;
the bottom number in a fraction is called the denominator.

Inequality - an inequality is a mathematical expression that contains an inequality symbol.


The inequality symbols are :

< less than


> greater than
less than or equal to
greater than or equal to
not equal to

Integer - the integers are the numbers ..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ....

Inverse (addition) the inverse property of addition states that for every number a, a + (-a)
= 0 (zero).

Inverse (multiplication) - the inverse property of multiplication states that for every nonzero number a, a times (1/a) = 1.

Matrix - is a way to organize data in columns and rows. A matrix is written inside brackets
[ ]. Look at the picture below to see an example. Each item in a matrix is called an entry.

Nth - used to refer to an unknown number in a series of numbers. The highest degree.

Operation - an operation is a rule for taking one or two numbers as inputs and producing a
number as an output. Some arithmetic operations are multiplication, division, addition, and
subtraction.

Polynomial - a polynomial is a sum or difference of terms; each term is:

a constant (for example, 5)


a constant times a variable (for example, 3x)
a constant times the variable to a positive integer power (for example, 2x2)
a constant times the product of variables to positive integer powers (for example,
2x3y).

Monomial - is a polynomial with only one term. A binomial is a polynomial that has two
terms. A trinomial is a polynomial with three terms.

Prime Number - a prime number is a positive number that has exactly two factors, 1 and
itself. Alternatively, you can think of a prime number as a number greater than one that is
not the product of smaller numbers. For example, 13 is a prime number because it can only
be divided evenly by 1 and 13. For another example, 14 is not a prime number because it
can be divided evenly by 1, 2, 7, and 14. The number one is not a prime number because it
has only one factor, 1 itself.

Quadratic Equation - a quadratic equation is an equation that has a second-degree term


and no higher terms. A second-degree term is a variable raised to the second power, like
x2, or the product of exactly two variables, like x and y.

When you graph a quadratic equation in one variable, like y = ax2 + bx + c, you get a
parabola, and the solutions to the quadratic equation represent the points where the
parabola crosses the x-axis.

Quadratic Formula - the quadratic formula is a formula that gives you a solution to the
quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. The quadratic formula is obtained by solving the
general quadratic equation.

Radical - a radical is a symbol that is used to indicate the square root or nth root of a
number.

Root - an nth root of a number is a number that, when multiplied by itself n times, results in
that number. For example, the number 4 is a square root of 16 because 4 x 4 equals 16.
The number 2 is a cube root of 8 because 2 x 2 x 2 equals 8.

Solve - when you solve an equation or a problem, you find solutions for it.

Square Root - the square roots of a number n are the numbers s such that s2=n. For
example, the square roots of 4 are 2 and -2; the square roots of 9 are 3 and -3.

Symbol - a symbol is a mark or sign that stands for something else. For example, the
symbol means divide.

System of Equations - a system of equations is two or more independent equations that


are solved together. For example, the system of equations: x + y = 3 and x - y = 1 has a
solution of x=2 and y=1.

Terms - in an expression or equation, terms are numbers, variables, or numbers with


variables. For example, the expression 3x has one term, the expression 4x2 + 7 has two
terms.

Variable - a variable is an unknown or placeholder in an algebraic expression. For example,


in the expression 2x+y, x and y are variables.

3RD GRADING PERIOD