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Liturgy and the Illustration of the Ninth-Century Marginal Psalters

Author(s): MARIA EVANGELATOU


Source: Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 63 (2009), pp. 59-116
Published by: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University
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andtheIllustration
Liturgy
oftheNinth-Century
Psalters
Marginal
MARIA EVANGELATOU

*""*issueofliturgicalinfluenceon theillustration
JL of Byzantinemarginalpsaltersis well knownin
In thisarticleI focuson theninthliterature.
scholarly
ofliturand
century
psalters, suggestthattheinfluence
on
their
illustration
was
more
extensive
gicalpractice
and systematic
thanpreviously
recognized.My analysis
offerssome insightinto the creationof thesemanuscripts,and also looks at the roleof theliturgyin the
experienceand expressionof the people who created
and used thepsalters.I concludethattheimportance
of liturgicalsourcesin the illustrationof the ninthcentury
marginalpsalterswascloselyrelatedto theproOrthodoxand specifically
iconophilemessagethatthis
illustration
was designedto promote.
exclurefers
AlthoughtheGreekword
to
the
Eucharist
the
term
will
(theMass),
sively
liturgy
be usedhereto refer
to anyregularchurchservice(while
thetermDivineLiturgywill be used fortheEucharist
likebaptismand exorcism,
alone).1Churchsacraments
db* This articlewas preparedduringmypostdoctoralfellowships
at thePontificalInstituteofMediaeval Studiesin Toronto(20052006) and the RadclifFeInstituteforAdvancedStudyat Harvard
Universityin Cambridge,MA (2006-2007); it was revisedduring myfellowshipat Dumbarton Oaks (2009-2010). I warmly
thankall threeinstitutes
forsupporting
mywork.The articleelaboratesextensively
on materialdrawnfrommyPhD dissertation(n.
9 below),whichwas completedwiththesupportofseveralinstitutionsto whichI am thankful:the Artsand HumanitiesResearch
Board of the BritishAcademy,theAntonisLeventisInstitute,the
BritishFederationofWomenGraduates,theCentralResearchFund
of the University
of London, the Courtauld Instituteof Art,and
theSocietyforthePromotionofByzantineStudies.The illustration

whichare amongthe mostimportantritualactivities


in Christianpractice,
willalso be considered.
performed
The psalterplayeda majorrolein Byzantineliturgy,and morethananyothersacredtextdetermined
the structureof the liturgicalrite.2An investigation
of liturgical influence on psalter illustration is
of this articlewas funded by the Arts Research Instituteof the
Universityof Californiaat Santa Cruz. I would also like to thank
the editorofDumbartonOaks Papers,Alice-MaryTalbot, forcorveryusefulbibliographical
rectingmyEnglish;reader foroffering
Lisa
her
and
for
suggestions;
Wainwright
copyediting.I am particularlygratefulto theeditorin Byzantinestudies,JoelKalvesmaki,
forworkinghardto improvemytextand reorganizethetables.Any
All psalm references
shortcomingsare entirelymyresponsibility.
followthe Septuagintedition by A. Rahlfs,Septuaginta,9th ed.
(1935; repr.Stuttgart,
1971) 2:1-164 (also availablethroughTLG).
Translationsarebased on the TheSeptuagintwithApocrypha:
Greek
and English,ed. L. Brenton(1851; repr.Peabody,MA, 1997) and
the New English TranslationoftheSeptuagint(New York,2000)
available at http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/
(accessed
August 2010), with a few adjustmentsof myown, to reflectthe
Greektextmoreclosely.
1 On this issue, see N. Pattersonevenko,"Illuminatingthe
Liturgy:IllustratedService Books in Byzantium,"in Heaven on
Earth: Artand theChurchin Byzantium,ed. L. Safran(University
Park,PA, 1998),195.
2 G . Galavaris,"Manuscripts
inIlluminatedGreek
andtheLiturgy,"
American
ed.
G.
Vikan
Collections,
(Princeton,
1973),
Manuscripts
from
20, 22-23. O. Strunk,"TheByzantineOfficeat Hagia Sophia,"DOP
9-10 (1955-56):181(repr.in idem,Essayson Music in theByzantine
World[New York,1977],117-18).FollowingStrunk,I arguethatthe
useofpsalmversesorentirepsalmsthroughout
theliturgy
wasthefactorthataboveall othersdetermined
theorganization
ofthetextsused
whatwas doneand whatwascelebrated).
(itdid notdetermine

DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

' 9

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MARI A EVANGELATOU

consequentlyvery complicated, especially for the


whoseminiaturesdemonstrate
ninth-century
psalters,
an outstandingrichnessof references.3
These are the
so-calledChludov Psalter,4
PantokratorPsalter,5and
Paris marginalPsalter.6Dated shortlyafterthe final
defeatoftheiconoclastsin 843,thesethreemanuscripts
are the firstsurvivingexamplesin a group of nine
Byzantinemarginalpsalters(so named because miniatureswerepaintedprimarily
in themarginsof their
The
six
later
codices
follow
to a largeextent
folios).7
3 Themostcomprehensive
publicationon thisissue,withreference
to extensive
is byK. Corrigan,VisualPolemicsin
literature,
scholarly
theNinth-Century
Psalters
Byzantine
(Cambridge,1991).
4 Cod. 129 of the State HistoricalMuseum,Moscow. Facsimile
edition by M. V. epkina, Miniatiury Khludovskoi Psaltyri
(Moscow, 1977). For a more recentfacsimileedition published
aftertherecentrestoration
ofthemanuscriptsee SaltrioChludov,
ArchivoHistricode la Ciudad de Mosc (Madrid, 2.006). From
now on, whenI mentionfoliosof thiscodex,I omit references
to
thesefacsimileeditions.
5 Cod. 61ofthePantokrator
Monasteryon MountAthos,Greece.
PublishedbyS. Dufrenne,L'illustrationdespsautiers
grecsdu moyen
ge, vol. 1,Pantokrator61,Paris grec.20, BritishMuseum 40731,
Bibliothquedes Cahiers archologiques1 (Paris,1966), 7-37, pls.
1-33;coloredphotographsof some miniaturesin 01
d. S. Pelekanidouet al.
:
,
(Athens,1973-79), 3:265-80, pls. 180-237; see also J. Anderson,
"The PalimpsestPsalter,PantokratorCod. 61: Its Content and
DOP 48 (1994): 199-220; idem,
Relationshipto theBristolPsalter,"
"FurtherProlegomenato a Studyof the PantokratorPsalter:An
UnpublishedMiniature,Some RestoredLosses,and Observations
on theRelationshipwiththeChludovPsalterand ParisFragment,"
DOP 52 (1998):305-21.
6

Cod. gr.20, Bibliothquenationalede France,Paris.Published


despsautiers
byDufrenne,L'illustration
grecs,40-46, pls. 34-46.
7 Theothersixmarginalpsaltersareas follows:
1. The earlyeleventh-century
BristolPsalter,BritishLibrary,
Add. 40731, publishedby Dufrenne,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs,48-66, pls. 47-60. See also L. Brubaker,
"TheBristol
a GlassBrightly:
Studiesin Byzantineand
Psalter,"in Through
MedievalArtand Archeology
PresentedtoDavid Buckton,ed.
C. Entwistle(Oxford,2003), 127-41,withreference
to earlier
literature.
scholarly
2. The eleventh-century(dated 1066) Theodore Psalter,
BritishLibrary,Add. 19352,publishedby S. Der Nersessian,
L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecsdu moyenge,Londres,Add.
19.352,Bibliothquedes Cahiersarchologiques5 (Paris,1970),
and C. Barber,ed., TheodorePsalter: ElectronicFacsimile
(Universityof Illinois Press in association with the British
2000).
Library,
3. The eleventh-century Barberini Psalter, Biblioteca
ApostlicaVaticana,Barb.gr.372,publishedbyj. Anderson,P.
Canart,and C. Walter,TheBarberiniPsalter:Codex Vaticanus

the iconographietraditionfirstattestedin the three


The illustrationof these
ninth-century
manuscripts.8
earlypsaltershas beenshownto havelinkswithpatristicpsalmcommentaries,
homileticand hymnographic
and worksofpro-Orthodoxand specifically
literature,
iconophilepolemics,as well as liturgicalsources.9The
visual sophistication,and
complexityof references,
overtones
that
characterizetheirillustraiconophile
in
addition
to
the
oftheiconophile
tion,
representation
patriarchof ConstantinopleNikephorosI (806-815)
and hisiconoclastopponentJohntheGrammarianin a
BarberinianusGraecus$72(Zurich-NewYork,1989).
Sinai Psalter,MountSinai,Monastery
4. Theeleventh-century
of St. Catherine, 48, discussed by K. Weitzmann and G.
at MountSinai: The
Galavaris,TheMonastery
ofSaint Catherine
IlluminatedGreekManuscripts(Princeton,1990),1:83-87,figs.
to earlierliterature.
232-70 (cat.30) withreference
or earlyfourteenth-century
Baltimore
5. The late thirteenthPsalter,Baltimore,WaltersArt Gallery,W 733,cataloguedby
G. R. Parpulov,"A Catalogue oftheGreekManuscriptsofthe
WaltersArt Museum,"/^// 62 (2004): 71-189,esp. 143-47,
173-74; discussedbyJ.C. Anderson,"TheStateoftheWalters'
MarginalPsalterand Its ImplicationsforArt Histoty?JWalt
62 (2004): 35-44, withreference
to earlierliterature.I thank
Dr. Parpulovforprovidingme thesetworeferences.
6. The earlyfourteenth-century
Greek and Latin Hamilton
Psalter,Berlin,StaatlicheMuseen, Kupferstichkabinett,
78A
9, discussedby . Havice, "The Hamilton Psalterin Berlin:
78.A.9" (PhD diss., PennsylvaniaState
Kupferstichkabinett
University,1978); eadem, "The Marginal Miniatures in the
Hamilton Psalter (Kupferstichkabinett
78.A.9)," JbBM 26
(1984): 79-141.
8 Forexample,seeAnderson,Canart,andWalter,BarberiniPsalter,
oftheTheodoreand BarberiniPsaltersto
40-52, fortherelationship
theChludovPsalter.The BristolPsalteris relatedto thePantokrator
Psalterand to thetradition
ofpsalterillustration
beforetheninthcen"Le
See
S.
Psautier
de
Bristol
et
les autrespsautiers
Dufrenne,
tury.
CahArch14 (1964): 159-82,and Anderson,"Palimpsest
byzantins,"
Psalter"(n. 5 above).The fourteenth-century
SlavonicKiev Psalter,
F
PublicLibrary,
St. Petersburg,
ediVI,
1252
publishedin a facsimile
tionbyG. Vzdornov,Issledovanie
0 KievskoiPsaltiri(Moscow,1978),
followsthesameiconographie
traditionattestedin theChludovand
ofthese
TheodorePsalters.
Forcomparative
recordson theillustration
and someotherpsalters,see S. Dufrenne,Tableauxsynoptiques
de i$
psautiersmdivaux(Paris,1978).
9 For some examples,see Corrigan,VisualPolemics(n. 3 above),
27-90. Various cases are also discussedby M. Evangelatou,"The
Illustrationof the Ninth-CenturyByzantineMarginal Psalters:
Layers of Meaning and Their Sources" (PhD diss., Courtauld
InstituteofArt,2002), 47-237; eadem,"The Holy Sepulchreand
IconophileArgumentson Relicsin theNinth-CenturyByzantine
Psalters,"in EasternChristianRelics,ed. A. Lidov (Moscow,2003),
181-204.
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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Liturgyand theIllustrationoftheNinth-CenturyMarginal Psalters I 6'

number
ofminiatures,10
haveledByzantinists
toplace haveprominent
notations.12
In addition,
the
liturgical
thecommissioners
in the lastpagesoftheChludovPsalter(folios165to '6jw)
and usersofthesepsalters
circleoftheByzantine
a collection
ofprayers,
almostallofwhichare
patriarchal
capital.Prominent preserve
in
who
have
been
named
as
owners
the
thelastparts
possible
employed liturgy.13
(Unfortunately,
personages
or contributors
to theconception
ofthepsalters
are oftheothertwopsalters
do notsurvive.)
Thisevidence
ofthese
Patriarchs
Methodios
thatthecommissioners
andproducers
(843-847)andPhotios(858-867 suggests
theiruse in
and877-886);thebishopofSyracuse
Asbestas, threepsalterswantedto accommodate
Gregory
to bothpatriarchs
a painter;and theliturgical
also
friend
andhimself
celebration,
they intended
although
thechiefadvisorofMethodios,
MichaelSynkellos.11 themforotherpurposes.As theirrichillustration
werealsodestined
for
Eventhoughit is impossible
to provebeyonddoubt clearly
thesepsalters
indicates,
this
devotion
andmeditation,
anditis exactly
theinvolvement
ofanyofthesepeoplein thecommis- private
theproduction
ofsuchsophisitiscertain purposethatprompted
sionoftheninth-century
psalters,
marginal
thatthesemanuscripts
wereproduced
forhigh-ranking ticatedcorporaofminiatures.
However,sincethese
inter- manuscripts
weremadealsoforliturgical
churchmen:
use,itislikely
peoplewhoseeducation,
theological
also
reflect
and
further
serve
intheaffairs
oftheChurch thattheillustration
ests,anddailyinvolvement
might
ofthefaithwouldenablethemto thispurpose.
and themysteries
between
ofthe
Scholars
havediscussed
therelationship
thenumerous
references
andappreciate
identify
indifthe
illustration
of
these
codices
and
the
illustration
to
literature,
iconophile
psalters'
patristic
liturgy
Tikkanen
I
ferent
More
than
a
The
material
discuss
and
ways.
century
ago,Johan
polemics, liturgical
practice.
torecognize
thatmostoftheChristological
hereoffers
additional
evidence
on therichtheological wasthefirst
marshownintheByzantine
ofthesepsalters,
andtherefore andMariological
andliturgical
references
episodes
verses
that
were
chanted
toa
illustrate
thattheywereaddressed
reinforces
thehypothesis
psalm
ginalpsalters
feastdays.He sawthisas indicating
on therelevant
audience
ofchurchmen.
sophisticated
ofthe
ofthe extensive
influence
on theillustration
Theclearest
indication
thattheproduction
liturgical
to liturgi- codices.He notedthatsomeoftheseverseswerealso
ninth-century
psalters
responded
marginal
inpatristic
comcalpractice
comesfrom
their
text:allthree
and/or
manuscripts quotedintheNewTestament
and
asprophecies
ofthesameChristological
mentaries
fols.
10 ChludovPsalter,fols.23V,35V,51V;Pantokrator
Psalter,
i6r,
his
buthe didnotsystematize
episodes,
Mariological
165.Corrigan,VisualPolemics,
27-34, 110-21,figs.38-39,43-44, in.
liturwhich
of
the
above
to
determine
factors,
findings
11 For an extensivediscussionand further
literatureon thedate
in
wasmoredecisive
orbiblical/patristic
influence,
gical
and historicalcontext,with referenceto the specificpeople menof
illustration.14
the
psalter
shaping marginal
tionedhere,see Corrigan,VisualPolemics,124-34. She convincingly
toanswer
In
Walterattempted
1986,
three
and
the
circle
Christopher
that
a
between
the
relationship
psalters
argues
of
an
exhaustive
thisquestion
of Methodios is moreprobablethan a connectionwith Photios.
inventory
bycomposing
in thesemanuscripts.
miniatures
theChristological
J.Andersonhas suggestedthatMethodioswas theinventor
Recently
he createdwas
oftheGreekillustrated
psalterand thatthearchetype
He examinedeightyChristologicalepisodesand
theParismarginalPsalter.Andersondatesthiscodexto Methodios's
on thebasisofthe
groupedthemintofivecategories
Romanexilein 815-21and proposesthata Western,illustrated
psalto
sources
of
influence
that
he
identified.15
tercouldhavebeenhis sourceofinspiration.He also statesthatthe
According
Chludovand Pantokrator
Psaltersdatemuchlater,in thelate9thor
10th

"The
Creation
oftheMarginalPsalters,"in Ritual
(See
early
and Art:ByzantineEssaysfor Christopher
Walter,ed. P. Armstrong
[London,2006], 44-6$.) In myopinion,none ofAnderson'sargumentsareconvincing.The proposeddatingand chronologicaldistancebetweenthethreepsaltersis problematicforvariousreasons,
and thereis no wayto proveor disprovethattherewas a preexisting
in Byzantium(whichis ratherplautraditionofpsalterillustration
sible,giventheexceptionalimportanceofthisbook in privatedevotionas wellas a numberoficonographiefactorsin thefirstsurviving
examples).In a futurepublicationI will treatthis issue in more
detail.For thepossibleexistenceof illustratedpre-iconoclast
psaltersin Byzantium,
see also n. 21.

as well as the kathis12 The notationsrecordthe hypopsalmata,


mata and doxai,whichmarkthe divisionof the psalteraccording
to the Constantinopolitan (cathedral) and Palestinian (monasSee Corrigan,VisualPolemics(n. 3
tic) liturgicalritesrespectively.

above),127-29,140-41,144,146.
13 Ibid.,141-42.
Acta
14 J. Tikkanen,Die Psalterillustration
im Mittelalter,
SocietatisScientiarumFennicae31,no. 5 (Helsinki,1903),49-78.

15 . Walter,"ChristologicalThemesin theByzantineMarginal
PsaltersfromtheNinthto theEleventhCentury,"REB 44 (1986):
269-87. On 272-82 he lists eightyepisodes in fivecategories:
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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6l

MARIA EVANGELATOU

In hermonograph
thiscategorization,
counterparts.20
episodes theirninth-century
onlytwelveChristological
of
the
earlier
on
the
illustration
wereinspiredby the use of the corresponding
psalters,Kathleen
psalm
on therelevantfeast Corriganfocuseson visual polemics,and the influversesin theliturgicalcelebration
is
somewhat
This
conclusion
days.16
misleading,how- enceoftheliturgyis nota mainthemeofheranalysis.
of
the
because
ever,
many
forty-nine
Christological Althoughsherecognizesthatthechoiceofsubjectmatterand certainiconographie
detailsofa fewminiatures
episodesthatWalterconsidersto be inspiredby the
in
the
New
were
conditioned
to
some
extent
of
relevant
verses
Testament
by liturgicalpracinterpretation
or in psalm commentariescorrespondto psalm pastice,she contendsthattheprincipalfactordeterminespeciallyin thoseimages
sagesthatwerealso used in theliturgicalcelebration ingthemeand iconography,
feasts(discussedbelow).17 thatwereaddedin theninthcenturyto thesupposedly
oftherelevant
Christological
Thismeansthattheinfluenceofliturgicalpracticeon
preexistingtraditionof psalterillustration,was the
intentionto createa visualstatement
witha particular
theminiatures
have
been
far
more
extensive
than
might
in
In the
Walterconcludes,and closerto Tikkanen'sevaluation. iconophileovertone defenseofOrthodoxy.21
This is in facttheopinionthatis put forwardby
followinganalysisI suggestthatCorrigan'siconophile
in
in
a
article
which
he
Cutler
1980-81
Anthony
suggeststhatthe bulk of the iconographyin Byzantine 20 Ibid.,22-30; L. Maris,"L'irruptiondes saintsdans illustraAB 68 (1950):153-62,esp. 162.See also
originsand associations tiondespsautiersbyzantins,"
marginalpsaltershasliturgical
that"wouldhave been immediatelyevidentand per- C. Barber,"Readingin theTheodorePsalter,"in Barber,Theodore
Psalter(n. 7 above),essay,-2.
to thecontemporary
userofthe
fectlycomprehensible
Cutleridenti- 21 Corrigan, Visual Polemics(. above), 4-5, 41-42, 45-46,
psaltersbuttodayrequiresexplication."18
Forthehypothesis
thattherewas no preexisting
tradition
fiesdifferent
influence
on theillustra- 56-59,123.
levelsofliturgical
in Byzantium,
ofpsalterillustration
seen. 11above.See also themore
tionsofthesecodices,notall equallyevident,and gives cautioustreatmentof theissue Brubaker,"BristolPsalter"(n. 7
by
a fewexamplesthat aim to demonstratethe overall above),esp. 127-28,135-36.AlthoughI agreewithherthattheexisofthemanuscripts.19
However,thenumber tenceof thepsalterillustrationin late antiqueByzantiumremains
complexity
a hypothesis,
I do not understandwhyshe assumeswe haveno "litof scenesexaminedis muchtoo small to supportthe
eral"miniaturesin thesurviving
ofthatperiod(which
manuscripts
applicationofhis thesisto theentirecorpusofminia- in herview underminesthe hypothesisof pre-iconoclasticliteral
turesin theByzantinemarginalpsalters,
as CutlerhimEvenifin thesurivivinglate
psalmillustration).
antiquemanuscripts
selfadmits.Nevertheless,
his observations
theminiaturesdon'talwaysappearin proximity
to therelevanttext
suggestthe
influence
on theillustration
ofthese or at timesincludeelementsnot mentionedin the scriptures,still
extentofliturgical
manyof theirOld and New Testamentscenes illustrateliterally
codicesand open thedoorforfurther
research.
the storiesof the bible (e.g.,the Vienna Genesis,sterreichische
in
ManyofCutler'sexamplesconcernminiatures
Nationalbibliothek,cod. theol. gr. 31,or the Rabbula Gospels,
forwhichliturgical Florence,Laurenziana,cod. Plut.I, 56) in thesamewaytheminiaeleventh-century
marginalpsalters,
influence
hasbeenmoreextensively
Milan Gregoryor Paris Sacra Parallela
recognizedthanfor turesof the ninth-century
(1) twelvedrawnfromNew Testamentpsalmquotations;(2) thirtysevenfrompatristiccommentaries;
(3) six fromlaterpatristicwritforwhichno
ers;(4) twelvefromByzantineworship;and (5) thirteen
liturgicalorpatristicsourceis known.Walteralso discussesfiveepisodesfoundonlyin theeleventh-century
marginalpsalters,284-86.
16 Ibid.,277-79.
17 Ibid.,272-75.
18 A. Cutler,"LiturgicalStratain the MarginalPsalters,"DOP
34-35 (1980-81):17-30.
19 Ibid., 18-30. Accordingto Cutler,the mostobvious level of
ofthemarginalpsaltersconliturgicalinfluenceon theillustration
sistsof representations
of the "authors"of the liturgiesor depictheminiaturesare
tionsoftheEucharist.At a lessevidentstratum,
inspiredbytherolethatthepsalmversestheyillustrate
playedin the
variousoffices.
The deepestand leastobviouslevelconcernsminiatureswhoseiconography
was modifiedbyreference
to theliturgy.

do (bothusedbyBrubakeras examplesofliteralillustration;
Milan,
Ambrosiana,cod. E. 49/50inf.,and Paris,BibliothqueNationale
betweenthoselate antique
de France,cod. gr.923). The difference
miniaturesand the ones usuallytermed"literal"in psaltersis due
not in the natureof the illustrationbut in
to intrinsicdifferences
thatofthetexts:mostbiblicalbooksarenarrative
accountsofevents
of
(like Genesisor theGospels),whilethepsalterconsistsprimarily
to good and evil
invocations,admonitions,and generalreferences
thatrarelymentionspecificeventsand arewrittenin a poeticlanguagefullofvividmetaphorsand similes.So whileminiaturesthat
illustrate
thetextofGenesisortheGospel arenarrative
epiliterally
ofthepsalterusuallyvisualizethepoetic
sodes,literalillustrations
i.e.,thewordsofthetext.Psalterminiaturesthatrepresent
imagery,
Old Testamenteventsinspiredbythefewrelevantdirector indirect
references
foundin thepsalmsareusuallylabeled"Old Testament"
ratherthan "literal"illustrationsin scholarlyliteratureto distinbutoftentheyareas literal
guishthemfromthe"word"miniatures,
ofthepsalms.
as theminaturesthatvisualizethepoeticexpressions
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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Psalters
oftheNinth-Century
andtheIllustration
Marginal
Liturgy
| 63
emphasissometimesleads herto undervaluetheliturwiththepolemicalaspect
gicalfactorand itsinterplay
The drivingforcein thecreationof
oftheillustration.
thesecodiceswas indeedthedefenseofOrthodoxyand
but
as Corrigansuggests,
especiallyoficonveneration,
in thisdefense,inspirationfromtheliturgyseemsto
havebeeninstrumental.
The followinganalysisis dividedinto two main
examinationofthematerial
parts.First,a comparative
ofthe
and decisivetheinfluence
howextensive
clarifies
of
the
illustration
the
was
on
ninth-century
psalliturgy
withthesameChristological
ters.Groupsofminiatures
subjectsareexaminedto determinewhethertheillustrationoftherelevantpsalmversesdependedmoreon
in
theiruse in the liturgyor on theirinterpretation
fresh
a
offer
The
conclusions
patristiccommentaries.
usedbythemakon thesourcesand criteria
perspective
on theirideology
ersofthepsaltersand,consequently,
and intentions.
Second,casesofliturgicalinfluenceon
particularminiaturesare used to illuminatethecomofninth-century
Byzantine
plexityand sophistication
to
in
relation
illustration
liturgicalsources,
psalter
and iconophilepolemics.
visualexegesis,
beforeproceeding
is necessary
A finalclarification
to themaindiscussion.Despitean emphasison liturgical influence,I do not proposea dichotomybetween
patristicand liturgicalsourcesin the illustrationof
the ninth-century
psalters.Althoughmystudyaims
theimportanceoftheliturgicalfactor
to demonstrate
I do notsee itoperatingin
and explainitssignificance,
butratherin dialogue
to thepatristicfactor,
antithesis
theinteraction
withit.Specificcasesthatdemonstrate
sourcesare discussedbelow.A relebetweendifferent
vantpointto bearin mindat theoutsetis thatto a large
extenttheliturgyitselfmusthaveincorporatedmany
of patristicpsalm exegesis.In other
interpretations
of psalm verseson
the
words,
liturgicalemployment
specificfeastdaysof theByzantineChurchwas probsince
bypatristicpsalmcommentaries,
ablyinfluenced
both theearlyChurchFathersand the authorsof the
in theinterpredevelopingritehad a commoninterest
of the
tationof the Old Testamentas a prfiguration
New. Thisapproachoriginatedin theNew Testament
examined
itself.Indeed,in thecase ofsomeminiatures
seem
sources
and
below,biblical,patristic,
liturgical
linked,and it is impossibleor evenpointinextricably
less to tryand separatethem.In addition,the New
Testament,patristiccommentaries,and the liturgy

thepsalteraccordingto therelevanceof
ofteninterpret
itsvocabulary:in somecasesthewordingofthepsalms
oftheNew Testamenteventstheyare
is so reminiscent
supposedto prophesythattheirChristianexegesisis
successfuland memorable.As thefollowparticularly
the plannersof the ninthing analysisdemonstrates,
centurypsalters'illustrationseem to have considered
relevantvocabularyalong with liturgicalsources.So
even thoughmyanalysissheds morelighton the litofthese
factorfortheillustration
urgyas an influential
psalters,it does not aim to establishrigidmodels of
thatare moreakin to modernscholarly
classification
to Byzantinerealities.In otherwords,
than
mentality
we need to have a nuanced approachto the material
and notlose sightofthelargerpicturewhileexploring
ofreferand sophistication
itsdetails.The multiplicity
ences in the miniaturesof the ninth-century
psalters
is a factthat is promotedratherthan limitedby the
as discussedbelow.
importanceoftheliturgicalfactor,

ComparativeAnalysis
The followinganalysisfocuseson fourChristological
episodes that correspondto major churchfeasts.In
Old Testament
Byzantinemarginalpsalterillustration,
sceneswereusuallyinspireddirectlybytheversesthey
illustrated.The same was true forthose miniatures
of
thatrepresented
literallycertaingenericreferences
the psalms (e.g.,to the conductof virtuousor sinful
was crehowever,
men).22The Christologicalimagery,
ated accordingto a different
pattern.The illustration
of a psalm versewith an episode fromChrist'slifein otherwords,theexegesisof an Old Testamenttext
with a New Testamentepisode- was the resultof a
thatin mostcaseshad already
processofinterpretation
been appliedto thatspecificversebeforethecreation
oftheninth-century
marginalpsalters.Relevantinterpretationshave appeared occasionally in the New
in psalmcommenTestamentitselfand systematically
tariesand otherpatristictextsor in liturgicalpractice
ofpsalmversesin theliturgi(i.e.,in theincorporation
offeastdaysexactlybecausethesepsalm
cal celebration
were
consideredpropheciesof the relevant
passages
22 Corrigan,VisualPolemics,14-20. See below,pp. 4O~45> for
some exceptionsto this rule (cases of liturgicalinfluenceon Old
Testamentorliteralillustrations).
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64 I MARIA EVANGELATOU

Christologicalevents).AlthoughTikkanen emphasizestheliturgicalfactorand Walterthepatristicone,


in mostcasesit can be shownthattheillustration
ofa
versewitha specificChristologicalscenecorresponds
to theinterpretation
ofthatversein bothpsalm commentariesand liturgicalusage.23The highlyinformed
ecclesiasticalcirclesin whichthe ninth-century
marwere
would
have
been
produced
ginalpsalters
equally
familiarwiththepatristicexegesisof thepsalmsand
in theliturgy.24
theiremployment
Butifone ofthetwo
factorswas moreinfluential
on theillustration
of the
its
identification
would
be
crucial
for
marginalpsalters,
intentions
in
the
and
criteria
the
makunderstanding
ingofthesepsalters.
How can thisquestionbe resolved?The method
ofinvestigation
I proposeis an analysisofall theverses
thatwere interpretedChristologicallyin Byzantine
The comparativedata indicate
psalm commentaries.
thatmostoftheversesillustrated
in theninth-century
were
also
in
used
relevantliturgical
marginalpsalters
celebrations.
mostof theversesthatwere
Conversely,
notillustrated
in thepsalters,
althoughtheywereinterin
the
werenot
commentaries,
pretedChristologically
used in the relevantliturgicalcelebrations.In other
words,absenceof illustrationusuallycoincideswith
absenceof liturgicalaffiliations.
This seems to indicate thatliturgicalexegesis(theuse of specificpsalms
on specificfeastdays)took precedenceoverpatristic
exegesisin the choice of versesto be illustratedand
the subject matterof the relevantminiatures.This
preponderanceof the liturgicalfactoris particularly
evidentin thecase ofminiaturesthatrepresent
major
celebrated
on
events,
Christological
importantfeast
of
the
Church.
days
Byzantine
In addition,the relevanceof psalm vocabulary
is anotherfactorthatmustbe consideredin combination withliturgicalusage,so that the illustrationof
onlysomepsalmversesamongthemanyemployedin
theliturgy
can be betterexplained.Byrelevant
vocabularyI meanpsalmwordsor phrasesthatareconspicuouslysimilarto thewordingoftheGospelsor directly
reminiscent
ofthemainthemestheevangelists
mention
in connectionwithChristologicaleventsthatare also
in theninth-century
illustrated
psalters(forexample,
23 ForthesameobservationconcerningtheTheodorePsalter,see
Barber,"Readingin theTheodorePsalter,".
24 Corrigan,VisualPolemics^4.

thepiercing
ofhandsortheearthquakeas an allusionto
In thesamecategory
I includekey
Christ'sCrucifixion).
wordsthatwerewidelyusedin patristic
exegesisas allusionsto specificChristological
and
episodes wouldhave
beeneasilyrecognizedas suchbya well-informed
audience (forexample,or ,
or
sign footstool,as keywordsfortheCross).Relevantvocabulary
as specifiedherewas notalwaysa factorat workin the
useofthepsalms,25
but
patristic
exegesisortheliturgical
itseemstohaveplayeda centralrolein theillustration
of
theninth-century
as
a
filter
that
limmarginalpsalters
itedthevisualizationof Christologicalinterpretations
In severalinstances,nothingin theOld Testamenttextofthe
psalms immediatelyrecallsthe New Testamentepisodes theyare
and theconnectionsare illuminatedonlyby
supposedto prophesy,
the exegesesof the commentators.
For example,see Athanasiosof
Alexandria'sinterpretation
ofPs. 32:10,"TheLordscattersthecounsels of nationsand he frustrates
the reasoningsof peoples and he
frustrates
the counselsof rulers,"whichhe considerspropheticof
Christ'sResurrection
(Expositioin salmos,PG 17:165;table2,no.
to persecution/defeat
and subse16).Or notethegenericreferences
in
68
salvation
Psalm
that
certain
commentators
considered
quent
propheticof Christ'sdeath and Resurrection(table 2, no. 31),but
can be in factappliedto anysituationofdeliverancethroughdivine
help.Bycomparison,thepsalmsmentionedin Table 1referto rising,
awaking,and thedefeatofdeath,all ofwhicheasilybringto mind
theResurrection.
In othercases,thepsalmtexthas verygenericreferencesthatcan be connectedto severalChristologicalepisodesthat
sharecommon elements.In thesecases, the choices made by the
commentators
can be consideredrathersubjectiveand mightdiverge
fromone authorto another.Forexample,theologically
speaking,salvationreferences
can be relatedto Christ'sBaptism,Crucifixion,
or
and the mentionofGod's glorycan be linkedto the
Resurrection,
orAscension.Forexample,compare
Resurrection,
Transfiguration,
theinterpretation
ofPs. 17:47b,". . . blessedbe myGod and let the
God ofmysalvationbe exalted,"as a reference
to theResurrection,
to
theinterpretation
ofPs. 19:6,"We will rejoicein yoursalvation,and
in thenameofour God shallwe be magnified,"
as a reference
to the
Crucifixion(table2, no. 9 and table4, no. 1). In fact,in bothcases
wordsrightbeforeor afterthesepassagescould haveinspiredtheir
connectionto theResurrection
(Ps. 17:47a,"TheLordlives"and Ps.
19:7,"The Lord has savedhis Christ").But whileAthanasiosinterpretedPs. 19:5-7as propheticoftheResurrection,
Origenconnected
Ps. 19:6 to the Crucifixion(tables2, no. 10 and 4, no. 1). Underthe
column"relevantvocabulary"of mytables,I includepsalm verses
accordingto the criteriaI have specifiedabove,and I givespecific
explanationsforthevocabularyofeach Christologicalepisodewhen
I discussthemin themain text.InsidebracketsI reportverseswith
to more
vocabularythatI considerambiguous,becauseitmightrefer
thanone Christological
event.Forexample,comparePs. 77:16,"And
he broughtwaterout oftherock,"as a reference
to theCrucifixion
(table 4, no. 11)to Ps. 113:8,". . . who turnsthe rockinto pools of
water"(table5,no. 4) as a reference
to theBaptism.In patristicliteratureand liturgicaluse thewatermiracleofMoses at Horeb (Exodus
25

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Liturgyand theIllustrationoftheNinth-CenturyMarginal Psalters I 65

to thoseliturgicalpsalm versesthatofferedthe most


obviousand convincing
allusionsto Chrisslife.
The importanceof relevantvocabularywill be
illustrated
throughtheanalysisofspecificcasesbelow.
The issueof liturgicaland patristicsources,however,
requiresfurtherexplanation because the material
availableforthefollowinginvestigation
does not corin
in
to
what
was
use
ninth-century
respondexactly
Constantinople.So to substantiatethe validityof
theproposedanalysis,I firstdiscusstheissueof these
sourcesin somedetail.

to follow closelythe practiceof the Stoudios monasteryin Constantinople.27As is well known, the
liturgicalnotations of the PantokratorPsalter follow the cathedralriteemployedin Hagia Sophia at
Constantinople,28while the liturgicalnotationsof
the Chludov Psalterand the Paris marginalPsalter
withboth thecathedraland the
indicatea familiarity
monasticrites.29
the
ninthcentury,the latterwas
By
of the
introducedfromPalestineto somemonasteries
and cencapital (includingthe Stoudios monastery),
turieslater prevailed over the cathedral rite.30The
two ritesfollowa different
divisionof the psalter,31
but theyhave manysimilaritiesin theiruse of spesources
cificpsalmversesforspecificfeasts,whichis themain
Liturgical
concernhere.32In the followinganalysis,anygeneral
I employthe same textsas in previousresearchby
referenceto the cathedralritedependson the inforthe Typikon mationprovidedin the TypikonoftheGreatChurchy
Cutler,Corrigan,and Walter,particularly
in
to themonasticriteis basedon the
the
Great
Church
of
(Hagia Sophia Constantinople) whileanyreference
informationin the TypikonoftheSavior. Although
as preservedin cod. Hagiou Stavrou40, dated to the
mid-tenth
centurybut believedto preservean earlier in the tables accompanyingthis researchI provide
A subsidiarysourceis the Typikonofthe informationfrom both typika, I give precedence
tradition.26
comto the Typikonofthe Great Churchforinformation
GreekMonasteryoftheSavior(a Greek-speaking
in
in
the
town
of
on
the liturgical correspondence between psalm
Messina, Sicily)preserved
munity
cod. Messinensisgr.115,dated to 1131and considered versesand majorfeastdaysfora numberof reasons:

27 Le typicondu monastredu Saint-Sauveur Messine: Codex


Messinensis
gr.us, A.D. 1131,d. M. Arranz(Rome,1969);see p. xx
foritsdependenceon theStoudiostradition.
28 They record the hypopsalmata- the antiphonal refrains

in thesepsalms,
17:1-7,Numbers20:1-13),whichis referenced
was indeedrelatedbothto the Baptismand the Crucifixion
ofChrist(in thelattercase oftenwitha baptismalconnection
as well).See A. Semoglou,"L'icnesinatede la Crucifixion
.
36 et son contenu'mosaque':La dialectiquede la Passion,"
4 (2005): 11-21(hedoesnotfollowtheSeptuagint
Iconographica
ofthePsalmsemployedhere).In mytablesI connumbering
siderthevocabulary
ofthewater-producing
rockmoreapproandambiguous
inthecaseof
priatetoa Baptisminterpretation,
a Crucifixion
sincetheflowing
ofwateris more
interpretation,
characteristic
oftheformer
event(anditisa constant
component
ofpsalmexegesisas prophetic
oftheBaptism),whilethespillthanwateris morecharacteristic
ofthelatter
ingofbloodrather
event.However,
bothliquidsflowedfromChrist'spiercedside;
so thisis indeeda casewherethecomplexities
andsubtleties
of
anditsexegesisremindus thatrigidclassifications
are
Scripture
oftenproblematic.
26 Le typicon
dela Grandeglise:Ms. Sainte-Croixno.40yXesicle,
ed. and trans.J.Mateos, 2 vols. (Rome, 1962-63); forthe date see
i:xviii-xix.

sung in the cathedralriteto markthe divisionof the psalterinto


68 antiphons.See Corrigan,VisualPolemics,140-41, 144; Strunk,
"ByzantineOffice"(. above),175-202,esp. 185-87,200-201.
theseincludenotationsforthe
29 In additionto thehypopsalmata,
20 kathismatadividedinto60 doxai,whichmarkthedivisionofthe
psalteraccordingto the Palestinianor monasticrite.See Corrigan,
VisualPolemics,140-41, 146. This systemis discussedbyJ.Mateos,
"Officede minuitet officedu matinchez St. Athanase,"OCP 28
(1962):173-80,esp.175-76.1thankDr. G. Parpulovforthisreference.
30 See Strunk,"ByzantineOffice,"177-78.
31 In the cathedralrite,thepsalterwas chantedaccordingto its
divisioninto 68 antiphons,overan undeterminedperiod. In the
monasticrite,thepsalterwas mostlyrecited(not chanted)accordingto itsdivisioninto20 kathismataand 60 doxaionce a week(and
twiceduringLent).See Strunk,"ByzantineOffice,"179,190-92.
32 The similaritiesare obviousfromtheinformation
providedin
tables1-8 (in the columnsrecordingliturgicalusage),but are also
evidentifone comparesthebiblicalindex(psaltersection)oftheeditionsofthetwo Typika:Mateos, Grandeglise(n. 26 above),2:21520, and Arranz,Saint-Sauveur(n. 27 above),324-28.
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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66

MARIA EVANGELATOU

theTypikon
and geographically
of
Chronologically
theGreatChurch
ismuchclosertotheninth-century
psaltersthanis theTypikon
oftheSaviorinMessina.

thanthe
thatthecathedralritewas lessimportant
monasticone,atleastforthescribeoftheChludov
In myopinion,however,
thereareindications
Psalter.
ritewasatleastofequalimportance
thatthecathedral
to him,so I discussthisissuein somedetail.

ofthemonasticritein Constan2. The introduction


was
a
recent
at thetimeofthe
development
tinople
ninth-century
psalters'creation,and in thatearly
with,ratherthanexcluded,the
stageit interacted
As alreadymentioned,the PantokratorPsalter
cathedral
tradition.33
Bythetimethemarginal
psal- containsnotationsonlyforthe hypopsalmata,
which
terswereproduced,shortly
after843,itislikelythat markthe
of
the
division
antiphonal
psalteraccording
in monasteries
wherethenew ritewas introduced, to the
cathedralrite,whiletheChludovand Parismartheselectionofpsalmversesforthecelebrationof
ginalPsaltersalso containnotationsforthekathismata
majorfeastdaysremainedsimilarto theselection and doxaiofthemonasticrite.Stichel
suggeststhatthe
used in thecathedralrite.Thisis suggestedbythe
to themakersofthe
monasticritewas moreimportant
similarities
betweenthetenth-century
manyrelevant
ChludovPsalter,becauseat theend ofthemanuscript
cathedral
andthetwelfthTypikon
oftheGreatChurch
thescriberecordedonlythenumbersofthekathismata
monastic
the
Savior?*
Moreover, and doxaiand notthenumbersofthe
century
Typikon
of
antiphons(which
it is generally
acceptedthattheusersoftheninth- correspond
In othercodicesthat
to thehypopsalmata).
circles
century
psaltersbelongedto thepatriarchal
containbothcathedraland monasticformsofnotation,
familiar
ofConstantinople
andweretherefore
very
the numbersof kathismataand doxai as well as antiIt cannotbe excludedthat
withthecathedralrite.35
phonsarerecordedat theend.37However,therecould
thepsalterswereproducedin a monasteryof the
be anotherexplanationforthisomission.If the diviByzantinecapital,but themonksof Constantino- sion of thepsalter
accordingto the monasticritewas
werecertainly
notisolatedfrom a recentinnovationin
politanmonasteries
ninth-century
Constantinople,
lifeoftherestofthecity,andmusthave
thereligious
it is possiblethat the scriberecordedthe numberof
beenfamiliar
withthecathedralrite.36
kathismataand doxai and not thatof the antiphons
notationsofthethreeninth-century becausehe and the otherusersof the codex werenot
3. The liturgical
whiletheydid notneedto be
ritewastakeninto familiarwiththeformer,
indicatethatthecathedral
psalters
ofthesemanuscripts. remindedofthelatter.When themonasticritebecame
consideration
bytheproducers
RainerSticheland KathleenCorriganhaveargued widespreadas well,thetotalnumbersforbothkathismataand doxaias wellas antiphonsweretalliedto keep
Stichesobservation
the recordstraight.38
Therefore,
33 In fact,this interactionbetween the two rites continued
cannotbe considereda solidargumentfortheprimacy
formanycenturies.See Strunk,"ByzantineOffice,"198; Cutler,
ofthemonasticoverthecathedralrite.
"LiturgicalStrata" (n. 18 above), 18; Corrigan, Visual Polemics,
117-28.
Corrigan agreeswith Stichel'shypothesisthat
the Chludov Psalterwas intendedformonasticuse,
34 See n. 32above.
shenotesthatthe
and sheadvancesfurther
35 Corrigan,VisualPolemics
y130-34.
arguments:
whichin her
scribeomitteda numberofhypopsalmata,
36 Ibid., 124-29. On 128 Corrigannotes: in the ninthcentury
one is likelyto finda mixtureof the cathedraland monasticrites
in someofthemonasteries
ofConstantinople."She basesthisstatementon an unpublished
paperbyR. Stichel,deliveredMay 5,1975,at
thethirdnationalconference
ofByzantinestudiesin Italy(Naples);
see Corrigan,VisualPolemics,128n. 25 (on p. 201).See also thediscussion below. In addition see R. Taft,"Cathedral vs. Monastic
BollGrott
Liturgyin theChristianEast: Vindicatinga Distinction,"
to thecontinuousinter3rdser.,2 (2005): 173-219,withreferences
actionbetweenthe monasticand the cathedralrites,especiallyin
like theStoudiosin Constantinople,
thecase ofurbanmonasteries
whichnotonlyinfluencedtheriteoftheGreatChurchbutwas also
influenced
byit.

37 Unpublishedpaper mentionedin note 36, above; Corrigan,


VisualPolemics,128 n. 26 (on p. 201). In the Chludov Psalter,the
list of kathismataand doxai appearsafterPsalm 150,on fol. 147V
(Corrigan,VisualPolemics,141).The lastpartoftheParismarginal
Psalterdoes not survive,so we do not knowwhat the manuscript
includedat itsend (ibid.,128).
38 The psaltersmentionedby Stichel and Corrigan as recordingboth systemsaredated to thetenthcentury(cod. Vat. Barb.gr.
285and Paris,gr.164). See Corrigan,VisualPolemics,128n. 16 (on
p. 201).

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Liturgyand the IllustrationoftheNinth-CenturyMarginal Psalters I 67

rite.42
The
accordswiththecathedral
ritetowhichthey intoantiphons
thatthecathedral
opinionindicates
true
for
the
fixed
for
matins
to
him.
same
is
must
have
been
of
lesser
(prthro)
psalms
importance
correspond
in theuppermargins
of
thisomis- andvespers:
thisisonlyonewayofinterpreting
However,
theyaremarked
to
the
office
of
in
the
the
folios
sion,andother
appropriate according
Hagia
point
opposite
possibilities
might
that
In otherwords,theevidencesuggests
ifthescribewasmorefamiliar Sophia.43
Forexample,
direction.
or
not
the
Psalter
was
he
whether
Chludov
ritethanwiththemonastic
withthecathedral
rite,
producedin
itsmakersand userswerevery
mostly and fora monastery,
relying
mighthaveaddedthehypopsalmata
rite.Thisis notsurprising
withthecathedral
rather
thanon a written
source(iffor familiar
on hismemory
wheretherecently
in
he
used
a
codex
without
cathedral
ninth-century
Constantinople,
liturgical
example,
withthe
notations
tocopythepsalms).In thisway,hemayhave introducedmonasticritewas interacting
and wheremonksand monastic
unfa- cathedraltradition,
somehypopsalmata.
On thecontrary,
forgotten
For
institutions
were
linkedtothepatriarchate.
rite
have
with
the
monastic
would
closely
prompted
miliarity
whohasbeenmentioned
MichaelSynkellos,
himto usea written
thedis- example,
sourceto copyprecisely
in theproinvolved
In
as oneoftheclergymen
tribution
ofthekathismata
anddoxaionebyone.39
possibly
both
abbot
of
the
was
the
codex
duction
that
at
the
end
of
addition
records
ninth-century
psalters,
Corrigan
ofPatriarch
monastic oftheChoraMonastery
andchiefadvisor
textsthatprobably
reflect
thescribe
included
In myopinion,
thislastargument
practice.40
might
sug- Methodios.44
offers
furTheillustration
oftheChludovPsalter
was
and
used
that
the
codex
produced perhaps in
gest
and
between
themonastic
buton thewholethereis no substantial therproofofthisinteraction
a monastery,
it
but
at
the
same
time
ofindifference
toward
orlackoffamiliarity thecathedral
indication
spheres,
givespriofthetext
as muchas thestructure
thereis fur- macytoa patriarch
withthecathedral
rite.On thecontrary,
to thecatheritewascen- anditsliturgical
notations
tosuggest
thatthecathedral
therevidence
giveprimacy
which
that
the
traltothelifeofthepeoplewhoproduced
andusedthe dralrite.Corrigan
miniatures,
suggests
in
a
monk
as
the
Chludov
Psalter
ChludovPsalter.
"martyr,"
represent
in all three a groupofmonksas "therighteous,"
andmonksgivAs already
notedbyvariousscholars,
of
theassociations
alms,reinforce
ninth-century
psalterstheentiretextofthepsalms ingand receiving
with
a
monastic
of
the
cathethis
is written
to
the
verses
However,
manuscript
setting.45
according
long
versesofthePalestinian althoughthe presenceof monksin the Chludov
dralriteandnottheshorter
in comparison
withtheother
in theeleventh- Psalteris conspicuous
or monastic
rite(used,forexample,
where
no monks
two
in
the
Stoudios
Theodore
Psalter
ninth-century
psalters,
century
produced
marginal
in
it
is
not
as
for
in
the
Psalter
the
Chludov
as, example,
Moreover,
nearly emphatic
Monastery).41
appear,
whichwasproTheodore
number
oftheodesandtheirdivision theeleventh-century
andarrangement
Psalter,
ducedin theStoudiosmonastery
foritsabbot.In the
threeofthefive
ChludovPsalter,
onlytwoorperhaps
39 ForCorrigan'sview,see VisualPolemics,128,141,n. 8. She mentionsmissinghypopsalmatafor8 out of a total 68 antiphons(1,4,
7, 9, 12,26, 27,38). In anycase, I do not believethatthisomission
bears muchweightagainstotherargumentsthat clearlyindicate
theimportanceofthecathedralriteforthemakersand usersofthe
ChludovPsalter(seebelow).

40 Ibid., 128,141-43.Thesetextsare twoprayersforthe"Service


oftheRefectory"
(fol.167V),and the "Canon of Daily and Nightly
Psalms"(fols.i69r-v).Theprayers
containedin theChludovPsalter
are discussed in detail by I. E. Lozovaia and B. L. Fonkich, "O
KhludovskoiPsaltriri,"
in Drevnerusskoe
iskusstvo:
proiskhozhdenii
Iskusstvorukopisnoiknigi; Vizantiia, Drevniaia Rus', ed. . .
2004), 7-20. 1 was not able to consult
Dobrynina(St. Petersburg,
thispublication.I thankreader forthisbibliographic
reference.
41

A. Schneider, "Die biblischen Oden in Jerusalem und


Konstantinopel,"Biblica 10 (1949): 442fr.; Strunk,"Byzantine
Office,"192;Corrigan,VisualPolemics,140, 144, 146.

42 Schneider,"Die biblischenOden," 245, 253;Corrigan,Visual


Polemics,141.The Chludov Psaltercontainsfourteenbiblicalodes
and the Gloriain excelsis.The fourteen-ode
systemis consideredto
be of Constantinopolitanorigin,while the nine-odesystemthat
eventually
prevailedis consideredto be ofPalestinianorigin.
Pr
43 J.Mateos,"Quelquesproblmesde l'Orthrosbyzantin,"
(1967) : 7-35,27-2,esp. 18;Corrigan,VisualPolemics,141.
44 Corrigan,VisualPolemics,129,134.Corriganmentionsmore
evidenceon the interactions
betweenthemonasticand patriarchal
Constantinople.The most conspicuous
spheresin ninth-century
exampleis the case of PatriarchMethodioshimself,who had been
in Bithyniabeforeascendingto
a monkand founderofa monastery
thepatriarchalthrone.
45 Fol. 22V(Ps. 24:12);fol.30V(Ps. 33:18);fols.35and n6r,(Psalms
36:26and 111:9respectively).
Corrigan,VisualPolemics,128.
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68

MARI A EVANGELATOU

righteouson folio30Vare monks theothersare not


In
the
characterized.
miniature
clearly
corresponding
on folio37Vof theTheodorePsalterall the righteous
In theChludovPsalter,onlythefirstone
aremonks.46
ortwomenin thegroupofpeopledepictedreceiving
or
in
alms
connection
to
Psalms
and
are
36:26
111:9
giving
monks.In theTheodorePsalter,
all themenin
certainly
thegroupillustrating
Psalm36:26aremonks.47
46 In both manuscriptsthe miniatureillustratesPs. 33. In the
ChludovPsalter,theonlyfigurerepresented
as a monkbeyondany
doubtis theseatedyoungman who wearsa darkhood and schema
witha belton theright.Next to him,on theleft,is a beardedman
dressedin an ochertunicand mantle.Below thelatterappearsthe
lowerpartofa lightbluerectangular
cloththatmightbe intendedas
a monasticschema.(The coloris unusual,butnotunique.Forexample,in theTheodorePsaltertheschemaofmostmonks,whenstillpreserved,is dark,butthatofthemonkon fol.179Vis lightblue.See the
in Barber,Theodore
colorreproduction
Psalter[n. 7 above].)At the
backofthegroupin theChludovminiature
is an olderbeardedfigure
inprayer,
witharmsoutstretched
whowearsa darkmantlein thesame
coloras thehood and schemaofthemonkat frontright.It is possible
he was also intendedto represent
a monk.The othertwo figuresare
notclearlyidentified
man
in profiledressedin ocherand
(a standing
in thecenter,
on
the
a
seated
man
and
onlytheheadof
praying
right,
whomisvisible).Bycontrast,
in theTheodorePsalterall thefigures
of
the"righteous"
ofPs.33areundoubtedly
monksdressedindarktunics
and mantles,belowwhichdarkschmasarevisible(Der Nersessian,
L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs[n. above],27fig64). This is the
in thismanuscript.
standardwaymonasticfiguresare represented
When thelowerpartofa bodyis stillwellpreserved,
itis obviouseach
onewearsa schema,fromthebottomofwhichhangharnessstrapsor
cordsthatwraparoundthebody(probablytheanalabos,see below).
For a discussionof the itemscomprisingthemonastichabit,see K.
Inneme,EcclesiasticalDress in theMedieval Near East (LeidenNew York,1992),esp. 99-128.Accordingto his analysison pp. 10827,thelongrectangularclothvisiblebelow a monk'smantleis the
schema(stillused byGreekOrthodox),oftenreferred
to as scapular
in Englishscholarly
literature.
However,thereis confusionaboutthis
cloth,becausein Russianitis calledanalavon,fromtheGreekanalaisthetermfor
bos,whichin Byzantineand GreekOrthodoxtradition
thestrapscrossingon thechestand backabovethetunicand schema.
To complicate
matters
in theCoptictradition
thesestrapsare
further,
called schemainstead.I followInneme'suse ofschemaas scapular
(theoblongpieceofclothoverthetunicandbelowthemantle)forthe
Byzantinemonastichabit.Fora discussionofthecolorsofmonastic
habits(variations
ofdark,butalsooflightcolors- thelatterespecially
in warmclimateslikethatofEgypt),seeJ.Ball,"DecodingtheHabit
oftheByzantineNun,"JournalofModernHellenism27-28 (2009mewitha copy
10):25-52,esp.39-46. 1thanktheauthorforproviding
ofherarticle,andVasilisMarinisfordrawingmyattention
to it.
47 In the Chludov illustrationof Psalm 36:26 (fol.35),thepersonificationof Charityis depictedreceivingand offering
alms to
a groupof threemeninscribedas "charitable"(EAEHMONEC).
The firstis clearlycharacterizedas a monk, dressed in a dark

It is worthyofnoticethatin theChludovPsalter
we see figureswhose monasticidentificationis not
certain,fortheylack signssuch as the hood or the
schema.On thecontrary,
priests(morepreciselybishare
identified.48
This ambiguity
ops)
alwaysclearly
the
monastic
habit sharplycontrastswith
regarding
the preciseand consistentmannerin which monks
arerepresented
in theTheodorePsalter:in mostcases
in
dark
tunicsand mantles,and usually
theyappear
theywear a dark but still clearlyvisibleschemaand
analabos (scapularand harnessstrapsor cords).49
The
tunic and hood. The second is dressedin the same color (without
a hood), so he mightalso be a monk. The thirdman is younger,
with richuntrimmedhair and dressedin red,so clearlyhe is not
a monk.The Chludov miniatureforPsalm 111:9(foln^r) representsa charitableman (ANHP ) offering
alms to an
monk
with
a
brown
hood
and
below
which
is vismantle,
elderly
ible his brownschemaheld by a belt and his ochertunic.Behind
himstandsa groupofundifferentiated
youngmendressedin ocher
tunics(withouthoods, mantles,or schmas).The inscriptionnext
to themreads "poor" (FIENHTEC). Perhapsthe intentionis to
who will distributethealms
presentthemonkas theintermediary
offeredbythe charitableman to thepoor. Alternatively,
he could
be represented
as thefirstamongthepoor,foremphasison his austerewayoflife.It cannotbe excludedthathe is intendedto be the
leaderofa monasticcommunity(sincetheyoungmenbehindhim
are dressedin the same color as he and could be novices),but the
absence of hoods, belts,or otherclear identificationsignson all
thosefiguresat thebackrendersthisreadinguncertain,ifnotdubious. In the TheodorePsalter,in the illustrationof Ps. 36:26 (fol.
43v) all the charitablefiguresare clearlycharacterizedas monks,
but in the case of Ps. 111:9(folJ53V)
onlythe firstone is, making
morepossiblea similarreadingin thecorresponding
Chludovminiature.Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs(n. above),
28 and 52,figs.74 and 247.
48 For example,John Chrysostomand PatriarchNikephoros
phelonion,and omophorionwithcrosseson fols.
wearingsticharion,
23V,47V, and 5iv.

49 In addition to the miniaturesalreadymentioned,see those


on fols,, i6r,22,26V,34r-v,67V,68r-v,75V,78,88v,94,96V,
97, 98, inr, 117,120V, 125,151,157,i6or, i6ir, 163V,178V, 179V

(Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdespsautiers
grecs[n. j above],18,21,
22-24, 2.6,33,35,38-40, 41, 45-46, 5153-5456,figs.5,2.9,39,47,
57-58,109-, 121,125,44>J53>
57~58,6, 183,193>9723>2-42'>
254259-60, 263,281-82).Some ofthesefiguresare nuns,and also
wearschemaand analabos. Euphemia,who was not reallya nun,is
as suchon fol.163V(sinceshewearsschemaand analarepresented
bos abovehertunicand belowhermaphorion),and Theodora,who
led a monasticlifedressedas a monk,is actuallyrepresented
as a nun,
again with schemaand analabos (fol. 157).Der Nersessian,ibid.,
Psalter(n. 7 above),do not comment
53-54, and Barber,Theodore
on thedetailsofmonasticclothingin these(or other)cases. In the
TheodorePsalter,theconsistentdepictionoftheschema(scapular)
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Liturgyand the IllustrationoftheNinth-CenturyMarginal Psalters I 69

viewergets the impressionthat in the lattermanuscripta detailed and easilyidentifiablerenderingof


the monastichabitwas much more importantthan
in the Chludov Psalter.In addition,in the Theodore
but
Psaltermonksarenotjust frequently
represented,
as
numerous
as
another
are
also
promithey
roughly
nentcategoryofsaints,thatofbishopsand priests(folsaintsand
lowedbya muchsmallernumberofmilitary
otherholyfigures).50
On the contrary,the Chludov
Psaltercontainsveryfew depictionsof eponymous
saints(besidesOld and New Testamentfigures),
only
Thusthemonkswho appear
one ofwhichis a monk.51
ofmonkswhoselowerbodyis visibleand
in all therepresentations
stillpreservedin good conditionindicatesthe importanceof this
pieceofclothingforthemonastichabit,at leastin thementalityof
theStouditemonks(forwhoseabbotthiscodexwas produced).This
StoudiosTypikon(
can be relatedto theninth-century

),whichmentionsthateach
brothershouldhave threedifferent
scapulars(a largewoolen one,
and twomore,one forworkand one forSaturdayand Sundaychurch
services).ThemaximumnumberforeachoftheotheritemsofclothingthatStouditemonkswereallowedwas tworatherthanthree.The
termusedin theGreektextpublishedin PG 99:i72oA-B is
("on the shoulders"),which is translatedas "scapular"in BMFD,
38).I takethisto be thesamepieceofclothingthatI term
1:114-15,
schema(seethediscussionin n. 46 above).
50 In the following count I do not include Old and New
Testament saints. I consider only figuresthat are haloed or
inscribedas ("holy")evenwhentheydon'thavea halo. See the
previousnotefora listofmonks(and a fewnuns) in theTheodore
Psalter,mostofwhomareeponymous.To themadd St. Onouphrios
Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs,52,fig.
on fol.152V,
145 (not listedabove because he does notwear the monastichabit
butis naked). Othercategoriesof saints(mostlypriests,especially
bishops,militarysaints,and a fewothers)are depictedon fols.3V,
13V,15,20V,23V,27V,29V,32V,33V,35V,36V,38V,29V,40, 48. 49V,
55r57V, 76V,79V,8ir-v, 85V,89V,90, 95V,107V,109,2,
149V,158,163,165,167,169,ibid.,18,
127,130V,131V,
124V,125V,
21-32,35-39,42.-44 46-48, 5153-54figs6-7 2.4,2736,42.,47
51,55-56,60, 62, 66, 68-69, 82-83, 88-89, 94, 97, 123,127,13031,139,146-47, 155,176,179,185,202, 204-5, 211-12,239,256,262,
26 compositionswithsaintly
265,268,270. Thereareapproximately
bishopsorpriests(comparableto the27 withmonks),and about 10
withmilitarysaints(sometimesdepictedtogetherwithothertypes
ofsaints).
51 Thisis St.SymeontheStylit(on fol.3v).Comparethefivecases
of othereponymoussaintsbesidesPatriarchNikephoroswhom I
mentionbelow:the SevenSleepingYouthsofEphesos,fol.29;St.
fol.47V;ConstantinetheGreat,
George,fol.44;JohnChrysostom,
fol.58V;and Eustathios,fol.97V.Also,in additionto one anonymous
monkdepictedas a martyr(fol.22v),thereis a groupofanonymous
dressedin shorttunics(layworkmen?)beingbeheadedand
martyrs
St. George(militarysaint)beingtorturedon thewheelon fol.44,

in theChludov Psaltermightbe consideredto be part


of
of a more collectiveimage of the representatives
to
rather
than
as
references
orthodoxpiety
emphatic
monasticism.In addition,monksare not highlighted
iconoin the Chludov Psalteras the mostsignificant
is
to
the
heroes.
That
distinction
patriarch
phile
given
of ConstantinopleNikephoros,the onlyeponymous
iconophile in the pages of this psalter:Nikephoros
appearsopposingand defeatingthe iconoclasts,next
in
to Psalms 25:5and 51:9.52The messageis different
the Theodore Psalter:Nikephoros appears together
withTheodorethe Stouditenextto Psalm 25,and he
is omittedaltogetherfromthe illustrationof Psalm
51.53In otherwords,the illustrationof the Chludov
Psalteremphasizesthe role of the patriarchand not
the monks as foremostdefenderof icon veneration
and orthodoxpiety.
All the above evidencesuggeststhatthe makers
and usersof the Chludov Psalterwererelatedto the
patriarchateand wereveryfamiliarwith the cathedral rite.The same is trueforthePantokratorPsalter,
whereonce moreNikephorosis the onlyeponymous
dressedas imperialofficials
and a groupofanonymousmartyrs
(militarysaints)on fol. 65V.All of thesefiguresare identifiedas martyrsby inscriptionsand elementsof the composition.Obviously
in the Chludov Psaltermonksare not singledout as the foremost
martyrsof the Church.Finally,in additionto the groupsof "righteous,""charitable,"and "poor" men amongwhom monksappear
(nn. 46-47 above),thereis also a groupofsaintsthatarerepresented
as imperialofficials,
i.e.,militarysaints,on fol. v (theydon'thave
halos,buta reference
signconnectsthemto theword"saints"in the
adjacentpsalmtext).
52 Fols. 23Vand 51Vrespectively.
53 Fol. 27V;Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs,24,
fig.48; Fol. 66r;ibid.,33,fig.107.Scholarshavenotedthatin the9th
centuryNikephorosand Theodorethe Stouditebitterlydisagreed
overthe second marriageof EmperorConstantineVI. The debate
seriouslytroubledtheChurchand was revivedduringthepatriarchtheStouditeswithexcommunicaateofMethodios,who threatened
tionunlesstheydiscontinuedtheiraccusationsagainstNikephoros
forrefusingto condemnthe marriage.See J.Darrouzs,"Le patriarche Mthode contreles iconoclasteset les stoudites,"REB 45

(1987): 15-57; D. Afinogenov,"


.
Maksimovi,
62-71;
43-71,
17
(1996):
esp.
Erytheia
-,"
"PatriarchMethodios I (843-847) und das StuditischeSchisma:
QuellenkritischeBemerkungen,"Byzantion70 (2000): 422-46.
it is ratherunlikelythatthe
Under thesehistoricalcircumstances,
sinceits
Chludov Psalterwas producedin the Stoudiosmonastery,
ofOrthodoxy
defender
miniaturesexaltNikephorosas theforemost
and omit Theodore the Stoudite. See Corrigan, Visual Polemics
(n. 3 above),124.
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7O I MARIAEVANGELATOU

itprovideson themonasticrite.An addiinformation


tional indirectliturgicalsource that is occasionally
employedconsistsof hymnsand homiliesthatwere
composedforspecificfeasts:accordingto Tikkanen
and Walter,certainpsalm verseswere incorporated
into such texts,and can thereforecomplementthe
ofthe Typikon
information
oftheGreatChurchon the
In fact,the employof
the
psalter.59
liturgicalusage
mentof psalm verses(verbatimor in paraphrase)in
liturgicalhymnsand homiliesshould be considered
a directliturgicalsourcefortheinterpretation
of the
Psalter,butin thefollowinganalysisand tablesI term
it "indirect"(markedby in thetables)simplyto differentiate
it fromthedirectquotationofpsalmverses
in thebasic structure
oftheliturgyas reportedbythe
two Typika(markedby in the tables,).Since I have
not investigatedthis "indirect"liturgicaluse of the
Psalter,but have simplymentionedthe fewscattered
cases reportedbyotherscholars(and in anycase it is
impossibleto knowexactlywhichhomiliesand hymns
wereemployedthroughouttheyearin ninth-century
Constantinopleeitherin thecathedralor themonastic ritein orderto check all theirpsalm references),
theliturgicalinterpretations
ofthepsalmsreportedin
thefollowingtablesshouldbe consideredincomplete.
Readersshouldtherefore
bear in mindthefollowing.
when
the
do
First,
Typika not recorda liturgicaluse
fora specificpsalm verse,this does not mean that
such a use was necessarilyabsent.This is why"~" is
employedin the tables,to denote lack of reference
in the Typikaand not lack of liturgicalusage in general (comparethe use of "-", to indicatethe absolute
lack ofa reference
in thetables,in thecase ofrelevant
or exegeticalinterpretation).
vocabulary,illustration,
Second, because of this incompletenessof the tables
betweenthecathedral
(and becauseoftheinteraction
54 Fol. ir (Ps. 2$:$).Discussedby I. evenko,"TheAntiand
monastic
rites
as
described
above),thecorresponIconoclastic
Poemin thePantocrator
CahArch
Psalter,"
15(1965):
dences
between
the
illustration
of the marginalpsalVisualPolemics
y120,fig.in.
52-60;Corrigan,
tersand one or the otherTypikonas reportedin the
forkathismata
anddoxaiwereadded
55 Ibid.,144.Thenotations
whenthemanuscript
wasrewritten
aroundthe12thor13th
century. followingtablesshould not be consideredan indication of the greaterinfluenceon thesemanuscriptsof
56 Ibid.,146.
eitherthecathedralor themonasticrite.
57 Ibid.,140,144, 14e.
and the
iconophileheropraisedin the miniatures,54
the
notations
mark
only
hypopsalmataof
liturgical
in thecase of the
thecathedralrite.55
Unfortunately,
ParismarginalPsalter,theloss ofmostfolios(including the last part of the manuscript)hindersa thorough investigationof its liturgicalassociations,but
the survivingevidenceindicatesthat the cathedral
ritewas influentialin the productionof this codex
as well. Although the kathismataand doxai of the
monastic rite are here markedby conspicuous circular framesin the marginsof the folios,the textof
thepsalmsis writtenin the longversesof the cathedral rite,as in the othertwo psalters.56
Moreover,in
thiscodex as well as in theChludov and Pantokrator
Psalters,therulingprovidesan extraline at thetop of
thefoliosforthehypopsalmataofthecathedralrite.57
No such specialprovisionwas made in theplanning
of the manuscriptsforthe kathismataand doxai of
themonasticrite:in thePantokrator
Psaltertheywere
omittedaltogether,
in the Chludov Psaltertheywere
squeezed in afterthe last wordsof psalms or nextto
theirtitles(dependingon theavailabilityofspace left
and in theParismarginalPsalter
bythepsalmtext),58
were
written
in
themargins(albeitin prominent
they
frames),so theirinclusionmighthave been an afterthoughtto thewritingofthepsalmtext.
To conclude,the cathedralrite seems to have
been important to the makers and users of the
ninth-centurymarginal psalters. This observation,in addition to the factorsof date and historical contextmentionedabove, furtherjustifiesthe
use of the Typikonofthe Great Churchas our main
liturgicalsource.The TypikonoftheSavior is considered as a comparativeand subsidiarysource forthe

58 Forexample,see fols.3V,5V,13V,
i6v,22,36.46,48V,51,56V,
59V,61V,73,7$v,8$r,87V,90V,97V,ioor,103,107V,114V,133,
139V,

uncialscriptis stillpreserved
in the
141V,
144,156.Theoriginal
foliosindicated
inbold.In theothercases,thenotations
areinthe
minuscule
ofthei2th-i3th
Psalterillustration
c, whenthecodexwasrewritten, 59 Tikkanen,
(n.14above),variousexamples,
script
butinmostcaseswecanbesurethattheyappearright
ontopofthe
Themes"
(n.15
e.g.,onpp.49,53,60,62,63;Walter,
"Christological
notations
ofthe9th
above),278-79.
original
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Liturgyand theIllustrationoftheNinth-CenturyMarginal Psalters I 71

Patristic
sources

Not all psalm commentariesknown in Byzantium


have survivedto the presentday,nor are theyeasilyavailableto us in theiroriginalform.The extant
psalmcommentaries
publishedin Patrologiagraecaor
of
in morerecenteditionspresenttheinterpretations
each commentator
groupedtogetherin the formof a
continuoustreatise.However,themostpopularpsalm
commentariesthat circulatedin the ninth century
wereverydifferent:
theywerecompilations{catenae)
authors.
of psalm commentariesby manydifferent
Most of today'seditionsof psalm commentariesby
individualauthorsderivefromcatena manuscripts,
catenaeremainunpubbutthefullmultiple-authored
lished.The matteris further
complicatedbythegreat
versionsof catenae,which vary
numberof different
in lengthand in the numberof authors
considerably
whosetextsarecollectedtogether.60
toknowhowmany
In otherwords,itis impossible
were
included in the
Christologicalinterpretations
availabletothemakersoftheninthpsalmcommentaries
century
marginalpsalters notto mentionthatsomeof
could haveoriginatedfromother
theseinterpretations
activtextsorfromthemakers'ownintellectual
patristic
ity.However,it seemssafeforthepurposeof theprescatena
to usetwoofthemostextensive
entinvestigation
Paris,
have
survived:
the
that
on
gr.
psalms
manuscripts
andMarc.gr.17,the
146ofthetenthtoeleventh
century,
well-known
psalterofBasilII, datedto thebeginningof
theeleventh
century.
Accordingto GillesDorival,both
are
thesemanuscripts based on a Constantinopolitan
datedbefore900
compilationofpsalmcommentaries
As
more
has
Paris,
146
sources).61
(but
incorporated
gr.
60 For all the above see R. Devreesse, Les anciens commentateurs des Psaumes (Vatican City, 1970); E. Mhlenberg,
vol. 3 (Berlinaus derKatenenberlieferung,
Psalmenkommentare
New York,1978); M. Rondeau,Les commentaires
patristiquesdu
Psautier(IIP '-Ve sicles)(Rome,1981);G. Dorival,"La postritlittrairedes chanesexgtiquesgrecques,"REB 43 (1985):209-26;
idem,Les chanesexgtiques
grecquessurlespsaumes:Contribution
l'tuded'uneformelittraire,
4 vols. (Leuven,1986-95). See also
oftheninthCorrigan,VisualPolemics,104-11,fortherelationship
with
catena
manuscripts.
centurymarginalpsalters
61 Dorival,Les chanesexgtiques
grecquessurlespsaumes,4:36061,417-18. The catenaof cod. Marc. gr.Z. 17 belongsto the same
recensionas thecatenaofthefamouscod. Paris,gr.139of themidtenthcentury(ibid,1:247-48, 4:418). The choiceto use thepsalter
keptin theBibliotecaMarcianaratherthanthatin theBibliothque
Nationale,althoughthelatteris halfa centurycloserto thedate of

a
thesetwomanuscripts
includein theircommentaries
number
of
drawn
Christologicalinterpretations
large
one mayassumethatat
frompreexisting
compilations,
leastsomeof thoseearliersourceswerefamiliarto the
producersof the ninth-century
marginalpsalters.The
be used to determine
two catenacodicescan therefore
whetherthe Christologicalillustrationof the ninthcenturypsaltersdependsmoreon psalmcommentaries
oron liturgical
usage.I havealsotakenintoaccountpubcommentaries
lishedpsalm
(underthe namesof individualauthors),not onlybecausetheysometimeshave
absentfromthetwocatinterpretations
Christological
used here,butalso becausetheyshow
ena manuscripts
thebroadrangeofsourcesusedin thecreationofcatenae
on thepsalms:sourcesthatmayalso havebeenusedfor
includedin the
thecreationofthevisualcommentaries
marginalpsalters.
In thefollowinganalysis,theinfluenceofthelitis
comparedto thatofpatristicpsalm
urgy specifically
forthe
as obvioussourcesof references
commentaries
ofthepsalter,and notto patristicinterpreillustration
tationsofthepsalmsfoundin othertexts.Moderntools
like theBblia Patrsticareflectresourcesavailableto
scholarstoday,butnotwhattheplannersoftheninthcenturymarginalpsalterswould havehad at theirdisposal. Not onlyis it impossibleto guess the rangeof
otherpatristicsourcesasidefrompsalmcommentaries
but at
thattheymighthavetakeninto consideration,
timesit is misleadingto label suchsourcesas patristic
ratherthanliturgical.For example,psalm interpretationsfoundin patristichomiliesreadon specificfeast
days should be thoughtof as liturgicalratherthan
patristicsources,becauseitwas theiruse in theliturgy
thatmade themwidelyknown.Such caseswill notbe
discussedhere.
Since we do not have at our disposal the exact
liturgicaland patristicsourcesthatwould have been
availableto themakersof theninth-century
marginal
psalters,it is obvious that the resultsof the following investigationcannot be conclusive;theyare just
indicativeofcertaintendencies.Evenso,theycan conof the subject.Due
tributeto a betterunderstanding
thatthisinvestigation
to thequantityof information
number
of
tables
a
presentall
systematically
requires,
the evidence,and the conclusionsare summarizedin
theninth-century
marginalpsalters,waspurelydue to technicalreasons (legibilityoftherespective
microfilms).
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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72 I MARIA EVANGELATOU

Table i. Psalmsillustrated
in theninth-and eleventh-century
withChrist'sResurrection
Byzantinemarginalpsalters
Psalter

No.

Psalm Accompanying
illustration

7:7

9:33

11:6

David at Christ's
-r
L
Tomb

Relevant
vocabulary
'

a/^tjlij
i
Lord ... be exalted... awake
Anse,

Si

-*

s
j

S
jS

^
6r

v
X

v
X

i2V

David, Christ

a-^tji
1 jl
in j
Arise, Lord,letyourhand be lifted

9V

24V

i8v

David, Christ

. T ,
...
.
XT
Now will ITarise, saystheLord

v
X

,
i6v

__
X

nv

20V

77
/7

Ch

'

CO

2iv

._

You shallbringme out ofthesnare...


You hatedthosewho carefullyguarded
.
~
,
Awake... Lord,arise

^
44

Arise, Lord,helpus,and redeemus

44

55V

77

. ,
,
enemies be scattered

63

82V

109

104

A
Anastasis

God . . .
(is)' leadingforthprisoners...
Y
, b,dwell
,
n in
eventhemthat
tombs

,
63V

n
83

~r
X

83

109V

77:65

David, Christ
1
at -r
Tomb

So theLord awakedas one out ofsleep,and as a



j L
mightyman intoxicatedwithwine

78V

109

v
X

105V

136V

10

79:3

Holy Women
1
at lomb

Stirup yourdominance,and
il
come to deliver
us

11

81:8

Anastasis

Arise, God, judge theearth

12

101:14

43:24

David, Holy
L
,w
Women at -r
Tomb

43:27

67:2

Anastasis

o
8

67:7

13

106:14-16

'
A

A
Anastasis

Anastasis

Let God arise,and lethis

When you
shallhavecompassion
for
arise,you
;
]
r

82V

X
..

142V

_.
.
.
c
,
Zion, tor the set time is come

ioov

He brought
themoutofthe
darkness
andshadowofdeath...
hecrushed
thebronzegates

19V 146V 187

134V

171

a C. Walter,
Themes
intheByzantine
from
theNinthtotheEleventh
REB 44 (1986):278.
"Christological
MarginalPsalters
Century,"
Die Psalterillustration
imMittelalter,
ActaSocietatis
Scientiarum
Fennicae31,no.5 (Helsinki,
J.Tikkanen,
1903),61-62.
(alltables)
Keytoabbreviations
norelevant
illustration
orinterpretation
X relevant
folioismissing
documented
directliturgical
use
documented
indirect
use
liturgical
~ noliturgical
usedocumented
inextanttypika
relevant
tomorethanoneChristological
scene
[ ] ambiguous
vocabulary,
vonLaodiceazu Psalm1bis50,"inPsalmenkommentare
ausderKatenenberlieferung,
3vols.,
Apollinarios "Apollinaris
ed.. Mhlenberg
York,1975-78),
1:3-118.
(Berlin-New
[CPG Supp.3681]
Asterios Asterii
commentariorum
inpsalmos
suntaccedunt
ed.M.
sophistae
quaesuper
aliquothomiliae
anonymae,
Richard(Oslo,1956).[CPG 2815]
ofAlexandria Expositio
Athanasios
inpsalmos,
PG 27:59-590
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
MarginalPsalters 73
Liturgy

Liturgicaluse

Psalmcommentators

Basil,236C, Pseudo-Athanasios,
669C-D

M)

*"

33

+^

.d

andsources
Description

ProkeimenonbeforeMark 16:1-8at matins,TGC 2:170;


prokeimenon2nd SundayafterEaster,TSM 261.
ProkeimenonafterHoly Saturdaymatins,TGC 2:82,TSM
324; prokeimenonbeforeJohn20:1-10at matins,TGC 2:72.

Eusebios,i4iB,Didymos, 1.116.78

ProkeimenonbeforeMatt. 28:16-20 at matins(all other


TGC 2:172;prokeimenon
readingsconcerntheResurrection),
on SundayafterEaster,TSM 257.

69r

Vocabularysimilarto a troparionsungon Holy Saturday,


TGC 2:82.*

Afterthematinson Holy Saturday,TGC 2:82,TSM 243;


. -rr^r^
, r T ,
, .
prokeimenonbeforeLuke 24:1-12 at matins,TGC 2:170.

27V

7or

_ __ .
^
112
Orieen,
Didymos,
I.SSS-4S2.
)))
^
y
' 1428B-C,

TGC 2:82,TSM 243;


Sungat thealleluiaon Holy Saturday,
used on EasterSunday,TSM 248-49,251.Cf. no. 8.
extensively

Eusebios,681D, Didymos,2.63.681,
Theodoret,1376A
Athanasios,293B-D, Didymos,
2.65.686,CyrilofAlexandria,1145C-D

24

I2V

The entirepsalmwas thethirdantiphonon EasterSunday


and on thefollowingweek,TGC 2:94, TSM 328.
Koinonikonon Holy Saturday,TGC 2:90.

Pseudo-Athanasios,984C

Asterios,ns:6, Pseudo-Athanasios,

ProkeimenonbeforeLuke 24:36-53 at matins,TGC 2:172.


Sung insteadofthealleluia on Holy Saturday,TGC 2:90,

^
1001C

2.7
/IT

I5OV
*

Eusebios,i257C-D,Hesychios,.276A

3i3v

I76r

.
__, ,
Tbeodoret,i74.A

335r

i9or

TOU
TSM 246.,

Sung as thefirststichosin theDivine Liturgyon Easter


Sunday,TGC 2:94; alleluiaverseon EasterSundayTSM 250.
Used in Easter,and in EasterhymnsbyAnatolios,Johnof
Damascus, and others(unspecifiedrite).b

Homiliae inpsalmos,PG 29:209-494. [CPG 2836]


Expositioinpsalmos,PG 69:699-1274. [CPG 5202]
ed.
aus derKatenenberlieferung,
"DidymusderBlinde zu Psalm bis 150,"in Psalmenkommentare
Mhlenberg,1:121-375,2:3-367. [CPG Supp. 2551]
EusebiosofCaesarea Commentariainpsalmos,PG 23:63-1396.[CPG 3467]
HesychiosofJerusalem Fragmentainpsalmos,PG 93:1179-340. [CPG 6554]
Origen Libri inpsalmos,PG 12:1053-686.[CPG 1426]
Pseudo-Athanasios De titulispsalmorum,PG 27:649-1344. [Now identifiedas HesychiosofJerusalem,CPG 6552]
psalmorumand In psalmos,PG 55:533-784.[CPG 4542-43]
Pseudo-Chrysostom Argumentm
TheodoretofCyrus Interpretatio
inpsalmos,PG 80:857-2002. [CPG 6202] ^
de la Grandeglise,Ms. Sainte-Croixno. 40, Xe sicle,d. and
TGC
TypikonoftheGreatChurch:Le typicon
trans.J.Mateos, 2 vols. (Rome, 1962-63).
TSM
TypikonoftheSaviorat Messina: Le typicondu monastredu Saint-Sauveur Messine,codexMessinensis
Basil
CyrilofAlexandria
Didymos

d.andtrans.M. Arranz(Rome,1969).
gr.us, A.D. 1131,

DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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74 I MARIAEVANGELATOU

the text.In thesetables,the Christologicalscenesof


theeleventh-century
Theodore,Barberini,and Bristol
Psaltersare also takeninto consideration,
since they
offer
someindicationofthesubjectsthathad probably
been depictedin theninth-century
marginalpsalters
but are now missingalong with theiraccompanying
verses.62
The Christological
themesexaminedarethose
most frequently
in
depicted the psalters,and thereforemostappropriateforquantitativeand comparativeinvestigation.
For the samepracticalreasons,the
does not followthe chronologicalorder
investigation
of theeventsin Christ'slife,but startsfromthemost
and progressesto the less frefrequently
represented

beforeGospelreadingsof
theyaresungas prokeimena
thematins,whichhaveas theirthemetheResurrection
(tablei, nos. 1-3,6-12). Two moreverseshavean indirectliturgicalaffiliation:
theyarepartofor aresimilar
to Easterhymnsthatat leastin one case weresungin
Hagia Sophia (table1,nos. 4, 13).However,onlytenof
thesethirteenversesarerelatedto theResurrection
in
sources
nos.
1,
1,
3-4,
6-9,
(table
11-13).
mycommentary
Thesenumbersgivea slightprecedenceto theliturgical
rather
thantheexegetical
factoras themotivation
forthe
illustration
oftheninth-century
But
this
small
psalters.
difference
is onlyan indicationof,nota conclusive
proof
oftheliturgical
factor.We shall
for,thepreponderance
havetoexamineall thepsalmversesthatwereinterpreted
quentlyrepresented.
as prophecies
ofChrists Resurrection
in thecommentaras suchin thepsalters,
to reacha
ies,butnotillustrated
Christs
Resurrection
moresolid conclusion.It shouldalso be notedthatall
thirteenversesillustrated
witha Resurrection
miniaChrist'sResurrectionis the most frequently
ture
contain
words
related
to
this
applied
easily
Christological
eventsuchas "rise,"
"standup,""saveus,""hecrushedthe
Christologicalinterpretationof the psalms in the
and themostfrequently
thewordingofthose
commentaries,
surviving
rep- bronzegates,"etc.Consequently,
resentedepisodein the ninth-century
verses
that
were
as propheciesofthe
marginalpsalpsalm
interpreted
ters.It appearsin severalversions:Christrisingfrom Resurrection
butarenotaccordingly
illustrated
mustbe
the Tomb,the Anastasis(JesusdefeatingHades and
takenintoconsideration
in thesearchforreasonsthat
can explaintheabsenceofsuchan illustration.
raisingAdam and Eve), the Myrophores(the Holy
Women at the Tomb), and David standingnext to
Accordingto thepublishedpsalmcommentaries
Christ'sSepulcher.Because the Resurrectionappears and thecatenamanuscripts
I haveconsulted,fifty-five
so frequently
in the textualand visual materialdispsalmsotherthanthosealreadyexamined(and somecussedhere,it is theperfectcase studyfora quantita- timesmorethanone versein eachpsalm,fora totalof
tiveanalysis.It providesdata fortheidentification
ofa
as prophetic
references
eightypassages)wereconsidered
of
which
can
then
to
Christ's
Resurrection
I
would
like
to sugspecificpattern liturgicalinfluence,
(table2).
be testedandverified
throughtheanalysisofother,less
gestthattheprincipalreasontheywerenot chosento
scenes.
be illustrated
witha miniatureofChrist'sResurrection
frequently
represented
Christological
into
account
all
three
maris
that
most
of
themwerenotusedin theliturgical
celeTaking
ninth-century
indications
from
the
Theodore brationofthatevent.Of thefifty-five
ginalpsalters(including
psalms,onlyeight
and BarberiniPsaltersforthemissingfolios),Christ's wereemployedin servicesrelevantto theResurrection
Resurrectionis depictedalongsidethirteendifferent accordingto the Typikon
oftheGreatChurch(table2,
versesin one or anotherof the iconographieversions nos. 2, 24, 30, 43-45, 51-52),and one moreis related
mentionedabove (tablei). One of theseverseshas no
to Eastercelebrations
althoughit is not mentionedin
orpatristicassociations,
butis verysimilarin
theTypikon
liturgical
oftheGreatChurch(table2,no. 13).In only
itswordingto anotherverseofthesamepsalmthathas
threeof thesecases could the wordinghave inspired
both(tablei, nos. $-6). Ten ofthethirteen
verseshave
an illustrationof Christ'sResurrection(table2, nos.
a directliturgicalaffiliation:
to
the
Typikon 2, 13,52).Six morepsalmswerepartof thecelebration
according
ofHoly
of Easteror of the followingweeksaccordingto the
oftheGreatChurch,
theyareusedin theoffices
Easter
or
the
week
after
or
monasticTypikon
Easter,
Saturday,
Sunday,
oftheSavior(table2,nos. 1,11,23,32,
but
in
46, 55), only twocasescan thewordingbe consid62 Seenotes7-8,above,fortherelationship
between
thesemanu- eredrelevant(table2,nos. 11,23).
andtheninth-century
Textcontinues
onpage82.
scripts
psalters.
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 75

Table 2. Psalms thatwere interpretedas propheticof Christ'sResurrectionin Byzantinepsalm commentaries,but


werenot so illustratedin the ninth-and eleventh-century
marginalpsalters
use
Liturgical
^
_

No.

Psalm

2:1

2:10

,
1
T,
I laydown
and, slept;
1aWaked

3:7-9

Lord;
j deliver
j 1 me,
Arise,
my
God

4:4

The Lord has done wondrous things

4:9

T ..... ,
, ,
I will he down in peace and sleep

5:4

In the morningyou shall hear my


voice, in the morningwill I present
myselfto you

6:5-6

'

y.6

Title
5

Psalm
commentators

Relevantvocabulary
J

- .

,
A
Among the hymns
forthe eight
Return, Lord delivermysoul
... who will acknowledgeyou in
Hades?

'
-

8:10

.1

1 11

shallyou
15:8-11 Hades,neither
your
allow
.
uln
HolyOne to seecorruption
16:3
16:13-14
17:8

, r _.
(cf.Matt. 28:2)

Didymos,i.i25.9

5v

27V

Origen,
115-9;
Eusebios,
96-97
"

7r

z9r

Pseudo-Athanasios,
, o ^ ^ .,
7v
659B-C; Cyril,
729-
-

Theodoret,888C)

Iir

^ov

Asterios,74. 11-18

Eusebios, 120A;
Athanasios, 76D;
ASterios,8i-86)z56

Asterios,105,107;

i8v-

Cyril,757A

19
-

Asterios,

34

46

33V

45V
^

Description
,
and sources

Ps. 2 wasthepsalm
fortheEaster
kathismata,
TSM 329.
Ps. 3:6wassungat
matinson Easter
Sunday,TGC :9;
Ps. 3wasthepsalm
fortheEaster
rormcLdsrer
TSM
kathismata,
329.

10

Eusebios,161A-B

. ,

33-

Athanasios, 109C
J

135, 225;
_ ,
1.180.97;
Didymos,
_
,
Theodoret,
961-65

u.

i,v

Origen, 1061B-C

1216A-B;
Origen,
. .

>

Didymos, 1.129.19

Arise, Lord
Theearthshookandbecamefearful

. ^o
.2 ^
S

Asterios,
7:16ff.

Didymos, 1.148.51

L 11not leave
1
1
...
You shall
mysoul in

TT

17:47

TheLordlives. . . andlettheGod of
1.1
11
mysalvationbe exalted

I9:5"7

. . . TheLordsavedhisChrist
(anointed)

Theodoret, 988B

41V

50V

Athanasios,
.i5D-iz8A

44

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j6 I MARIA EVANGELATOU

TABLE 2. Continued
Liturgicaluse

No.

Psalm

Relevant vocabulary

Psalm

commentators

<j

"

.2 ^M

u.

"
a

js

*i

11

2OIS-O

Title

Concerning the morningaid

1249C;
_ Ongen,
,
Didymos, 1.219.167
Eusebios, 201C-D;
Athanasios, 132A;

4sr
^5

S3V
5)

46

54V

Cyril,837B-C

21:2022

Lord ... be readyformyaid ...


r
11
1
save me fromthe lion s mouth

_^ ,
Didymos, 1.230.188

48

56

- ,
Title

Ar
psalm ... on the firstday
; of the
,

Cyril,844C; Theo1
*

5OV

57V

13
iy'7~l

week

Liftup yourgates . . . and the king of


gloryshall come

and sources

Ps. 10 was a fixed

1 1 i.r

TT
He
asked lireor you andj you gave

1.1
1 ri
1 1 is
him length
glory
7 ... his 5
7
6 or days
salvation
ereat in your
;
0

Description

.:...29.

Pseudo-Athanasios,
731D

Allnci^ncm
/'11us10ns
to Pcs.

23:7- appearin
forEaster
hymns
andHolyWeek

and in the Sunday


Liturgy,

Divine

"

psalm. on the 2nd


r ^
Monday afterEas*.r
ter,7IW329.

which is a weekly
celebrationof
the Resurrection

(unspecifiedrite).a

14

27:7

... My fleshhas revived


Lord, you have broughtup mysoul
fromHades

15

29:6
29:9-12

16

32:10
34:2-4

iy

34:17
34:23-25

Athanasios, 149D;
Pseudo-Athanasios,
748D

57V

Eusebios 257D;

... Arise formyhelp


-

Awake, Lord

63V64

Didymos, 1.262.262

For . . . lifeis in his will and . . . joy in __, .


. _.
.
.
Theodoret,1073A-B
the morning
-62r-v
_ ,
. . . You turnedmymourning
into a

.
Eusebios, 261D
r
dance rorme
-

62

64r-v

Athanasios, 165B

70

69

Cyril,896C

'
7r

71V

Cyril,905C-D

8ir

73

Eusebios, 313B-C

82

73V

a S.G.
duPsaume23,7-10etdu
desportesduParadis,
proposdesillustrations
desportesdel'Enferetouverture
Tsuji,"Destruction
Psaume117,19-20,"CahArch31(1983):11.

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsalters 77

5
2
S

98r-v

8ir-v

Origen,1413B;
Athanasios,197D;
^ ,
Didymos,1.322..
o;
23.418;Cyril,996D;
Theodoret,
1165B

103

83
~

103

Ps. 50wasa fixed


,
, c
psalmon thebun -
after
Easter,
day
T<'M

Psalm
commentators

18

39:2.-4

... And he brought


meoutofa pitof
.
.
.
rrom
and
misery,
miryclay....

...
14.32
Apollinarios,

40:9

r
,
, n
. . . Surely,
hewho
sleepsshallnot
riseup?
r

40:11

.
,,
on meand
You,Lord,havemercy
.
.
... J
.
raisemeand I willrepay
r ; them

Athanasios,200A;
.,
A
Cyril,997A-D;
-,
^^
1168A-B
Theodoret,

20

44:9

Basil,403C-408A

21

45:6

23

God is in themidstofher. . . God


Basil,425A;Cyril,

111111
J L
on
shall
1048D
helphertowardsthemorning

48:16

ButGod shalldelivermysoul
fromthehandofHades,
me
whenhe receives

50:10

You shallcausemeto hear


, m
1
gladnessand!joy;theafflicted

,bonesshall
'.
rejoice

54:17

a I .S

.
j

No.

,
L .
Relevant
vocabulary
y

22

^
.2 ^_
S

.
Psalm

19

use
Liturgical

Basil,453C
. .
.
^
Athanasios,241C;
ah
^
36.93
Apollinarios,

Eusebios,484D

b
<j

12

131V

X39r

83

89

96

99V

Ps. 54:17wassung
atvesperson the
first
Wednesday
afterEaster,TGC
2:102, 7^/254.

24
54:18-

20

i5

Description
j sources
and

57:7-9

Evening,
... he shall
and morning

delivermysoulinpeace

Origen, 1469A;
Eusebios,

484D-485A; Hesychios,1220A
Athanasios,
^D-zoA

I53V

IO4V

l68V

IO8V

DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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78

MARIAEVANGELATOU

TABLE 2. Continued
Liturgicaluse

No.

Psalm

1
11
Relevant
vocabulary7

_ .

Title
26

27

171

58:17

60:7-8

Theodoret, 1323B-C

[. . . I mightsee thypower and thy

Pseudo-Athanasios,

Eusebios, 612 Athanasios, 280D

gioryf

62:12

64:14

65:1-3

Shout unto God, all the earth ...


,
iin
how awesome are thy
yworks!

^^> ^
-2
M
%

896C

Didymos, 2.5455.660a

Cyril,1133A,Didymos, 2.55.661

77
-

:
192V
-

!9^

-2

*:

u I

Description
and, sources

109

""

Eusebios,

549D-552A

62:10

30

n _
1304B-C
'

... In the morningI shall rejoicein


1
thymercy

61:3

29

Theodoret,
""

&>
j

Psalm
commentators

nov

ii5.r
115V
-

ii8r

Ps. 65 was sung at


vespersof Holy
Saturday.It was
also the antiphonal
. r J,
rorbaster
_psalm
,
1 .
Sunday and rorthe

week,
following
TGC 2:84,94,
249.

31

68:3

Cyril,1161CD

213V

123

68:14-15

Cyril, 1163C; Euse1

a
bios, 744B-745A

Zl6r

I24V

68:21

68:30

Eusebios, 760A;
Pseudo-Athan.,

~
2I

928D

32

69:5

Eusebios,772C

Ps. 69 was a fixed


psalm on Sunday

r r
after
TSM
Easter,/
330.

33

70:19-21

. . . Having turnedyou revivedme,


and fromthe depths of the earthyou
broughtme up again

Origen, 1520C;
Eusebios, 785C-D;
Athanasios,
321A-B; Theodoret,
1428A

226V

128V

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 79

Liturgicaluse

N0.

Psalm


1.1
Relevant
vocabulary

Psalm
commentators

^
^"
.S3
M
Jj

j<
g

Description
and, sources

Pseudo-Athanasios,
960D (aboutthe
guardsat Christ's
Tomb)
35

77:5

Eusebios, 908B-C

265

139V

36

78:11

146

Title

Didymos, 2.140.830

37
80:2

38
83:11

39
y

Didymos, 2.140. 831

My heart and myfleshrejoiced in


the livingGod
""
-

Theodoret,

. ,
.
rr
j in
For one day
yourcourts is better
.

1
than thousands!

Eusebios,
_
. . .
1013C-1010A; Atha. _,
.
nasios, 36915

.
. . . For yourmercyis greattoward

Athanasios,
.
_. .

the lowest Hades

^
ret,1560B-C

'
274

152V

n
.
376B-C; Apolhnar- 277V111
ir
85:12-13 me;andyoudelivered
mysoulfrom .i_^,
10s,56.141;Theodo278
, ,
1

87:4-5

. . . MylifehastouchedHades ...

111dead
freeamong the

40
87:1014

42

1540A-B

. . . Will youshowyourwondersto

1 1 i^
t
. . . In the
the dead?
morningmy

willreachyou
prayer

88:13-5

88:4750

...
1.
. savehis
Who is hewho... will
... wrl
ir
,
,
1

1
soulfromthehandorHades?

89:14

in themornWe havebeensatisfied
we rejoiced
and
with
mercy;
your
ing
andweregladin all ourdays

_~~

Athanasios, 380B-

C; Pseudo-Athan.,
^ -J
1020D; Didymos,
2.160.871

,.

Lusebios,
. ^
,

1061C-1064C

Eusebios,1097D;
Athanasios,388D
Eusebios,1120A-B;
_ , . .
Pseudo-Athanasios,
.-.
1036B
-

l8or

X56v

281V

157V

286v,
7

i6iv

163V

DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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8 ARIA EVANGELATOU

TABLE 2. Continued
Liturgicaluse
m

No.

1
Psalm

91:2

43

9I:5

li
Relevant
vocabulary
y

bb
j

Psalm
commentators

I
-

Athanasios, 404C

^
.2 ^

<

<-

'

*? ^

Description
r
and sources

J66r

Ps. 91:2 was the


"prokeimenonof
the Resurrection,"
TGC 1:176; Ps. 91
was the antiphon
on various feasts,
includingthe days
afterEaster,
^ 328.

Ps. 92 was the antiphon on various

44

92:1-2

95:i-3

Eusebios,
1184B-1185C; Athanasios, 408B

297V

167

3o3r

i7or

,
n
Ps.
95:10 was the

Pseudo-Athanasios,
io6iC,Didymos,

prokeimenon

2;.2.O.;91

45
95:9_IO

Pseudo-Chrysos^
torn,774

feasts,including
days afterEaster,
TSM 328; . was
the prokeimenon
of the baptismal
riteon Holy
Saturday,TGC
2:86, and the verse
of the alleluia on
the Saturdayafter
Easter, TSM Z55.

beforeMark
16:9-20at matins,
TGC 2:170;95:2
wastheprokeimenonon Annun
L on
ciationwhen
EasterSunday;
and 95:10wasthe
on
prokeimenon
the3rdSunday
afterEaster,TSM
142, 263.

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 81

Liturgicaluse
^

No.


Psalm

103:15

r
i
li
Relevant
vocabulary

Psalm
commentators

4
103:22

bb
j
s

32-Ov

Pseudo-Athanasios,
1096C-D; Hesy321V

^>
u.
.S3 "fr
j

j
e

u s

Ps. 103was a fixed

107:3

48

108:2s29

49

109:3

50

114:8

51
5

117:24
7 ^

1
1
... I will awake early
-

Hesychios,

1309B-D
Eusebios, 1339A-B;
it

Hesychios, 1320D

Didymos, 2.254.1039

Forhe hasdelivered
mysoulfrom

.,

.
j
death

338r-v

i8ir

Basil, 492C

1584C; .
Origen,

A,
Athanasios, 480A;
*
lheodoret, 1817A

342-V

192

195

psalmon theSundayafterEaster,
TSMtfo.

chios, 1289A-B

47

Description
r
and, sources

344

359V

205

Ps. 117was the


prokeimenonat
1

the
Divine Liturgy
,
Easter
of
Sunday,
^^^
-*
TSM
TGC

2:94,
248.

131:8

Arise, Lord
-

131:14

.
*t

Athanasios, 521D

138:16

138:18

... I have awakened, and am still


.
with you

_ .
,, A
Origen, 1664A

223V

142:8

Cause me to hear yourmercyin the


.
morning

.
,
Athanasios, 541C

Resurrection),
TTzC 2:172.
23
~

53

55

--

52

54

Ps. 131:8was the


prokeimenonfor
the gospel readings
at matins(mostly
concerning
& the

148:7

Didymos,
2.260.1280

235

~
Ps. 148 was the
antiphon of matins

'
, -w j
on the
5thWednesr
j
dayarterhaster,
TSM 268.

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82

MARI A EVANGELATOU

Textcontinued
frompage74.
Of the forty-seven
psalms in table 2 forwhich
no liturgicalusage is reportedin the Typikonofthe
Great Church,the wordingof at least twenty-eight
withthe
wouldbe moreor lesssuitableforillustration
Resurrection.
Thepsalmsreferto salvationfromdeath
orHades,theyasktheLordto rise,standup,orsavehis
whichwas
people,ortheyincludetheword"morning,"
takenbypsalmcommentators
to alludeto
consistently
thehour of the Resurrection.Referenceto the number eightin the psalmswould also have been recognizedbywell-educated
as an allusionto the
clergymen
due to therelevantinterpretation
ofthe
Resurrection,
or
the
"first
of
the
week"
in
day
patristic
"eighthday"
tradition(cf.Table 2, nos. 5, 13).63
Since none of these
withtheResurrection,
itis obvipsalmswas illustrated
ous thata relevantreference
in thecommentaries
and
an appropriate
not
were
sufficient
to
vocabulary
inspire
a Resurrection
miniature.The decisivefactorforillustratinga psalm versewith this Christologicalevent
seemsto havebeenitsuse in theliturgy.
Yet thisalone
is notenough;thevocabularyoftheversemustalso be
For example,psalmsthatwereemployed
appropriate.
in theliturgical
celebration
oftheResurrection
accordto
the
the
Great
Church
ing
Typikon
of
(althoughthey
werenotinterpreted
in thepsalmcommenaccordingly
taries)butdo not containa vocabularythatobviously
refers
to thiseventarenotillustrated
in the
accordingly

ninth-century
marginalpsalters.64
Some specificexampleswill further
indicatethe
ofbothliturgicalaffiliations
and appropriimportance
ate vocabularyas prominentfactorsin the choice of
illustrationsubjectmatterin the ninth-century
marthreecases,psalmverses
ginalpsalters.In thefollowing
arerelatedto morethanone Christological
eventin the
commentaries
their
(and
vocabularysupportsall such
but
the
event
illustratedin the marginal
references),
psaltersis theone withliturgicalaffiliations.

63 Table 2, numbers3-5, 7-12, 14-15,17-19,21-23,26, 33>38-42,


47>50,53-54
64 This is the case of Psalms26:1a,ib, and 3 (at Vespersof Holy
Saturday),31:1and 2 (afterthe baptismalriteon Holy Saturday),
76:i4b-i5a, n, 12,and 15b(afterVesperson SundayofEaster),and
32:22, 1, and 3 (prokeimenaanastasima, "of the Resurrection");
Mateos,Grandeglise(. above),2:84, 88,96, 174.In thepatristicsourcesand catenamanuscripts
at mydisposal,thesepsalmswere
notrelatedto Christ'sResurrection.

Psalm 40
Accordingto the catena manuscriptsand the published psalm commentariesthat I have consulted,
verses9 and 11of Psalm 40 (table2, no. 19)are related
to Christ'sResurrection:
"Theywerespeakingunlawfullyaboutme.Now thathe sleeps,shallhe notriseup
again?. . . you,Lord,havemercyon meand raisemeand
I willrepaythem."Likewise,verses6 and 7 arerelatedto
theJewsandJudasrespectively:
"Myenemieshavespokenbadlyofme.When willhe die andhisnameperish?
Wheneverhe would come to see me,he would speak
hisheartgathered
slander;thenhewouldgo out
falsely;
and spreaditabroad."65
verse10is relatedto the
Finally,
Last Supperand thebetrayalbythefaithlessdisciple:
"Evenmyclosefriend,
whomI trusted,he who shared
Thewordmybread,hasliftedup hisheelagainstme."66
of
all
these
verses
fits
their
ing
respective
Christological
However,in the Chludov Psalterthe
interpretations.
arethosethathave,in addition
onlythemesrepresented
topatristic
affiliations.
justification,
liturgical
According
to theTypikon
the
Great
verses
and 10-11
Church,
2,
6,
of
werechantedas prokeimena
on MaundyThursday,
with
a similarliturgicalusagerecordedin the Typikon
ofthe
while theversesinterpreted
as propheciesof
Savior,67
the Resurrection
werenot used in the Easterliturgy.
no
miniature
of the Resurrectionappears,but
Thus,
ratherthereis depictedJudastalkingagainsthismaster
to theJewsand theLastSupperwiththetraitor
turning
hisbackto Christalongsideverses6-12.68
65 Origen, Selecta in Psalmos, PG i2:i4i3A-C; Athanasios,
Expositio in psalmos, PG 27:i97B-C; Cyril,Expositio in psalmos, PG 69 :99 6- ; Theodoret,Interpretatioin psalmos, PG
8:4-5.
66 This interpretation
appearsalso inJohn13:18.Cf. Athanasios,
Expositioinpsalmos,PG 27:2ooA; Cyril(ofAlexandria),Expositio
in psalmos,PG 69:997; Theodoret,Interpretatio
in psalmos,PG
80:1165c.
67 Mateos, Grandeglise,2:74. Accordingto the Typikonofthe
Savior,verses2.iob-n aresungat thealleluiaon MaundyThursday
(Arranz,Saint-Sauveur[n.27 above],236).
68

The miniaturesappear on fol. 40V, and the only reference


signthatI see is theblue markaboveJudas'shead,whichreappears
betweenverses7 and 8. In myopinion,thesignwas intendedspecifiofverse
("unlawfulness")
callyto relateJudaswiththeword
7,whichis foundexactlyabovethemark.(The wordrightbelowit,
"he would go out,"could be takento allude to Judas
,
from
theLast Supperto perpetrate
his betrayal,
butis not
departing
as indicativeof his sinfulnessas the word .The signmight
have been used to drawattentionto each wordas complementing
theother'sallusionto thebetrayal.)The miniatureofJudastalking
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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
MarginalPsaltersI 83
Liturgy

Psalm87

In the catena manuscriptsand the publishedpsalm


I haveconsulted,Psalm87:6-7 is related
commentaries
to Christ'sEntombment:"Like thewoundedsleeping
in a grave. . . theyplaced me in the lowestpit,in the
Verses4-5 arerelated
darknessand shadowofdeath."69
to Christ'sDescent into the underworld,and verses
11-14to hisResurrection
(table, no. 40):

Thus, the Entombmentis depicted in both ninthcenturymarginalpsaltersin relationto Psalm 87:7,


whileno miniatureoftheAnastasisappears.72

Psalm 88

In the catena manuscriptsand the publishedpsalm


I haveconsulted,
verses23-30and 47-49
commentaries
Formysoulhasbeenfilledwithtroubleandmy
of Psalm 88 (table 2, no. 41) are relatedto Christ's
lifehas touchedHades; I was bornas a helpless
Resurrection.Of these,verse49 employsvocabulary
man,freeamongthedead. . . willyoushowyour
thatcould be easilylinkedto the event:"Who is the
wondersto thedead?Will thedoctorsraisethe
manwhowillliveandwillnotseedeath?Who ishewho
dead so theywill praiseyou?Will yourmercy
willsavehissoulfromthehandofHades?"On theother
in
be declaredin thegrave,yourtruthfulness
hand, verse13 is relatedto Christ'sTransfiguration,
be knownin the
Willyourwonders
destruction?
to Mount Thabor,wherethis
becauseof the reference
oryourrighteous
deedsin the
placeofdarkness,
Christologicaleventwas believedto havetakenplace:
AndI criedtoyou, Lord,and
landofoblivion?
"You created the north and the seas. Thabor and
willcomebefore
inthemorning
you.70
myprayer
Hermonwill rejoicein yourname."73
Accordingto the
verses
Great
the
Thewordingoftheaboveversescouldhaveequally
Church,
12-13were sung
Typikonof
at the alleluiaof the liturgyforthe celebrationof the
and
of Christ'sEntombment
inspireda representation
on 6 August(a similarliturgical
one ofhis Anastasis.Once again,in the Chludov and
usageis
Transfiguration
the
verses
while
the
in
the
recorded
the
one
illustrated
is
event
the
Psalters
thePantokrator
Typikon
of Savior),74
were
not
as propheciesoftheResurrection
withliturgicalaffiliations.
Accordingto the Typikon interpreted
As one mightexpect,in the
used in theEasterliturgy.
of the Great Church,verses7 and 2-3 of Psalm 87
wereprokeimenaat vespersof Holy Friday(a simi- Chludov Psalterit is verse13thathas been chosenfor
withthesceneoftheTransfiguration.75
lar liturgicalusage is recordedin the Typikonofthe illustration
The importanceof relevantvocabularyin combias propheciesof
Savior),while theversesinterpreted
is evenmoreevidentin
affiliations
werenotused in theEasterliturgy.71 nationwithliturgical
theResurrection
thosecaseswherea psalmis employedin theliturgical
butthe
to theJewsappearsrightwhereverse6 endsand alongsideverses7-9,
ofmorethanoneChristological
celebration
feast,
would have
and I believetheplannerand viewersoftheillustration
to
is usuallytheone moreappropriate
eventillustrated
relatedit to all theseversesthathavea commonthemeand vocabuthewordingofthepsalmtext.The followingexamples
is usedbothinverse6 andverse
"enemies,"
lary(e.g.,theword,
thiscase.
clearlyillustrate
in verse
in the
8 and
12).epkina,Miniatjury(n.
singular
reappears
4 above),relatestheJudasminiatureonlyto verses8-9, butthereis
TheLast Supperappears
forsucha limitedreference.
nojustification
rightunderverse12,but it is obviousthattheplannerand usersof
wouldhavealso relateditto verse10 as well("he who
themanuscript
sharedmybread,hasliftedup hisheelagainstme").ThePantokrator
and theParismarginalPsaltersarelackingthepertinentfolios.See
despsautiers
Dufrenne,L'illustration
grecs(n. 5 above),15-16,41for
on whichpsalmsaremissingfromthesetwopsalters.
information
69 Eusebios,Commentaria
inpsalmos,PG 23:iO57C-D (cf.A-B);
Athanasios,Expositioinpsalmos,PG 27:380c.
to the relevantpsalm
70 See table 2, number40 forreferences
whichappearsin verse14,was
Theword"morning,"
commentaries.
as propheticofChrist'sresurbycommentators
interpreted
regularly
the
rectionin references
throughout psalter.
71 Mateos,Grandeglisey2:80. In the Typikon
oftheSavior,verses
the
and
2
are
and
7
tropariaat the ninth
accompany
prokeimena

hourand atvespersofGood Friday(Arranz,Saint-Sauveur,


241-42).
72 Chludov Psalter,fol. 87; PantokratorPsalter,fol. 122.The
ParismarginalPsalteris lackingthepertinentfolio.See Dufrenne,
L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs,32,41,pl. 19.
73 Origen, Selecta in psalmos, PG i2:i548D; Eusebios,
Commentariainpsalmos,PG 23:10920.
74 Mateos,Grandeglise,1:360.1theTypikon
oftheSavior,verses
and
on thesameday
6
matins
of
2
at
and
are
13b
August,
prokeimena
Ps. 88:12and 16 is sungat thealleluia,88:i6b-i7 is thekoinonikon,
and 88:2 and 13baccompanythe troparia(Arranz,Saint-Sauveur,
i7b-77)
75 Fol. 88v.Therelevantfolio(124) is mutilatedin thePantokrator
and lackingin the ParismarginalPsalter(Dufrenne,L'illustration
despsautiersgrecs,16,41).
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84 I MARI A EVANGELATOU

Psalm 23
Psalm 23:7-10 (table2, no. 13;table 7, no. 2) is interas referring
both to Christ's
pretedin commentaries
Resurrectionand his Ascension,and it is also used
in hymnscomposedforthe liturgicalcelebrationof
both events.In the Chludov Psalter,the eventillustratedis theAscensionratherthan the Resurrection,
nextto theimagemakesreferalthoughtheinscription
enceto both:"Liftthegatesofheavenand ofHades/'76
As Sahoko Tsuji has observed,theologicallythe two
eventsare interrelated,
as thebreakingof thegatesof
Hades and Christstriumphoverdeathlead to theliftarrivalof
ingofthegatesofheavenforthetriumphant
theascendingPantokrator.77
It is worthaskingwhythe
Chludov miniatureemphasizesthe Ascensionrather
thantheResurrection.
Thewordingprovidesa plausible
answer.Psalm 23:7-10 reads:"Liftup yourgates,you
princes;be liftedup,youeternalgates,so thattheKing
ofglorymaycomein. Who is thisKing ofglory?The
Lordstrongand mighty,
theLordmighty
in battle.Lift
up yourgates, princes;be liftedup,youeternalgates,
so thattheKing ofglorymaycomein. Who is he,this
Kingofglory?The Lord ofthepowers- he is theKing
ofglory."
When relatedto theResurrection,
theseverses
be
taken
to
allude
to
the
moment
when
Christ
might
breaksthegatesof theunderworldto liberatethejust
fromthebondsofdeath(and in thiscontext,thereferenceto "theLord mightyin battle"is fitting).78
When
relatedto theAscension,thesameversesmightallude
to theopeningof thegatesofheavenforthearrivalof
ChristPantokrator.
In fact,certaindetailsin thewordof
these
verses
ing
mightbe morecompatiblewiththis
event,ratherthanChristsdescentintotheunderworld.
In Christiancosmology,
thegatesofheavenarecertainly
moreancient,and therefore
morefittingly
describedas
76 Fol. r," TOT OTPANOT KAI
."Therelevant
folios
aremissing
inthePantokrator
andParis
Psalters.
marginal
77 S. G. Tsuji,"Destruction
desportesdel'Enfer
etouverture
des
proposdesillustrations
du Psaume23,7-10et
portesduParadis,
duPsaume117,
tothe
19-10,"CahArch
31(1983):5-33,withreference
illustration
ofPsalm23ina number
ofeastern
andwestern
medieval
manuscripts.
78 Indeed,on folio29Voftheninth-century
Psalter,
Stuttgart
whichissupposed
todependona modelcommon
inByzantium
and
theWest,Psalm23:24isillustrated
withChristbreaking
thegatesof
the underworld. See A. b.2L':tsoms>
Anastasis: TheMaking ofan Image

(Princeton,
1986),85-86,fig.19.

thanthegatesoftheunderworld
"eternal,"
(createdafter
heaven,afterthefallofsomeoftheangels,and afterthe
sin of Adam and Eve,whichled to the subjectionof
humankindto death).Thetriumph
ofChristoverdeath
and thefinalresurrection
ofthejuston theDay ofthe
Last Judgment
also implythatthegatesof Hades are
noteternal.The "princes"and the"powers"overwhom
theKingrulesaremorereminiscent
oftheangelsofthe
realmthanthedemonsofHell,whofollowthe
heavenly
ordersof theDevil. The gatesof theunderworld
were
notwillingly
the
of
but
openedby powers darkness, were
brokenbyJesus,whilethegatesofheavenwere
forcibly
not violatedwhen Christenteredthemaccompanied
Therefore
thepsalmreference
to the
byhis "princess."
eternalgatesthatmustopenfortheroyalarrivalis more
withthestoryoftheAscension.
compatible
It is alsoworthy
ofnoticethatPsalm23:7wasused
intheByzantine
attheconsecration
ofchurches,79
liturgy
and accordingto theTypikon
oftheGreatChurchitwas
also employedin the annual commemoration
of the
consecration
ofimportantchurchesofthecapital.80
In
otherwords,thispsalmwas connectedwiththededicationofa holyspaceto God andhistriumphal
entryinto
it.Suchan occasionis analogousto thereentry
ofChrist
Pantokrator
intoheavenafterhisAscension,especially
sincea Christianchurchwasperceived
as
bythefaithful
heavenon earth.81
Theliturgical
use ofPsalm23forthe
forexample,
79 It ismentioned,
inthe8th-c.Barberini
eucholoandE. Velkovska,
eds.,
gion(cod.Vat.Barberin.
gr.336),S. Parenti
Barberini
Veucologio
156.3).See
gr.336(Rome,1995),172(prayer
alsotheTypikon
inMateos,Grande
oftheGreatChurch
glise(n.
i6 above),1:186.
80 Mateos,Grande
dedication
of
(6 September,
glise,1:16.17-21
thechapeloftheTheotokos
inthechurch
ofSt.Anna);1:138.13-20
dedication
ofthechurch
ofChalkoprateia);
(18December,
1:146.1021(23December,
dedication
ofHagia Sophia;cf.1:144.25-27,
22
Psalm23:7chanted
asthenavegatesofHagiaSophiaare
December,
a celebration
thatseemsconnected
bothwiththefeast
ofthe
opened,
and
with
the
of
day
1:334.7-9,
l9 (9
following
approach Christmas);
dedication
ofthechurch
ofPege);1:344.23-26
dedicaJuly,
(18July,
tionofthechurch
ofTheotokos
1:354.10-15
Kallistratou);
(31July,
dedication
ofthechurch
ofBlachernai).
81 Forexample,
seethereference
I ofConstantinople
byGermanos
in hisEcclesiastical
and
1,"The
History MysticalContemplation
church
isan earthly
heaveninwhichthesupercelestial
Goddwells
andwalksabout."P. Meyendorff,
ed. andtrans.,
St. Germanos
of
On
the
Divine
(NewYork,1984),56-57.
Constantinople:
Liturgy
ofByzantine
orByzantine-inspired
church
Comparethedecoration
doorswiththemes
thatrefer
totheentrance
ofthefaithful
intopar"ChurchDoorsandthe
adise,as discussed
byM. EnglishFrazer,
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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 85

consecration
ofchurches
couldhavebeenanother
source
ofinspiration
forthepositive
visualinterpretation
of
the"lifted
thanthose
gates"as thoseofheaven(rather
ofhell)in therelevant
Chludovminiature.
Although
itisimpossible
toknowifthepeoplewhoplannedthe
illustration
oftheByzantine
rationalpsalters
marginal
izedinsucha way,itisworthconsidering
it,giventhat
sources
andliturgical
couldhave
commentary
practice
either
a
of
the
Anastasis
orofthe
inspired
representation
Ascension.
Whatiscertain
isthatthepeopleresponsiblefortheillustration
ofthesepsalters
wereoften
faced
withmultiple
had
to
choose
options.They
subjects
different
sources
ofinspiration
andvarious
among
possianditisworth
thatmight
bilities,
patterns
investigating
their
decisions
andilluminate
their
criteria.
The
explain
as
well
as
more
evidence
example,
following
presented
indicates
thatappropriate
was
below,further
wording
an important
factor
intheillustration
ofthemarginal
withspecific
psalters
episodes.
Christological

theTypikon
on the
oftheSavioritis theprokeimenon
sameday.83
to
the
sameliturgical
sources,
According
Psalm117is thethirdantiphonon thefeastof the
Epiphany(Christ'sBaptism),and verses26-27a are
on the sameoccasion.84
On theother
prokeimena
ofwhichI am aware
hand,no psalmcommentaries
these
verses
as
ofChrist's
interpret
prophetic
Baptism,
and thetextdoes not includewordsthatcouldbe
considered
obviousallusionsspecifically
to thisevent
(no mentionofwater).In sum,verses24 and 26 of
Psalm117wereliturgically
in thecelebraemployed
tionof theResurrection,
theEntryintoJerusalem,
andtheEpiphany.
Patristic
commentaries
mentioned
thefirsttwoevents;however,
thevocabulary
ofthe
versesthemselves
allowedforan obviousconnection
withonlytheEntryintoJerusalem.
Psalm117:26is
indeedillustrated
withtheEntryintoJerusalem
in
theTheodoreand theBarberiniPsalters,
suggesting
thatoriginally
a similarminiature
mighthavebeen
containedin theChludovand possiblyalso in the
Pantokrator
and theParismarginalPsalters,
which
nowlack therelevantfolios.85
The selectionof the
Psalm117
eventto be illustrated
heremayhave
Christological
tothepublished
commentaries
andcatena beendetermined
aboveall bytheuseofPsalm117:26
According
thatI haveconsulted,
Psalm117:24(table in theGospelnarration
oftheEntryintoJerusalem,
manuscripts
reference
to theResurrection: whichmusthaveinfluenced
the relevantpatristic
2,no.51)is a prophetic
"Thisis the daywhichthe Lord has made;let us interpretation
and liturgical
use ofthisverse.Since
theGospelswererevered
morethananyothersacred
rejoiceandbe gladin it."Thesameverseis usedas a
on
Easter
to
both
their
of psalm
text,
prokeimenon
Sunday,according
interpretations
Christological
theTypikon
the
Great
Church
and
the
verses
would
have
been
well
known
and
of
Typikon
of
particularly
theSavior.However,itswordingdoes notmakean
respected.On theotherhand,thisexamplemight
obviousreference
to Christ'sResurrection,
and it is also indicatethatin theByzantine
psalters
marginal
notillustrated
witha relevant
ofa psalmverseforillustration
withan
imageintheByzantine theselection
Verse26 ofthesamepsalmreads: appropriate
scenedependedlargely
on
psalters.
marginal
Christological
"Blessedis he whocomesin thenameoftheLord. itsliturgical
on therespective
feastday
employment
FromthehouseoftheLordwe blessyou."Thisverse and on theappropriateness
ofitswording.
Theverse
isrelated
toChrist's
bothin the chosenforillustration
EntryintoJerusalem
amongthreepossibleoptionsis
in
and
in
as
well
as
the
one
that
in
to biblicalandpatristic
addition
Gospels
psalmcommentaries,82
only
theliturgical
celebration
ofthecorresponding
feast
associations
alsohasliturgical
affiliations
andrelevant
to
the
this
the
Great
Church
verse
The
will
further
demaccording
Typikon
of
vocabulary. following
analysis
is thekoinonikon
on PalmSunday,
andaccording
to onstrate
theimportance
ofthelattertwofactors.
GatesofParadise:ByzantineBronzeDoors in Italy,"DOP 27 (1973):

145-62.
82 Matthew21:9 and Mark 11:9; mentionedby Walter,
Themes"
(n. 15above),272,no. 12.Origen,Selecta
"Christological
inpsalmos,
PG i2:i584.C-D;Athanasios,
inpsalmos,
PG
Expositio
inpsalmos,
PG 80:1817.
27:480;Theodoret,
Interpretatio

83 Mateos,Grandeglise(. above),2:66; Arranz,SaintSauveur(.27above),228-29.


84 Mateos,Grande
Arranz,
Saint-Sauveur,
102-3.
glise,1:186;
L'illustration
85 TheodorePsalter,fol. 157(Der Nersessian,
despsautiers
202(Anderson,
Psalter,
53,fig.255);Barberini
grecs,
TheBarberini
Canart,andWalter,
Psalter,
134[bothn.7 above]).
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86 ARIA EVANGELATOU

Table 3. Psalmsillustrated
withChrist'sCrucifixion,
theCross,orotherrelatedscenesin theninth-and eleventhcentury
Byzantine
marginalpsalters
Psalter

No.

Psalm

Relevant vocabulary

_3

. . . Who will showus good things?The lightofyour


countenancehas been manifested()
un
2

21:8

God ... whyhaveyouforsakenme?


All who saw me mockedme

j>

.2

36

35V

19

ior

19

ior

IIV

v
X

23r

37V

21:17-19

. . . Theypiercedmyhands and myfeet.Theycounted


1
L
j
mybones ... theypartedmygarments

2or

45:7

The nationsweretroubled... he utteredhisvoice,the


luishook
earth

45V

xr
X

,r
X

r
79vc

68:22

me also gall
and made me drink
They
; gave
6
6 forrmyfood,
,
vinegarrormythirst

,
67

nn
88vb

x_
X

87V

114V

72V

98

96

124V

But God . . . has workedsalvationin themidstofthe

ft

,^

73:12

85:I7

Establishwithme a sign("")forgood; and let


.
1
1
L
L hate
L
them
that
me see itand11be ashamed.
...

86r

115

148V

98:5

Exalt theLord our God, and worshipat thefootstool


L 1
is
of
his feet,forhe
holy

98v

6v

X3IV

l68r

_
98:9

Exalt theLord our God, and worship


r at his holy
;
mountain

140

7r

131:7

Let us enterintohis tabernacles;letus worshipat the

ILL
place wherehis reetstood

IO1

I72V

223

nor

a Cf. no. on this


table;see also Walter,"ChristologicalThemes,"280.
7
Folios mutilated.Miniaturesreconstructed
byAnderson,"Prolegomena"(n. $ above),309,311.
'PS.45-.3
See Walter,
VisualPolemics,83-85.
Themes,"275,
e See also A. "Christological Stratain theCorrigan,
Cutler,"Liturgical
Psalters,"DOP 34-35 (1980-81): 22-23.
Marginal
fIllustrationthatdid not existin
9th-c.psalters,but added to nth-c.ones.
8 Walter,"ChristologicalThemes,"286.

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 87

Liturgicaluse

Psalmcommentators

-a
Origen,1253A;Asterios,134.25
Eusebios,208A-B; Athanasios,133A(Ps. 21:7)

Descriptionand sources

3
S

=
(2

cj
u

Used as thekoinonikonforthefeastofthe
ExaltationoftheCross on 14 September,
TGCi:3i,TSMi5

54V

21:2was theprokeimenonat vespersofGood


Friday,TGC 2:80, TSM 242, and thestichos
oftnetropariaon same day,TSM 240-41

<3

21:19was theprokeimenonat vespersof


Good Friday,TGC 2:80, TSM 237; Ps. 21was
theantiphonof 14 Sept. and thefixedpsalm
ofGood Friday,TSM 328,329

Origen,1257B;Athanasios,133D-136A;PseudoAthanasios,725B-C; Theodoret,1017A-B
.
A,
s^
Athanasios,216C

-
-la
-d
LireorDionysiostheAreopagite
~ .

_o r ,.

(Jngen,63;husebios,749-B;Athanasios,

a r j al
t^t^-j
321A;Pseudo-Athanasios,92SJJ;Didymos,
oo
r-ix-rLj
2.81-82.717;
Cyril,
1169; Iheodoret,1409
;

^
,.

Eusebios,861B;
ai.,/-.
Athanasios,336C

217V

9IV

i2$r

-, 1
, * n
Theodoret,1561A-B
Pseudo-Athanasios,1072C; Pseudo-Chrysostom,
781;Hesychios,1269A
Hesychios,1269B-C

_^__^^_^^_^

781
Pseudo-Chrysostom,

310

68:2-3 and 21-23weresungat thealleluia,


vespers
Friday,TGC 2:80. Ps. 68
r , ofrGood
T , ,
,
was thehxed psalm; 68:22,24 werethe
' .
,n 22
'
were
at
the
68:2,
prokeimenon;
.

. sungr^

alleluia and withthetropanono Good1


Friday,TSM 330,240, 242

Sung at thealleluiaoftheDivine Liturgy,14


oftheCross),
Sept.
v
' TGC 1:32.Ps.
v (Exaltation
.
, .
j
73:12,2 werethe prokeimenonat matinsand
1
1
n
re
-'*
Ps. 73 was theantiphonor 14 bept., 1 M 23,
i5>32-8

Ps. 85was thefixedpsalm fortheninthhour


ofGood Friday(and otherfeasts,e.g.,theeve
.

rr.L
o

'
or
Christmasand1Baptism,
24 Dec, 5Jan.),
TSM 330

Prokeimenonon 14 September(Exaltationof
theCross),TSM 25

Prokeimenonat theDivine Liturgyon 14


September(Exaltationofthe Cross),TGC

_,
-

Ps. 4S was theantiphonformatinsof 13Sept.,


. ~
.
,
, Exaltation
theeve orrthe
orc theCross,^*
TSM

^!i_________^

Quoted in a troparionsungon 14 September,


and on the 4th TuesdayofLent (veneration
ofthe Cross),TGC 1:28,2:40^

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88

MARIA EVANGELATOU

ChristsCrucifixion

The ninth-century
marginalpsaltersinclude miniaturesof the Cross or Christ'sCrucifixionin relation
to ninepsalmpassagesthatall havepertinent
wording
(table3,nos. 1-9):86theyeithermentiondetailscorrespondingto eventsoftheCrucifixion(like themocktherendingofgarments,
thebreaking
ing,thepiercing,
ofbones,thegallandvinegar,
ortheearthquake),
oruse
associated
with
expressions
traditionally
Golgothaand
theCrossin patristicliterature
(like"holymountain,"
"centeroftheearth,""footstool,"
"sign,"and derivative
and ).
In thecommentary
words,i.e.,
sourcesI consulted,eightof thesenine psalm verses
are relatedto the Crucifixion(table3, nos. 2-9), and
a liturgicalaffiliation
can be attestedforsevenofthem
nos.
1-3,5-6, 8-9).
(table3,
86

Number10 concernsa miniaturethatappearsonlyin theelev-

enth-century
marginalpsalters.

In thesamecommentary
sources,sixteenpsalms
otherthan those alreadymentioned(and sometimes
morethanoneversein eachpsalm)arelinkedto Christ's
Passionon theCross (table4). The wordingof at least
nineoftheseversesmighthaveprompted
an illustration,
sinceitcan be relatedto thecontempttheJewsshowed
towardChristwhenhe was hangingon theCross,the
abandonment
theearthquakethattook
byhisdisciples,
the
theredemption
place during Crucifixion,
brought
to humanity
and so on (table
throughChristssacrifice,
not one of
4, nos. 2-4, 6-9, 12,14, 16). Nevertheless,
themis employedin the liturgicalcelebrationof the
Crucifixion
totheTypikon
according
oftheGreatChurch
noneis illustrated
witha Crucifixion
and,predictably,
miniaturein the ninth-century
marginalpsalters.87
Likewise,ten psalms used in the liturgyof Maundy
87 Accordingto the Typikon
oftheSavior,one of thesepsalmsis
relatedto thecelebrations
forGood Friday(table4, number14).

Table 4. Psalmsthatwereinterpreted
as prophetic
ofChrist'sPassionon theCrossin Byzantine
psalm
but
were
not
illustrated
in
commentaries,
accordingly theninth-and eleventh-century
marginalpsalters
Liturgical use
No.

.2 ^
*c
bbrtMU^^^

Psalm

Relevant vocabulary7

Psalm commentators

19:6

[We will exultin your


salvation,and in thename
ofourGodshallwebe

~ .
_,
Or.gpn.n48B

3 .t

g .ti

,
and sources

magnified]

.
30:6

Into your
hands I will
'
. .
commitmyspirit

~ .

Ungen,
1300

30:1214

I becamea reproachamong
.
11mine
all
enemies

,.
, _,
Eusebios,269B

64

65

34:15-16

me
They
Jrejoicedagainst
&,
J sneered
. . . they
at me

Eusebios,308D-309A;

A
1
Athanasios,172C

Sov

72V

34:21

And theyopened
wide
, . mouth
,
their
upon me

. ,
.
.
Athanasios,i7sA

8iv

37:12

My friendsand my
neighbors... stood still;
.
and, mynearestorrikin
stood afaroff

. ...
12.26
Apolhnanos,
r

444

r^. ,
n
[G.rdyoursword]

Hesychios,1196A-B (sword
is theCross)

44:5

[Bendyourbow]

Cf. Paris,gr

^46

(bow is the

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 89

TABLE 4. Continued

Liturgicaluse
No.

Psalm

48:8-9

Relevant vocabulary7
. . . Shall a man redeem?He
shall notgiveto God his

atonement andj the price orr


the redemption of his soul

He delivered my soul ... As


for the sons of men, their
teeth are a weapon and
arrows and their tongue a

Psalm commentators

D .,

.2 *
*c
SbbSMU^^*

3 .a

g .ti

escrip ion
and sources

ii9r-v

Athanasios, 260C

163V

Theodoret, 1380C

Basil, 440B-441C

56:5

67:9

70:1011

For my enemies have


spoken against me ...
i- JL
1
saying God has forsaken
him

,.
n _,
Eusebios, 780B-C

10

75:4

[There (in Zion) he broke


the power of the bows, the
, 1
j
j
j
shield, and the sword, and
the battle]

.
.
, A,
n
Pseudo-Athanasios, 960C

11

77:i6

Pseudo-Athanasios, 972D
,,
in

288V

i6ir

339
"J

192
J

Ps. 108was
thefixed
at the
psalm
. .
9thhour
ofGood
Friday,TSM

sharp dagger

12

13

'

_
107:8

The earth quaked

* 11 1
1
And he brought water out

rill
ortherockj

You rejectedyourChrist
Athanasios,392B-C;
(anointed)... he became a
reproachto his neighbors Didymos,II. 176.891a;Cyril,
... you made all his
1210B
enemiesto rejoice
[God has spokenin
his sanctuary;
I will be
. j
, J ... .. ..

exalted, and will divide

Sikima

14

thatflowedfrom
(thewater
.
,
. , .,
4^L
Christs sideon theCross;

_
.
, . ,
^
Pseudo-Athanasios,1133D
J7

o
108:25

I becamealso a reproachto
,
lu
them;when
theysaw me
shook
theirheads
they

109:2-3

[The Lord sentout a rod


ofpowerforyououtof

w/
L
Zion
With
you is
dominionin thedayof
yourpower]

.
A,
Athanasios,
460D;
H ^ h '

542V

I94V

15

. A TT . .
^ .
Oneen,
b 1569A; Hesychios,

344

The mountainsskipped
like rams
16
[Who turnedthe rockinto
pools ofwater]

Hesychios,1332B-C (cf.
no. 11)

35ov~3$ir i99v-2oor

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?0 I MARI A EVANGELATOU

Table 5. Psalmsillustrated
withChrist'sBaptismin theninth-and eleventh-century
Byzantinemarginalpsalters
Psalter

No.

Psalm

Relevant vocabulary

28:3

The voiceoftheLord is upon thewaters,


theGod ofglorythundered,theLord over

!
-5

-g l
*
!

"2
2

31

47V

44V

2ora

many waters

73:13

. . . You broke to pieces the heads of the


dragons in the water, and the depths were
agitated, a great roaring of waters

72V

98

i2$r

3
7

76:17

The waters saw you, God, the waters

saw you, andreared

75V

/
^ '
(3V,Petr. 265)

xr
X

99

29V

113:3,5

The sea saw and fled,Jordan turned back

117

164V

26v

154

113:8

who turned the rock into pools of water and

L Hint
a
water
the
intospringso

2^v

l97v

a Folio mutilated.Miniaturereconstructed Anderson,


by
"Prolegomena"(n. 5 above),310.
Walter,"ChristologicalThemes,"279.
c Tikkanen,Psalterillustration,
52.

in Ps. 113:8and otherpsalms),whenMoses producedwater


ofthemiracleat Horeb (referenced
Comparethebaptismalinterpretation
out ofa rock(Ex. 17:1-7,Num. 20:1-13),discussedbyA. Semoglou,"L'icnesinatede la Crucifixion. 36 et son contenu'mosaque':
La dialectiquede la Passion,"Iconographica4 (2005): 11-21,esp. 14-17,fig.4 (he does not followtheSeptuagintnumberingofthePsalms
employedhere).

and Good Fridayaccordingto theTypikon


Thursday
of
thesamewayin
theGreatChurch(butnotinterpreted
also remainunillustrated,
sincetheir
thecommentaries)
to theCrucifixion.88
wordingis notappropriate
Eventhoughthepresentpaperaimsto highlight
oftheliturgical
factorin theillustration
theimportance
the
ofreferofByzantine
psalters, complexities
marginal
ofthesemanuscripts
should
enceseenin theillustration
Christ's
notbe ignored,
andtheminiatures
representing
Crucifixionor the Cross offersomeusefulreminders
Psalms82:19and 2; 75:12and 2; 139:2and 3; 58:2and 3; 2:2, 12,
3-4, and 5; 40:2, 6, and io-n; 69:2 and 3; 11:8,2, 3,and 140; 34:1,2,
and 3 (Mateos,Grandeglise,2:72-74, 78-80).

in thisrespect.For example,scholarshavenotedthat
the iconographiedetailsof the miniatureillustrating
Psalm45:7 on folio45VoftheChludovPsalter(table3,
thelifeof
no. 4) also relateit to a traditionconcerning
In otherwords,itwas not
DionysiostheAreopagite.89
thatinfluthe
the
and
only liturgy
psalmcommentaries
enced the illustrationof the ninth-century
marginal
psalters,but otherpatristicsourcesas well. Another
case involvesPsalms4:7 and 85:17(table3,nos. 1 and
in theChludovPsalter
7),bothofwhichareillustrated
withtheCrossbearinga circularimageofChrist.The

88

89 Walter, "Christological Themes," 275; Corrigan, Visual


Polemics(n. 3 above),83-85.
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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 91

Liturgicaluse forthefeastoftheEpiphany
(Christ'sBaptism,6 Jan.),and theeveof5Jan.

Psalm commentators

i_.

r>.

HeSVChlOS, I241D-I244A

r L ^r> /- a
husebios,896D-C; Astenos,
^ .,
^
133:4-5;

Cyril,

II92D

*J
^

r r^ -1
Basil,289C-D; Didymos,
; .

,
,

I.260.255;Theodoret,1065A

59
y

242

253V

350V

.tS

u.
j3

J
$

Description and sources

.a

u%

Ps. 28 was theantiphonat theeve ofEpiphany,and 28:3


was sune at thealleluiaofthefeastproper(6 Jan.),
^rr-r n/

l
TGC :8,
i86,TSM 98, 103;Ps. 28:3was the
. .
.T
, c ,
n o
prokeimenonon 5-6 Jan.,rs. 28 was thenxed
psalm on 5Jan.,TSM 95,101,329.

I34V

Ps. 73 was recitedon the 6thhourof 5Jan.,Ps. 73:14


was thestichosat the 9thhour,TSM 330,96; allusions
~
r
11
11
to rs. 73 areround
in thecelebration
orrii-1
theEpiphany
(unspecifiedrite).

Prokeimenonon the 3rdhourof 5Jan.,and verseofthe


alleluia thefirstSundayafter6 Jan.,TSM 95,104. Ps.
,
,
,
1^/1
T ^
at the
6thhouron 5Jan.,
TSM 330;used,
76 was recited

L L

U
L
1

-C L
bybophroniosorjerusalemin his hymnsrorEpiphany
(unspecifiedrite).c

n
138V

words""
(Psalm 4:7) and ""(Psalm
an
association
with the Cross. In the
85:17)promote
case ofPsalm 4:7, thisconnectionappearsonlyin the
of theverseas a koinonikonon
liturgicalemployment
whentheExaltationoftheCross is cel14 September,
ebrated(table3,no. 1). In thecase of Psalm 85:17,it is
of Theodoretthatinteronlythepsalm commentary
pretsthe word ""as a referenceto the Cross
(table3,no. 7). The factthatbothversesareillustrated
in theChludovPsaltercouldindicatethatthedesigner
oftheillustration
eitherwas awareofboththeliturgical
orwas inspiredby
practiceand thepsalmcommentary,
one of thesesourcesin orderto applythe samevisual
to bothverses(becauseof theirsimilar
interpretation
he couldhavebeenawareof
vocabulary).
Alternatively,
theuseoftheword""
as a reference
to theCross
in otherpatristictexts,while ignoringthe liturgical

Psalm 113was theantiphonon 6 Jan.,and verses1,3,5-6,


and 11weresungat vespers,TGC 1:186,TSM 102,103;
verses3 and 5 ofPs. 113weresungwiththetroparionon 6
Jan.and Ps. 113was thefixedpsalmfor5Jan.TSM 103,330.

and psalm-commentary
references
mentionedabove.90
In otherwords,a strictdistinctionbetweenliturgical
and otherpatristic
works
sources,psalmcommentaries,
is not alwayspossible(or meaningful)in theexaminationofmarginalpsalterillustration,
as all threesources
seemto haveplayedan importantrole.Moreover,the
interest
in iconophilepolemicswas thecataoverriding
ofthemesthatmighthave
lystin thefinalpresentation
been
other
sources.Forexample,
inspiredby
originally
in thecase of Psalms4:7 and 85:17,thecircularimage
of Christ that appearshangingfromthe Cross is an
elementwithobviousconnectionsto iconophileargumentsabouttheequal (orevensuperior)venerability
of
to the exegeticaltraditionthat interpretsthe
90 For references
words""
and ""
of Psalms 4:7 and 85:17as referencesto theCross,see Corrigan,VisualPolemics,72,n. 53.
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?2 I MARIA EVANGELATOU

holyiconscomparedwiththesignof theCross.91The
betweenliturgicalinfluences
interaction
sophisticated
and iconophilepolemicsin ninth-century
marginal
in
the
second
is
illustration
further
discussed
psalter
will
be
more
At
evidence
of
this
paper. present,
part
the
of
the
the
for
importance
liturgythrough
given
events.
oftwomoreChristological
examination

of theEpiphanyhavewordingthatis not germaneto


to the glory
Christ'sBaptism(e.g.,generalreferences
to his people,or to
ofGod, to theprotectionhe offers
ofsins- themesthatcouldbe relatedto
theforgiveness
otherChristologicalepisodesas well,forexamplethe
1will examineone
Crucifixionor theResurrection).94
morevividlytheimporcase in moredetailto illustrate
tanceofliturgicalaffiliations.

Christs
Baptism
Christ'sBaptismis depictedthreetimesin both the
buttheevidence
Chludovand thePantokrator
Psalters,
of the Theodoreand the BarberiniPsalterssuggests
Psalm
theexistenceof a fourthminiatureillustrating
from
the
now
28:3,
ninth-century
manuscripts
missing
sourcesavailableto me,
(table$).92In thecommentary
all fourpsalms are relatedto Christ'sBaptism.The
sinceitdoesnot
wordingofthetextfavorsthisexegesis,
taken
to referto
but
can
also
be
mention
water,
simply
son after
to
be
his
thevoiceofGod proclaiming
Jesus
in theJordan(Matthew3:17,Mark 1:11,
his immersion
Luke 3:22,Psalm 28:3);thedefeatof thedeviland his
demonsin thewatersofBaptism(Psalm 73:13);or the
characterof Christ'sBaptism,evidentin
supernatural
All four
theagitationofthewaters(Psalms76:17,113:5).
of
in
celebration
the
verses
are
also
used
liturgical
psalm
event(table5).
thisChristological
In the commentarysources, six other psalm
to Christ's
versesareconsideredas propheticreferences
of
them
is
None
employedin thecelBaptism(table6).
ebrationof theEpiphanyaccordingto the Typikon
of
in theninththeGreatChurch,and noneis illustrated
centurymarginalpsalters,althoughin mostcases the
wordingofthetextcouldhavemotivatedthedepiction
to agitatedrivers,
of Christ'sBaptism(e.g.,reference
hisSon,or anointingwithoil- analGod proclaiming
ogous to the anointingof Christand the initiatesby
Otherpsalmsusedin thecelebration
theHolySpirit).93
91 Ibid.,73.
Psalter
witha
inthePantokrator
92 Psalm76:17wasillustrated
it:
itdoesnotrepresent
scenethatalludestotheBaptism,
although
oftheJordan
towardthepersonification
Christis shownwalking
and anotherriver(Dufrenne,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs[n. %

with
thepsalter
above],28,pl. 13).Thefoliowascutfrom
together
ofSt.Petersburg
thatarenowkeptinthePublicLibrary
three
others
foliois3V.
ascod.165- therelevant
totheTypikon
93 According
oftheSavior,oneofthesepsalmsis

Psalm 113
Accordingto thecatenaeof codicesParis,gr.146 and
Marc. gr.17,verses4 and 7 of Psalm 113(table4, no.
16) arerelatedto theearthquakethatfollowedChrist's
Crucifixion:"The mountainsskippedlike rams,the
hills like lambs. . . the earth trembledat the presenceoftheLord,at thepresenceoftheGod ofJacob."
towater(the
verses3,5,and 8,whichrefer
Consequently,
ofwaterfroma
seaandtheJordanRiver)andtheflowing
in the
rock(allusionto Exodus17:1-7),wereinterpreted
to thewaterand blood that
samesourcesas references
had flowedfromChrist'ssideon theCross and to the
of theevent.In
baptismaland eucharistiesignificance
to Christ's
is
related
verse
cod. Marc.gr.17Z,
3 directly
ofthispassagefully
jusBaptismaswell,andthewording
with
than
a
connection
tifiesthisinterpretation
(more
see table5,no. 4): "Thesea lookedand
theCrucifixion;
fled,Jordanturnedback."In otherwords,thenatural
elementofwaterin whichChristwas immersed
during
contact.
his Baptismwas agitatedbythesupernatural
Thepsalmcommentaries
publishedin Patrologia
graeca
in relationto all these
preserveonlyone interpretation
to the blood and waterflowing
verses:the reference
in relationto
fromChrist'ssideduringhis Crucifixion
is
made
forverses3,
to
the
verse8. No reference
Baptism
5,and 8. The allusionin theabovepsalmpassagesboth
to earthquakesand the agitationof theJordanwould
justifythe depictionof both Christ'sCrucifixionand
literature
bothinterpretaBaptism.Indeed,in patristic
to themiracleofthewatertionsarediscussedin relation
flowingrockbyMoses at Horeb mentionedin Psalm
on5-7January
ofChrist's
tothecelebrations
related
(table
Baptism
6,number
$).
94 Psalms140,66:2-3,4-5,and6-8; 92:1-2;79:4,1,26,and27;
44:2-,,and4~sa; 148:1;31:1,114,and117(Mateos,Grande
glise[n.26above],1:176-86).
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Psalters
I%
andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
Marginal
butwere
ofChrist'sBaptismin Byzantinepsalmcommentaries,
as prophetic
Table 6. Psalmsthatwereinterpreted
in
ninththe
and
notillustrated
eleventh-century
marginalpsalters
accordingly
Liturgical use celebrating
Christ's Baptism
<

No.

n
Psalm

2:7

5
J

r,

ii
Relevant
vocabulary

commentators
Psalm

... You are myson

Asterios,133.5-6
(cf.Matt. 3:17,Mk. i:n,
Lk.3:iz)


J2
S M)

. . . ThereforeGod . . .
has anointedyouwith
theoil ofgladness
beyondyourfellows

Cyril,1040B (Christ
anointedbytheHoly
Spiritduringhis

65:6

... Theyshallpass
throughthe river
(Jordan)on foot

Origen,1500A-B;
Eusebios,653B;
Asterios,133.1-2

198V

7i:8

And he shall have


dominionfromsea to
,r
1
sea, and fromtheriverto
theends oftheearth

r ,.
o -
Lusebios,804C-D

230

92:3-4
; j

The rivershavelifted
up theirvoices. . . the
, .
the
L sea are
billowsof
wonderful

97:8

The riversshallclap
1.1
1
1
theirhands together

.2 J
S ^
fe &

'

(J

2
*S
5

Description
andj sources

Ps. 92:1-5 was sungwith


thetroparionon 5Jan.;
Ps. 92 was theantiphon
rv

j
on vespersof
6 Jan.,
and
the fixedpsalm on 5Jan.,
TSM 97, 103,330.

Baptism)

~
r ,.
Eusebios,1192C

TT

,.

Hesvchios,
;

. n ^

1263JD-C

in notec). However,liturgi113:8(see table5,literature


cal affiliations
existonlyforthe Baptism.According
to the Typikon
oftheGreatChurch,Psalm 113was the
whileverses1,3,
thirdantiphonalpsalmon 6 January,
5-6, and 11weresungat vesperson thesameoccasion.
Similarliturgical
affiliations
arerecordedin theTypikon
the
the
Savior
number
(table5,
4). On thecontrary,
of
versesinterpreted
as prophecies
oftheCrucifixion
were
notusedin theliturgy
oftheHolyWeek.It comesas no
in
that
all
three
surprise
ninth-century
marginalpsalters

129V

,
167

itis Christ'sBaptism,and nothisCrucifixion,


thatillustratesPsalm113.

Christs
Ascension
TheAscensionis depictedfourtimesin theChludov
as proPsalter,and all fourpsalmsare interpreted
to theAscensionin thecommenpheticreferences
sources
available
to me.Thewordingis fitting
tary
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94 I MARIAEVANGELATOU

Table 7. Psalmsillustrated
withChrist'sAscensionin theninth-and eleventh-century
Byzantine
marginalpsalters
Psalter

No.

Psalm

17:11

i
J
J2
*o

1
,
he
new on thewingsorrwinds

14

v
X

v
X

i6v

27V

27V

22

2$v

41

voo
X

58v

8ir

77

7ir

95V

mounted
oncherubs
andflew,
i

23:7-10

Liftup yourgates,youprinces;
be liftedup,youeternal
gates,so thattheKing ofglorymay
come in. Who is thisKing ofglory?
The Lord strongand mighty.. . .

.
46:6

God is gone up
witha shout,theLord
?. . .
withthevoiceorra trumpet

4^v

5^:6

Be exaltedabove theheavens, God;


1
1
11
1
and1 yourglory
above
all
earth

55V

107:6

Identicalto Psalm 56:6

5C

.* j

js
S

Relevantvocabulary

149

.2

189V

a Tikkanen,
Psalterillustration
, 63.
b
Psalterillustration,
63.
9; Tikkanen,
Tsuji,"Destruction,"
cIllustration
butthatwasaddedtonth-c.ones.
thatdidnotexistin9th-c.psalters,

forsuchan exegesis,
sincetheversesmentionflying
on cherubim
and winds,theopeningofeverlasting
ofthekingofglory,
andGod's
gatesfortheentrance
All four
abovetheheavens.
ascentandhisexaltation
verses
arealsousedintherelevant
celebration
liturgical
(table7).95
The samecommentary
sourcesconsiderverses
ofelevenotherpsalmsto be prophetic
references
to
95 Table 7,no. 5concernsa miniaturethatappearsonlyin theeleventh-century
marginalpsalters.

theAscension(table8); in eightofthese,thewordsince
ingcouldeasilyhaveinspiredan illustration,
it mentionsascentor dwellingin highplacesor in
theheavens(table8, numbers
1-4, 7-10). However,
noneof theseverseswas used in theliturgicalcelnoneof
ebrationoftheAscension,and predictably
in
withan Ascensionminiature
themis illustrated
The
theninth-century
psalters. antiphonal
marginal
oftheGreat
psalmsthat,accordingto the Typikon
oftheAscension
aresungin thecelebration
Churchy
in additionto Psalm46 do nothavewordingthat
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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 95

Liturgical use forthe feastof the Ascension

Psalm commentators

<j
**

-d

^
"

Description

and sources

Eusebios, 172A-B; Athanasios, 112A

37V

48

Used in a canon on the Ascension byJoseph


the Hymnographer (Constantinople, 9th c,
unspecified rite).a

Origen, 1269A; Eusebios, 224A;


.

A,
^
*
Athanasios, 141C; Pseudo-Athanasios,

51V

58

.
. .
,.
r
r the
,
in various hymns ror
Extensively
J used
.
,
-r j 'h
c
c
,
reastortheAscension
rite).

_. ,
~
733B;Tneodoret,
1033B

Athanasios,
217C;Pseudo-Athanasios,
833D;
1208D
Cyril,1053B-C;Theodoret,

12V

0 2V

(unspecified
r

Ps.56:6isidentical
to 107:6,whichwasused
as theprokeimenon
attheDivineLiturgy
of
thefeast,
TGC 2:128;Ps 56wastheantiphon
TSM 329.
duringmatinsofthefeast,

Eusebios,
260C; Pseudo512A;Athanasios,
Athanasios,
876C

1312A-B
Hesychios,

Ps.46 wasthethirdantiphon;
Ps.46:6
wasusedatthematinsandtheDivine
ofthefeast,
TGC 2:128,184;Ps.
Liturgy
andtheverseat
46:6 wastheprokeimenon
thealleluiaandkoinonikon;
Ps.46 wasthe
ofthefeast,
TSM 271-73.
antiphon

338V

192

can be directly
relatedto thisChristological
event
are
not
in
the
(and
interpreted
psalm
accordingly
commentaries);96
consequently,
theyare not illustratedin the ninth-century
psalters.One specific
will
be
to
used
illustrate
moreclearlythe
example
of
affiliations.
importance liturgical
96 Psalms85,140,41,and45 (Mateos,Grande
glise,2:126-28).
Theantiphonal
intheTypikon
Savior(inaddipsalmsrecorded
ofthe
tionto46) are44 and45(Arranz,
Saint-Sauveur,
328).

inTSM.
Seeno.4. Notmentioned

Psalm8
In thepsalmcommentaries
and thecatenaemanuavailable
tome,Psalm8:2(table8,no.2) isinterscripts
as
toChrist's
Ascension:
Lord,our
preted referring
is yournamein all theearth!For
Lord,howmajestic
has beenexaltedabovetheheavyourmagnificence
ens."In thesamesources,
as wellas inMatthew21:16,
verse3 is relatedto Christ'sEntryintoJerusalem:
"Fromthelipsofchildrenand infantsI willordain
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?6 I MARIA EVANGELATOU

but
ofChrist'sAscensionin Byzantine
Table 8. Psalmsthatwereinterpreted
as prophetic
psalmcommentaries,
in
the
ninthand
werenotillustrated
eleventh-century
marginalpsalters
accordingly
usecelebrating
Liturgical
Christ's
Ascension

No.

Psalm

7:8

8:2

i8:7


ii
Relevant
vocabularyJ

The congregationofnations
shallencircleyou,and forthis
cause you returnon high

.r
,
has
. .. ror yourmagnificence

Psalm
commentators

Athanasios,8oB;
Pseudo-Athanasios,
669D; Cyril,752A
Eusebios,128B;
A

,
111
been exalted above
, ,
the heavens

Astenos, 121.29;
_
^. ,
1.147.48;
Didymos,
L .,
^
Cyril, 757C

His starting point is from


the extremityof heaven,
,,,
,
,
,
and his goal at the other

^.,
.211-12. iss
Didymos,
J

-g

as
%

2
g

Description
andj sources

34

ior

42-v

207V

122

2"

&&>*
.
<j
<*

15V

"a

end ofheaven

67:19

,,

,. ,

You are gone up on high

Pseudo-Athanasios,
^

67:34

Singto God who rideson


theheavenofheaven
towardstheeast

Eusebios,720A;
Athanasios,303C-D;
Theodoret,1397B

68:30

Didymos,2.84.722a

84:9

Theodoret,1549

88:28

I shall makehim a
first-born,
higherthan
kingsoftheearth

i6or

90:11-12

He shallgivehis angelscharge
concerning
. shall
L 11L
bear
you
They
youupon theirhands

l65r

103:3

. . . He who makesthecloudshis
chariot,he who walks
on thewingsofthewind

Hesychios,1284B

179

112:5-6

Who is like Lord our God, who


dwellson highand looks upon
. ,
, , ,.

thelowly
thingsin heaven,and
on theearth?

,.
Eusebios,1349C-D

11

131:8

223V

211V

317V

123

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 97

by this investigationis that the use of the psalterin


Byzantineliturgywas a basicguidelinefortheillustrationofthecodicesin question,especiallywheremajor
Christologicalepisodeswereconcerned.
Theremayhavebeena practicalreasonforthis.The
mostlikelyhigh-ranking
plannersof the manuscript,
were
familiar
withtheriteof the
clergymen, certainly
were
no
Church
and
doubt
Byzantine
regularparticiuse
pants.Theirconsequentknowledgeoftheliturgical
theman easilyaccessiblesourceof
ofthepsalteroffered
ofthis
for
the
interpretation
inspiration
Christological
of
Old Testamentbook.Moreover,theappropriateness
vocabularyin the psalm versesillustratedwithmajor
Christologicaleventsmightalso have had a practical
purpose:it could havebeen a mnemonicaid, a factor
of these
that made the Christologicalinterpretation
psalmversesmorememorablethanthatofotherswith
less relevantvocabulary.But theremayalso havebeen
affiliofliturgical
fortheimportance
The evidence presentedthus far suggeststhat the
ideologicalcriteria
ationsand appropriate
of psalm versesduringmajor
wording.By drawingattention
liturgicalemployment
celfeastsof the Orthodox Church and theirappropri- to thosepsalmversesthatwereusedin theliturgical
ebrationofmajorChristological
ate vocabularywerebasic criteriaforthe selectionof
events,theillustration
on thebasisof
versesforillustrationamong the many interpreted declaresthevalidityofitsinterpretation
As sourcesofChristological
Therearealso
in psalmcommentaries.
exegeliturgicalauthority.
Christologically
werenotas venerable,
a fewcases of Christologicalminiaturesthatseem to
sis,psalmcommentaries
homogof
ratherthan
on liturgicalinspiration
enous,or indisputableas theliturgicalemployment
dependexclusively
did
thecommentators
At the same time,certain thepsalms.Althoughrespected,
on psalm commentaries.101
work
and
their
on
their
teachnot
miracles
or
such
as
interpretations,
alwaysagree
Christologicalepisodes,
Thiswas
but
could be refutedor evenforgedbyheretics.103
ing scenes,seem to have no liturgicalaffiliations
the
not
the
case
with
were inspiredby the Gospels, psalm commentaries,
liturgicalpractice, appliedtheolor other patristictexts.102The conclusion reached ogyand livingtraditionoftheChurch,thesanctityof
whichwas unquestionable.The illustrationof psalm
validChristological
versesthatappeartobe indisputably
97 Eusebios, Commentaria in psalmos, PG 23:128; Cyril,
reference
is
made
In
cases
both
Expositioinpsalmos,PG 69:757c.
prophecies(by theirvocabularyand liturgicalaffiliato Matthew21:9,16.
tions)placesparticularemphasison a basiciconophile
98 Mateos, Grandeglise, 2:66. Arranz,Saint-Sauveur(n. 27
sinceChrist's
claimwellknownto modernscholarship:

praisebecauseofyourenemies,to silencethe foe and


In otherwords,both versesare interthe avenger."97
in thecommentaries,
and both
pretedChristologically
include vocabularyreminiscentof their respective
events- theAscensionand theEntryintoJerusalem.
However,onlyone of themhas liturgicalaffiliations:
accordingto the Typikon
oftheGreatChurchand the
the
Psalm
Savior,
8:3 was used as the koiTypikonof
nonikon in the Liturgyof Palm Sunday,probably
inspiredby the referenceto this psalm versein the
it is the
Not surprisingly,
relevantGospel narrative.98
that
was
not
the
Ascension
into
and
Jerusalem
Entry
illustratedin theeleventh-century
Bristol,Theodore,
The samescenewas probably
and BarberiniPsalters.99
includedin the ninth-century
psalters,but unfortunatelytherelevantfoliosarenow damaged.100

above),229.At ibid.,227-28,Ps. 8:3.2is a prokeimenonand accompaniesthetropariaofthesamefeast.


99 TheodorePsalter,fol. 6r (Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdes
psautiersgrecs[. above], 19,fig.12). BarberiniPsalter,fol. 14
(Anderson,Canart,and Walter,BarberiniPsalter[n. 7 above],61).
despsautiersgrecs
BristolPsalter,fol.15V(Dufrenne,V illustration
[see. 5 above],54,pl. 48).

100 The relevantfoliois lackingfromthe ParismarginalPsalter,


Psalters
and is extantbutmutilatedin theChludovand Pantokrator
(fols. 7 and 21 respectively).Cf. Anderson,"Prolegomena"(n. 5
above),308.
101 See table 1, numbers2, 10; table 3, number1; also Walter,
Themes,"278-79, nos. 63-65 formoreexamples.
"Christological
102 See ibid.,272 no. 6 (cf.Eusebios, Commentariain psalmos,

In psalmos,PG
PG 23:740-41), 273nos. 9 (cf.Pseudo-Chrysostom,
55:761),20, 25; 274 nos. 29, 34, 39, 42, 43, 45, 47; 275 no. 50; 280
no. 73 (cf.Athanasios,Expositioinpsalmos,PG 27:312c). The broad
scopeofsourcesemployedin theselectionofsubjectmatterand even
certainiconographiedetails in the ninth-century
marginalpsalinwhich
culturalenvironment
ters- a clearsignofthesophisticated
thesemanuscriptswereproduced- is a subjectthatI hope to treat
in a futuremonographbasedon myPh.D. dissertamoreextensively
tion(see n. 9, above).
103 For theproblemof textualinterpretation
duringthe iconoclast crisisand its connectionto ninth-century
marginalpsalter
to liturgicalsources),see Corrigan,
illustration(withno reference
VisualPolemics(n. 3 above),113-20.
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?8 I MARIAEVANGELATOU

Incarnation
wasforetold
intheOldTestament,
fulfilled psaltersis anotherexpression
ofthistheology,
also
in theNewTestament,
in the builton manylayersofmeaning.Someexamplesof
andregularly
celebrated
it
in
should
also
be
made
visible
themultiplicity
ofreferences,
withspecialattention
liturgy,
images.104
This argumentis openly emphasizedin a
totheliturgical
areexamined
below.
factor,
fewminiatures
witheucharistie
matter.105
subject
somecompositions
in theChludovPsalter
Moreover,
seemto base theirpolemicalmessagenot onlyon
Case studies
but
also
on
as
shown
iconophile
inspiration,
liturgical
in thesecondpartof thispaper.It appears,there- In thispartoftheinvestigation,
focuses
on
myanalysis
influence
on theillustration thesubjectmatter
andiconography
ofa fewmarginalfore,thattheliturgical
of theninth-century
andaimstohighlight
theirliturgiminiatures,
marginalpsalterscan also be psalter
considered
and
in connection
to thepro-Orthodox
or
polemically
pro-Orthodox specifi- cal references
and system- specifically
of
the
illustration.
The
callyiconophile,bothin its extensive
iconophile
message
aticinfluence
and in its conceptualfunction.This general
intention
istodemonstrate
notonlytheextent
accordswiththeviewthattheByzantine
was
but
also
the
of
influence
onthe
liturgy
sophisticationliturgical
in itsdefenseofOrthodoxy
militant
illustration
ofthesepsalters,
andtogivefurther
(althoughin a
proof
rather
than
a
of
the
interaction
between
the
various
sources
manner),
panegyrical
by
contesting
complex
thedogmatic
beliefs
andcon- oftheillustration
anditsoverriding
gradually
incorporating
iconophile
agenda.
cernsoftheChurchuntiltheywereeveryday
I
first
mention
twocaseswhichprovethateven
experiencesofthecongregation
thewords,images, whencertainminiatures
through
appearprogrammatically
the
and
entire
ofthe designed
topromote
an iconophile
movements,
objects,
mystagogy
message
seemingly
rite.106
Theillustration
oftheninth-century
to theliturgical
ofthepsalter,
marginal unrelated
employment
theinspiration
whichledtothechoiceoftheirsubject
matter
have
after
all.
might beenliturgical
104 K. Parry,
theWord:Byzantine
Depicting
Iconophile
Thought

TheMedievalMediterranean
oftheEighthandNinthCenturies,
12(Leiden,1996),125-32;A. Giakalis,ImagesoftheDivine:The
Ecumenical
Studiesinthe
Council,
Theology
ofIconsat theSeventh
of
Christian
54
History
Thought (Leiden,1994),78-81,103-6;L.
ArtintheNinthCentury:
Brubaker,
Practice,
"Byzantine
Theory,
and Culture,"
BMGS 13(1989):40-42; J.Lafontaine-Dosogne,
Visionsauxquelles
lesprophtes
dans
"Thophanies:
participent
l'artbyzantin
la
restauration
des
Art
aprs
images,"
Synthronon: et
de lafinde l'Antiquit
etduMoyenAge(Paris,1968),
Archologie
SeealsoCorrigan,
VisualPolemics,
to
135-48.
49-89,withreference
literature.
on theEucharist,
whichtheiconoprevious
Specifically
clastsperceived
as animageofChristandtheiconophiles
as Christ
seeS. Gero,"TheEucharistie
DoctrineoftheByzantine
himself,
Iconoclasts
anditsSources,"
BZ 68 (1975):4-22.
105 Suchas theCommunion
oftheApostles
Psalms
illustrating
a circular
iconof
33:9and109:4(orDavidandMelchisedek
flanking
ChristinsteadoftheCommunion),
discussed
Visual
byCorrigan,

TheIllustration
theChludov
Psalter
ofPsalmp8in

Theminiatures
Psalm98 on folio98Vof
illustrating
theChludovPsalter
discussed
(fig.1)areinsightfully
by
The
Cross
set
on
the
hill
of
corCorrigan.
Golgotha
toverse5:"ExalttheLordourGod andworresponds
ofhisfeet,
forheisholy."
shipatthefootstool
Corrigan
mentions
thatin psalmcommentaries
and patristic
literature
the"footstool"
wasconsidered
a reference
to theCross,andtherefore
is
the
exegesis
inspiration
forthisillustration.
Belowthisimageverse6,"Moses
andAaronamonghispriests
andSamuelamongthem
thatcalluponhisname,"is illustrated
withthethree
Polemics,55-59.
biblicalfigures
identified
to
byinscriptions.
According
106 Fortheissueofliturgy
as theology
R. Taft,
see,forexample,
MosesandAaron(thelatter
a censer
holding
EastandWest:
Problems
inLiturgical
Beyond
(Rome, Corrigan,
Understanding
and
like
an
dressed
Old
Testament
turn
See
also
Anastasis
for
Kartsonis,
priest) invenl997)>2-33-38.
(n. 78 above),227,
a reference
to thecanonsoftheCouncilin Trullo(691-692AD)
eration
towardthescrollsin Samuel'shandsthatrepthatemphasized
theyearly
andweekly
commemoration resent
liturgical
theholyscriptures
oftheJews.Shesuggests
that
oftheResurrection
in response
to variousheretical
beliefs;and
thejuxtaposition
between
theCrossandthethree
bibliSt.Germanos
Meyendorff,
(n.81above),42 fF.,
ofConstantinople
esp.
cal
the
scrolls
illustrates
an
figures
venerating
argument
theemphasis
onChrist's
inthe
Incarnation
48-52,oninterpreting
insupport
oftheveneration
oftheCrossandtheicons
ontheEucharist
Germanos
asresponse
to
commentary
byPatriarch
andiconoclasm
inparticular.
thatwasoftencitedin iconophile
sources:
as theJews
heresy
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I 99
Psalters
oftheNinth-Century
andtheIllustration
Marginal
Liturgy

fig. 1 Moscow,StateHistoricalMuseum.Cod. 129,ChludovPsalter,folio98V,


Psalm98:5-6.TheCross;Moses,Aaron,and Samuel.CourtesyoftheState
HistoricalMuseum,Moscow.

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ioo I MARIA EVANGELATOU

In theChludov
in theirholyscrip- carriesa circular
honorthewordofGod contained
imageofChrist).110
riteforthe
turesandnottheinkandparchment
withwhichthey Psalter,
onlyverse5 (usedin themonastic
arewritten,
the
honor
Christ
and
Exaltation
of
the
is
illustrated
with
a
Christians
cross;howCross)
similarly
thesaintsthrough
theveneration
oftheCrossandthe ever,thecathedral
riterecorded
in theTypikon
ofthe
iconswithout
the
or
the
wood
Church
offers
us
two
further
clues
for
worshipping
pigments.107Great
possible
This explanationilluminatesthe meaningof liturgical
influence
on theillustration
ofPsalm98 in
to thistypikon,
the
iconographiedetailsin the serviceof iconophile theChludovPsalter.
According
but
it
overlooks
the
affiliations
fourth
chanted
on
seems
to
14 September
polemics,
liturgical
troparion
on whichthechoiceofsubjectmatter
wasprobably refer
toPsalm98:5("ExalttheLordourGod
precisely
based.Cutlerdiscussestheuse ofverses5 and 9 of andworship
athisfootstool").
that"Today
Bydeclaring
Psalm98 in thecelebration
oftheExaltationofthe theprophetic
wordshavebeenfulfilled,
forbeholdwe
Crosson 14September
inthemonastic
andthecathe- bowinproskynesis
attheplacewhereyourfeetstood,
dralritesrespectively,
and makessomeobservations Lord,"thetroparion
seemstoalludetotheprophecy
of
the
influence
of
one
or
the
other
or
in
David
Psalm
that
mentions
the
"footstool"
of
rite,
98:$
regarding
evenofbothrites,on thispsalm'sillustration
in the theLordortheplacewhere
his"feetstood."111
Another
to mypro- sourceofinspiration
fortheillustration
ofbothverses
Byzantine
psalters.108
marginal
According
basisfortherepresentation
ofthe 5 and6 ofPsalm98 intheChludovPsalter
couldhave
posal,theliturgical
Crossin relationto Psalm98 wouldhaveenhanced beena troparion
chantedon thefirst
SundayofLent,
theauthoritative
valueofthisvisualcomment,
and whichwasdedicated
tothememory
ofMoses,Aaron,
wouldhavereinforced
anyiconophilemessagethat andSamuel,whenPsalm98:6wasusedas a stichosat
theentirecomposition
wasintended
topromote.
But thealleluia.Thistroparion
"Theassemannounces,
thereismoretobe saidregarding
influence.
of
the
withMosesandAaron,
liturgical
bly
prophets,
together
As alreadymentioned,
theninth-century
litur- rejoices
which
greatly
todaybecausetheCross,through
ofthePantokrator
Psalterreflect
have
saved
shines
and
their
us,
gicalnotations
only you
brings
prophecies
thecathedralrite,whilethoseof theChludovand totheirfulfillment."112
Thecombined
reference
tothe
ParismarginalPsaltersdemonstrate
interest
in and prophets
andtotheCrosson thedaydedicated
tothe
withboththemonasticand the cathe- three
biblical
in
mentioned
Psalm
familiarity
98:6
figures
mayhave
dralrites.In accordance
withitsliturgical
theircombined
on
notations, inspired
folio
98Vof
representation
thePantokrator
Psalterincludesa miniature
of the theChludovPsalter.
churchofGolgothain connection
to verse9, which
Theemphasis
ofthesetwotroparia
on thefulwasaprokeimenon
forthefeastoftheExaltation
ofthe fillment
ofprophecies
the
Cross
(i.e.,Christ's
through
Crossaccordingto the Typikon
the
Great
Church.109
us
another
Passion)might
of
help comprehend
yet
aspect
Theprophets
Perhapsthemostcharacteristic
exampleofthecom- ofthisChludovillustration.
venerating
binedinfluence
ofbothritesis offered
heldbySamuelcanbetakentohonor
bytheillustra- theholyscriptures
tionofPsalm98 in theParismarginal
where andtherefore
theirownprophecies
Psalter,
aboutthe
sanctify
bothverses5 and 9 areilluminated
of
the
Incarnation
in
contained
the
the
of
scrolls; fulfillment
byimages
Crossat Golgotha(in thesecondcase,thecrossalso theseprophecies
isvisualized
abovethembytheCross,
whichillustrates
theOld Testament
textofthepsalms.
In otherwords,theprophets
validatetheChristian
107 Corrigan,VisualPolemics,41-42.
108 Ibid., 41, note 72, mentionsCutler'sreference
to the use of
Psalm98 in thefeastfortheExaltationoftheCross,butin hermain
textshementionsonlypatristicsourcesand iconophilepolemicsas
thebasisforthecreationofthispsalm'sillustration
in theChludov
Psalter.See Cutler,"LiturgicalStrata"(n. 18above),22-23. For the
see table3,nos. 8 and 9 (Mateos, Grandeglise
liturgicalreferences
[. above],1:32;Arranz,Saint-Sauveur[n.27 above],25).
109 Fol. 140 (Dufrenne,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs[n. 5
above],33,pl. 21);Cutler,"LiturgicalStrata,"22,fig.9.

110 Fols. 6v,7(Dufrenne,L'illustrationdespsautiers


grecs,43,pl.

36).
111

Mateos, Grande Eglise, 1:28: "

,."Cf.Ps. 98:$:"
,."

112 Mateos,GrandeEglise,2:20: " ,


,
,
."
,

DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
MarginalPsalters
Liturgy

fitsthisexegesis.
Whatisofparticuvisu- passageperfectly
thatisprominently
oftheOld Testament
exegesis
ofverses1-2:"Why
hereistheillustration
withnumerous larconcern
theChludovPsalter
alizedthroughout
nations
the
then
did
the
and
The
illustration
of
Psalm
scenes.
98
conspire
peoplesplotinvain?
Christological
of
took
their
standand therulin
The
the
earth
miniatures
the
Chludov
the
whole
of
cycle
kings
justifies
the
Lord
andagainsthis
ers
the
truth
withimages
thatspecifically
Psalter
together
against
emphasize
gathered
theiconophile
oftheIncarnation,
andtherefore
psalters
argu- AnointedOne (hisChrist)."Mostmarginal
a minthe
text
include
this
of
that
still
foreseen
the
mentthattheevents
preserve part
by prophets
through
the
iature
relevant
to
Christ's
theirminds'eyeandphysically
by high
interrogation
byeyewitexperienced
reflect
notonly
Theseminiatures
andPilate.118
mustalsobevisible priests
nesses
atthetimeoftheIncarnation
also
the
but
icons.
The
fulfillment
the
toallChristians
commentaries,119
liturgicaluse
psalm
through holy
on
as
of
these
verses
validathe
and
ofOld Testament
prokeimena MaundyThursday
resulting
prophecies
and
toboththeTypikon
inByzantine according
faithisa basictheme
tionoftheChristian
oftheGreatChurch
Once more,thewording
andspecifically theTypikon
as wellas in pro-Orthodox
oftheSavior.110
liturgy,113
withsuchan exegesis.
is
of
the
makes
the
This
psalm fullycompatible
liturgical
iconophileexpositions.114
Psalterpreserves
the
Chludov
on
folio
2v
marthe
other
Psalter
on
the
influence
Chludov
However,
(and
theJews
scene:Isaiahreproaching
a totallydifferent
evenmoremeaningful.
ginalpsalters)
in Isaiah
theirLordas described
fornotrecognizing
the
above
is
inscribed
which
1:4,
image(fig.2). As
Psalter
2
in
the
Chludov
Psalm
TheIllustration
the
ChludovPsalter
of
the
reader
of
Corrigannotes,
wouldhaverecalledthatin Isaiah 1:3theprophet
All theByzantinemarginalpsaltersthatstillpre- says,"Theoxknowshisownerandtheasshismaster's
ofChrist's crib,butIsraeldoesnotknowme,"and wouldhave
servePsalm2:7 includea representation
thedecreeof theLord: the relatedthiswiththeox and ass thatappearadoring
Nativity:"Proclaiming
Lordsaidtome,Youaremyson,todayI gavebirthto ChristinthesceneofhisNativity
directly
represented
followIn
other
Isaiah.
of
the
beneath
lead
the
words,
was
This
verse
image
following
interpreted,
you'/'115
illustration
the
Isaiah
of
the
of ing patristic
1,
andHebrews1:5and 5:5,as prophetic
ofActs13:33
exegesis
to
bothin thepsalmcommentar- oftheChludovPsaltercombinestwominiatures
Christ'sIncarnation
Christas the
sinceitwas criticizetheJewsfornotrecognizing
useoftheverse,
andintheliturgical
ies116
of24 December(accord- Messiah,whenevenanimalswereabletoseethetruth
in thecelebration
employed
1 believethatin the
inJesus.121
oftheGreatChurchand the ofGod's Incarnation
ingto boththeTypikon
ofthispsalm eyesofninth-century
Thevocabulary
iconophilesthiscomposition
Typikon
oftheSavior).111
connotations.
wouldhavehadobviousanti-iconoclast
hadspecial
Incarnation
the
of
on
the
reality
Old Testament
113 Manyofthenumerous
incorporated Emphasis
excerpts
wereusedexactly
feasts
ofvarious
inthecelebration
Christological
of theNew Testament
becausetheywereconsidered
prophetic
inTables1,3,5,and7.
thecasesrecorded
events.
See,forexample,
114 Seen.104above.
fol.9V(Dufrenne,
fol.iv. BristolPsalter,
115 ChludovPsalter,
fol.
despsautiers
L'illustration
54,pl. 47). TheodorePsalter,
grecs,
despsautiers
V illustration
2(Der Nersessian,
grecs[. above],
fol.7V(Anderson,
Canart,andWalter,
Psalter,
18,fig.3).Barberini
iniPsalter[n.7 above],57-58).
Barber
PG 23:88A-B;
Commentaria
116 Eusebios,
Athanasios,
inpsalmos,
PG
PG 27:68A; Cyril,Expositio
inpsalmos,
inpsalmos,
Expositio
PG 8o:88oB.
69:721;Theodoret,
inpsalmos,
Interpretatio
117 Psalm2 was one of the threeantiphonalpsalmson 24
verse7,wereprokeimena
andspecific
verses,
December,
including
verses
andmonastic
onthesameday(cathedral
7band8 accomrite);
on thesameday(monastic
rite).See Mateos,
paniedthetroparia
Saint-Sauveur
Grande
Arranz,
r.152;
(n.27above),78,81.
glise,

Herodand
fol.2r:twoofficials,
118 TheodorePsalter,
probably
witha Jewwhopointsdown,towardAnnasand
Pilate,converse
des
L'illustration
Christ(Der Nersessian,
Caiaphasconfronting
of
rulers
the
fol.
Barberini
Psalter,
7:
17-18,fig.3).
psautiers
grecs,
Barberini
Christ(Anderson,
theearthwithout
Canart,andWalter,
fol.9:therulersoftheearthwithout
Psalter,
57).BristolPsalter,
despsautiers
L'illustration
Christ(Dufrenne,
53,pl.47).
grecs,
119 Eusebios, Commentariain psalmos,PG 23:8oD-8iC;
PG 27:64C-D; Cyril,Expositio
Athanasios,
inpsalmos,
Expositio
PG
PG
Theodoret,
69:720c;
inpsalmos,
Interpretatio
inpsalmos,
8:87-87.
120 Mateos,GrandeEglise,2:74;Arranz,
Saint-Sauveur,
235.In
hour
onthefirst
Ps.2:1.2isalsosungwiththetroparion
thistypikon,
matins
the
is
andtheentire
ofGoodFriday,
antiphon
during
psalm
onthesameday(ibid.,238,236).
VisualPolemics
121 Corrigan,
(n.3above),45-46.
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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102

MARIA EVANGELATOU

fig. 2 Moscow,StateHistoricalMuseum.Cod. 129,ChludovPsalter,folio2v,


Psalm2:1-2and 2:7.Isaiah reproaches
theJews;Christ'sNativity.
Courtesyof
theStateHistoricalMuseum,Moscow.

DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
MarginalPsaltersI 103
Liturgy

forthe iconophiles,
who justifiedthe
significance
ofhishuman
of
Christ
on
the
basis
representability
ofbeingsiminature.122
Theyaccusedtheiconoclasts
lar to Jews,becausebydenyingChrist'srepresentlike
exactly
abilitytheyalso deniedhisIncarnation,
theJews,
whoopposedbothiconveneration
andthe
In iconophile
Incarnation
oftheMessiahinChrist.123
theiconoclastsare also said to be worse
literature,
thananimals,forunlikethemtheyare notable to
histruths.
This
obeytheirLord'swilland recognize
in
here
the
be
echoed
juxtaposition
comparison
might

122 For a discussionof this basic iconophileargumentsee, for


example,Parry,DepictingtheWord,70-80; Giakalis,Imagesofthe
Divine, 101-3; Brubaker,"ByzantineArt in the Ninth Century,"
33-39(all n. 104 above).
to thisparallelismbetweeniconoclastsand Jews
123 References
can be found,forexample,in: the
(and therelevantargumentation)
actsof the SeventhEcumenicalCouncil, in Sacrorumconciliorum
ed. G. D. Mansi (fromnow on referred
nova etamplssimacollectio,
to as Mansi), 53volumes(Paris-Leipzig,1901-27),13:173c,196DE, 273C-D, 276A-B; PatriarchNiktphoros,Apologeticus
prosacris
ae
PG ioo:6i6A, 752C, 761C, 780C, Nicephori
patriarch
imaginibus,
anni
et
eversio
81s,
constantinopolitani
synodalis
refutatio
definitionis
ed. J.M. Featherstone(Leuven,1997),6 (3:1-7), 12 (6:57,61),42
(19:50-52),55(25:63),62 (28:45-50),71 (31:80),118(72:34)12,8
(76:13),163(92:10-12),256 (159:53-54);Theodorethe Stoudite,
Refutatioet subversioimpiorumpoematum,PG 99:453, 465,
473B. For miniaturesof the Chludov Psalterthatmake director
indirectreferenceto the iconophiles'comparisonbetweeniconoclasts and Jews,see Corrigan,Visual Polemics,29-33. Corrigan
references
in the illustrationof the
(61-63) relatesthe anti-Jewish
ninth-century
marginalpsaltersto iconophile claims thatJews
againsthereinspirediconoclasmor to a generalorthodoxoffensive
tics(suchas Muslimsand Paulicians)whowereseento haveconnecand in theirhostilitytoward
tionswiththeJewsin theirarguments
ByzantineOrthodoxy.Next to thishistoricalor pseudo-historical
I believea moremetaphoricalreadingshould also
interpretation,
be keptin mind:thecondemnedJewsas an allusionto the"Jewishiconoclasts.Thetypologicalinterpretation
minded"()
ofbiblicalminiaturesin theninth-century
marginalpsaltersas refconflictbetweeniconophilesand iconerencesto thecontemporary
oclastsis a majorthemein myPh.D. dissertation(n. 9, above). For
someexamplessee M. Evangelatou,"VirtuousSoul, HealthyBody:
of
The Holistic Concept of Health in ByzantineRepresentations
Christ'sHealing Miracles,"in HolisticHealingin Byzantium,ed. J.
Chirban(Brookline,2010),173-241,and eadem,"BiblicalScenesas
Metaphorsof ContemporaryConflictsin the ByzantineMarginal
Psalters,"in theproceedingsofthedaystudy"Imageand Text,the
held
TheodorePsalterand RelatedMiddle ByzantineManuscripts,"
3 May 2003, Instituteof ByzantineStudies,Queen's University,
Belfast(forthcoming).

iconooftheimpiousJews(alludingto theJew-like
and
the
obedient
animals.124
clasts)
observes
thatthetwoimages
Corrigancorrectly
on folio2voftheChludovPsalter"worktogether
to
makea statement
from
that
made
the
different
very
by
scenealone,"butherassertion
thatthisstateNativity
on theliturgy
or on psalm
ment"is notdependent
true:
the
is
not
entirely
liturgy
mightin fact
exegesis"
fortheillustrahavebeenthesourceof inspiration
theJews.125
tionofPsalm2:1-2withIsaiahreproaching
Isaiah
the
Great
to
the
Church,
Typikon
According
of
andthesecond
1:1-20is thelectionbetweenthefirst
ofversesfromthebeginning
prokeimenon,
consisting
on thefirst
ofPsalms1 and2 respectively,
Mondayof
Theconnection
ofPsalm2:1-2withIsaiah1:4
Lent.126
is therefore
madein theritualofHagia Sophia,and
as oneofseveralfactors
shouldbe considered
leading
hereandguiddiscussed
to thechoiceoftheimagery
sancofitsviewers.
practice
Liturgical
ingtheresponse
1
connection
ofIsaiah andPsalm
tionedtheexegetical
to Isaiah1:4
2:1-2;butthechoicetousethereference
for
the
Psalm
with
2:7 was also
Nativity
juxtaposed
commenother
sources
influenced
by
(e.g.,patristic
motivated
taries)andwasultimately
bythepolemical
to serve,as
Psalter
was
the
Chludov
designed
agenda
stresses.
rightly
Corrigan
of
I turnnowtothediscussion
ofa fewminiatures
hashad
inwhichliturgical
influence
theChludovPsalter
effect
not
andfar-reaching
a muchmoresophisticated
but
also
on
the
the
matter
on
iconography
only
subject
tothem.
viewer
ofthescenesandthepossible
responses
124 For example, in a passage fromthe Seventh Ecumenical
Council iconoclastsare describedas "moreirrationalthantheirrationalbeings,"because,contraryto animalsthatacknowledgetheir
creatorand followhis commandments,
theyare opposed to divine
law: Mansi i3:2i2C-D. For othersimilarexpressionssee,forexamtrsadversusConstantinum
ple,PatriarchNikephoros,Antirrhetici
PG ioo:72iB-C,
PG 100:276,477, Apologeticus,
Copronymum,
et
ed.
Featherstone

eversio,
,
740
(n. 123above), 58
Refutatio
(26:17-18); Theodorethe Stoudite,Epistles,in TheodoiStuditae
Epistulae,ed. G. Fatouros(Berlin,1992),244 (epistle126.6-7), 558
in Georgiimona(epistle402.6-10); GeorgetheMonk, Chronikon,
chiChronicon,
ed. C. de Boor (Leipzig,1904; correctedand re-edited
on fols.23V1978),780:17-18.Theminiatures
byP.Wirth,Stuttgart,
24 ofthe Chludov Psalterseemto referto the sameidea oficonoclastsas beingwilderthananimals.See theanalysisin Evangelatou,
"ByzantineMarginalPsalters"(n. 9 above),51-53.
125
126

Corrigan,VisualPolemics,4.
Mateos,Grandeglise(n. 26 above),1:12.
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104 I MARIAEVANGELATOU

TheIllustration
64and6$
ofPsalms
intheChludov
Psalter

11:"You shallblessthecrownoftheyear(ortheannual
)
becauseofyourgoodcycle:
ness;and yourplainsshallbe filledwithfatness."The
Here I examineone of the mostobviousinstancesof
liturgicalusage of thisverseand of the entirepsalm
miniature mightofferthekeyto thesourceofinspiration
and the
liturgicalinfluencein a marginal-psalter
and attemptto disclosesomeof itsless obviouslayers intendedmessageofthisminiature.
of meaning.At the lateralmarginof folio6zv of the
Accordingto the Typikonofthe Great Church,
ChludovPsalter,twodeaconssoundsemantrato sum- Psalm 64:12 was sungas the stichosat the alleluia of
monthefaithful
to theliturgy,
whilethelowermarginis
theDivine Liturgyon 1 September,
thefirstdayofthe
filledwitha representation
ofPentecost
calendar
when
God's
(fig.3).Corrigan Byzantine
year,
blessingforthe
indicatesthatthedepictionofthedeaconsisa rareexam- nexttwelvemonthswas invoked.129
The entirePsalm
in whichliturgi- 64 was sungas the thirdantiphonon the same occaple of a marginalpsalterillustration
calpracticeis reflected
in thechoiceofsubjectmatter.127 sion.130Betweenthe singingof the entirepsalm and
moreextensive
indicates
thatliturgical verse12as thestichos,thelectionwas fromColossians
However,
analysis
influence
had an evengreater
effect
on thiscomposition. 3:12-16,whichbeginsand endswithphrasesreminisThe two deacons are connectedby means of a
centof thevocabularyand contentof Psalm 64:i4.131
reference
to
Psalm
"The
rams
of
the
flock
As
thepsalmistmentionstheramsclothedwithwool,
64:14:
sign
areclothedwithwool,and thevalleysshallaboundin
so theapostlementionstheflockofChrist,whichmust
be clothedwithChristianvirtues,132
and as thepsalmgrain;theyshallcryaloud,theyshallsinghymns."An
arrowlike
toward
the
deacons
is
attached
ist
mentions
the
of
the
Lord
nature,
signpointing
bythriving
praising
to the initialletterof thisverse.128
The deaconswho
so theapostlementionsthepraisingoftheLord byhis
summonthe faithfulare like ramsin a flock,leaders virtuouschildren.133
The flourishing
of natureand of
of the congregationthatpraiseGod forthe prosper- humansouls in prosperity
and virtueis thesubjectof
ityhe sendsto theplantsand theanimalsoftheearth the liturgyon 1 September,when the congregation
thewholeyear,as describedinverses12-14. wouldinvokeGod's blessingformaterialand spiritual
throughout
The firstofthetwodeaconsappearsrightnextto verse well-being
theyear.Accordingto thecathethroughout
dralrite,Psalm 64 playeda majorrolein theliturgical
127 Corrigan, Visual Polemics, 149, n. 13. The semantron
celebrationof thatday,not onlybecause it provided
is a woodenboardstruckwitha malletto summonthe
()
the thirdantiphonand its twelfthverse("you shall
faithful
to church.It is stillused in Orthodoxmonasteries
today.In
blesstheannual cycle"was thestichosat thealleluia),
theEcclesiastical
disHistorybyPatriarchGermanos,itis specifically
but
also becausethisverseinspiredthecentralpartof
cussedas thecall forthecongregation
to attendtheDivine Liturgy.
See below,p. 106.
thebasic troparionof thedaythatwas chantedthree
128 The initial ofthisverseis coloredwiththesamebluewith
times:at matins,duringtheprocessionthatfollowed
whichthearrowattachedto itwas painted.The arrowand colored
Psalm64 was also very
it,and in theDivine Liturgy.134

initialare original(datedto the 9th and not to the I2th-i3thc,


whenthetextofthepsalmswas rewritten),
sincetheletterhas the
uncial script,and not the rounded
pointedshapeofninth-century
shape of the initials that were added in red (above the original
ones in sepia)whenthepsalmswererewritten
in minusculescript.
Compare,forexample,the otherinitialEs on thisand the facing
folio (62v-63r): the lowerpart of the originalpointed written
in sepia is stillvisiblebelow thelaterroundedredE. It seemsthat
becausetheinitial ofverse14 was alreadycoloredin the 9th to
act as a reference
in red.For a detailed
sign,it was not overwritten
examinationoforiginalcoloredinitialsoftheChludovPsalterthat
wereintendedas reference
signsand forargumentson theirninthcenturydating,as wellas othercasesoforiginalreference
signsthat
relatespecificpsalm verseswith the appropriateminiatures,see
Evangelatou,"ByzantineMarginalPsalters"(n. 9 above),246-56.
See also Corrigan,VisualPolemics(n. 3 above),143,forreference
to a
feworiginalreference
signs.

129 Mateos,Grandeglise(n. 26 above),1:8.8.


130 Ibid.,8.1.
131 Ibid.,8.6.
."Colossians
132 Ps. 64:14: "

."
The
3:12:"
sameversesarecombinedin theTypikon
oftheSavior,Arranz,SaintSauveur(n. 27 above),14
133 Ps. 64:14: ",
."
Colossians

3:16:",

."
134 Mateos, Grandeglise,1:4.13-18,8.14,8.26-10.1.The troparion containedthephrase"blessthe annual cycle"("

whichwas based on Ps. 64:12 ("


"),
").
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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 105

fig. 3 Moscow, State Historical Museum. Cod. 129,Chludov Psalter,folio 62V,Psalms 64:12-14
and 65:1-4. Deacons sound semantra;Pentecost.Rectangles highlightthe signs that relatethe
deacons to Ps. 65. Ovals highlightthe signs thatrelatethe apostles to the word "rams" of Ps. 64.
FromM. V. epkina, MiniatiuryKhludovskoi Psaltyri(Moscow, 1977); courtesyof the State
Historical Museum, Moscow.

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io6 I MARIAEVANGELATOU

importantin thecelebrationof thenew calendaryear


in the monasticrite.Accordingto the Typikonofthe
Savior,the same troparionthat echoed Psalm 64:12
was sungon thevigilof 1 September,
whenthepsalm
verseitselfwas also usedas a stichos.135
On thefeastday
proper,theentirePsalm 64 was one of theantiphons,
and verse12was used in the Divine Liturgyas a koinonikonand as a stichosat thealleluia.136
In otherwords,Psalm 64 and especiallyverse12
would have been easilyrecognizedby the Byzantine
viewersof the Chludov Psalteras an integralpart of
theliturgicalcelebrationforthe inaugurationof the
calendaryear.Consequently,thetwo deaconssounding semantranextto verses12-14 of thispsalm suggestthe inaugurationnot onlyof one servicebut of
thewholecalendaryear.The summoningdeaconsare
theramswho lead theflockofthecongregation
to celebratethenew yearand praiseGod, while askingfor
abundance and prosperity.
In fact,the two deacons
inauguratenot only the calendar yearbut also the
liturgicalyear,whichaccordingto the Lectionaryof
theByzantineChurchstartedon EasterSunday.The
undulatingreference
signinsertedaboveeach deacon
reappearsabove the beginningof Psalm 65, "Shout
unto God, all the earth. Sing praises to his name;
givegloryto his praise/'137
Accordingto the Typikon
the
Great
Church,Psalm 65 was the firstantiphon
of
on EasterSundayand thewholefollowingweek.138
So
the two deacons invitethe congregationto gather
and celebratethegreatestfeastof the Church,which
marksthe beginningof the liturgicalyearand proclaimsthesalvationoftheworld,and at thesametime
theyannouncethebeginningofthecalendaryearand
inviteGod to blesstheannualcycle.
Anotherinauguralmomentisdepictedatthelower
marginof the folio:the initiationof the ecumenical

135 Arranz,Saint-Sauveur,
13:3-6,12:19.
136 Ibid.,13:11,
14:9,.
137 Likewise,on fol.io6v of the BarberiniPsalter,the two deacons are relatedto both Psalms64:14 and 65:1(Anderson,Canart,
and Walter,BarberiniPsalter[n. 7 above],94). On thecontrary,
on
fol. oftheTheodorePsalterthetwo deaconsare relatedonlyto
Psalm 65:1 (Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs[n. y
above],36,fig.129).
138 Mateos,Grandeglise,2:220. Ps. 65 is also thefirstantiphon
of EasterSundayaccordingto the TypikonoftheSavior,Arranz,
Saint-Sauveur,
249.

Churchon thedayof Pentecost.139


LaterI analyzethe
commonthreadthatconnectsthedeaconswhosummon
the congregation
fortheinaugurationof the calendar
and liturgicalcycles,and theapostleswho areinspired
to summonthenationsfortheinauguration
oftheecumenicalChurch.Here,I discusstheliturgical
affiliations
of thePentecostminiature.The sceneappearsdirectly
beneaththefourthverseofPsalm6$: "Let all theearth
worship
you,andsingtoyou;letthemsingtoyourname."
Variouspsalmcommentators,
likeEusebios,Athanasios,
and Cyril,relatethewholeofPsalm65 to thecallingof
thenationsbyChrist,an eventthatwas emphatically
However,theexegetiproclaimedduringPentecost.140
cal interpretation
alone can hardlygivea fullexplanationforthe illustration
of thispsalmwithPentecost,
sinceotherpsalmswerealso thoughtbythecommentatorsto prophesy
thecallingofthenations,butwerenot
illustrated
a
Pentecost
miniature.141
by
Accordingto the
the
Typikon
of GreatChurch,Psalm65:1-4was sungat
thevespersofHoly Saturday.142
In addition,as already
noted,Psalm6$was thefirst
antiphonfortheSundayof
Easterandforthewholeweekfollowing
it.Thisliturgical
usageis in linewiththecommentaries
byDidymosand
who
saw
in
1
verses
and
references
3
Cyril,
respectively
to Christs Resurrection.143
One mightexpectthatthe
coincidence
oftheliturgical
andpatristic
interpretations
ofthepsalmwouldhavetriggered
an illustration
with
a sceneof theResurrection,
since
the
title
in
especially
the ChludovPsalteridentifies
Psalm 65 as a psalm"of
the resurrection/'144
However,the wordingof Psalm
to the
65:1-4itselfdoesnotmakeanyobviousreference
139 The eventdescribedin Acts 2 was consideredthe beginning
ofthediffusion
of Christ'steachingto theworldthroughthegrace
of the Holy Ghost. See C. Walter,L'iconographiedes concilesdans
la traditionbyzantine,
Archivesde l'orientchrtien13(Paris,1970),

199;A. Mantas, T

(843-1204) (Athens,2001),202
10,esp.204, 208,210.
140 Eusebios,Commentariainpsalmos,PG 23:648; Athanasios,
Expositioinpsalmos,PG 27:288; Cyril,Expositioinpsalmos,PG
69:11320.
141 Forexample,accordingto Eusebios,thefollowing
psalmsforetellthecallingofnationsbyChrist:2, 8,21,22,23,46, 56,58,64, 66,
67,71,80, 85,95,97,99, 101,106,107,112,116,and 127;Commentaria
inpsalmos,PG 2:68-72.
142 Mateos, Grandeglise,2:84. The sameuse is recordedin the
249.
Typikon
oftheSavior,Arranz,Saint-Sauveur,
143 See table2,number30.
144

" ."
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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 107

Resurrection
ofChrist,butinsteadmentionsthepraises
thatthewholeearthaddressesto God, a situationmore
oftheconversion
oftheworldtoChristianity
reminiscent
and the inaugurationof the Churchinitiatedon the
dayof Pentecost.Indeed,accordingto the Typikon
of
in the
Pentecostwas commemorated
theGreatChurch,
firstfourdaysafterEaster,whenPsalm6$ was thefirst
from
Thelectionsforthesedayswereexcerpts
antiphon.
On thefirst
totheeventsofPentecost.145
Acts2 referring
MondayafterEaster,whichwas dedicatedto theapostles,verses$,2, and 3 of Psalm 18werechantedduring
Thispsalmwas also chantedon
theDivine Liturgy.146
all themajorfeastsrelatedto Christ'sdisciples,includIndicativeofthisuse is theillustration
ingPentecost.147
ofPsalm18in theChludovPsalterwitha representation
SincePentecost
oftheApostlesteachingthenations.148
ofthe
celebrations
the
wasofcentralimportance
during
firstfourdaysafterEaster,whenPsalm65 was thefirst
context
thattheliturgical
itcan be suggested
antiphon,
andtheappropriate
wordingofthispsalmledtoitsilluswithPentecost.
tration
However,thisPentecostminiaturehas a peculiar
iconographiefeaturewhichalso relatesit to the ecumenicalcouncils:the throneof the Hetoimasiawith
theGospeland theHoly Ghostis placednotabovethe
apostles,as was thenorm(cf.fig.4), butbetweenthem,
exactlylikethethroneholdingtheGospelin representationsoftheecumenicalcouncils.Thesecouncilswere
trainByzantine
withPentecost
connected
intentionally
were
dition,inordertoproclaimthattheChurchFathers
divine
under
and
tradition
the
acting
following apostolic
betweenPentecostand the
guidance.Thisrelationship
thelectionwastakenfromActs2:14145 On MondayandTuesday,
Acts
from
on
21, Wednesday
2:22-36, and on ThursdayfromActs
Grande
See
Mateos,
2:38-43.
glise,2:98,100,102,104.Accordingto
theTypikon
254),Acts2:22and
oftheSavior,(Arranz,Saint-Sauveur,
38was readon Wednesdayand ThursdayafterEaster,butin thistypikon,Ps. 65was notsungas an antiphonon thosesamedays.
146 Mateos,Grandeglise,2:98.14.

147 See ibid.,2:215,iI9 fran indexofall thefeastscommemoratingthe apostlesin whichPs. 18:5was chanted.See also Tikkanen,
Psalterillustration
(n. 14 above),35-36.
148 Fol. 17. The same scene appears on fols. i9v-2or of the
TheodorePsalter(Der Nersessian,V illustrationdespsautiersgrecs
[. 7 above],22,figs.34-35),and fols.32r-voftheBarberiniPsalter
(Anderson,Canart,and Walter,BarberiniPsalter[n. 7 above],67).
A moreconciseversionof the same sceneappearson fol.31of the
BristolPsalter (Dufrenne,L'illustrationdes psautiersgrecs [n. 5
above],55,pl. 49).

ecumenicalcouncilsis implicitin all claims thatthe


decisionsofthelatterwerereachedundertheinspiration
In theactsoftheFirstEcumenical
oftheHolyGhost.149
Council,whichset theexampleforall thesubsequent
was explicitly
statedthrough
councils,thisrelationship
to the eventsdescribedin Acts 2.150
a directreference
Moreover,the inaugurationof the ThirdEcumenical
Council tookplace on the Sundayof Pentecost,obviouslyto alludeto thespiritualconnectionbetweenthe
Also significant
event.151
biblicaland thecontemporary
is the factthat,accordingto the Typikon
oftheGreat
who
fathers
of
the
the
commemoration
Church,
participatedin thefirstsixecumenicalcouncilswas celebrated
on thelastSundaybeforePentecost,and emphasiswas
It isnot
bytheHolyGhost.152
placedon theirinspiration
councils
of
ecumenical
that
the
iconography
surprising
withthatofPentecost.153
similarities
has compositional
For example,a comparisonbetweenthe miniatureof
Pentecostand thatof theSecondEcumenicalCouncil
ofcod. Paris,gr.510
on folios301and 355respectively

149 See, forexample,the acts of the FirstEcumenical Council,


Mansi 2:777c; actsoftheThirdEcumenicalCouncil,Mansi 4:593,
1144C-E, 1209C, 1284C; acts of the FourthEcumenicalCouncil,
Mansi 6:628A-B, 633A, 672E; actsoftheSixthEcumenicalCouncil,
Mansi 11:497c, 685E,709A, 720A-B, 937C (mostrecenteditionby
tertium,
R. Riedinger,ConciliumuniversaleConstantinopolitanum
Acta conciliorumoecumenicorum,ser. 2, 2 vols. [Berlin,1990],
474, 890, 850,856); actsoftheSeventhEcumenicalCouncil,Mansi
12:8, Mansi 13:408, ; PatriarchNikephoros,Epistola ad
PG 100:540, 564,
LeonemIII papam,PG 100:192,Apologeticus,
minor,PG 100:840c. See also J.
597D, 616A-B, 741B,Apologeticus
Crehan,"PatristicEvidenceforthe Inspirationof Councils,"StP 9
(Berlin,1966),210-15.
desconciles(n. 139above),
150 AccordingtoWalter,V iconographie
235,this direct connectiondoes not appear in Byzantinetheology.However,in the acts of the FirstEcumenicalCouncil, Mansi
2:8o8A, it is said that by summoningthe fathersof the council,
ConstantineI created"an imageof the chorusof apostles"on the
dayof Pentecost.Referenceis made to the ecumenicalcharacterof
both events.It is evenclaimedthatsinceall theparticipantsin the
is in a waysuperiorto
councilactin thenameofGod, theirgathering
thatofthepeoplewho had attendedtheeventsofActs2.
ofthisconnectionis noted,
151 Mansi 4:i329E. The significance
forexample,by Evagriosin his EcclesiasticalHistory,J.Bidez and
L. Parmentier,
eds., TheEcclesiasticalHistoryofEvagriuswiththe
Scholia(Amsterdam,1964),8:16-18(1.3).He writesthattheprincipal dayofthecouncilwas thedayofholyPentecost,"whenthelifegivingspiritvisitedus fromon high."
152 Mateos,Grandeglise(. 26 above),2:130.
desconciles,
153 Walter,L'iconographie
234-35.
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MARI A EVANGELATOU

thesemicirsimilarities:
(figs.4-5) revealsthefollowing
on
culardisposition
oftheprotagonists
sitting benches,
otherparticipants
placed at thebottomcornersof the
position
page,and a thronewitha book in a prominent
at thecenter.In thePentecostscene,thethroneabove
theapostlessupportsa closedbook surmounted
bythe
In
Ghost.
the
council
the
throne
in
the
scene,
Holy
middlebetweentheChurchFatherssupportsan open
theusualpracticeatecumeniGospelbook.Thisreflects
cal councils:theenthroned
bookstoodforthepresence
ofChristand oftheHoly Ghostwho had inspiredthe
andwouldalsoinspire
theactsofthecouncil.154
scriptures
Comparisonof thesetwo miniatureswith that
on folio 62Vof the Chludov Psalter(fig.3) makes it
obvious that in the latterthe thronewith the open
book relatesmorecloselyto the iconographyof the
ecumenicalcouncilsthan to Pentecost.The throneis
morea realobjectstandingbetweentheapostlesthan
a symbolfloating
abovetheirheads.Thepositionofthe
throneamongtheapostlescannotbe consideredaccidental,an accommodationmade forthelack of space
abovethefigures,
wherethethronenormallyappears
in standardPentecosticonography.
Thereare numerous examplesofPentecostrepresentations
in Byzantine
and
icons
where
the
throneis
manuscripts portable
omittedaltogetherfromthe compositionbecause of
lackofspace.155
in theChludovPsalter
Consequently,
154 Walter,
desconciles,
147-48,mentions
thatthe
L'iconographie
fig. 4 Paris,Bibliothque
Nationale.Cod. gr.510,folio
enthronement
oftheGospelas a symbol
ofthepresence
ofChrist
Photocourtesy
ofBibliothque
301.Pentecost.
is attested
intheThirdEcumenical
Council(Ephesus,
431),while
nationalede France.
itsdisplay
isalsomentioned
inthreeotherecumenical
councils:
the
Fourth(Chalcedon,
III, 680),and
451),theSixth(Constantinople
theSeventh
of860and
(NiceaII, 787),andalsoatthelocalcouncils
To theseI addthereference
totheGospel
869atConstantinople.
in twoletters
to theactsoftheFifthEcumenical
related
Council
II, 550),Mansi9:188,189AandC. Walternotes theillustrated
(Constantinople
codiceswiththeliturgical
homiliesof Gregory
"unebrveallusion"
tothepresiding
oftheGospelinthe
presence
ofNazianzosexaminedbyG. Galavaris,TheIllustrations
ofthe
oftheSixthEcumenical
theacts
Council,butinreality
proceedings
Nazianzenus(Princeton,
LiturgicalHomiliesofGregory
1969),
ofthiscouncil
tothepresence
oftheGospel: 80-81.In fouroftheseminiatures,
givethemostreferences
lackofspacehasledtotherepMansi11:3240,381A,460C, 521D,553B,585E,605D,616E,629D
resentation
ofthescenenotinitsusualsemicircular
arrangement,
edition
Concilium
(mostrecent
byRiedinger,
Constantinopolitanumbutin a horizontal
similarto thatoftheChludov
arrangement
tertium,
176,166, 408, 522,$76,636,672, 694, 764). Walter, Psalter(figs.48-49). In thesecasesthespaceavailablebetween
desconciles,
147,. 145,mentions
L'iconographie
onlytwopassages, thetwogroupsofapostles
couldhaveallowedthedepiction
ofthe
Mansin:224E,232D(Riedinger,
Concilium
Constantinopolitanumthrone,
whichis,however,
omitted.
Inthetwelfth-century
Pentecost
theGospel mosaicin SantaMariaa Grottaferrata,
Tertium,
40,50).On folioi6rofthePantokrator
Psalter,
an empty
throne(withno
is depictedon a benchamidtheparticipants
in theiconoclastic
ofa horizontal
comGospelorHolyGhost)appearsin thecenter
councilof815,attesting
tothewidespread
ofthe
usageofthedisplay
flanked
ofapostles.
thisisa modHowever,
position
bytwogroups
councils
Vision
andMeaning,
212, ernaddition
(Brubaker,
Gospelinecclesiastical
tothemosaic,
andwedo notknowwhatwasoriginally
withreference
tofurther
literature).
there.See E. Kitzinger,
"TheMosaicsin theCappella
represented
155 For example,in thenineteendepictionsof Pentecostin
Palatinain Palermo,"
ArtB31(1949):278-79n. 55.Kitzinger
sees
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I 109
Psalters
oftheNinth-Century
andtheIllustration
Marginal
Liturgy

Nationale.Cod. gr.510,folio
fig. 5 Paris,Bibliothque
Council.
Ecumenical
Second
Courtesyof
355.
France.
de
nationale
Bibliothque

in themosaic(allusionsto theLast
connotations
eschatological
iftheempty
havebeenemphasized
would
These
allusions
Judgment).
the
wasoriginally
throne
(as a referapostles
among
represented
so thiscouldbe another
enceto thefuture
comingoftheJudge),
scene
ina Pentecost
ofthethrone
theunusual
casewhere
placement
G.
of
an
additional
Matthiae,
toward
layer meaning.
point
might
/ mosaicidell'Abbaziadi Grottaferrata
(Rome,1970),270,sugParousia(presence
a Pneumatos
geststhatthismosaicrepresents
in
I assume,itscontinuous
oftheHolyGhost,meaning,
presence
I wasnotableto conandnotjustduringPentecost.
theChurch,
from
theinformation
I retrieved
sulta copyofthispublication;
ofS. Maria
"TheIconography
ofP. O. Folgern,
thebriefmention
A ReadingofthePictorial
a Grottaferrata:
Cyclesin theLightof
BollGrott
andMariology,"
theByzantine
66-67 [2002-3]:
Liturgy
initssemicircular
ofPentecost
arrange257,n.1).Forrepresentations
theeleventh
iconsdatedfrom
inportable
thethrone
mentwithout
see P. Vokotopoulos,
to thefourteenth
:

century,
l8>36,42-,83,86,107,113,
131.

1995).figs.
(Athens,

in a positionatodds
thedecisiontodepictthethrone
of
withconventional
iconographythesceneindicates
withtheecumenitheintention
toconnectPentecost
cal councils.While thedovebelongsto theiconogof
to thesymbolism
it also refers
raphyofPentecost,
the enthroned
Gospel in the ecumenicalcouncils,
oftheHolyGhost.In fact,
to
the
referring inspiration
in one instancetheimageoftheenthroned
Gospel
related
surmounted
bytheHoly Ghostis definitely
council.On folio107Vofthetenthto an ecumenical
ofecclecod.
Paris,
suppl.gr.108$(collection
century
siasticalcanons),suchan imageappearsat theend
of thecanonsof theSeventhEcumenicalCouncil,
intendedto denotethedivineinspiration
obviously
text.156
of therelevant
Analogousallusionsmaybe
sceneon folio6zvofthe
to thePentecost
attributed
is reminiswherethecomposition
ChludovPsalter,
the
amid
centoftheenthroned
participants
Gospel
councils.Sucha choiceis perfectly
oftheecumenical
wellknownforthe
in a manuscript
understandable
aspectofitsillustration,
pro-Orthodox
polemically
is onlyone
us thatliturgical
andreminds
inspiration
illustraof
this
creation
the
which
on
ofmanyfactors
tionwasbased.
miniaofthisPentecost
Thepolemicalovertone
reinforced
with
and
be
can
ture(fig.3)
by
paralleled
ofthe
ofthesounding
overtone
thepossiblepolemical
semantron
depictedrightabove.In hisEcclesiastical
ofConstantinople
the
History, iconophilepatriarch
the
that
Germanosstates
soundingof the semanofthe
tronis notonlya signalfortheinauguration
fordemonstokeep
butalsoa warning
DivineLiturgy
thepatriarch
awayfromthechurch.Moreprecisely,
of
the
represents trumpets
saysthat"thesemantron
to battleagainst
theangelsandcallsthecontestants
thedeaconsin
theinvisibleenemies."157
Therefore,
as ifwarning
be
Psalter
theChludov
may perceived
tokeepawayfromtheChurchall theyear
evilspirits
twopsalmsbasicto the
round,sincetheyillustrate
the
calendarandtheeccleof
inauguration
liturgical
the
their
siasticalyear.With
semantra,
theyprohibit
fromviolatingnotonlythespacebut
evilintruders
theecumenical
alsothetimeoftheChurch.Likewise,
thepeculiariconography
councilsalludedtothrough
desconciles
156 Walter,
(n.139above),61,fig.28.
L'iconographie
St. Germanos
157 Meyendorff,
(. 8 above),
ofConstantinople

56-59 (2.).

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I MARIA EVANGELATOU

oftheDivine
and solemncelebration
bytheorderly
bothofwhicharebasedon sacredtraditions
Liturgy,
Theallusionto theperpetual
anddivineinspiration.
of
the
thefigures
of
Church
cycle
through
liturgical
thedeaconsrevealsthecontemporary
and continuous relevance
ofPentecost
forthelifeoftheChurch.
As in theinauguration
of ecumenicalChristianity
in
and
the
reafErmation
ofitsecumenical
(Pentecost)
Orthodoxdoctrines(thecouncils),theHolyGhost
descendsto bestowdivinegraceon God'speoplein
the celebration
of the Divine Liturgy(thecentral
.eventin thelifeoftheChurch).In fact,thebelief
oftheOrthodoxChurchin thedescentoftheHoly
Ghostduring
theDivineLiturgy
isconsidered
a main
reasonfortherepresentation
ofPentecost
or ofthe
Hetoimasiaofthethronein thebemaofByzantine
churches.161
Folio6iyoftheChludovPsalter
presents
a different
visualexpression
ofthesameidea,with
on thepolemicalsignificance
oftheDivine
emphasis
and
the
of
the
Liturgy
inspiration
HolyGhostin the
evil
and
fight
against spirits
(repelled
bythesemantra)
heretics
(condemned
councils).
bytheecumenical
Thisillustration
is characteristic
ofthesophistication
andcomplexity
ofliturgical
influence
andits
158 Such accusationsare in line withthelongtraditionof
use
in
the
service
of
Christian
authors
pro-Orthodox
polemicsin the
namingthedevilandhislegionsas theinstigatorsofdisorder,
sin,andheresy.
See,forexample,
JohnofDamascus, Byzantine
psalters.In thiscase,theinflumarginal
Contraimaginumcalumniatores
orationestrs,in Die Schriften
des
enceoftheliturgy
is notrestricted
to thechoiceof
Johannesvon Damaskos, ed. B. Kotter (Berlin-New York,1975),
matter
on
the
basis
of
the
use
ofpsalmverses
subject
3:69 (2.2, 3.1),71 (2.4, 3.1-2),72-73 (2.6, 3.3),124 (3.13);acts of the
in
butextendsto thevisualization
of
feasts,
specific
SeventhEcumenicalCouncil, Mansi i3:6oD-6iB, 205A-B, 225E;
more
and,
PatriarchNikephoros,Antirrheticus
PG
liturgical
ceremony
(semantron-sounding)
3,
ioo:4ooA, 493B, 513C,
toiconographie
PG :57-, 580B, 601B-604A, 605B, 621A,
choicesthatreflect
liturApologeticus,
importantly,
ed.
629D-632A, 641B,645A, 704B, 716B,74.$A, Refutatio
eteversio,
and
Another
gicalsymbolism,
significance, theology.
Featherstone
(n. 123above),12(6:58-59),13(7:26-27), 20 (10:48oftheinteraction
betweenliturgical
influexample
49), 42 (19:52-55),196 (111:51-70),198(112:21-22).For examples
ence
and
or
pro-Orthodox specifically
iconophile
fromotherChristiantextssee:EpiphaniosofCyprus,Panarion,PG
examined
polemicsis detectedin thelastminiature
41:368, 545D, 673D, 857A,1065C; acts of the ecumenicalcounfor
the
which
makes
reference
tothesacraments
ofbapcils, example sixth,Mansi n:629E, 636A,66oD-E, 697C-D,
here,
728D, 732D-E, 736C. See also C. Mango,Byzantium:TheEmpire
tismandexorcism.
in ordertoprotect
ofPentecost
werealsosummoned
in otherwords
theChurchfromdemonicintruders,
to be agents
theheretics,
whowereoftenconsidered
ofthedevilandpossessedbydemons(an accusation
frequently
expressedin iconophilesourcesagainst
theiconoclasts).158
Thecomplementary
function
of
thetwominiatures
is evenindicated
the
reference
by
themto therelevant
signsconnecting
psalmverses:
on theonehand,signsconnectthedeaconsto both
Psalms64:14and6$:i;159
ontheotherhand,Pentecost
is paintedrightbelowPsalm65:4,whilereference
signsrelatetheapostlesto theword"rams"ofPsalm
In otherwords,
thesameverseisrelated
both
64:i4.160
tothedeaconswholeadthecongregation
intheinauofthecalendarandliturgical
andto
guration
cycles,
theapostles
whoareinspired
toleadthepeopleofthe
earthin theinauguration
oftheecumenical
Church
ofChrist.In combination,
thetwominiatures
onthis
of
the
ChludovPsalter
enhancethesigpage
mutually
nificance
andpolemicalaspectoftheirmessage:the
ChristianChurchinaugurated
at Pentecostis conthe
ecumenical
councilsand
stantly
by
safeguarded

ofNew Rome (London, 1980),159-64, forByzantinebeliefsrelatingdemonsto disorderand heresy.The accusationthathereticsare


possessedbydemonsis visualizedin fiveminiaturesoftheChludov
Psalter,wheretheiconoclastsareshownwiththewildhairofdemoniacs,or inspiredbyevilspiritsstandingnextto them(fols.23V,35V,
51V,67, 67V).

159 See nn. 128and 137above.


160 In thefacsimileeditionofthe Chludov Psalterbyepkina,
therearetworeference
signsvisibleabovethetwogroupsoftheapostlesthatappearto be similarto a signabovetheword"rams"ofPs.
64:14. In thenewfacsimileeditionpublishedafterthemanuscript's
recentrestoration{Saltrio Chludov [Madrid, 2006]), the signs
abovetheapostlesarehardlyvisible.

TheIllustration
Psalter
6/intheChludov
ofPsalm
Folio 65oftheChludovPsalteris one ofthemost
in theentirecodex(fig.6). Three
illuminated
densely
different
versesofPsalm67 areillustrated
withthree
an icon of
separate,yetinterrelated
compositions:
161 Mantas,To
(. 139

above),202-15.
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Liturgyand theIllustrationoftheNinth-CenturyMarginal Psalters I in

miracleevolv- 31reads:"Rebukethewildbeastsofthereed."Since
exorcism
SaintPaul,Christ'sgreatest
the"wildbeasts"
identify
psalmcommentators
ing aroundit, and below them,the storyof the certain
thatthe
Ethiopianeunuchbaptizedby the apostlePhilip. withdemonsandthedevil,itisnotsurprising
witha sceneofexortheir"rebuking"
arefullyjustified artistillustrated
and thelastcomposition
Thefirst
wereinterHowever,
manymorepsalmverses
psalmverses. cism.167
bypatristic
exegesisof therespective
to thedevilor demonsbutwere
theyoungest,
Verse28,"Thereis Benjamin,
ecstatic," pretedas references
so
in theChludovPsalter,
as a reference notillustrated
inpsalmcommentaries
wasinterpreted
accordingly
confurther
needs
Psalm
to
to SaintPaul becausehe descendedfromthetribe theattention
67:31
given
ofthisexorcism
Thespecific
ofBenjamin(Romans11:1,Philippians3:5),was the sideration.
epiidentity
and sodewillbe ourstarting
oftheApostles("theyoungest"),
lastsummoned
pointin thisinvestigation.
at Christ'scomalludedto bythe Sinceone ofthedemonsdeparting
had intensevisionary
experiences
man
the
from
mand
inscribed
Theiconon folio6$ris
word"ecstatic."162
possessed is inscribed
previously
typeis "Legion"()168and theuncleanspiritsare
(), buttheportrait
"Benjamin"
thatofSaintPaul,withhislongdarkbeardandbald headedtowardtwo pigs,thisminiatureillustrates
an inhabtowhichJesusfreed
on Mark5:1-20,according
miniature
head,holdinga codex.In therelevant
demons
of
multitude
a
from
with itantofGerasos
a medallion
(approfolio85ofthePantokrator
Psalter,
a
namedLegion)thatsubsequently
possessed
a similarfigureis actuallyinscribed"SaintPaul" priately
and
themtofallovera precipice
( ).163Psalm67 no longersur- herdofswine,causing
be
to
considered
was
This
below.
waters
in
the
drown
"and
Verse32,
vivesin theParismarginalPsalter.164
the
since
exorcism
miracle,
expelled
outherhandto God,"wascom- Christ'sgreatest
Ethiopiawillstretch
driven
before
and
were
demons
numerous,
as
away
commentaries
in
the
being
psalm
monlyinterpreted
most
the
of
"Son
as
the
Christ
how
high
Acts8:26-40,whichnarrates Philip theyrecognized
foretelling
connect
commentators
Two
God"
of
Christ.165
name
in
the
eunuch
$:7).169
an
(Mark
psalm
baptized Ethiopian
miraexorcism
Atthelowerleftpartoffolio6$r,theapostlemeetsthe verse2 ofPsalm67 withthisparticular
onfolio
whoplannedtheillustration
Theperson
theprophe- cle.170
eunuchwhoisshownona chariot
reading
been
have
Psalter
Chludov
the
of
to
by
inspired
may
65
ciesofIsaiahon hiswayhomefroma pilgrimage
theinterpretation
related
he
but
these
commentaries,
underto
man
the
has
After
Jerusalem. Philip taught
is evenmore
verse(31),whosewording
ofthetextanditsfulfillment to a different
standtherealmeaning
insteadof"riseandlet
thewildbeasts,"
"rebuke
and PassionofJesus,theeunuch fitting:
in theIncarnation
verse
in
as
2,whichisillustrated
enemies
disperse"
askstobe baptizedinthenameofChrist.Thisis rep- your
the
in theChludovPsalterwith Anastasis.However,
onthelowerright
resented
partofthefolio.166
ofexorcism
tothesacraments
related
sources
on thesamefolio liturgical
miracle
Theexorcism
depicted
inthe
influence
a
had
have
and
Verse
topsalmcommentaries.
greater
related
might
isonlyindirectly
baptism
162 Origen,Selectain psalmos,PG 12:1509;Eusebios, Commentaria in psalmos,PG 23:712;Athanasios,Expositioin psalmos,PG
De titulispsalmorum,PG 27:917
27:3OiB-C; Pseudo-Athanasios,
to Hesychios
is now attributed
work
this
to
CPG
3:6552,
(according
ofJerusalem);Cyril,Expositioin psalmos,PG 69:1156;Theodoret,
inpsalmos,PG 80:1393.
Interpretatio
163 Dufrenne,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs(. 5 above),27,pl.
. Likewiseon folioio6v oftheBristolPsalter,ibid.,60, pl. 53.
164 Ibid.,41.
165 Eusebios,Commentariain psalmos,PG 23:717;Athanasios,
PG
Expositioin psalmos,PG 27:303c; Cyril,Expositioin psalmos,
PG
in
80:1393.
Theodoret,
69:1160;
Interpretatio psalmos,
166 The same scenes illustratePs. 67:32 on folio 85V of the
Pantokrator
Psalter;see Dufrenne,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs,
27,pl. .

inpsalmos,PG 23:713-16;Athanasios,
167 Eusebios,Commentaria
Pseudo-Athanasios,De titulis
PG
in
27:303;
Expositio psalmos,
inpsalmos,PG 69:1157.
PG
27:920;
Expositio
Cyril,
psalmorum,
as in Sepkina,Miniatiury
168 Mistakenlytranscribed
(n. 4 above).
169 According to Mark 5:12-13,the legion of demons asked
two thouChrist'spermissionto possesstheherdof approximately
in
mentioned
is
detail
This
close
sand swine grazing
probably
by.
orderto indicatethegreatnumberofdemonsexpelledbyChristand
miracleis menemphasizethe magnitudeofhis miracle.A similar
demoniacsof
two
the
of
tionedby Matthew8:28-34 (the healing
Gadara).
170 Eusebios, Commentaria m psalmos, b 23:679-81, ana
De titulispsalmorum,PG 27:912.
Pseudo-Athanasios,
DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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Hl

M ARI A EVANGELATOU

fig. 6 Moscow,StateHistoricalMuseum.Cod. 129,ChludovPsalter,folio65,Psalm


67:28,31,32.
IconofStPaul; ChristexpelsthelegionofdemonsfromtheGerasene;
PhilipmeetstheEthiopian
eunuchandbaptizeshim.CourtesyoftheStateHistoricalMuseum,Moscow.

DUMBARTON OAKS PAPERS | 63

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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Liturgy
MarginalPsaltersI 113

in theByzantine
riteofbaptism.174
Theexorandperception
ofthiscomposition
andits readings
conception
connection
withthebaptism
oftheEthiopian
eunuch. cismofdemonsthatmighthaveheldthesoulofthe
In theritefollowed
catechumen
beforehis or her
the
Greek
Orthodox
undertheirinfluence
todayby
riteofiniwasa basicthemeintheChristian
Churchin casesofexorcism,
Psalm67 is recitedin baptism
to
the
Barberini
to tiation.175
full.171
Thesameriteincludesa prayer
attributed
According
eighth-century
thesecondofthethreeexorcism
in whichtheonlyspecificexor- Euchologion,
JohnChrysostom,
prayers
riteincluded
ofthebaptismal
atthebeginning
is thatoftheGerasene,
as the recited
cismmiracle
mentioned
ofthemultito themiraculous
ofsuchmiracles
mostmemorable
andpowerful
expulsion
per- a reference
in Mark5:1-20.176Specific
Thedifficulty
hereistodetermine tudeofdemonsnarrated
formed
byChrist.172
canbetraced
back mentionis madeofthefactthatthedemonsasked
whether
modern
Orthodox
practice
topossesstheswine(Mark5:12In
the
totheByzantine
published Christ'spermission
period.
euchologion
This
was
considered
proofoftheirpowerlessness
manuscripts 13).
byJacobGoarin1730,basedonByzantine
Psalm67 is indeed and byanalogyimpliedthattheirexpulsionduring
toeleventh
oftheeighth
centuries,
The
ritewouldbe equallysuccessful.177
fora sick thebaptismal
when
those
used
mentioned
praying
among
of
the
that
evidence
above
an
exorIn
that
demons.
edition,
expulsion the
suggests
by
personpossessed
onfolio65oftheChludovPsalter
is similar uncleanspirits
toJohnChrysostom
attributed
cismprayer
may
to theEthiopian's
reference be seenas complementary
a specific
totheoneusedtodayandincludes
baptism
ofdemons
andexpelling
totherebuking
refer- as a reference
Thecombined
oftheGerasene.173
tothemiracle
it
is
In
this
rite
of
in
the
context, particuencetoPsalm67 andMark5:1-20inthesamecontext
baptism.
theswine
narrative
in
the
that
for
a
source
of
have
been
ofexorcism
Gospel
larly
significant
inspiration
may
ina lakeafter
ofverse31on folio65oftheChludov andthedemonsendupdrowned
theillustration
falling
into
the offa precipice(Mark5:13).Theirdisappearance
oftheGerasene.
Psalter
withthemiracle
Moreover,
thisexorcism
choiceto represent
episodeon thesame
folioas thebaptismoftheEthiopianeunuchmight
ofthese 174 Mateos,Grandeglise(n. 26 above),1:186;2:62,138.
mention
havebeeninspired
bythecombined
atthe 175 Cf.JohnChrysostom,Eightbaptismalcatchses,
inthetextsemployed
inHuit catevents
twoNewTestament
chsesbaptismalesindites,d. and trans.A. Wenger,2nd ed., SC
rite.
baptismal
50 (Paris, 1970), 139-40 (2.12); idem, ThreeBaptismal Catchses,
to theTypikon
oftheGreatChurch, in
According
Troiscatchses
baptismales,d. and trans.A. Pidagneland L.
thebaptism
Acts8:26-40 narrating
thepassagefrom
Doutreleau, SC 366 (Paris, 1990), 44-46, 188-94 (2.6-7). The
byPhilipwasone oftheNew Testament expulsionofdemonsis a veryprominentelementin today'sGreek
performed

to
171
(fromnow on referred
,
as Euchologion)

,
'
13thed. (Athens,1998),288-91.
,
172 Ibid.,312.
sivrituleGraecorum
173 J.Goar,Euchologion
(Venice,1730;repr.
Graz,i960), 575,582e.On page 584,anotherexorcismprayermakes
to Mark 5:1-20 (esp.5:8-9, theexpulsion
thesamespecificreference
ofthelegionofdemons),as well as to Mark 9:15-29 (esp. 9:25,the
exorcismand healingofa deaf-mute
boy).Thisprayeris also found
in theBarberiniEuchologionofthe 8th (Parentiand Velkovska,
Barberini[n.79 above],226-27,prayer207). ForthedatL'eucologio
the
of
manuscriptsused byGoar (whichincludethe Barberini
ing
Byzantind'exorcisme(Ms.
Euchologion)see L. Delatte, Un office
de la Lavra du MontAthos,20) (Brussels,1954),10 (themanuscript
publishedbyDelatte is ofthe 18thc). The use of Psalm 67 to repel
demonsis attestedquiteearly,forexample,in thelifeofSt.Anthony
the Great,13.7,G. J.M. Bartelink,ed.,Athanased'Alexandrie:Vie
SC 400 (Paris,2004), 172.
d'Antoine,

Orthodoxbaptismalrite,closelyfollowingtheByzantinetradition
{Euchologion,79F.).For the importanceof exorcismin the early
to primary
Christianbaptismalrite,see also thevariousreferences
sources and secondaryliteratureby A. J. Wharton, "Ritual and
in Ravenna,"ArtB
Reconstructed
Meaning:TheNeonian Baptistery
59 (1987):358-75,esp. 361and nn. 13-18.

176 Parentiand Velkovska,L'eucologioBarberini(n. 79 above),


102.Again,twospecificexorcismmiraclesarementioned:Mark5:120 (esp.5:12,demonsaskingpermissionto possesstheherdofswine),
as wellas Mark9:15-29(esp.9:25,theexorcismand healingofa deafthefirstmiracleas Matthew8:30-32,
muteboy).Theeditorsidentify
wheredemonspossessingtwomenfromGadara askChrist'spermissionto enterintoa herdofswine.However,thevocabularyemployed
in the euchologion(see nextnote) is closerto thelanguageused in
and
oftheeuchologionwith'
Mark 5 (compare'
of
and
to

as
of
Mark
5:12-13, opposed

Matthew8:31-32).
177 Parentiand Velkovska,L'eucologioBarberini,102: "

See Euchologion(n. 171above),81.


."

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114 I MARI A EVANGELATOU

watermaybe an allusionto thepurification


ofthe Theodore
andBarberini
In thesetwocodices,
Psalters.
soulandthewashing
of
all
sins
the
water
Psalm
is
illustrated
with
an
iconofSaintPaulon
65:28
away
by holy
ofbaptism,
as shownon folio6$rbythestoryofthe folios84Vandniv respectively.181
Heretheminiature
eunuch.
as
exorcism
and
are
is
from
the
illustration
ofverses31-32,the
Just
Ethiopian
baptism
separated
in
the
rite
of
so
the
miracle
and
scenes
initiation,
complementary
episode
baptism
beingshownon thefacof theeunuch'sbaptismcomplements
thesceneof ingfolios,85(fig.7) and2respectively.182
Forthis
theGerasene's
that
the
water
that
the
exorcism
of
the
Gerasene
does
not
evolve
exorcism,
reason,
denoting
washesawaythesinsoftheEthiopianalso removes aroundSaintPaul'sicon,as in theChludovminiatheevilembodied
inthedemonsandswine.On these ture.Instead,thetwoeleventh-century
codicesdepict
one mightsee a liturgical
influence
on the themiracle
initsstandard
withthe
grounds,
iconographie
type,
of
this
from
aside
the
influence
of
demons
and
swine
toward
the
water
below
iconography
page
heading
commentaries.
the
feet
of
Christ
and
the
Gerasene
above
them
psalm
(not
A further
consideration
in theanalysis
ofthese andaroundPaul'sicon,as in theChludovPsalter).183
Chludovminiatures
is the homilyby Gregoryof Appearing
abovetheEthiopian's
head,as if
directly
which
was
in
read
about
to
fall
into
Nazianzos,In sanctum
the
same
water
in
which
he
is being
baptisma,
theByzantine
on
from
sin,thedemonsandswine
liturgy 7 January.178
Gregory
speaks baptizedandpurified
oftheuncleanspiritexpelledfromtheinitiatedur- alsoseemtorepresent
theevilspirits
destroyed
bythe
the
it
drowns
in
like
man's
In
the
two
water,
it,
baptism:
ing
fearing
just
baptism.
eleventh-century
psalters,
thelegionofdemons
intheexorcism
oftheGerasene.179thebaptismaland consequently
allusions
liturgical
themystery
ofbaptism
as in theillustration
Moreover,
ofPsalm67:31-32aremoreaccenpresents
Gregory
a re-enactment
oftheincident
narrated
inActs8:26- tuated.On thecontrary,
in theChludovPsalterthe
so as to highlight
40. "I am Philip,"he makesthepriestsay."Become scenesarearranged
theiconophile
Candaces(theEthiopian
he
the
of
the
attheexpense
ofliturgical
eunuch)," prompts per- message
composition
sontobebaptized,
adding:"evenifyouwereEthiopian allusions:thedemonsand swinedo notheaddowninthebody,
inthesoul."180
This ward(asinthestandard
ofthescene)and
youshallbewhitened
iconography
an
additional
reason
for
that
the
toward
the
scene
but
move
and
provides
below,
arguing
baptism
upward
association
between
thetwoNewTestament
thiswas
episodes aroundPaul'sicon.As I suggestelsewhere,
on folio65oftheChludovPsalterwas familiarto probablya consciousiconographie
choice,indicatin
the
context
viewers,
that
the
icon
in
the
exorcism
miracle.
Byzantine
especially
liturgical
ing
participates
ofthebaptismal
riteandcelebration.
The correlation
of the exorcismmiracleand 181 Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs,37,pl. 137;
theEthiopian's
to the Anderson,Canart, and Walter,BarberiniPsalter,96 (both n.
baptismbycommonreference
of
the
soul
in
the
where
sins
and
evil above).
water,
cleansing
is
even
more
obvious
in
the
illustra- 182 Der Nersessian,L'illustrationdespsautiersgrecs,37,pl. 138;
spiritsdrown,
tionofthesamepsalmversesin theeleventh-centuryAnderson,Canart,and Walter,BarberiniPsalter,97.
ofthestandard
183 For
towhich
178 Galavaris,LiturgicalHomilies(n. 155above),11.See also ibid.,
10 forthe issueof thedate of theliturgicalcollectionof Gregory's
homilies.The two ninth-century
codices mentionedin Galavaris,
LiturgicalHomilies,n. 20 do not include the homilyIn sanctum
baptisma.Accordingto the TypikonoftheGreatChurch,(Mateos,
Grandeglise[. above],1:190-91),on 7 January
thelectionswere
fromActs19:1-8andJohn1:29-34,bothreferring
to thebaptismof
thosewho believein Christ.
179 PG 36409A.
180

PG 36:396. In the Greek textof Acts 8:27, "


it is not clear
,"

ifCandaces is thenameoftheeunuch(as in Gregory's


homily)or of
his queen (as accordingto thetranslationin theInterlinearGreeked. A. Marshall[GrandRapids,1976],500).
EnglishNew Testament,

examples
iconography
(according
theswinearerepresented
belowor nextto Christand theGerasene,
butnotabovethem),see thefollowing:an ivoryplaquewithChrist's
miraclesdated in thefifth
centuryand attributedto a workshopin
Rome [AgeofSpirituality:
Late Antiqueand Early ChristianArt,
Thirdto SeventhCentury,
exhibitioncatalogue,ed. K. Weitzmann
[New York,1979],446-47, cat.no. 407); theminiatureon fol.212V
of cod. Paris,gr. 923 (K. Weitzmann,TheMiniaturesoftheSacra
Parallela, Parisinus Graecus23 [Princeton,1979],fig.447); fols.
i6v and 70Voftheeleventh-century
cod. Laur.
Constantinopolitan
VI. 23, which illustrateMatthew 8:28-34 and Mark 5:6-10 (T.
de la Laurentienne,Florence,Laur. VI.
Velmans,Le Ttravangile
23,Bibliothquedes Cahiers archologiques6 [Paris,1971],23,35,
cod. 5 oftheIviron
figs.26, 140); fol.156ofthethirteenth-century

Monasteryon MountAthos(Pelekanidou,
[. 5 above],2:300,fig.24).
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andtheIllustration
oftheNinth-Century
Psalters
I 115
Liturgy
Marginal

Cod. Add. 19352,TheodorePsalter,folio85,Psalm67:31,32.


fig. 7 London,BritishLibrary.
ChristexpelsthelegionofdemonsfromtheGerasene;PhilipmeetstheEthiopianeunuchand
baptizeshim.CourtesyoftheBritishLibrary.

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Ii6

M ARI A EVANGELATOU

Theresulting
messageis thaticonsarenotdemonic
as
the
iconoclasts
claimed,buton theconobjects,
aresoholythattheycandriveawaydemons.On
trary
a secondlevel,thejuxtaposition
oftheiconand the
of
exorcised
demonsprobably
alludesto thevictory
theiconophiles
overthedemoniciconoclasts
andthe
of
the
latter
from
the
of
the
Orthodox
body
expulsion
Church(aneventcompared
toexorcism
intheiconoIn
a
similar
the
vein, baptismand
philesources).184
oftheEthiopianeunuchcouldbeperceived
cleansing
as an allusionto thepurification
oftheChurchfrom
thedarknessofheresy.
Becauseof theirdarkskin,
wereoftenusedas symbols
ofsinandherEthiopians
in
and
otherearly
commentaries,
homilies,
esy psalm
Christian
andByzantine
texts,including
iconophile
literature.185
Thissymbolism
couldhaveprompted
a
184 For a detailedanalysisoftheabovereading,see Evangelatou,
"VirtuousSoul,HealthyBody"(n. 123,above),192-96.
185 It is not uncommonin Byzantineliteratureto speak about
demonsin the formof "Ethiopians,"a wordused to referto blackskinned figuresin general (and not necessarilyinhabitantsof
Ethiopia).See forexampleG. W. H. Lampe,A PatristicGreekLexicon

(Oxford,1961),48, s.v.;. Provatakis,


(Tbessalonike,1980),50,52.-54(For therelation

oficonoclasts
todemonsseen. 158above.)In psalmcommentaries,
the
Ethiopiansmentionedin Psalms71:9,73:14,and 86:4 areinterpreted
as menwithblacksoulsignorantofthedivinelight(Cyril,Expositio
inpsalmos,
inpsalmos,PG 69:1181c,1188A;Theodoret,
Interpretatio
PG 80464, 1565B).TalkingaboutPsalm 67:32in particular(the
verseillustrated
on folio65oftheChludovPsalter),Cyrilconsiders
outherhandto God" to be a reference
to nations
Ethiopia"stretching
thataredarkin sinand askto be savedbytheLord {ExpositioinpsaltheEthiopiansof
mos,PG 69:1166).EpiphaniosofCyprusconsiders
Psalm73:14to be hereticsdarkenedbysin (Panarion,PG 41:357c).
More importantly,
the Letterof the ThreePatriarchsto Emperor
mentions
a visionin whichan Ethiopianwho cutsdown
Theophilos
an olivetreefromthe ambo of Hagia Sophia standsforthe iconoclastPatriarch
Theodotos(815-21),
whosucceededthedeposediconoPatriarch
See
The
LetteroftheThreePatriarchsto
phile
Nikephoros.
and RelatedTexts,ed. and trans.J.A. Munitizet
EmperorTheophilos
al. (Camberley,
1997),73-75 (i2.a-f). Theextenttowhichreferences
likethesereflected
or shapedperceptionsofracein Byzantiumstill
awaitsa systematic
and comprehensive
investigation.

in the
baptism
readingoftheEthiopian's
typological
ofthe
to thecleansing
ChludovPsalteras a reference
in analogyto
oficonoclasm,
Churchfromtheheresy
theexorcism
miracleaboveit,whichmostprobably
hasthismeaning
becauseofitsinteraction
withPaul's
icon.To conclude,thecomplexillustration
offolio
another
65in theChludovPsalterprovides
example
ofmultilayered
in ninth-century
references
marginal
illustration.
Italsodemonstrates
thatliturgical
psalter
influence
maylieatthebasisofa thematic
conception
ofimages,buticonophilepolemicsshapedthefinal
resultanditsperception.
Theconclusion
drawnfromtheaboveanalysis
is that
influence
on
the
illustration
of
the
ninthliturgical
and
century
psalterswas indeedextensive
marginal
wasinextricably
linkedwiththeiconophile
agendaof
thesemanuscripts'
illustration.
Thisprominent
liturgical influence
isjustified
notonlybythepervasive
use
ofthepsalmsin theByzantine
riteandbytheregular
oftheclergymen
whodesigned
andused
participation
in Churchservices.
thesepsalters
It is alsojustified
by
thecentralroleoftheliturgy
in thespiritual
lifeof
theChurch,andespecially
in thecontinuous
proclaandprotection
of
mation,
celebration,
dissemination,
Orthodoxdogma,a mission
whichwasalsoservedby
thetheological
and
ofillusrigor iconophile
emphasis
intheninth-century
tration
Byzantine
psalters.
ofCalifornia,
SantaCruz
University
of
of
DepartmentHistory ArtandVisualCulture
D-201Porter
College
1156HighStreet
SantaCruz,CA 95064
maevang@ucsc.edu

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