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Where lipid comes from

Lipids such as those found in vegetable oils should comprise 20% to

35% of an adults total calorie intake.
Trans fat
By definition, cis fatty acid, during certain types of food processing,
some hydrogens are transferred to opposite sides of the carbon-carbon
double bond, creating the trans form, or a trans fatty acid
Some trans fatty acids, known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), occur
The bacteria that live in the rumens of some animals (cows, sheep, and
goats, for example) produce trans fatty acids that eventually appear in
foods such as beef, milk, and butter. These naturally occurring trans
fats are currently under study for possible health benefits, including
prevention of cancer, decreasing body fat, and improvement in insulin
levels in diabetics.
Among other functions, cholesterol is used to form certain hormones
and bile acids and is incorporated into cell structures.
The body can make all the cholesterol it needs.
Hidden fat, high fat
The foods highest in fat (and therefore energy dense) include salad oils
and spreads such as butter, margarine, and mayonnaise. All of these
foods contain close to 100% of calories as
Whole foods highest in fat include nuts, bologna, avocados, and bacon,
Saturated fat
Animal fats are the chief contributors of saturated fatty acids, about
40% to 60% of total fat in dairy and meat products is in the form of
saturated fatty acids
Phospholipid and cholesterol sources
Wheat germ, peanuts, egg yolk, soy beans, and organ meats are rich
sources of phospholipids.
Cholesterol is found only in animal foods
Choosing what food to eat
Whether to choose a fat-rich food should depend on how much fat you
have eaten or will eat during that particular day. So, if you plan to eat
high-fat foods at your evening meal, you could reduce your fat intake
at a previous meal.
Roles of fat in food

Fat components in foods provide important textures and carry flavors.

If youve ever eaten a high-fat yellow cheese or cream cheese, you
probably agree that fat melting on the tongue feels good
In addition, many flavorings dissolve in fat.
Heating spices in oil intensifies the flavors of an Indian curry or a
Mexican dish
Low fat products good?
Generally, when fat is removed from a product, something must be
commonly, sugarsin its place. It is difficult to reduce both the fat and
sugar contents
of a product at the same time and maintain flavor and texture.
Fat in industry and processing
Decomposing oils emit a disagreeable odor and taste sour and stale.
Stale potato chips are a good example.
Saturated fats and trans fats can much more readily resist these
effects because they contain fewer carbon-carbon double bonds.
The fat in fish is also susceptible to rancidity because it is highly
Harm of trans fat
Studies also indicate that trans fats increase overall inflammation in
the body, which is not healthful

Fat digestion
Triglycerides and other lipids found in common vegetable oils and
meats have longer chain lengths and are generally not digested until
they reach the small intestine
Bile acids present in the bile act as emulsifiers on the digestive
products of lipase action
Fatty acid absorption
fatty acids and monoglycerides diffuse into the absorptive cells of the
small intestine. About 95% of dietary fat is absorbed in this way.
If the chain length of a fatty acid is less than 12 carbon atoms, it is
water soluble and will therefore probably travel as such through the
portal vein that connects directly to the liver.
If the fatty acid is a more typical long-chain variety, it must be
reformed into a triglyceride in the intestinal absorptive cell and
eventually enter circulation via the lymphatic system
How fat is absorbed

Glycerol, monoglycerides, and fatty acids are reassembled into

triglycerides. Then, the
intestinal cells package the triglycerides into chylomicrons, which enter
the lymphatic system and eventually the bloodstream
Chylomicron in the blood stream
Once a chylomicron enters the bloodstream, the triglycerides in its
core are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol by an enzyme called
lipoprotein lipase
As soon as the fatty acids are released to the bloodstream, they are
absorbed by cells in the vicinity, while much of the glycerol circulates
back to the liver.
Muscle cells can immediately use the absorbed fatty acids for fuel
Liver and fat receiving
The liver takes up various lipids from the blood. The raw materials for
lipid and cholesterol synthesis include free fatty acids taken up from
the bloodstream.
The liver then must package these synthesized lipids as lipoproteins for
transport in the blood to body tissues.
Lipoproteins made by the liver are very-low-density lipoproteins
(VLDL). VLDLs are rich in triglycerides
Once in the bloodstream, lipoprotein lipase on the inner surface of the
blood vessels breaks down the triglyceride in the VLDL into fatty acids
and glycerol.
VLDL becomes LDL
Fatty acids and glycerol are released into the bloodstream and taken
up by the body cells.
As its triglycerides are released, the VLDL becomes proportionately
denser. Much of what eventually remains of the VLDL fraction is then
called low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Function of LDL
The primary function of LDL is to transport cholesterol to tissues.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
Its high proportion of protein makes it the densest lipoprotein.
The liver and intestine produce most of the HDL in the blood. It roams
the bloodstream, picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other
Diseases associated with LDL, HDL

Cardiovascular disease risk increases with low HDL because little

cholesterol is transported back to the liver and excreted
LDL is taken up by receptors on various cells. If LDL is not readily
cleared from the bloodstream, scavenger cells in the arteries take up
the lipoprotein, leading to a buildup of cholesterol in the blood vessels.
Omega 3 fatty acid
Research also suggests that we include a regular intake of the omega-3
fatty acids,
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which
can be made from alpha-linolenic acid. EPA and DHA are naturally high
in fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, sardines
Benefits of Omega 3
Omega-3 fatty acids tend to decrease blood clotting and inflammatory
processes in the body
Studies also have shown that large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids
from fish can lower blood triglycerides in people with high triglyceride
In addition, these omega-3 fatty acids are suspected to be helpful in
managing the pain of inflammation associated with rheumatoid
arthritis by suppressing immune system responses.
This may also help with certain behavioral disorders and cases of mild
Lacking essential fatty acid
If humans fail to consume enough essential fatty acids, their skin
becomes flaky and itchy, and diarrhea and other symptoms such as
infections often are seen. Growth and wound healing may be
Fat is bodys energy source
Overall, about half of the energy used by the entire body at rest and
during light activity comes from fatty acids.
When considering the whole-body, the use of fatty acids by skeletal
and heart muscle is balanced by the use of glucose by the nervous
system and red blood cells
Roles of fat
Fat tissue also surrounds and protects some organskidneys, for
examplefrom injury.
Triglycerides and other fats in food carry fat-soluble vitamins to the
small intestine and aid their absorption
In some foods, phospholipids function as emulsifiers

Cholesterol plays many vital roles in the body. It forms part of some
important hormones, such as estrogen, testosterone, and a form of the
active vitamin D hormone.
Cholesterol is also the building block of bile acids, needed for fat