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COURSE CONTENT IN

BRIEF

6. Simple stresses and strains

7. Statically indeterminate problems and thermal stresses

8. Stresses on inclined planes

9. Stresses due to fluid pressure in thin cylinders

The subject strength of materials deals with the relations

between externally applied loads and their internal effects on

bodies. The bodies are no longer assumed to be rigid and the

deformations, however small, are of major interest

The subject, strength of materials or mechanics of materials

involves analytical methods for determining the strength ,

stiffness (deformation characteristics), and stability of various

load carrying members.

Alternatively the subject may be called the mechanics of solids.

GENERAL CONCEPTS

STRESS

No engineering material is perfectly rigid and hence,

when a material is subjected to external load, it

undergoes deformation.

While undergoing deformation, the particles of the

material offer a resisting force (internal force). When

this resisting force equals applied load the equilibrium

condition exists and hence the deformation stops.

These internal forces maintain the externally applied

forces in equilibrium.

STRESS

called as stress or intensity of stress.

area

STRESS

SI unit for stress

N/m2 also designated as a pascal (Pa)

Pa = N/m2

kilopascal, 1kPa = 1000 N/m2

megapascal, 1 MPa = 1106 N/m2

= 1106 N/(106mm2) = 1N/mm2

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2

gigapascal, 1GPa = 1109 N/m2

= 1103 MPa

= 1103 N/mm2

P

sectional area A, subjected to a

tensile force P.

P

R

the direction of force P

Let R is the total resisting force

acting on the cross section AB.

STRESS

R

R=P

Then from the definition of stress,

normal stress = = R/A = P/A

P

Symbol:

= Normal Stress

STRESS

Direct or Normal

Stress:

Intensity of resisting force perpendicular to or normal

to the section is called the normal stress.

Normal stress may be tensile or compressive

Tensile stress:

stresses that cause pulling on the surface of

the section, (particles of the materials tend to pull apart

causing extension in the direction of force)

Compressive stress: stresses that cause pushing on the

surface of the section, (particles of the materials tend to push

together causing shortening in the direction of force)

STRESS

The resultant of the internal forces for

an axially loaded member is normal

to a section cut perpendicular to the

member axis.

The force intensity on that section is

defined as the normal stress.

F

lim

A0 A

P

ave

A

Illustrative Problems

Q 6.1

rigidly fastened between a bronze section and a steel

section as shown in figure. Axial loads are applied at

the positions indicated. Determine the stress in each

section.

4kN

Bronze

A= 120 mm2

300mm

Aluminum

A= 180 mm2

13kN

400mm

Steel

A= 160 mm2

2kN

7kN

500mm

each section.

To find the Force in bronze section,

consider a section bb1 as shown in the figure

b

4kN

13kN

2kN

Bronze

b1

For equilibrium condition algebraic sum of forces on

LHS of the section must be equal to that of RHS

7kN

b

4kN

13kN

2kN

7kN

Bronze

b1

4kN

Bronze

4kN

(=

13kN

2kN

7kN

Stress in Bronze

Force in Bronze section

section =

Resisting cross sectional area of the Bronze section

4kN

4 1000 N

2

33

.

33

N

/

mm

= 33.33MPa

= 120mm2 120mm2

(Tensile stress)

4kN

13kN

2kN

7kN

Aluminum

4kN

13kN

9kN

(=

2kN

Aluminum

(Compressive)

7kN

4kN

13kN

2kN

7kN

steel

7kN

4kN

13kN

2kN

steel

7kN

Stress in Aluminum

section

=

Force in Al section

Resisting cross sectional area of the Al section

=

9kN

9 1000 N

2

50

N

/

mm

180mm 2 180mm2

= 50MPa

Compressive stress

Stress in Steel section =

7kN

7 1000 N

2

43

.

75

N

/

mm

= 43.75MPa

= 160mm2 160mm2

(Compressive stress)

STRAIN

STRAIN :

when a load acts on the material it will undergo

deformation. Strain is a measure of deformation produced by

the application of external forces.

If a bar is subjected to a direct load, and hence a stress, the

bar will changes in length. If the bar has an original length L

and change in length by an amount L, the linear strain

produced is defined as,

L

Change in length

Linear strain,

=

Original length

L

Strain is a dimensionless quantity.

Linear Strain

P

A

2

2L L

P

stress

A

normal strain

L

2P P

2A A

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM

In order to compare the strength of various materials it is

necessary to carry out some standard form of test to establish

their relative properties.

One such test is the standard tensile test in which a circular

bar of uniform cross section is subjected to a gradually

increasing tensile load until failure occurs.

Measurement of change in length over a selected gauge

length of the bar are recorded throughout the loading

operation by means of extensometers.

A graph of load verses extension or stress against strain is

drawn as shown in figure.

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM

Proportionality limit

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM

Typical tensile test curve for mild steel showing upper yield point

and lower yield point and also the elastic range and plastic range

Stress-strain Diagram

Limit of Proportionality :

From the origin O to a point called proportionality limit the

stress strain diagram is a straight line. That is stress is

proportional to strain. Hence proportional limit is the maximum

stress up to which the stress strain relationship is a straight

line and material behaves elastically.

From this we deduce the well known relation, first postulated

by Robert Hooke, that stress is proportional to strain.

Beyond this point, the stress is no longer proportional to strain

PP

P

= Load at proportionality limit

Original cross sectional area

A

Stress-strain Diagram

Elastic limit:

It is the stress beyond which the material will not return to its

original shape when unloaded but will retain a permanent

deformation called permanent set. For most practical purposes

it can often be assumed that points corresponding proportional

limit and elastic limit coincide.

Beyond the elastic limit plastic deformation occurs and strains

are not totally recoverable. There will be thus some permanent

deformation when load is removed.

E

= Original cross sectional area

A

Stress-strain Diagram

Yield point:

It is the point at which there is an appreciable elongation or

yielding of the material without any corresponding increase of

load.

PY

Y

=

A

Original cross sectional area

Ultimate strength:

It is the stress corresponding to

maximum load recorded during

the test. It is stress corresponding

to maximum ordinate in the

stress-strain graph.

PU

U

=

A

Original cross sectional area

Stress-strain Diagram

Rupture strength (Nominal Breaking stress):

It is the stress at failure.

For most ductile material including structural steel breaking

stress is somewhat lower than ultimate strength because the

rupture strength is computed by dividing the rupture load

(Breaking load) by the original cross sectional area.

PB

B

=

A

Original cross sectional area

Actual cross sectional

area

Stress-strain Diagram

After yield point the graph becomes much more shallow and

covers a much greater portion of the strain axis than the

elastic range.

The capacity of a material to allow these large plastic

deformations is a measure of ductility of the material

Ductile Materials:

The capacity of a material to allow large extension i.e. the

ability to be drawn out plastically is termed as its ductility.

Material with high ductility are termed ductile material.

Example: Low carbon steel, mild steel, gold, silver, aluminum

Stress-strain Diagram

A measure of ductility is obtained by measurements of the

percentage elongation or percentage reduction in area,

defined as,

increase in gauge length (up to fracture)

100

=

Percentage elongation

original gauge length

Reduction in cross sectional area

of necked portion (at fracture)

Percentage reduction in =

area

original area

Material

100

Stress-strain Diagram

Brittle Materials :

A brittle material is one which exhibits relatively small

extensions before fracture so that plastic region of the tensile

test graph is much reduced.

Example: steel with higher carbon content, cast iron,

concrete, brick

HOOKES LAW

Hookes Law

For all practical purposes, up to certain limit the relationship

between normal stress and linear strain may be said to be

linear for all materials

stress () strain ()

stress ()

constant

=

strain ()

Thomas Young introduced a constant of proportionality that

came to be known as Youngs modulus.

stress ()

E

=

strain ()

Youngs Modulus

or

Modulus of Elasticity

HOOKES LAW

Youngs Modulus is defined as the ratio of normal stress to

linear strain within the proportionality limit.

stress ()

E = strain () =

P L PL

A L AL

material

From the experiments, it is known that strain is always a very

small quantity, hence E must be large.

For Mild steel, E = 200GPa = 2105MPa = 2105N/mm2

From Hookes Law:

E

E AE

L

Equating and solving for the

deformation,

PL

AE

Pi Li

i Ai Ei

Q.6.2

A specimen of steel 20mm diameter with a gauge length of

200mm was tested to failure. It undergoes an extension of

0.20mm under a load of 60kN. Load at elastic limit is

120kN. The maximum load is 180kN. The breaking load is

160kN. Total extension is 50mm and the diameter at

fracture is 16mm. Find:

a) Stress at elastic limit

b) Youngs modulus

c) % elongation

d) % reduction in area

e) Ultimate strength

f) Nominal breaking stress

g) True breaking stress

Solution:

a) Stress at elastic limit,

E =

Original c/s area

PE

120kN

381.97 N

2 381.97 MPa

2

mm

A 314.16mm

limit)

60kN

P

2

190.98

314

.

16

mm

A

N

E

190980

0.20mm

mm2

L

110 3

L

200mm

190980 MPa

190.98GPa

c) % elongation,

Final length at fracture original length

% elongation =

Original length

50

100 25%

200

d) % reduction in area =

Original c/s area

2

16

314.16

314.16

4 100 36%

e) Ultimate strength,

Maximum load

Ultimate strength =

Original c/s area

f) Nominal breaking

Breaking load

Strength = Original c/s area

180kN

2

572

.

96

N

/

mm

314.16mm2

( MPa)

160kN

509.29MPa

314.16

g) True breaking

Breaking load

Strength =

c/s area at fracture

160kN

795.38MPa

2

201.06mm

Q.6.3

A composite bar consists of an aluminum section rigidly

fastened between a bronze section and a steel section as

shown in figure. Axial loads are applied at the positions

indicated. Determine the change in each section and the

change in total length. Given

Ebr = 100GPa, Eal = 70GPa, Est = 200GPa

4kN

Bronze

A= 120 mm2

300mm

Aluminum

A= 180 mm2

13kN

400mm

Steel

A= 160 mm2

2kN

7kN

500mm

Pbr = +4kN (Tension)

Deformation due to

compressive force is

shortening in length, and is

considered as -ve

Pst = -7kN (Compression)

PL

stress ()

=

E =

strain ()

AL

Change in length

Change in length of

bronze

=

PL

= L

AE

4000 N 300mm

Lbr

120mm2 100 103 ( N / mm2 )

= 0.1mm

Change in length of

aluminum section =

9000 N 400mm

= -0.286mm

Lal

2

3

2

180mm 70 10 ( N / mm )

Change in length of

steel section

=

7000 N 500mm

= -0.109mm

Lst

160mm2 200 103 ( N / mm2 )

Change in total

length

= -0.295mm

Q.6.4

An aluminum rod is fastened to a steel rod as

shown. Axial loads are applied at the positions

shown. The area of cross section of aluminum and

steel rods are 600mm2 and 300mm2 respectively.

Find maximum value of P that will satisfy the

following conditions.

Take Eal = 70GPa,

Est = 200GPa

a)st 140 MPa

b)al 80 MPa

c)Total elongation 1mm,

2P

Aluminum

0.8m

4P

2P

Steel

2.8m

Stress in steel must be less than or equal to 140MPa.

Hence, st =

= 140MPa

Pst 2 P

140 N / mm2

Ast Ast

140 Ast

P

21000 N 21kN

2

2P

Aluminum

4P

2P

2P

Steel

4P

2P

2P 2P

Tensile

Stress in aluminum must be less than or equal to

80MPa.

Hence, al =

Pal

2P

80 N / mm2

Aal

Aal

= 80MPa

80 Aal

P

24000 N 24kN

2

2P

Aluminum

4P

Steel

2P

4P 2P

2P

2P Compressive

2P

Total elongation = elongation in aluminum + elongation in

steel.

PL PL

1mm

AE al AE st

1mm

2 PLal 2 PLst

Aal Eal Ast Est

1mm

2 P 800 2 P 2800

3

3

600 70 10 300 200 10

P = 18.1kN

Q.6.5

Derive an expression for the total extension of the tapered bar

of circular cross section shown in the figure, when subjected to

an axial tensile load , W

W

B

A

Diameter

d1

Diameter

d2

W

d1

dx

Diameter at x, d1

d d

2 1 x

L

d1 k x

length dx is

Change in length over a

length L is

d2

c/s area at x,

d1

Wdx

PL

AE dx d kx2 E

1

4

L

Wdx

0

d kx2 E

1

4

d1 kx2

4

L

Wdx

0

d kx2 E

1

4

length L is

Put d1+kx = t,

dt

L

k

0

t 2 E

21

Then k dx = dt

L

4W t

4W 1

4W

Ek 1 0 Ek t 0 Ek

4WL

WL

Ed1d 2 d1d 2 E

4

(

d

kx

)

1

0

Q.6.6

A two meter long steel bar is having uniform diameter of 40mm

for a length of 1m, in the next 0.5m its diameter gradually

reduces to 20mm and for remaining 0.5m length diameter

remains 20mm uniform as shown in the figure. If a load of

150kN is applied at the ends, find the stresses in each section

of the bar and total extension of the bar. Take E = 200GPa.

150kN

150kN

1000mm

= 40mm

500mm 500mm

= 20mm

150kN

150kN

1000mm

= 40mm

500mm 500mm

= 20mm

subjected to a load of 150kN.

150kN

119.37 MPa

2

40

4

150kN

150kN

2

119.37 MPa

2 , max .

2

2

d

40

4

4

150kN

2,min.

477.46 MPa

2

20

4

150kN

3

477.46 MPa

2

20

4

150kN

150kN

1000mm

= 40mm

500mm 500mm

= 20mm

subjected to a load of 150kN.

150kN 1000

l1

0.597 mm

2

40 E

4

4 PL

4 150kN 500

l2

0.597 mm

Ed1d 2 E 40 20

150kN 500

l3

1.194mm

2

20 E

4

total, l 2.388mm

Q.6.7

Derive an expression for the total extension of the tapered bar

AB of rectangular cross section and uniform thickness, as

shown in the figure, when subjected to an axial tensile load ,W.

d1

b

d2

A

L

d1

b

d2

dx

Consider an element of length, x at a distance x from A

depth at x,

d1

d 2 d1

L

d1 k x

length dx is

Wdx

PL

AE dx d1 kxb E

length L is

Wdx

0

d1 kxb E

L

P

log e d 2 log e d1

b E k

2.302 P L

log d 2 log d1

b E d 2 d1

Q.6.8

Derive an expression for the total extension produced by self

weight of a uniform bar, when the bar is suspended vertically.

Diameter

d

dx

x

Diameter

d

element

the section,

= volume specific weight

dx

= ( d2/4) x

P1

= A x

Extension of

the element

due to weight

of the bar

below that,

P1dx ( A x ) dx

PL

AE

AE

AE dx

entire bar

can also be written as

( A x ) dx x

L2

AE

2E 0 2E

L2 A ( AL ) L 1 PL

2E A

2 AE

2 AE

Where, P = (AL)

= total weight of the bar

SHEAR STRESS

Consider a block or portion of a material shown in Fig.(a)

subjected to a set of equal and opposite forces P. then there is a

tendency for one layer of the material to slide over another to

produce the form failure as shown in Fig.(b)

P

P

R

R

P

P

Fig. c

Fig. a

Fig. b

The resisting force developed by any plane ( or section) of the

block will be parallel to the surface as shown in Fig.(c).

The resisting forces acting parallel to the surface per unit area is

called as shear stress.

Shear stress ()

Shear resistance

Area resisting shear

P

A

it acts

Shear strain

If block ABCD subjected to shearing stress as shown in

Fig.(d), then it undergoes deformation. The shape will not

remain rectangular, it changes into the form shown in Fig.(e),

as AB'C'D.

C

B'

C'

C

B

B

A

Fig. d

Fig. e

B'

C'

the change in angle

between two line element

which are originally right

angles to one another.

Fig. e

BB

shear strain

tan

AB

The angle of deformation

is non-dimensional.

SHEAR MODULUS

For materials within the proportionality limit the shear strain is

proportional to the shear stress. Hence the ratio of shear stress

to shear strain is a constant within the proportionality limit.

Shear Modulus

Shear stress ()

or

=

G

=

constant

=

Shear strain ()

Modulus of Rigidity

of a material

For Mild steel, G= 80GPa = 80,000MPa = 80,000N/mm2

Forces P and P are applied

transversely to the member AB.

Corresponding internal forces act in

the plane of section C and are

called shearing forces.

The resultant of the internal shear

force distribution is defined as the

shear of the section and is equal to

the load P.

The corresponding average shear stress is,

ave

P

A

assumed to be uniform.

subjected to shear stress, as shown in the figure

Where, t is the thickness of the

element.

Force on the face DC is also equal to

P

Now consider the equilibrium of the element.

(i.e., Fx = 0, Fy = 0, M = 0.)

For the force diagram shown,

P

A

Fx = 0, & Fy = 0,

But M = 0

The element is subjected

force

to a clockwise moment

P AD = ( AB t) AD

another pair of forces say P' acting on faces AD and BC,

such that they produce a anticlockwise moment equal to ( P

AD )

A

P ' AB = P AD

= ( AB t) AD ----- (1)

If 1 is the intensity of the shear

stress on the faces AD and BC,

then P ' can be written as,

P'

'

( ' AD t ) AB = ( AB t) AD ----' =

P'

D

P ' = ' AD t

'

D

(1)

Thus in a strained material a shear stress is always

accompanied by a balancing shear of same intensity at

right angles to itself. This balancing shear is called

complementary shear.

complementary shear together

constitute a state of simple

shear

'=

'=

C

Consider a square element of side a subjected to shear

stress as shown in the Fig.(a). Let the thickness of the

square be unity.

A

B

Fig.(a).

Fig.(b).

diagonal DB increases, indicating that it is subjected to tensile

stress. Similarly the length of diagonal AC decreases indicating

that compressive stress.

Now consider the section, ADC of the element, Fig.(c).

X

A

A

2 a

n

a

Fig.(c).

shown

For equilibrium

Fx 0

n

2 a 1 2 a cos 45

Therefore the intensity of normal tensile stress

developed on plane BD is numerically equal to the

intensity of shear stress.

stress developed on plane AC is numerically equal to the

intensity of shear stress.

POISSONS RATIO

Poissons Ratio:

Consider the rectangular bar shown in Fig.(a) subjected to a

tensile load. Under the action of this load the bar will increase

in length by an amount L giving a longitudinal strain in the

bar of

l

l

l

Fig.(a)

POISSONS RATIO

The bar will also exhibit, reduction in dimension laterally, i.e.

its breadth and depth will both reduce. These change in

lateral dimension is measured as strains in the lateral

direction as given below.

lat

b

d

b

d

opposite sense to the longitudinal strain.

Provided the load on the material is retained within the elastic

range the ratio of the lateral and longitudinal strains will

always be constant. This ratio is termed Poissons ratio ()

( d )

d

POISSONS RATIO =

l

Longitudinal strain

l

Lateral strain

( b )

b

OR l

l

Poissons Ratio =

For most engineering metals the value of lies between 0.25 and

0.33

In general

y

Lz

Ly

P

Lx

z

l y

Poissons

Ratio

Lateral strain

=

load applied

ly

l x

lx

l z

OR l

x

lz

lx

Poissons Ratio =

In general

y

Lz

Ly

Px

Px

Lx

Strain in Y-direction = y

Strain in X-direction = x

l y

l x

ly

lx

l x

lx

Strain in Z-direction = z

l x

l z

lz

lx

y

Py

Lz

Ly

x

Lx

Py

l x

Poissons

Ratio

Lateral strain

=

load applied

Strain in X-direction = x

lx

l y

l y

l x

lx

ly

ly

l z

OR l

y

lz

ly

y

Pz

Lz

Ly

x

Lx

Pz

Poissons

Ratio

l x

Lateral strain

=

load applied

Strain in X-direction = x

l x

l z

lx

lz

l z

l y

lx

lz

OR

ly

l z

lz

y

Py

Ly

Lz

Px

Px

Strain in X-direction = x

x

Lx

Py

Strain in Y-direction = y

Strain in Z-direction = z

y

x

E

E

y

x

E

E

y

x

E

E

Py

General

case:

Pz

Strain in X-direction = x

Px

Px

Pz

y

x

z

x

E

E

E

Py

Strain in Y-direction = y

y

x

z

y

E

E

E

Strain in Z-direction = z

y

x

z

z

E

E

E

Bulk Modulus

Bulk Modulus

A body subjected to three mutually perpendicular equal direct

stresses undergoes volumetric change without distortion of

shape.

If V is the original volume and dV is the change in volume,

then dV/V is called volumetric strain.

A body subjected to three mutually perpendicular equal direct

stresses then the ratio of stress to volumetric strain is called

Bulk Modulus.

Bulk modulus, K

dV

Consider a cube of side 1unit, subjected to

three mutually perpendicular direct

stresses as shown in the figure.

Relative to the unstressed state, the change

in volume per unit volume is

dV

1 1 x 1 y 1 z 1 1 x y z

1

x y z

Volumetric strain

dV

x y z

V

y

x

z

E

E

E

x z

E

E

E

1 2

x y z

z

y x

E

E

E

x y z

dV 1 2

x y z

V

E

dV 1 2

3

V

E

K

dV

E

K

bulk modulus

31 2

or

E 3K 1 - 2

and modulus of rigidity (G) :A1 A

H

45

B1 B

. DA'B'C is the deformed shape due to shear . Drop a perpendicular

AH to diagonal A'C.

Strain in the diagonal AC = /E (- /E)

[ n = ]

= /E [ 1 + ] -----------(1)

Strain along the diagonal AC=(A'CAC)/AC=(A'CCH)/AC=A'H/AC

In le AA'H

Cos 45 = A'H/AA'

A'H= AA' 1/2

AC = 2 AD

( AC = AD2 +AD2)

Strain along the diagonal AC = AA'/ (2 2 AD)=/2 ----(2)

Modulus of rigidity = G = /

= /G

Substituting in (2)

Strain along the diagonal AC = /2G -----------(3)

Equating (1) & (3)

/2G = /E[1+]

E=2G(1+ )

E = 2G( 1+ ) -----------(1)

E = 3K( 1-2) -----------(2)

Equating (1) & (2)

2G( 1+ ) =3K( 1- 2)

2G + 2G=3K- 6K

= (3K- 2G) /(2G +6K)

Substituting in (1)

E = 2G[ 1+(3K 2G)/ (2G+6K)]

E = 18GK/( 2G+6K)

E = 9GK/(G+3K)

pull of 150KN. The extension over a length of 100mm is 0.05mm

and decrease in each side is 0.0065mm. Calculate (i) E (ii) (iii) G

(iv) K

Solution:

(i) E = Stress/ Strain = (P/A)/ (dL/L) = (150103 100)/(50 50 0.05)

E = 1.2 x 105N/mm2

(ii) = Lateral strain/ Longitudinal strain = (0.0065/50)/(0.05/100) = 0.26

(iii) E = 2G(1+ )

G= E/(2 (1+ )) = (1.2 105)/ (2 (1+ 0.26)) = 0.47 105N/mm2

(iv) E = 3K(1-2)

K= E/(1-2) = (1.2 105)/ (3 (1- 2 0.26)) = 8.3 104N/mm2

diameter 18mm and internal diameter 12mm acted upon by

an axial load of 2KN produces an extension of 3.36 x 103mm on a length of 50mm and a lateral contraction of 3.62

x 10-4mm of outer diameter. Determine E, ,G and K.

(i) E = Stress/Strain = (2 103 50)/ (/4(182 122) 3.36 10-3)

= 2.11 105N/mm2

ii) =lateral strain/longitudinal strain = [(3.62 10-4)/18]/[(3.36 10-3)/50]

iii) E = 2G (1 + )

= 0.3

iv) E = 3K(1 -2 )

K = E/ [3(1-2 )] = (2.11105)/{3[1-(2 0.3)]} = 175.42 103N/mm2

loading a member to its ultimate strength, in practice. The

maximum stress to which the material of a member is

subjected to in practice is called working stress.

This value should be well within the elastic limit in elastic

design method.

Factor of safety: Because of uncertainty of loading

conditions, design procedure, production methods, etc.,

designers generally introduce a factor of safety into their

design, defined as follows

Factor of safety = Maximum stress or Yield stress (or proof stress)

Allowable working

Allowable working

stress

stress

defines a materials ability to be hammered out in to thin

sheets

Homogeneous: A material which has a uniform structure

throughout without any flaws or discontinuities.

Isotropic: If a material exhibits uniform properties throughout

in all directions ,it is said to be isotropic.

Anisotropic: If a material does not exhibit uniform properties

throughout in all directions ,it is said to be anisotropic or

nonisotropic.

Q.6.9

A metallic bar 250mm100mm50mm is loaded as shown in

the figure. Find the change in each dimension and total

volume. Take E = 200GPa, Poisson's ratio, = 0.25

2000kN

4000kN

400kN

400kN

50

100

2000kN

250

4000kN

4000kN

400kN

50

2000kN

250

Stresses in different

directions

100

4000 1000 N

160 MPa

2

250 100mm

400 1000 N

x

80 MPa

2

100 50mm

50

100

250

2000 1000 N

z

160 MPa

2

250 50mm

160MPa

80 MPa

160 MPa

y

x

z

x

E

E

E

80

160

160

x

4 10 4

E

E

E

l x l x

4 10 4

lx

250

l x 0.1mm

160MPa

80 MPa

160MPa

y

x

z

y

E

E

E

160

80

160

3

y

1.1 10

E

E

E

l y l y

1.110 3

ly

50

l y 0.005mm

160MPa

80 MPa

160 MPa

y

x

z

z

E

E

E

160

160

80

z

9 10 4

E

E

E

l z l z

9 10 4

lz

250

l z 0.09mm

dV

x y z

V

160MPa

80 MPa

dV

4 11 9 10 4 2 10 4

V

dV 2 10 4 V 2 10 4 250 100 50

160MPa

Alternatively,

dV 250mm3

dV 1 2

x y z

V

E

dV 1 2

80 160 160

V

E

1 - 2

80 2 10 4

Q.6.10

A metallic bar 250mm100mm50mm is loaded as shown in

the Fig. shown below. Find the change in value that should

be made in 4000kN load, in order that there should be no

change in the volume of the bar. Take E = 200GPa, Poisson's

ratio, = 0.25

4000kN

400kN

50

100

2000kN

250

160MPa

We know that

80 MPa

160 MPa

dV 1 2

x y z

V

E

zero

1 2

0

80

160 0

y z

E

x y z 0

y 240 MPa

240

Py

250 100

Py 6000kN

addition of 2000kN compressive force

in Y-direction

Exercise Problems

Q1.

rod and steel rod. Axial loads are applied as indicated in the

figure. Determine the stresses in each material and total

deformation. Take Ea=70GPa, Eb=100GPa, Es=200GPa

20kN

Ab=700mm2

brass

Aa=1000mm2

15kN

15kN

As=800mm2

steel

10kN

aluminum

500mm

600mm

700mm

Q2.

a length of 1.2m and in the next 0.6m of its length its

diameter gradually reduces to D mm and for remaining

0.6m of its length diameter remains the same as shown in

the figure. When a load of 200kN is applied to this bar

extension observed is equal to 2.59mm. Determine the

diameter D of the bar. Take E =200GPa

200kN

200kN

1000mm

500mm 500mm

= 40mm

= D mm

0.004mm when it is subjected to a tensile force of 19kN.

The initial diameter of the specimen was 20mm. Taking

modulus of rigidity as 40GPa determine the value of E and

Q4. A circular bar of brass is to be loaded by a shear load of

30kN. Determine the necessary diameter of the bars (a) in

single shear (b) in double shear, if the shear stress in

material must not exceed 50MPa.

Ans: 27.6, 19.5mm

by the two wires shown. Stresses in wires AB and AC are

not to exceed 100MPa and 150MPa respectively. The cross

sectional areas of the two wires are 400mm2 for AB and

200mm2 for AC.

Ans: 33.4kN

C

B

300

450

A

2000N load as shown. The bar is supported by a pin at B

and a 10mm diameter cable CD. Determine the stress in

the cable

D

A

3m

2000 N

B

3m

Ans: 87.53MPa

areas, is fixed at one end and loaded as shown in the

figure. Determine the stress and deformation in each

portions. Also find the net change in the length of the

bar. Take E = 200GPa

300mm2

450mm2

250mm2

20kN

250mm

320mm

40kN

10kN

270mm

Q8.

a)

b)

c)

rectangular cross-section and is designed to transmit a

tensile force of 50kN. If the bolt is of 15mm diameter

calculate:

The shear stress in the bolt;

The direct stress in the plate;

The direct stress in the forked end of the coupling.

steel punch is limited to 1000MPa, and the punch is used to

pierce circular holes in mild steel plate 20mm thick. If the

ultimate shearing stress is 312.5MPa, calculate the

smallest diameter of hole that can be pierced.

Ans: 25mm

Q10. A rectangular bar of 250mm long is 75mm wide and

25mm thick. It is loaded with an axial tensile load of 200kN,

together with a normal compressive force of 2000kN on

face 75mm250mm and a tensile force 400kN on face

25mm250mm. Calculate the change in length, breadth,

thickness and volume. Take E = 200GPa & =0.3

Ans: 0.15,0.024,0.0197mm, 60mm3

compression under a load of 90kN as shown in the figure. If

the modulus of elasticity of the material is 120GPa and

Poissons ratio is 0.25, find the change in the length if all

lateral strain is prevented by the application of uniform

lateral external pressure of suitable intensity.

90kN

30

30

180

Ans: 0.125mm

proportionality limit, yield stress, ultimate stress, proof

stress, true stress, factor of safety, Youngs modulus,

modulus of rigidity, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio,

Q13. Draw a typical stress-strain diagram for mild steel rod

under tension and mark the salient points.

Q14 Diameter of a bar of length L varies from D1 at one end

to D2 at the other end. Find the extension of the bar under

the axial load P

Q15. Derive the relationship between Youngs modulus and

modulus of rigidity.

Bulk modulus.

Q17 A flat plate of thickness t tapers uniformly from a width

b1at one end to b2 at the other end, in a length of L units.

Determine the extension of the plate due to a pull P.

Q18 Find the extension of a conical rod due to its own weight

when suspended vertically with its base at the top.

Q19. Prove that a material subjected to pure shear in two

perpendicular planes has a diagonal tension and

compression of same magnitude at 45o to the planes of

shear.

Q20.

G=0.43105N/mm2 .Find bulk modulus & lateral

contraction of round bar of 40mm diameter & 2.5m

length when stretched by 2.5mm.

ANS:

K=83.33Gpa, Lateral contraction=0.011mm

Q21.

when 6mm6mm bar of this material subjected to an axial

pull of 3600N.It was found that the lateral dimension of the

bar is changed to 5.9991mm5.9991mm. Find & E.

ANS: =0.31, E= 210Gpa.

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