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Piping System

The following DEP (Design and Engineering Practices) considerations states the high level
requirement and recommendation the CONTRACTOR needs to consider in his process of
development of Basses of design and consequently to be applied within all design activities
relevant to piping system built in accordance to all types of process fluids and all utility fluids,
Those considerations is intended for use in facilities related to gas, condensate & Liquified
Petroleum Gasses (LPG) production, Gas handling, chemical processing and nodal
compression units or may be used in any other similar facilities. The CONTRACTOR shall
inform the principal of any deviation from the requirements of those guidelines due to any
other obligatory reason.

Piping sizing

The CONTRACTOR shall consider the vulnerability to damage and limited mechanical
strength for some defined sizes which is limited to special usages. After the basic pipe
routes, number of valves, control valves, fittings, ...etc., have been determined, the
anticipated pressure drop for the preliminary pipe sizes shall be checked. to be used in
related to any calculation performed for pumping data.

Sizing of fluid piping systems

The sizing criteria depend on application. The function and application of the piping
system will determine the sizing criterion to be selected. Where pressure drop is not a
determining parameter, the size should be determined by the velocity constraints. As
the velocities shall be kept low as possible enough to prevent problems with erosion,
water hammer, pressure surges, noise, and vibration and reaction forces.
In some cases, a minimum velocity is required. When determining the velocity of the
medium in the lines, account should be taken of the possible generation of static
electricity. For design of piping systems where corrosion inhibition is anticipated,
velocity shall be limited to reduce the effect of stripping the inhibitor film from the pipe

Sizing of drilling fluid piping systems

The minimum flowing velocity of drilling fluid shall be calculated while prevent settling of
sand in pipes. The maximum velocity in carbon steel should be considered to prevent
cavitations/erosion on bends and damage to inline equipment and vessel internals.

Sizing of flare and vent systems

For sizing of flare, vent systems and relief valve inlet and discharge piping, Referring to
Blow down and Flaring system guidelines which requires that the opening through all
pipe and fittings between a pressure vessel and its pressure-relief valve shall have the
area of the pressure-relief device inlet. The minimum flow area in the isolation valve
shall be equal to or greater than the inlet area of the pressure-relief valve. In general,
this requirement is satisfied by full bore, through conduit valves. The design of relief
valve inlet and discharge piping and valves shall be adapted such, that the above
requirement can be met.

General Considerations:
The following issues should be considered by the CONTRACOTOR in determining a
suitable pipe size:

The allowable pressure drop calculation

Verify Whether pressure surges (for incompressible fluids) could occur in the piping
system and to be evaluated with regard to the effects on the supports and the
design pressure of the system. The designer shall ensure that the occurrence of a
pressure surge can be tolerated.

Verify Whether erosion could occur in the piping system.

Verify Whether the piping system could be subjected to vibration.

Verify Whether solids could settle out from the fluid (e.g., in slurry service).

The type of flow pattern in services where two-phase flow is possible, an

intermittent and unstable flow pattern shall be avoided.

The allowable temperature drop if the fluid is highly viscous.

The economic pipe diameter, considering the capital expenditure and operating
expenditure of the pumps, compressors and the piping system.

Mechanical strength.

The required flow demand of the piping system or process (flow constraints).

Weight constraints.

The above considerations shall be taken into account by the CONTRACOR for both the
design conditions as well as for conditions such as start-up, shut-down and

Piping Basics

Each different piping system such as boiler proper piping, boiler external piping, ...etc shall
be designed, fabricated, erected, inspected and tested in accordance with its relative ASME
B31.3. Piping shall be routed so that the optimum piping layout is achieved in terms of
process requirement, ergonomics, commissioning, operation, inspection and maintenance.
Having considered these factors, the number of flanges, fittings, valves and welds shall be
minimized. Span distances for support of straight pipe shall be in accordance with relevant
code. Alternatively, other span distances are allowed when design calculations are provided,
and the calculations show the alternate design to be acceptable in terms of the actual stress
and deflection for the proposed installation.
The CONTRACTOR shall perform design reviews in stages to verify the proposed physical
or 3D models to check that the arrangements meet the COMPANY requirements and to be
accepted before proceeding with constructing phase.


Design Conditions

A piping system shall be designed by the CONTRACTOR for the most severe conditions to

which it may be subjected with respect to preventing brittle fracture in metallic piping. The
following may determine the design conditions :

heating medium pressure and temperature.

surge pressure.

pump shut-off pressure.

static pressure.

pressure drop.

vacuum caused by cooling and possible condensing of trapped medium.

steam/nitrogen purge pressure.

boiler regeneration temperature.

furnace decoking operation temperature.

settling pressure of compressor.

emergency depressurization.

possibility of temperature rise due to stagnancy.

In situations where different design conditions exist in one piping system, different piping
classes may be used and shall be divided by a spec. break and to be located so that the
more severe design condition can never occur in the part of the system with the lower
piping class and shall be executed as flanged connections. Dissimilar metal weld joints in
some fluid services may be prone to premature failure or to significantly reduced useful life.
A dissimilar metal weld joint is inherently a lower integrity joint, and the use of dissimilar
metal welds has to be justified by solid technical and economic considerations.
Allowance for pressure and temperature variations shall be provided. Otherwise shall be
subject to the approval of the COMPANY and shall only be considered in conjunction with a
documented risk analysis showing the risk is managed. If an external pressure can only
result from structural failure of equipment, failure of safety devices or other unpredictable
events, it shall not be taken in consideration when establishing the design pressure of the
Ambient temperature shall neglect the wind chill effect. Due consideration should be given
piping subjected to Shock (e.g., rapid pressure rise). The effect of blast loads shall be
evaluated for piping which is required to maintain the integrity in an explosion event.

Piping Above Ground Level

Where practical, piping entering and leaving a plot area or a processing unit shall be
grouped together. inside-plot piping shall be routed on overhead pipe racks. If the span
between pipe supports is too long for the pipe size selected on the basis of hydraulic sizing
criteria, the size of the pipe may be increased rather than providing additional pipe
supports. This decision should be justified technically and economically.

Piping with instrument connections shall be routed so that safe access to these connections
is ensured. If necessary, platforms or walkways shall be provided. Safety relief valve
discharge piping shall be designed to withstand both the dead loads and the reactive or
thrust loads. Reactive or thrust design loads shall take into account the most severe case,
such as possible flashing conditions and liquid entrainment in vapor flows.
In a pipe rack, the following piping arrangements shall be considered:

The cryogenic pipe should be located at the sides of the pipe rack to provide space
for expansion loops and to reduce the moments in the beams caused by the weight
and thermal expansion loads from the pipe.

The cryogenic pipes should be grouped separately and located on different pipe rack

Complicated crossings should be avoided, e.g., by not installing pipe rack spurs
opposite each other.



Clearance and Access

CONTRACTOR shall consider the vertical clearances relevant to minimum elevation of

the bottom of overhead piping.

There shall be a horizontal clearance for access ways and walkways and
thoroughfares. Piping shall be kept clear of equipment maintenance drop areas.
Around manholes, a space for each side of the manhole and a minimum of space
directly in front of the manhole shall be provided clear of obstruction to allow for entry
and exit. Complicated crossings should be avoided, e.g., by not installing pipe rack
spurs opposite each other.

The layout and arrangement of platforms, walkways and means of access thereto shall
be such that the supervisory rounds can be made at various levels without requiring
excessive climbing up or down.

Stairways are required for access to elevated work platforms, walkways and other
elevated work areas where the frequency of use is at least once per shift.

Ladders may be provided instead of stairways where ladders are only required for
occasional use, or for escape routes.
Piping Below Ground level
VI.1. Buried piping

Buried piping shall be considered for drainage, storm water, sewage system, fire
water and large diameter utility pipes so as not to impede traffic. And for pressurized
hydrocarbon service, buried piping should be avoided. Buried piping shall have a
minimum cover is soil to be considered according to the piping diameter and outside
soil temperature and permeability.

The load on pipe crossing railways and roads should be equalized by means of pipe
sleeves or a culvert. The pipe shall be centered in the sleeves by use of distance
pieces welded to the pipe, or distance pieces fixed to the sheeting if the pipe is
insulated for low temperature service.

Insulated pipe should not be buried. If this is unavoidable, or if it is desired for lifecycle economic reasons, the insulation material shall be able to withstand the
stresses caused by the thermal expansion of the pipe. Special attention shall be
paid to avoid corrosion under insulation (CUI) and the system shall be designed
so that inspection for CUI is possible or not needed.

Design of cathodic protection of buried pipe shall be considered in addition to the

provide clear distance between the pipe and any electrical or instrument cables in
case of piping operating.

VI.2. Pipe tracks and pipe trenches


Piping outside process units (e.g., piping between process units and storage
facilities) should be supported on sleepers, at ground level in pipe tracks or below
ground level in pipe trenches. The choice between pipe tracks or pipe trenches is
dictated by technical and economic considerations, e.g., the number of road or rail
crossings, the ground water level and the length of the required trench. Pipe racks
may be used if space at ground level is limited or if the use of culverts or buried
piping is uneconomical. The distance between sleepers in pipe tracks and in pipe
trenches shall be based on the maximum allowed free span of the majority of pipes.

Flanged connections shall not be installed in trenches, in order to prevent the

accumulation of gas and liquid vapors in the trenches. Flanged connections shall not
be installed in enclosed trenches, in order to prevent the accumulation of volatile
fluids in the enclosed trenches.

Concrete trenches in process units shall be adequately drained into a liquid-sealed

drainage system and shall be covered with grating.

Piping stress analysis and pipe supporting

VII.1. Piping Stress analysis

Piping systems shall be routed, supported, anchored or guided so that thermal

expansion/contraction, weight effects including the pipe contents, insulation and any
other superimposed loads, pressure effects, vibration or movements due to
earthquakes and storms will not result in stresses in the piping or loads on the
connected equipment in excess of those permitted by ASME B31.3 and the
equipment design code, in order to prevent failure of piping components due to
overstress, leakage at joints, excessive loads and moments on connected

The Pipe Stress Engineer shall determine whether local regulatory requirements of
the country in which the plant will operate, have more stringent requirements than
the codes and standards stated within this standard. In these instances, the local
regulatory requirement shall govern.

Piping systems shall be checked for stresses caused by pressure, weight of pipe,
equipment vibration, weight effects of piping components and fluids, external
loadings such as wind loads, seismic loads, settlement, frost heave, thermal
expansion and contraction, internal/external pressures, stiffness changes, enforced
displacements and shock loadings.

Expansion loops and/or offsets shall be provided in piping systems where improved
flexibility is required. Expansion joints or swivel joints may be installed only where
loops or offsets cannot be used (e.g., due to limited space) or will not give sufficient
flexibility. Expansion joints or swivel joints shall not be used if the fluid fouling
properties make them ineffective or will lead to leakage. Under special
circumstances, an expansion joint may be considered for other services provided
that all alternatives without the expansion joint represent a greater safety risk. In all
cases the proposed solution shall be accepted by the COMPANY.

The upper and lower design temperatures and differences in temperature between
piping and equipment shall be taken into account for all design cases.

For piping connected to rotating equipment, pipe stress analysis shall be based on
calculated piping loads on rotating equipment nozzles, pulsation and mechanical
analysis. Actual piping forces and moments shall be qualified without taking the
advantage of friction factor at pipe supports.

Pipe Stress Engineer shall identify and produce a formal listing of the critical lines to
be analyzed using formal computer analysis. The purpose of the analysis is to
calculate the thermal expansion/sustained or dynamic stresses, nozzle loads on the
connected equipment and determine the type of pipe supports required.

VII.2. Piping Stress analysis condition

Temperature: Piping stress analysis shall be carried out for the temperature
conditions such as Upper Design Temperature, Lower Design Temperature,
Maximum Operating Temperature and Operating Temperature Transient conditions
possibly caused by load cases such as start-up and shut down.

Pressure: Piping stress analysis shall be carried out for the pressure conditions such
as design pressure, maximum operating pressure, operating pressure and cyclic
pressure conditions.

Other condition shall be considered too such as frictional resistance to thermal

movement effect, wind loading, seismic loads(earthquake loads), snow loads,
sustained loads, blast loading and flare radiation.

At the completion of the project, stress reports shall be prepared for each system
including the final versions of the Critical Line Lists, the stress sketch(es), and the Stress
Analysis reports along with any changes made during construction or start-up. These
reports shall become part of the Project documentation. The results of the piping stress
analysis shall be documented as a report.
VII.3. Pipe supports

The span between horizontal pipe supports shall be selected in accordance with
relevant standard Spans longer than those acceptable are allowed when justified
by additional stress and flow induced vibration calculations. The additional

calculations shall be approved by the COMPANY. Pipes should be supported in

groups at a common support elevation.


Identification of standard pipe supports and special pipe supports shall be shown in
the 3D model, on piping plan drawings and on piping isometric drawings. Supports
and supporting structures shall be able to sustain the hydrostatic test load. If this is
not economical, temporary supports may be applied. Spring supports shall be
blocked, or removed and replaced by temporary supports which are able to sustain
the hydrostatic test load.

Weld-on attachments of the pipe supports should be welded to the pipe during
prefabrication of the pipe spools. The use of spring supports, snubbers and sway
braces should be avoided. If they are unavoidable, they shall be permanently
accessible. If this may lead to unacceptable costs, the COMPANY shall be

Piping Through walls, Structural decks and Concrete floors of buildings

Sleeves or holes through walls and floors of buildings and through table tops shall have
a size permitting the passage of a flange of the relevant pipe size, or the size of the
required insulation, whichever is the larger, to allow the installation of prefabricated

Penetrations through walls and floors shall be sealed with a hydrocarbon-resistant filler
after piping installation (e.g., a collar shall be fitted around the pipe) to avoid chimney
draught in the case of fire. To prevent liquid dripping onto a lower deck, holes shall be
provided with concrete curbs, cast-in extended pipes or other means.

The fire rating of the wall or floor including the penetration shall be maintained. Piping
shall be routed to avoid penetration of major structural elements supporting decks and

Penetrations through structural decks shall minimize the propagation of corrosion and
stress concentrations. Flange clearance on piping that penetrates the ground or grating
on an elevated work platform shall be in accordance with relevant design code.


Seismic loads

If the region is susceptible to earthquakes, the anticipated earthquake loads shall be

established. A piping system in an earthquake region shall have sufficient flexibility to
absorb large movements without leading to excessive strain or failure. The following
aspects shall be carefully examined and, where necessary, adequate measures shall be

piping shall be provided with sufficient flexibility between two anchor points, taking
into account that the two anchor points may respond in different modes during an
earthquake. piping offsets, expansion loops, etc., are normally only provided for
absorbing thermal movements. Suitable limit stops shall be provided to restrict this
movement in the event of a seismic shock.

supports for branch-off pipes and supports for vital control equipment shall be
determined by careful scrutiny instrument lead pipes shall have sufficient flexibility to
absorb seismic movements of the columns, pipe rack and/or structures to which the
instrumentation pipes are attached.

piping going through bund walls, building walls and floors shall be provided with
sleeves large enough to allow for the anticipated differential movements due to
seismic loads. Dampening and sealing material shall be provided where it is required
to maintain a liquid tight connection.


Distance Between Pipes

The minimum distance between pipes shall be considered with relevant standard in
addition to minimum distance between a flange (with/ without insulation) and a pipe or
the insulation of a pipe in tracks, trenches and on pipe racks for tools access.
Where required, the distance between pipes shall be increased to allow for movements
caused by thermal expansion.

Adjacent flanges should be staggered, in order to minimize pipe space requirements.

Adequate clearance shall be provided for manifold piping and between hand wheels or
wrenches of valves. Valves and flanges shall be staggered whenever possible to ease
operation and reduce space.


Small Bore Piping

Since small bore branches ( Diameter Nominal DN 40 (Nominal Pipe Size NPS 1 )) to
large bore piping are relatively susceptible to failure, the following points shall be
incorporated in piping design for avoidance of vibration induced fatigue of small bore piping
and branch connections:

Minimize the number of small bore branches to piping.

Small bore piping, including its method of support, shall be shown in full detail, either on
the isometric drawings or on a referenced document.

Branches shall not be located in removable spools, unless it is impractical to do


Branches shall not be located in high stress areas.

The unsupported length of the branch and associated fittings should be as short as

The mass/weight of the assembly should be as low as possible. Avoid installation of

heavy components (e.g., flanged valves) on the end of the connections.

The distribution of the weight along the cantilever branch of the connection should be
chosen to minimize reduction of the natural vibration frequency of such assembly.

Unreinforced branch connections shall not be installed immediately in the downstream

of high capacity gas pressure reducing systems such as compressor recycle systems,
steam desuperheaters, high-rate depressuring valves and safety relief valves. Also, for
flow induced vibration, where the classification of susceptibility to failure is "high",
special attention shall be paid to the bracing of these branches to the run pipe.

Maximize the diameter of small bore terminal connections. Connections on piping

between compressor and pulsation bottles and for all piping directly connected to the
compressor should be avoided. If such connections cannot be avoided, their size
should be maximized. The preferred size of a nozzles for branches is DN 80
(NPS 3).

The bracing of complex geometries of connections or branches with heavy valve or

flange weights shall be checked by a pipe stress engineer or vibration analyst.

In branches with flanged valves, branch fittings with flanged outlets shall be used
wherever possible, in order to reduce the number of welds.


Installation of Flanges
Flanges in piping systems shall be installed only to facilitate maintenance and inspection
and where construction or process conditions dictate. For flanges in the following services,
steam shall be used to control fires hydrogen service and flammable liquid services with
operating temperatures at or above their auto-ignition temperature. Flanges shall not be
located above main roads outside unit battery limits. Piping systems with Ring Type Size
(RTJ) flanges shall be designed to allow removal of equipment and pipe sections without
the need to remove very long sections of piping system.
For high pressure piping systems (ASME rating class 2500 or higher) connected to
vessels, butt welded connections may be considered. Threaded blind holes shall not be
used unless stud bolts cannot be used, especially in high temperature applications.
Application of temperature resistant lubricants (anti-seize compound) is required in all
Flange Joints in severe operating conditions include high pressure and high temperature
services (i.e., above 450 C (840 F)), or in batch processes with rapidly fluctuating
temperatures. To reduce joint relaxation in high temperature or cyclic service, spring
washers may be installed under the nuts. As bolt relaxation mainly takes place during the
first 1000 hours of operation, retightening may be needed soon after re-start. Care shall be
taken not to overstretch the bolts. Flange joints shall be applied with maximum required
torque and/or elongation. Checks, e.g., with turn of the nut method, shall be performed.


Installation of Valves
The number of different types of valves shall be minimized. All pipes entering and leaving
the process unit shall have block valves and flanges provided to allow for spading (spades
or spectacle blinds) at the boundary of the process unit ("battery limit"). The block valves
shall be located near each other unless impractical.
A drain/vent connection shall be installed as close as possible to the block valves and
spades, for draining, venting and testing purposes. Open ended valves in hydrocarbon or

sour service shall be equipped with blind flanges or threaded plugs. Valves in horizontal
pipes shall be positioned with their stem on or above the horizontal, except as follows:

Butterfly valves shall be positioned with the stem horizontal in services where fouling
substances could collect in the lower shaft bearing.

Gate valves should be positioned with the stem horizontal in services where fouling
substances could collect in the bottom cavity.

Valves shall be positioned with the stem horizontal in systems where a component
failure (e.g., wedge pin) could cause closure of the valve and lead to unsafe
situations (e.g., flare systems).

Pipes with wafer and/or plug type valves may require an extra flanged connection for
installing a spade flange or removal of a pipe spool. Main block valves on branch piping
systems should be arranged for self-draining on both sides, or provided with drain points at
the block valve. Valves with extended bonnets in low temperature service shall be installed
with stem vertical or a maximum stem inclination of 45 from the vertical.

Ergonomic aspects of valves

Valves shall not be installed above roads. Valves should not be located in overhead pipe
racks. Valves requiring maintenance during normal operation, e.g., lubrication of plug
valves shall be located so as to be easily accessible from deck, platform or permanent
ladder. Gate valves should be positioned with the stem horizontal in services where
fouling substances could collect in the bottom cavity.

Selection of gear drives for valves

Gear drives shall be selected in accordance with the applicable valve MESC SPE
specifications. The selection of motorized actuators shall be subject to the approval of

Control valve installation

Globe control valves shall be installed with their diaphragm actuator stem in the vertical
position, with sufficient clearance above the actuator and under the bottom flange to
allow the control valve to be dismantled without removing the valve body from the pipe.
There shall be sufficient clearance to lift and remove the valve. Control valves shall be
located so that they are accessible for hoisting equipment where needed.

Manifolds for control valves

If required for operational reasons, control valves shall be provided with block valves
and a bypass valve, except that a bypass valve shall not be provided in safety shut-off
or depressurizing service or in applications where solids suspended in the stream may
collect and block the bypass valve. As the provision of block valves, bypass valves,
hand wheels, etc., is governed by operational considerations, the PFS and PEFS shall
indicate the arrangement required for each application.

Body cavity relief (pressure equalization) provisions in valves

Depending on the process conditions and service application, for double seated valves
in ASME classes 300#, the requirement for body cavity over-pressure relief has to be
assessed on a case-by-case basis.

Equalizing of pressure around valves

Quick opening of a large valve holding high pressure may cause a significant shock
wave travelling through the pipe at sonic speed. This can cause damage to vessel
internals, flanged connections, bellows, etc. Since controlled opening (cracking a valve
open) is easier with a small valve than with a big valve, large valves should be provided
with a small by-pass in order to allow equalization of the high differential pressure.


Drain and Vent Connections

Minimum pipe wall thickness for vent/drain connections in carbon steel piping systems
shall be maintained for butt welded and socket welded piping systems. Where
threaded connections are allowed minimum wall thickness of threaded pipe nipples for
vent and drain connections in carbon steel piping systems shall be maintained.
Drain and vent connections shall be installed, without valves, at all low and high points in
each piping system to facilitate venting and draining after pressure testing after
construction or repair of the system. The location of the connections shall permit the
complete removal of the test medium after the test.
If required for operation/maintenance, valved drain connections shall be installed at low
points, and valved vent connections at high points in piping systems. These connections
shall be hooked up to a closed drain system. For drain and vent provisions on equipment.
Valved vents and drains to atmosphere shall satisfy the double barrier concept. In this
context, a blind flange on an outlet to atmosphere counts as one barrier. When threaded
plugs or caps are allowed, the threaded plug also counts as one barrier.
Where process requirements demand a quick outlet to atmosphere, the double barrier
shall be obtained by installing two valves in series. If the effluent will flash and
cause sub-zero temperatures, the distance between the two valves shall be calculated and
the downstream (low pressure) valve shall be of the spring loaded, self closing type. The
number of vent and drain connections with valves shall be minimized. The size and
installation of process drains and vents shall be decided as a part of the process design.


Connections for Manual Sampling

Dedicated connections shall be provided for sample collection. The sampling point shall be
positioned so that the valves are easy to operate and taking the sample will not impair the
safety of personnel or plant or cause environmental impact. The sample shall be
maintained in a single phase Samples should be taken from a vertical pipe where possible.
Sample take-off connections shall not be located at dead ends of piping. The length of the
sample piping system shall be kept as short as possible to minimize purging.
For liquid sampling, the sample point should be placed in the 4 o'clock position and shall
be positioned no further than the 5 o'clock position Sample take-off connections shall be
easily accessible and should be at ground level and shall be connected to one common
drain facility.
Sample points shall have two valves: one at the take-off point from the process pipe and
another at the sampling point. The block valve at the take-off point shall have the same
size as a standard drain valve. The sampling valve size shall be maximum DN 15 (NPS )
and shall have good throttling properties.

The outlet of a single sample connection, if not connected to a sample cabinet, shall either
have a male thread and be closed with a threaded cap, or it shall have a quick-fit coupling
which seals when not connected to a sample receiver. Connections for hot samples (i.e.,
80 C (175 F) or above) shall be provided with a permanently installed sample cooler. The
PEFS shall indicate where a cooler is required.

Thermo well Connections

In pipes with turbulent flow, only thermowells with a length of 230 mm (9 in) should be
used in order to reduce vibration and forces on the thermowell. In pipes with turbulent flow,
the temperature difference between the centre of the pipe and near the pipe wall is
negligible so the shorter thermowell should not adversely affect the measurement
accuracy. Thermowells should be avoided in pipes with two-phase flow.
As the vortex shedding frequency (also referred to as the Strouhal Frequency) approaches
the thermowell natural frequency, the tip displacement and stresses are greatly magnified
and the thermowell can fail due to the large amount of energy it must absorb.


Orifice Flanges and Orifice Meter runs

When it is desired for the operation to install an orifice langes or orifice meter runs, flanges
tapings, material and components for instrument connection should be considered.


Displacer Champers
Displacer chambers for displacer type level instruments shall be considered. Loads on
equipment nozzles caused by the weight and/or thermal expansion of displacer chambers
shall be checked. To check the thermal expansion forces, it shall be assumed that the
equipment is at design temperature and the displacer chamber is at ambient temperature.


Instrument Process Connection

Connections to piping for pressure instruments and Level connections shall be in
accordance with the piping classes. Where threaded connections are utilized for
installation of the pressure gauge, the ID of the piping upstream of the threaded
connection shall have a restriction to limit the size of the opening in the event of threaded
connection failure.


Thermal Expansion Relief Valve (TERVs)

Thermal expansion relief valves shall be installed in liquid-full equipment or piping
systems if the system can be blocked in and it is subject to heat from the atmosphere or


Cryogenic piping
For LNG loading lines, consideration should be given to the pressure drop of the line. In
order to reduce the pressure drop of the flow and at the same time minimizing the boil of
liquefied gas, the use of elbows shall be kept to a minimum.


Piping In Vibrating Service

All piping systems subject to vibration due to high velocity flow (where the classification of
susceptibility to failure is "high" , high-pressure drop, water hammer or mechanical
excitation are considered to be piping systems in vibrating service. Piping in vibrating
service shall be screened according to Piping classified as high susceptibility category
shall be further assessed and designed in accordance to Section 3 of the Energy institute
guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure in process pipe work or
relevant recourse.
Piping subject to pulsating vibrations, shall be anchored and guided by means of heavy
duty pipe clamps specially designed for this type of service. Designs with fillet welds shall
be minimized. If fillet welds are unavoidable, instruction notes shall be placed on
fabrication/isometric drawings requiring minimization of stress concentrators in the finished
fabricated product.
Partial penetration welds or reinforcing pads shall not be used. Butt-welding components
shall be lined up and weld roots shall be ground smooth wherever possible for inspection.


Flow Line Design

Wellhead flow lines shall be subject to a formal piping stress analysis and shall satisfy the
requirements of the relative ASME code. Consideration should be given to low
temperatures, e.g., when opening up a high gas to oil ratio (GOR) well there is a
considerable temperature drop across the choke valve. This may necessitate the use of
special materials
To avoid erosion problems, flow lines shall use capped tees for safe degree changes in
direction. Where flow-induced vibration is anticipated, or pressure drop is critical,
consideration should be given to the use of certain radius bends. However, capped tees
shall always be used for heavily erosive service, i.e., when sand production is expected.

For gas production flow lines where sand entrainment is a possibility, consideration should
be given to the inclusion of sand separation facilities within the flow line. For gas
production flow lines which may be subject to high flow velocities, consideration should be
given to the inclusion of high integrity erosion monitoring facilities within the flow line.

Flow Line Connections

In a typical Flow line configuration shall require a stress assessment when
the pipe stress in the reducing fitting directly connected to the wellhead flow line
flange and/or Loads exerted by the flow line on the wellhead/X-mas tree joints (typically
the flanged connections). The effect of lift-off of the first support downstream the
wellhead/X-mas tree due to well thermal growth/shrinkage shall be taken into account in
the determination of loads and stresses.

Flow line Pipe Support

Hangers and supports should not be welded to the flow lines and manifold headers.
Flow lines shall additionally be supported and secured to minimize vibration and to
prevent pipe dislocation. Dynamic load conditions to be anticipated in flow lines are,

e.g., slug and/or hydrate formation.


Retrievable Probe, Coupon and Injection Quill Systems

The use of intrusive erosion/corrosion monitoring coupons/probes and quills shall be
justified against alternative non-intrusive inspection techniques. Where retrievable
erosion/corrosion coupons/probes and quills are still required, the retrieval strategy shall
first consider retrieval from fully depressurized systems. If situations remain where it is not
operationally possible to de-pressure the system, and online retrieval from pressurized
lines is justified, the design shall depend on tool type such as retractor tools of stuffing box,
Pressure balanced retrieval tools or hydraulic retrieval tool, ...etc.


Piping Tie-in connections

Hot tap tie-in connection shall only be considered when both Cold tie-in connection and
Hot tie-in connection cannot be executed on the existing piping system due to process
operations limitations. Hot tap tie-in connections shall be considered within the restrictions.
Hot tap tie-in connection usage shall be subjected to approval of the COMPANY.
The hot-tie-in connection branch shall be installed at 90 degrees to the axis of the runpipe, preferably at the top of pipe location. Interference with the longitudinal weld seam of
the run-pipe shall be avoided. The chosen location of hot tie-in connection on the run-pipe
shall be checked and verified as suitable for the hot tie-in connection.
The supporting documentation for a tie-in execution (except for hot tap tie-in connections)
shall consist of Design calculations for branch connection, Drawings The tie-in design
package shall, as a minimum, include a general arrangement/isometric view to define the
tie-in connection., Work procedures and final report


Piping Adjacent to equipment / facilities

Piping and pipe supporting structures shall be designed so that access is provided for
maintenance or removal of valves, in-line instruments, tube bundles and shell/channel
covers (e.g., cranes and trucks) and for operational reasons (e.g., filter cleaning). Removal
or replacement of equipment shall be possible with a minimum dismantling of piping.
Removable pipe spools may be required. Small pieces of equipment and ancillaries which
need regular supervision or maintenance should be installed on elevated plinths in order to
improve access.
Piping at pumps, compressors and other equipments shall be sufficiently flexible and
adequately supported to prevent the equipment nozzles from being subjected to any stress
that could disturb their alignment or internal clearances or otherwise affect the equipment
and jeopardize its operation.
Auxiliary piping shall be neatly routed along the base-plate and shall not extend across the
operating floor. This piping shall not obstruct inspection covers, bearing caps, upper halves
of casings or any other items which require access for operation or maintenance.
XXVI.1. Pumps

For pump selection, testing and installation, Suction piping shall be as short and as
direct as possible, avoiding high spots where pockets of gas or air could accumulate As
a minimum, the suction pipe and valves shall be same size as the pump suction
nozzle. Each individual pump shall be provided with a strainer in the suction pipe.
A block valve shall be installed upstream of the strainer in the suction pipe of each
pump. The piping components including the block valve to the suction nozzle of the
pump shall have the same rating as the discharge piping in order to accommodate
overpressure due to backflow from the discharge side.
The discharge pipe shall also have a block valve. A check valve shall be installed,
unless there is no possibility of backflow or pressure surge under any conditions. This
check valve shall be installed upstream of the block valve to enable maintenance of the
check valve without draining the discharge pipe.
The liquid volume between the check valve and the pump discharge block valve shall
be as small as practical. A vent or drain valve should be provided in situations where
the check valve is not bolted directly to the isolation valve.
The bypass valve/piping should be considered with relevant to rotating equipment
guidance. Pump vent and drain nozzles shall be fitted with isolation valves when
connected to a common vent and drain systems and, if not connected to a drain
system, the valves shall be fitted with blind flanges, or, where threaded connections are
allowed, threaded plugs on the outlet side of the valve.
XXVI.2. Compressors
To prevent fatigue failure of compressor piping, the effect of vibrations and pressure
surge shall be considered. Inter-stage and discharge piping shall be sufficiently flexible
to allow expansion due to the heat of compression. Block valves shall be installed in
the suction and discharge pipes, except for atmospheric air compressors, which shall
have block valves in the discharge pipes only.
The block valve in the suction pipe, if present, and the piping to the suction nozzle shall
have the same rating as the discharge piping. The ASME rating class of the suction
piping, valves and suction pulsation dampeners (if fitted) of a reciprocating compressor
shall have the same rating as the discharge of that stage.
Inlet and outlet strainers at compressor suction and discharge should be considered to
protect against a blocked outlet. Compressors in hydrocarbon or very toxic service
shall have: purge facilities, and Spading capability provided by spectacle blinds,
removable spool pieces or elbows
XXVI.3. Heat Exchanger
Sufficient space shall be kept between adjacent heat exchanger inlet and outlet valve
manifolds. Shell and channel piping shall be provided with vent and drain connections
unless it can be vented and drained via other equipment. Drain and vent nozzles on
heat exchangers shall have a valve and a blind flange.

Piping connected to shell-and-tube exchanger channel box shall be self supported or

provided with permanent supports so that the channels can be removed without having
to provide temporary supports for the piping. The piping shall be designed to provide
wrench room for unbolting exchanger channels
Channel piping shall be arranged with a removable section between the exchanger and
block valves so that full access is available for bundle pulling and tube cleaning.
Reboiler vapor return piping shall be free draining and drain towards the reboiler.

XXVI.4. Pressure vessel

Vertical pipes branching from columns and other vertical vessels shall have a resting
support near the nozzle and shall be guided at regular intervals to protect the pipe
against vibrations, wind load and/or buckling. If the loads on this resting support are too
high, a spring support should be positioned at a lower elevation in order to reduce
them. For the required flexibility of the piping, attention shall be paid to the location of
the lowest guiding support.
Pipe supports on pressure vessels shall be bolted to cleats welded to the vessel.
Cleats shall be designed by the CONTRACTOR and form an integral part of the
pressure vessel. Where practical, cleats shall be standardized. Cleats and the
connected pipe supports and/or supporting steel shall be designed so that there will be
no ingress of water under the insulation. To allow removal of covers, heads, channels,
bundles and shells, pipes shall not be supported on heat exchanger shells or heads
Pressure vessels that do not have a drain located directly on the vessel shall have a
drain on the bottom outlet pipe. The drain valve shall be outside the skid. The size of
the drain shall be in accordance with relative calculations.

Level Gauges
Magnetic, glass, plate, Bull's and well types level are available and should consider the
selection and design criteria for the process required application taking into consideration
the design pressure and temperature and all other factors.
Drain valves on level gauges shall be accessible and shall be clearly visible from the
operator vantage point at access platforms and walkways. Level gauges shall be
connected with block valves between them and the equipment. The pressure and
temperature rating of the level gauge shall exceed or be equal to the pressure and
temperature rating of the vessel.
The span of a level gauge shall cover the required operating range and the entire range of
other level instruments. If the required level range is too large for a single gauge, multiple
level gauges shall be used, with the connection nozzles staggered for a visible overlap. If
multiple section gauge glasses are used, the visible length shall be the measured distance
from the bottom visible portion of the lower gauge glass section to the top visible portion of
the top gauge glass section.

The design and material selection of in-line instruments and control valves shall
satisfy the design conditions ((pressure and temperature) specified on the line list for the
piping system.


Utility Piping
The HC such as Condensate valved utility connections to atmosphere shall satisfy the
double barrier concept. In this context, a blind flange on an outlet to atmosphere counts as
one barrier. When threaded plugs or caps are allowed, the threaded plug also counts as
one barrier. Where operational requirements demand a quick utility outlet to atmosphere,
the double barrier shall be obtained by installing two valves in series.
Cooling water pipes DN 600 (NPS 24) should have block valves at the plot limit so that
they can be isolated for maintenance while the cooling water system remains in operation.
Large cooling water pipes may require special supports to avoid subsidence. Manual
throttling valves should be provided in the main laterals serving each process unit
for flow balancing purposes. In addition, all exchangers except sample coolers shall be
provided with manual or automated throttling valves.
Backwash connections shall be supplied at water inlets to all critical cooling water
exchangers that are in process service. These shall be identified on the PEFS drawings.
Such connections are sized to develop a high water side velocity in-tube, generally
requiring a connection one size smaller than that of the supply line.
In elevated exchangers, where the cooling water return pressure is not adequate to
provide sufficient driving force for back flushing, a jumper line (with valves) shall be
provided from the cooling water inlet to outlet to facilitate backwashing.
Instrument air connections to process equipment or process piping SHALL be provided
with two check valves upstream of a block valve with a vent to atmosphere located
between the block valve and check valves. This provision will have minor increase in air
consumption, but in case of backflow (leaking check valve) there is no driving force to blow
small leakages past the most upstream check valve, as it will escape to the atmosphere.


Tank Piping
Within the bunded area, the number of pipes shall be minimized and they shall be routed
in the shortest practicable way from the tank to the bund wall. Where practical, the pipes
shall be grouped together. Pipes connected to tanks shall be sufficiently flexible to cope
with thermal expansion/contraction, tank settlement, the outward movement of the shell
and the inclination of nozzles under hydrostatic load. Manifolds shall be located outside the
bund wall.
Piping shall be connected after hydrostatic testing of the tank. Tank settlement, outward
movement of the shell and nozzle inclination under full liquid load conditions shall be taken
into account when calculating bending moments and forces on tank nozzles. Piping
connected to storage tank nozzles shall be provided with isolation valves.


Piping for Loading and unloading facilities

Connecting pipes between the loading arms and the headers SHALL slope down to the
headers for drainage. Where practical, the loading and unloading pipes shall slope down
towards the shore for drainage.


Piping Components

Components SHALL be selected from the applicable piping classes. The use of
special materials and/or piping components not included in the piping classes shall be

Metallic pipe shall designed with marginal corrosion allowance Welds requiring post
Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) shall be prefabricated as far as possible, thereby
minimizing the number of field welds.. For Lined piping all flanged sections shall be
hydrotested prior to coating.

Socket welded construction has been considered generally acceptable for the services
conditions such as ASME B16.5 pressure classes 150 up to and including 2500, ISO
10423/API 6A Pressure Class 5000, General hydrocarbon service, H2S service, Amine
service, Air, nitrogen and Water services (sweet, salt or brackish).The application of
socket welded (SMAW, GMAW & FCAW, ...etc) fittings in piping systems shall always
be subject to agreement by the Principal

The gasket selection SHALL be based on piping class requirements. For uniformity,
and to prevent mistakes, all nozzles on a piece of equipment should be provided with
the same type of gasket. The most stringent design condition shall determine the
required gasket.

Selection and installation of bolting materials Shall be considered to be completely

threaded. Nuts shall be semi-finished, heavy, hexagon. Nuts shall have a height equal
to the bolt diameter. Coatings are applied to improve the corrosion resistance of carbon
and low alloy steels when exposed to urban, industrial or surface marine (topside and
splash zone) environments.

Fabricated fittings employing intersection welds may only be used in crosses, and shall
be designed in accordance with the rules established in the relevant design codes or
regulations. Short radius elbows have reduced allowable pressure ratings and require
calculations to be made before utilization.

Isolation of equipment and pipes may be required carry out maintenance, safe entry of
personnel, ..etc. From the process/safety requirement for isolation, the desired
tightness and the desired speed of isolation can be derived. Single or double Valve
isolation and Spectacle spades is the standard way of separating systems.
This type of isolation is provided in all cases where no specific tightness requirements
are justified and where planned use of the isolation can be foreseen during the design
stage. Where a bleed valve is provided, the purpose of the bleed is to verify that the
isolation valve has seated and tightness has been reached before spading, and to
provide a means of draining or depressurizing the volume between the spade/blind and
isolation valve.


The configuration with double block valves upstream and downstream of the control
valve with a capped/blanked bleed directly upstream of the control valve is normally

Spectacle blinds and spades shall be located so that they are accessible from ground
level or from platforms or walkways. The need for scaffolding shall be minimized.
For easier handling, spading points should not be installed in vertical piping; if this is
unavoidable, special precautions shall be taken to improve access and handling.

Valves are available in a wide variety of types, sizes, and pressure classes and are
designed to perform. Valves shall be selected and designed based on a standard
selection and one requiring a deviated selection due to the service. This can be the
valve type and/or design. Each valve that passes validation testing will qualify a range
of similar valves, based on design characteristics, temperature range, size, pressure
class, fugitive emission class, and technical qualification class.

Ball, Plug, Gate, Globe, Check & butterfly valve types are the commonly used types of
valves which shall be considered upon the process requirement and referring back to
the Valve appendixes. The standard choice of metal seat facing material for all valves
is Stellite 6. Tungsten carbide may be used for abrasive service. Triple offset butterfly
valves utilizing laminated seats on the disc may use duplex stainless steel for the metal
laminations. Since these components are basically in compression the normal
maximum temperature can be extended from 300 to 400 C (570 F to 750 F).

The prescription of packing types and materials has been discontinued. Valve stem
sealing performance is not solely depending on the packing, but also on valve design
(straightness, roundness, clearance, surface finish, tolerance and fit). Therefore, the
packing material specifications are reduced to a minimum. If economically attractive to
do so, valves may be repaired or reconditioned Valves shall be inspected when they
arrive on site to verify that the following is in accordance with the purchase order.
Thermal Insulation, Painting and Coating

On top of insulated columns and tanks, and over piping, where applicable, grating should
be provided to avoid damage to insulation. Coating systems applied to stainless steel and
(super) duplex stainless steel for the purpose of protection against corrosion (e.g.,
chloride stress corrosion cracking) shall be in accordance with relevant design code.