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Building Services Assignment

Sizing Radiators for my Home

Sean O’Keeffe
Class 2B
Construction Studies
National Certificate in Construction
Assignment due: 13 Feb 2007

Lecturer: K Coleman
History of Property:
My house is located in Rockforest, Killavullen, just outside Mallow parish.

The house is a three bedroom bungalow of approximately 90 square metres. It was


built in 1964. I purchased the house in 2004.

Originally, the house had a suspended timber floor. (This is evident from the
vents that were left in the external walls (below floor level)). This was replaced with a
ground supported concrete slab at some point. However, no insulation was placed
under the slab. This came to my attention when I was putting channels in the slab to
facilitate upgrading of the central heating, when I first purchased the property.

I also insulated the attic as there was no insulation in the attic. I used 150mm
deep glass wool insulation. The roof is of a cold roof construction.

Upvc double glazed windows and doors had been put in the house in the
recent past.

The external walls of the house were constructed with cavity blocks.

The chimneys were sealed by a previous owner.

Assumptions:
• It is assumed there is no internal heat loss. Therefore I have not
considered heat loss through internal walls or doors.
• The external wall is of cavity block construction. I have viewed the
wall for the purpose of determining heat loss as a homogenous
structure. Plastered on the inside and outside. With two leaves to
the wall of 40mm aerated concrete and a cavity in the middle
130mm wide. This is not really correct since the cavity is breached
at the ends of the blocks by the blocks.
• The roof is of a cold roof construction. I have considered the attic
space as external to the house because its air temperature should be
the same as the outside air temperature.
• I assumed a value of 0.75 air changes/hour for calculating heat loss
due to ventilation.

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Calculations of U-values:

External Wall:

The above diagram shows a section through the external wall of the house.

It is composed of:
• 70mm sand and cement render on the outside
• 210mm cavity block with a 130mm cavity in the middle
• 10mm sand and cement render inside the block
• 5mm of gypsum skim coat

Kvalues:
Aerated concrete – 0.14 W/mK
Sand + cement render – 0.53 W/mK
Gypsum plaster – 0.40 W/mK

Rvalue = Thickness of material/ Kvalue

80mm Aerated concrete = 0.08/0.14 = 0.571 mK/W


80mm Sand + cement render = 0.08/0.53 = 0.151mK/W

3
5mm Gypsum plaster = 0.005/0.40 = 0.013mK/W

Rvalue for air is 0.18mK/W

Calculations of Uvalue for external wall

Rsi = 0.123 mK/W


Rso = 0.055 mK/W

Uvalue = 1/ Sum of Rvalues


= 1 / 0.123 +0.055 +0.571 +0.151 +0.013 +0.18 = 0.915W/mK

Ground Supported Slab:

The above diagram is of a 150mm deep ground supported slab.

Kvalue: Structural Concrete = 1.40W/mK

Rvalue: 0.150/1.40 = 0.107 mK/W

Uvalue: 1/ 0.106 + 0.150 + 0.107 = 2.755 W/mK

(I choice the Rsi and Rso values from the third page of our handout, which
apply to the emissivity of internal surfaces. I considered the bottom of the
slab to be internal because it is not exposed to the elements.)

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Ceiling:

The above diagram shows a section through the ceiling showing the
following (The ceiling is closer to level than shown here):
• 150mm Glass wool insulation
• 20mm Gypsum plasterboard
• 5mm Gypsum plaster

Kvalue:
Gypsum Plasterboard- 0.15 W/mK
Gypsum Plaster- 0.40 W/mK
Glass wool Insulation -1.02 W/mK

Rvalue:
Gypsum Plasterboard- 0.020/0.15 = 0.133 mK/W
Gypsum Plaster - 0.005/0.40 = 0.0125 mK/W
Glass wool insulation – 0.150/0.034 = 4.412 mK/W

Uvalue

1/ 0.106+ 0.150+ 0.133+ 0.0125+ 4.412 = 0.208 W/mK

(I used the same values again for the Rsi and Rso as with the ground
slab. I considered the top of the ceiling as internal because it is in the
attic.)

Windows and Doors:

I was not able to establish a realistic Uvalue for double glazing using
the Kvalues in the handout i.e. 1.02 W/mK for glass .I did obtain a
Uvalue for double glazing in the irish-energy.ie website.

Uvalue for double glazing- 2.8 W/mK

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Calculations to determine Heat Loss and Radiator Sizes

Rather than calculating the fabric heat loss and ventilation heat loss for each
room individually I used a spreadsheet into which I put the formulas. This allowed me
just to add the room, window, door and external wall dimensions for each room
individually.

I have shown below how the spreadsheet was setup before dimensions were inserted.

Room:
Length C3
Width C4
Height C5

Window:
Width C8
Height C9

Door:
Width C12
Height C13

U Temp.
Component: Area value Diff Qf
D16= E16= F16=14. G16=D16
Floor c3*c4 2.755 0 *E16*F16
D17= E17= F17=14. G17=D17*
Window c3*c9 2.800 0 E17*F17
D18= E18= F18=14. G18=D18*
Door c12*c13 2.800 0 E18*F18
External E19= F19=14. G19=D19*
Walls D19 0.915 0 E19*F19
D20 E20= F20=14. G20=D20*
Ceiling =D16 0.208 0 E20*F20

Volume of room D23= D16*C5

: Sum of Areas: D24=SUM(D16:D20)

Sum of Qf's: D25=SUM(G16:G20)

Number of air
changes: 0.75

Inside
environmental
Temp: D30=D25/(4.8*D24)+21

Heat loss due to


Vent: D32=0.33*D28*D23*(D30-7)

Total heat loss: D34=D32+D25

Radiator size: D36=D34/870

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Bedroom 1:

• The room dimensions can be seen in the plan shown on page 1.


• The dimensions for the two windows are 1.400 x 1.150. I entered these
as one window 2.80 x 1.150

Room:
Length 4.250
Width 3.550
Height 2.650

Window:
Width 2.800
Height 1.150

Door:
Width
Height

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 15.088 2.755 14.0 581.925
Window 3.220 2.800 14.0 126.224
Door 0.000 2.800 14.0 0.000
External
Wall 11.590 0.915 14.0 148.468
Ceiling 15.088 0.208 14.0 43.935

Volume of room 39.982

Sum of areas 44.985

Sum of Qf's 900.552 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 25.171 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 179.808 W

Total Heat Loss 1,080.359 W

Radiator size 1.242 metres sq.

A radiator (870W/ metre square) of 1.242 square metres would be required for
bedroom 1.

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Bedroom 2

Room:
Length 3.150
Width 3.550
Height 2.650

Window:
Width 1.400
Height 1.150

Door:
Width
Height

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 11.183 2.755 14.0 431.309
Window 1.610 2.800 14.0 63.112
Door 0.000 2.800 14.0 0.000
External
Wall 6.737 0.915 14.0 86.301
Ceiling 11.183 0.208 14.0 32.563

Volume of room 29.634

Sum of areas 30.712

Sum of Qf's 613.285 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 25.160 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 133.193 W

Total Heat Loss 746.478 W

Radiator size 0.858 metres sq.

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Bedroom 3
Room:
Length 3.300
Width 2.760
Height 2.650

Window:
Width 1.400
Height 1.150

Door:
Width
Height

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 9.108 2.755 14.0 351.296
Window 1.610 2.800 14.0 63.112
Door 0.000 2.800 14.0 0.000
External
Wall 14.449 0.915 14.0 185.092
Ceiling 9.108 0.208 14.0 26.522

Volume of room 24.136

Sum of areas 34.275

Sum of Qf's 626.022 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 24.805 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 106.363 W

Total Heat Loss 732.384 W

Radiator size 0.842 metres sq.

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Bathroom
The bathroom has two windows. (1.150 x 0.480 and 1.150 x 0.920) I
have entered these as one window 1.150 x 1.400.
Room:
Length 2.900
Width 1.640
Height 2.650

Window:
Width 1.400
Height 1.150

Door:
Width
Height

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 4.756 2.755 14.0 183.439
Window 1.610 2.800 14.0 63.112
Door 0.000 2.800 14.0 0.000
External
Wall 6.075 0.915 14.0 77.821
Ceiling 4.756 0.208 14.0 13.849

Volume of room 12.603

Sum of areas 17.197

Sum of Qf's 338.221 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 25.097 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 56.452 W

Total Heat Loss 394.673 W

Radiator size 0.454 metres sq.

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Kitchen
Room:
Length 4.350
Width 3.650
Height 2.650

Window:
Width 1.750
Height 1.150

Door:
Width
Height

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 15.878 2.755 14.0 612.395
Window 2.013 2.800 14.0 78.890
Door 0.000 2.800 14.0 0.000
External
Wall 20.963 0.915 14.0 268.536
Ceiling 15.878 0.208 14.0 46.235

Volume of room 42.075

Sum of areas 54.731

Sum of Qf's 1,006.056 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 24.830 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 185.671 W

Total Heat Loss 1,191.728 W

Radiator size 1.370 metres sq.

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Living Room

Room:
Length 3.300
Width 3.650
Height 2.650

Window:
Width 1.950
Height 1.150

Door:
Width
Height

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 12.045 2.755 14.0 464.576
Window 2.243 2.800 14.0 87.906
Door 0.000 2.800 14.0 0.000
External
Wall 17.951 0.915 14.0 229.952
Ceiling 12.045 0.208 14.0 35.075

Volume of room 31.919

Sum of areas 44.284

Sum of Qf's 817.509 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 24.846 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 140.984 W

Total Heat Loss 958.493 W

Radiator size 1.102 metres sq.

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Hall
Door:
Width 0.950
Height 2.150

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 10.291 2.755 14.0 396.924
Window 0.000 2.800 14.0 0.000
Door 2.043 2.800 14.0 80.066
External
Wall 1.403 0.915 14.0 17.972
Ceiling 10.291 0.208 14.0 29.967

Volume of room 27.271

Sum of areas 24.028

Sum of Qf's 524.930 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 25.551 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 125.215 W

Total Heat Loss 650.145 W

Radiator size 0.747 metres sq.

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Utility Room
Room:
Length 2.500
Width 1.640
Height 2.650

Window:
Width 0.600
Height 1.150

Door:
Width 0.950
Height 2.120

Component: Area Uvalue Temp. Diff Qf


Floor 4.100 2.755 14.0 158.137
Window 0.690 2.800 14.0 27.048
Door 2.014 2.800 14.0 78.949
External
Wall 3.921 0.915 14.0 50.228
Ceiling 4.100 0.208 14.0 11.939

Volume of room 10.865

Sum of areas 14.825

Sum of Qf's 326.301 W

Number of air
changes 0.750

Inside
environmental
Temp 25.585 C

Heat Loss due


to Vent 49.978 W

Total Heat Loss 376.279 W

Radiator size 0.433 metres sq.

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