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Department of Electrical Engineering

ITER, Siksha O Anusandhan University


Bhubaneswar-751013

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled, INPUT POWER
FACTOR CORRECTION OF SINGLE PHASE AC TO DC CONVERTER CIRCUIT
USING BUCK CONVERTER submitted by
1. AKSHYAT DAS (REGD NO- 1241013200)
2. DIVYA SINGH

(REGD NO- 1241013047)

3. RAHUL KUMAR PASWAN (REGD NO- 1241013251)


4. RITWIK MOHAPATRA (REGD NO- 1241013205)
5. UDAYAN DASH

(REGD NO- 1241013216)

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree
in Electrical Engineering at INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH under
S O A UNIVERSITY, BHUBANESWAR, is an authentic work carried out by the group of
students under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied
in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any degree
or diploma.

Mr. TAPAS KUMAR MOHAPATRA

Dr. RENU SHARMA

Department of Electrical Engineering


ITER, Siksha O Anusandhan University
Bhubaneswar-751013

DECLARATION
We certify that
a. The work contained in this report is original and has been done by us under the guidance
of our supervisor.
b. The work has not been submitted to any other Institute for any degree or diploma.
c. We have followed the guidelines provided by the Institute in preparing the report.
d. We have conformed to the norms and guidelines given in the Ethical Code of Conduct of
the Institute.
e. Whenever we have used materials (data, theoretical analysis, figures, and text) from other
sources, we have given due credit to them by citing them in the text of the report and
giving their details in the references.

AKSHYAT DAS (REGD NO- 1241013200)


DIVYA SINGH (REGD NO-1241013047)
RAHUL KUMAR PASWAN (REGD NO-1241013251)
RITWIK MOHAPATRA (REGD NO-1241013205)
UDAYAN DASH (REGD NO-1241013216)
2

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our heartiest gratitude and sincere thanks to our mentor
and project guide Mr. Tapas Kumar Mohapatra, Assistant Professor, Department of
Electrical Engineering, ITER, Siksha O Anusandhan University for providing us
the necessary guidance to carry out our project work. We would like to take this
opportunity to thank him for his constant support and encouragement and guiding
us throughout our work which would not have been possible without his guidance,
support and motivation.
Further, we would like to thank all the laboratory and administrative staff members
of Department of Electrical Engineering for their humble cooperation and support.
We would also take this opportunity to give thanks to all others who have helped
us throughout our project and study at our institute.

ABSTRACT

The devices generally used in industrial, commercial and residential applications


need to undergo rectification for their proper functioning and operation. They are
connected to the grid comprising of non-linear loads and thus have non-linear input
characteristics, which results in production of non-sinusoidal line current. Also,
current comprising of frequency components at multiples of line frequency is
observed which lead to line harmonics. Due to the increasing demand of these
devices, the line current harmonics pose a major problem by degrading the power
factor of the system thus affecting the performance of the devices. Hence there is a
need to reduce the line current harmonics so as to improve the power factor of the
system. This has led to designing of Power Factor Correction circuits.

Power Factor Correction (PFC) involves two techniques, Active PFC and Passive
PFC. In our project work we have designed an active power factor circuit using
Buck Converter for improving the power factor. Average Current Mode Control
method has been implemented with buck converter to observe the effect of the
active power factor corrector on the power factor. The advantage of using Buck
Converter in power factor correction circuits is that better line regulation is
obtained with appreciable power factor.

ABBREVIATIONS
4

P.F.- Power Factor


PFC- Power Factor Correction
ACMC- Average Current Mode Control
MOSFET- Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transisitor
Vrms- root mean square value of voltage
Irms- root mean square value of current
Vs- root mean square value of input voltage
Is- root mean square value of input current
Vo- average value of output voltage
Io- average value of output current
Ton- Turn-ON period of switch
Toff- Turn-OFF period of switch
T= Total time period
D= Duty Ratio
La= ac or input side inductor
Ca= ac or input side capacitor
Cf= filter capacitor
R= Load resistor

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Fig 2.1: Circuit Diagram of Buck Converter


2. Fig 2.2: Mode 1 operation of Buck Converter
3. Fig 2.3: Mode 2 operation of Buck Converter
4. Fig 2.4: Waveforms obtained in Continuous Conduction Mode of Buck Converter
5. Fig 4.1: Active Power Factor Correction Circuit
6. Fig 6.1: Circuit showing Passive PFC using an Inductor in the Input side
7. Fig 6.2: Input Voltage and Output Voltage, Input Current for inductor used in
AC side where,La=30mH, Cf =378uF, L=5mH and R=50 ohms.
8. Fig 6.3: Circuit showing Passive PFC using an LC filter in input side
9. Fig 6.4: Input Voltage and Output Voltage, Input Current for LC filter used in
Input side where, La=30mH, Ca=5uF,Cf=500uF and R=50 ohms.
10. Fig 6.5: Circuit Diagram showing PFC using Buck Converter
11. Fig 6.6: Waveforms showing Input Voltage (Vin) and Input Current (Iin)

LIST OF TABLES

1. Table 1.0: Spectification of Active Power factor corrector


2. Table 1.1: Simulation results for the 90W Active PFC Circuit

CONTENTS
1. CHAPTER- 1 :- Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Motivation
1.3 Literature Survey
1.4 Technical Objective
1.5 Impact of the Project Work in
1.5.1 Global Context
1.5.2 Economic Context
1.5.3 Environmental Context
1.5.4 Social Context
1.6 Contemporary issues in Modern Global Context
1.6.1 Description
1.6.2 Distinction
1.6.3 Evaluation
1.7 Organisation of Thesis
2. CHAPTER-2: System Design
2.1 Power Factor Correction (PFC)
2.2 Need of PFC
8

2.3 Types of Power Factor Correction


2.3.1 Passive PFC
2.3.2 Active PFC
2.4 Buck Converter
2.5 Modes of Operation of Buck Converter
2.6 Advantages of Buck Converter for Power Factor Correction
2.7 Current Mode Control
2.8 Types of Current Mode Control
2.9 Average Current Mode Control (ACMC)
2.10 Advantages & Disadvantages of ACMC
3. CHAPTER- 3 :- System Modelling
3.1 Design Parameters
3.1.1 Specification of Active power factor corrector
3.1.2 Selection of Switching frequency
3.1.3 Selection of Inductor
3.1.4 Selection of Output Capacitor
3.2 Passive PFC circuits
3.2.1 Passive PFC using a Rectifier with AC side inductor
3.2.1 Passive PFC using a Rectifier with LC filter in input side
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3.3 Active PFC circuit


3.3.1 PFC using Buck Converter
CHAPTER- 4:- Analysis & Evaluation
4.1 Result Analysis
CHAPTER-5:- Conclusion
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Future Work
5.3 Recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in lifelong learning
5.3.1 Gathering relevant technical and scientific information
5.3.2 Identifying, Retrieving & Organizing information
5.3.3 Writing a project proposal to engage in lifelong learning
5.4 Techniques, Skills & Modern tools used in accomplishment of the
project
5.5 References

10

11

1.1 INTRODUCTION:Power Factor is an important performance parameter of a system. And improving power factor is
very much essential for the better and economical performance of the system. If the power factor
of a system at a given power requirement is poor, then large value of Volt Amperes or large
amount of current is required by the system which is drawn from the supply. Hence it is seen that
various measures are taken to improve the power factor of a system.
[1] describes the use and design of a Boost pre-regulator for the Power Factor Correction. And
[2] describes the design, use and analysis of Buck Converter for power Factor Correction. While
[3] compares various DC-DC Converter topologies for Power Factor Correction.
The basic purpose of a Power Factor Correction circuit is to make the line current follow the
waveform of the line voltage so that the input to the power supply becomes purely resistive or
behaves like a resistor and hence to improve the power factor.
Our project work makes the use of Buck Converter in the Power Factor Correction circuit so as
to improve the power factor. Our project work starts with the description of Power Factor and
other performance parameters associated with it in detail and then with the study and analysis of
Buck Converter and with the advantages of using Buck Converter for Power Factor Correction.
We started our project work with the study and analysis of power factor of a system by doing
simulations on MATLAB Software using full wave rectifier in the beginning. After studying and
analyzing the input current and voltage waveforms and the power factor of the system using
Rectifier circuit, we introduced a Buck Converter in the circuit and then analyzed its effect in
improving the power factor of the system.

1.2 MOTIVATION:

The Input Power Factor Correction technology has been developed now at a reasonably
matured level for acdc conversion with reduced harmonic currents, high power factor,
low electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) at input
ac mains and well-regulated and good quality dc output to feed loads ranging from

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fraction of Watt to several hundred kilowatts power ratings in large number of


applications.

It has been revolutionized in the last couple of decade with varying configurations,
control approaches, solid-state devices, circuit integration, varying magnetics, etc., for
features such as boost, buck, buckboost, and multilevel with unidirectional and
bidirectional power flow.

A large number of Input Power Facor Correction configurations have been evolved to
suit vastly varying requirements of different applications while maintaining a high level
of quality at the input ac source and output dc loads.

The power quality has become an important issue . With the increasing use of these
converters at vast varying power and voltage levels, these IPQC are classified in four
major categories, namely buck, boost, buckboost, and multilevel converters with a high
level of power quality at the input ac source
and at dc output.

By using Buck topology through simulations, the objective is to maintain the power
factor nearer to unity and fulfil the load demand and thereby to reduce power loss,
harmonic distortions, improve efficiency and reduce fluctuations in dc output loads.

1.3 LITERATURE SURVEY:Input Power Factor Correction Techniques are classified on the basis of topology and type
ofconverter used. The topology-based classification is categorized on the basis of boost, buck,
buckboost, multilevel, unidirectional and bidirectional voltage, current, and power flow.
Theconverter type can be step-up and step-down choppers, voltage source and current-source
inverters, bridge structure, etc. These are classified as boost, buck, buckboost, and multilevel
with unidirectional and bidirectional power flow. Buck Converter is a combination of diode
rectifier with step-down chopper with input and output filters. Its performance is improved using
a ripple filter at dc output for reducing harmonics in ac mains and ripples at dc output voltage.
Nowadays, it is also developed using a diode rectifier with filter and various combinations of dc
dc converter with and withouthigh-frequency transformer isolation. Whereas, Boost Converter is
a combination of diode bridge rectifier and step-up dc chopper with filtering and energy storage
elements. There using the concept of interleaved and multicell to improve their performance.
High-frequency PWM and hysteresis current control techniques are used in the control of inner
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current loop and wide-bandwidth closed-loop controllers in outer voltage loop of these
converters to provide fast response and high level of power quality at input ac mains and dc
output. These converters are developed in both nonisolated and isolated circuit configurations. It
is a combination of diode rectifier with buckboost dcdc converters. Since buckboost
converters are developed in nonisolated and isolated topologies, a large number of configurations
is also reported, such as a combination of buck and boost or vice versa, buckboost, flyback,
SEPIC, Zeta, Cuk, etc. These are now cascaded with a diode rectifier to improve power quality at
the ac mains with required variable controllable output dc voltage to meet the need of specific
applications. High-frequency transformer isolation provides voltage adjustment for better
control, safety on load equipment, compactness, reduced weight, size, losses, and their suitability
to the varying applications. Moreover, it needs only a single switch which is inherently capable
of giving regulated dc output with reduced ripple and high power factor and low THD at the ac
mains through proper control. The concept of soft switching using resonant circuits is also used
to reduce switching stresses and losses in the devices to operate at high switching frequency to
further reduce the size of magnetics and energy storage elements. Bidirectional acdc converters
consist of basic converters normally used in inverters such as pushpull, half-bridge, voltagesource inverters, current-source inverters employing MOSFETs for low-power, IGBTs for
medium-power, and GTOs for high-power converters. These acdc converters are extensively
employed for adjustable-speed drives used to drive active loads.

1.4 TECHNICAL OBJECTIVE:Now-a-days, due to huge applications of electronic equipments has resulted in a huge variety of
electronic devices requiring mains supply. These devices have rectification circuits, which is the
prominent reason of harmonic distortion. These devices convert AC to DC power supply which
causes current pulses to be drawn from the ac network during each half cycle of the supply
waveform. Even if a single device for example, a television may not draw a lot of reactive power
nor it can generate enough harmonics to affect the supply system significantly, but within a
particular phase connection, there may exist several such devices connected to the same supply
phase resulting in production of a large amount of reactive power flow in the lines. Which results
nonlinearlty in the current waveform because of distortions. Which also results poor power factor
of the circuit. Due to poor power factor losses are increased, efficiency of the system reduced,
harmonic distortions increased. So that by improving the power factor of the circuit nearer to
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unity the traditional inductive loads can behave as resisitive loads so that the amount of active
power delivery can be increased, better voltage regulation, higher energy efficiency, less power
consumptions all these factors can be achieved.
So, our objective is to make the input line current follow the input line voltage waveform so that
to improve the input power factor of the conventional AC to DC converter circuit by using buck
converter between bridge rectifier and DC loads with proper control strategy. Our project work
makes the use of Buck Converter in the Power Factor Correction circuit so as to improve the
power factor. Our project work starts with the description of Power Factor and other performance
parameters associated with it in detail and then with the study and analysis of Buck Converter
and with the advantages of using Buck Converter for Power Factor Correction.
We started our project work with the study and analysis of power factor of a system by doing
simulation using full wave rectifier in the beginning. After studying and analyzing the input
current and voltage waveforms and the power factor of the system using Rectifier circuit, we
introduced a Buck Converter in the circuit and then analyzed its effect in improving the power
factor of the system.

1.5 IMPACT OF THE PROJECT WORK:In this section the impact of load power factor control in global context ,economic context,
environmental context and social context is discussed.

1.5.1- GLOBAL CONTEXT:Many electrical and electronic devices operate in low power, functional and non-functional
modes, in readiness for an externally activated signal. Applications include Desktop PC,
Laptophotebook, TV, VCR, DVD and set-top box, to name a few. Typically, external signals
can be activated by remote control, network connections, keyboard or mouse and, more
recently, voice activation. A device waiting in low load , anticipating an external wake-up signal
is said to be operating in the standby mode. Such devices and modes of operation have
increased significantly over the last decade, as users require devices that can be made always
available and can be remotely activated. Devices operating in standby mode are always on and
consequently, they dissipate power even when the output power or load is zero. The national
and global effects of standby power are causing concern. Typically standby power accounts for
15

around 10% of all residential power, accounting for 20 to 60W consumed in each household,
in the developed world. With this contributing around 1 %

of carbon emissions, it is no

surprise that governments and environmental bodies are trying to initiate change. So there is a
need of improved input power factor.

1.5.2- ECONOMIC CONTEXT:Improving the power factor of the system contributes enormously according to economic context
of view. In India there is a power loss of 40% to 50% of power from generation unit to
consumption unit .so by improving the power factor of the system we can somehow minimize
the power loss.so by minimizing the power loss we can reduce the use of sources for power
generation and thus helps in economics of India by reserving the energy sources. By improving
the power factor of the system resulting from the connection can compensate for the reactive
power required by the load. This ensures that only a small amount of reactive power is drawn
from the supply. By installing power factor correction equipment and ensuring that the average
power factor is better than 0.95 lagging under all load conditions, no excess reactive power is
consumed. Smaller capacitor stages ensure that these charges are avoided under almost all load
conditions. This means that all excess Reactive Power charges can be avoided ,Which is also
very advantageous for the generating stations in economical point of view. Also as the power
quality improved the load on the cables and switches are reduced, so that their sizes can be
reduced and life is also can be extended. The supply can be available for additional loads which
is always useful to an expanding company. The charges made by electricity company can be
reduced.

1.5.3- ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT:The demand for energy is constantly increasing, which is pushing the limitations of the current
grid, increasing reliance on fossil fuels, and increasing CO2 emissions. These concerns have
renewed interest in discovering ways to reduce power demand on the grid through renewable
energy, building automation, direct current (DC) distribution, and more. The result has led to fast
implementation of photovoltaic (PV) power systems.With the majority of electronics and
appliances operating on DC and renewable energy systems, such as PV power systems,
generating DC power, energy usage can potentially be reduced by having DC sources and
appliances directly connected. This savings in energy is achieved by reducing the number of
16

conversions between DC to and alternating current (AC). So by improving power factor we can
have sufficient power to meet the demands of consumers which can result reduction in
production of emission CO2 by 146kg and uses of fossil fuels and thus helps in keeping
environment healthy and balanced.

1.5.4- SOCIAL CONTEXT:Improving in power factor is also advantageous to social context. Most people associate
electricity and energy with kilowatts (kW). Infact, kW only makes up a part ofthe overall energy
usage in a home,commercial building or an industrial manufacturing plant. Utilities have several
different rate structures that may be used for billing. kVA Billing straight charges for all
apparent power consumed,kVAr Billing additional charges for reactive power ,Power Factor
Penalty charges based on the customers actual power factor ,Adjusted kW Demand the real
power demand is adjusted by a formula and is based on the customers actual power factor In all
cases, the power factor of a customer will become a direct or indirect factor in the utility bill.
Power bills may be reduced by introducing capacitors to the facility, which can reduce the need
for kVAr required from the utility. Also improved voltage levels can be achieved for customers
so that voltage dip or fluctuations across the loads can be reduced. So that the customers in the
societies can also be benefited.

1.6- COTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MODERN GLOBAL CONTEXT:The Contemporary issues of PFC in modern global context is described as below

1.6.1- DESCRIPTION:In this project the total description of input power factor correction of AC to DC converter using
buck converter is described .The rise in the industrial, commercial and residential applications of
electronic equipments has resulted in a huge variety of electronic devices requiring mains supply.
These devices have rectification circuits, which is the prominent reason of harmonic distortion.
These devices convert AC to DC power supply which causes current pulses to be drawn from the
ac network during each half cycle of the supply waveform. Even if a single device for example, a
television may not draw a lot of reactive power nor it can generate enough harmonics to affect
the supply system significantly, but within a particular phase connection, there may exist several
17

such devices connected to the same supply phase resulting in production of a large amount of
reactive power flow in the lines. With improvement in the field of semiconductors, the size and
weight of control circuits have drastically reduced. This has also affected their performance and
thus power electronic converters have become increasingly popular in industrial, commercial and
residential applications. However this mismatch between power supplied and power used cannot
be detected by any kind of meter meant for charging the domestic consumers, and hence, results
in direct loss of revenues.

1.6.2- DISTINCTION:Since different streets are supplied with different phases, a 3-phase unbalanced condition may
also arise within a housing scheme. The unbalance current flows in the neutral line of a star
connected network causing undesirable heating and burning of the conductor .This pulsating
current contains harmonics which results in additional losses and dielectric stresses in capacitors
and cables, increasing currents in windings of rotating machinery (e.g., induction motors) and
transformers and noise emissions in many equipments. The rectifier used in the AC input side is
the prime source of this problem. Thus, in order to decrease the effect of this distortion, power
factor correction circuits are added to the supply input side of equipments used in industries and
domestic applications to increase the efficiency of power usage.

1.6.3- EVALUATION:Buck converter with average current control method is implemented to observe the effect of the
active power factor corrector on the power factor. The advantage of using Buck Converter in
power factor correction circuits is that better line regulation is obtained with appreciable power
factor.

1.7- ORGANISATION OF THESIS:The thesis is organized as follows


Chapter-2 is about the system design. Which describes complete theory related to our project
work. It includes power factor correction strategy, its various types. Operation of buck converter
and its detailed analysis also presented there. After that average current control method is
described which is used as a control technique for buck converter as a power factor corrector.
18

Chapter-3 is all about system modeling. Which introduces design parameters, specifications of
the power factor correction circuits. The value of switching frequency, inductor, capacitor etc are
calculated there. Then simulations of passive and active PFC circuit is implemented. First a
passive PFC circuit using a inductor in AC side is implemented, then a LC filter is used in AC
side. Finally our active PFC circuit using buck converter is implemented.
Chapter-4 is result analysis. Results obtained from the above circuits , waveforms are analysed in
this section and finally a better power factor nearer to unity is obtained.
Chapter-5 is related to conclusion, which we concluded after completion of our project. Which
also includes the works which can be done in future in this topic.

19

20

POWER FACTOR :Power factor can be defined as


P.F=

Real Power
Apparent Power

Or P.F=

P
Vrms Irms

Where Vrms= Root Mean Square Voltage of Load.


Irms= Root Mean Square Current of Load
If the load is purely resistive, then the real power will be same as Vrms Irms. Hence, the power
factor will be 1.0.
And if the load is not purely resistive, the power factor will be below 1.0.
Power factor correction circuits are developed so that the power factor is improved which means
it tries to make the input to a power supply behave like purely resistive or a resistor. This is done
by trying to make the input current in response to the input voltage, so that a constant ratio is
maintained between the voltage and current. This would ensure the input to be resistive in nature
and thus, the power factor to be 1.0 or unity.

PHASE DISPLACEMENT:
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It is a measure of the reactance of the impedance of the input. The presence of reactance be it
capacitance or inductance will cause displacement of the input current waveform with respect to
the input voltage waveform.
Power factor can also be defined as the phase displacement of the voltage and current, which is
expressed as the cosine of the phase angle between the voltage and current waveform.
P.F = Cos
The amount of displacement between the voltage and current gives us the idea about the degree
to which the load is reactive.
So, if reactance contributes a small part to the impedance of the load, the phase displacement will
be small. Also, filtering of alternating line current will produce phase displacement [1].
HARMONIC DISTORTION:
It is a measure of the non-linearity of the impedance of the input. If there is variation in the input
impedance, which varies as a function of the input voltage, then there will be distortion of the
input current and hence, this distortion will lead to poor power factor.
Distortion increases the RMS value of the current without increasing the total power being used
or consumed or drawn. So, a non-linear load will have a poor power factor, since the value of the
RMS current is high, but the total power delivered is small.
If the non-linearity is high or large, the harmonic distortion is large.
The active power factor correction units may have harmonic distortion effects from several
sources like the feed-forward signals, the feedback loops, the output capacitor, inductor and the
input rectifiers [1].
The effect of Total Harmonic Distortion on power factor can be seen to be inversely related.
Total Harmonic Distortion can be measured by Harmonic Factor which is defined as:Harmonic factor H.F=

Is2Is12
2
Is 1

Where, Is1= Fundamental Component of the Input Current Is.


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And Is= RMS value of input current.


INPUT SUPPLY PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS:
The AC supply current in a phase-controlled drive is non-sinusoidal, which will affect the
performance of the drive. The performance can be measured by the help of the following terms
given below:1) Input Power Factor:P.F=

Mean Input Power


RMS Input Volt Amperes

If the supply voltage is undistorted sinusoidal then only the fundamental component of
input current would contribute to mean power.
Therefore P.F=

VI 1 cos 1
VI

Where V= rms value of supply phase voltage


I= rms value of supply phase current
I1= rms value of fundamental component of supply current
&

= angle between supply voltage and fundamental component of supply

current
Input power factor is very important as it decides how much volt-amperes is required by the
system. So, for a certain power demand of a system, if the power factor is very poor, then more
or large amount of volt-amperes and thus, large value of current are drawn from the supply.

2) Input Displacement Factor:23

It is defined as cos 1

or D.F= cos 1

Where 1= Input displacement angle


If for a certain power demand displacement factor is low, then large value of fundamental
current is drawn from the supply.
3) Harmonic Factor
Since the input current is non-sinosoidal in nature, it contains current of harmonic
frequency. It is defined as
H.F=

H.F=

I 2I n2
I 12

In
2

I1

I1

Where In= rms value of nth harmonic current


I1= rms value of fundamental component of supply current
The Harmonic Factor (HF) gives us idea about the harmonic contents in the input supply
current and measures the Total Harmonic Distortion.
Fourier Analysis of Input Supply Current:
The input supply current (i) can be expressed in Fourier Series as follows:

i=I 0+ ( an cos nt +b n sin nt )


n=1

I 0 + ( 2 I n sin (nt + n) )
n =1

I0 is the DC component
The Fourier Coefficients an and bn are:

24

I0=

1
idt
T 0

an=

2
i cos nt dt
T 0

bn=

2
i sin nt dt
T 0

In=

a n2bn2
2

1 an

=tan
n
And
bn

( )

2.1 -Power Factor Correction (PFC)


Power factor correction is the method of improving the power factor of a system by using
suitable devices. The objective of power factor correction circuits is to make the input to a power
supply behave like purely resistive or a resistor. When the ratio between the voltage and current
is a constant, then the input will be resistive hence the power factor will be 1.0. When the ratio
between voltage and current is other than one due to the presence of non-linear loads, the input
will contain phase displacement, harmonic distortion and thus, the power factor gets degraded
[5-7].

2.2-Need of PFC:The rise in the industrial, commercial and residential applications of electronic equipments has
resulted in a huge variety of electronic devices requiring mains supply. These devices have
rectification circuits, which is the prominent reason of harmonic distortion. These devices
convert AC to DC power supply which causes current pulses to be drawn from the ac network
during each half cycle of the supply waveform. Even if a single device for example, a television
may not draw a lot of reactive power nor it can generate enough harmonics to affect the supply
25

system significantly, but within a particular phase connection, there may exist several such
devices connected to the same supply phase resulting in production of a large amount of reactive
power flow in the lines.
With improvement in the field of semiconductors, the size and weight of control circuits have
drastically reduced. This has also affected their performance and thus power electronic
converters have become increasingly popular in industrial, commercial and residential
applications. However this mismatch between power supplied and power used cannot be
detected by any kind of meter meant for charging the domestic consumers, and hence, results in
direct loss of revenues [5-7].

26

Moreover, since different streets are supplied with different phases, a 3-phase unbalanced
condition may also arise within a housing scheme. The unbalance current flows in the neutral
line of a star connected network causing undesirable heating and burning of the conductor [5-7].

This pulsating current contains harmonics which results in additional losses and dielectric
stresses in capacitors and cables, increasing currents in windings of rotating machinery (e.g.,
induction motors) and transformers and noise emissions in many equipments. The rectifier used
in the AC input side is the prime source of this problem. Thus, in order to decrease the effect of
this distortion, power factor correction circuits are added to the supply input side of equipments
used in industries and domestic applications to increase the efficiency of power usage [5-7].

2.3-TYPES OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION :Power Factor Correction can be classified as two types:
1. Passive Power Factor Correction
2. Active Power Factor Correction

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2.3.1.Passive Power Factor Correction(Passive PFC):In Passive PFC, in addition to the diode bridge rectifier, passive elements are introduced to
improve the nature of the line current. By using this, power factor can be increased to a value of
0.7 to 0.8 approximately. As the voltage level of power supply increases, the sizes of PFC
components increase. The idea of passive PFC is to filter out the harmonic currents by use of a
low pass filter and only allow the 50 Hz power frequency wave to increase the power factor [5],
[7].

Advantages of Passive PFC :

It has a simple structure.

It is reliable and rugged.

The cost is very low because only a filter is required.

The high frequency switching losses are absent and it is not sensitive to noises and
surges.

The equipments used in this circuit dont generate high frequency EMI [5], [7].

Disadvantages of Passive PFC :

For achieving better power factor the size of the filter increases.

Due to the time lag associated with the passive elements it has a poor dynamic response.

The voltage cannot be regulated and the efficiency is low.

Due to presence of inductors and capacitors interaction may take place between the
passive elements and the system resonance may occur at different frequencies.

Although by filtering the harmonics can be filtered out, the fundamental component may
get phase shifted thus reducing the power factor

The shape of input current is dependent upon what kind of load is connected [5],[ 7].

28

2.3.2-Active Power Factor Correction(Active PFC)


An active PFC is a power electronic device designed to control the amount of power drawn by a
load and obtains a power factor as close as possible to unity. Commonly any active PFC design
functions by controlling the input current in order to make the current waveform follow the
supply voltage waveform closely (i.e. a sine wave). A combination of the reactive elements and
some active switches increase the effectiveness of the line current shaping and to obtain
controllable output voltage [5], [7], [8].
The switching frequency differentiates the active PFC solutions into two classes.

Low frequency active PFC:

Switching takes place at low-order harmonics of the line-frequency and it is synchronized with
the line voltage.

High frequency active PFC:

The switching frequency is much higher than the line frequency.


The power factor value obtained through Active PFC technique can be more than 0.9. With a
suitable design even a power factor of 0.99 can be achieved easily. Active PFC power supply can
detect the input voltage automatically, supports 110V to 240V alternative current, its size and
weight is smaller than passive PFC power supply [5], [7], [8].

Advantages of Active PFC :

The weight of active PFC system is very less.

The size is also smaller and a power factor value of over 0.95 can be obtained through
this method.

It reduces the harmonics present in the system.


29

Automatic correction of the AC input voltage can be obtained.

It is capable of operating in a full range of voltage [5], [7], [8]

Disadvantages of Active PFC :

The layout design is somewhat more complex than passive PFC.

It is very expensive since it needs PFC control IC, high voltage MOSFET, high
voltage ultra-fast choke and other circuits [5], [7], [8].

2.4-BUCK CONVERTER:
It is a converter in which the output voltage is less than the input voltage. It is like a step-down
converter. In figure Fig 2.1, Va< Vs.
The circuit diagram of Buck Converter using a power BJT is as follows:-

Fig 2.1- Circuit diagram of buck converter


The operation of Buck Converter can be described in two modes.
30

2.5-Modes of Operation of Buck Converter:Mode-1: It begins when transistor Q1 is switched ON at t=0.


The input current rises, flows through filter inductor L, filter capacitor C and load resistor R.
The circuit diagram showing operation of Buck Converter in Mode-1 is shown below.

Fig 2.2: Mode 1 operation of Buck Converter


Mode-2: It begins when transistor Q1 is switched OFF at t=t1.
The freewheeling diode Dm conducts because of the energy stored in the inductor and the current
flows through L, C, load and diode Dm.
The circuit diagram showing operation of Buck Converter in Mode 2 is shown below.

31

Fig 2.3: Mode 2 operation of Buck Converter

Analysis:di
Voltage across inductor L = e1 = L dt
Suppose the inductor current rises linearly from I1 to I2 in time t1.
1. Vs Va= L

2. t1 =

I 2I 1
t1

I
= L t1

IL
VsVa

(1)

And if the inductor current falls from I2 to I1 in time t2, we have


I
3. 0 Va= L t 2
4. t2 =

IL
Va

From (1) and (2), I =

(2)
VsVa
L

t1=

Va t 2
L

Let, t1= kT & t2= (1 k)T

32

5. Va=

Vs t 1
T

= kVs= Average output voltage

Assuming a lossless circuit


VsIs= VaIa= kVsIa
And Is= kIa= Average input current
1
f

Therefore, switching period T=

IL
IL
VsVa + Va

= t1+t2=

ILVs
Va (VsVa)

6. The peak to peak ripple current is


Va (VsVa)
fLVs

I=

(3)

i L =i c +i a

Now from figure,

Assuming the load ripple current

i0

The average capacitor current flows for

7. IC =

to be very small and negligible,

i L =i c

t1 t2 T
+ =
2 2 2

I
4

v c ( capacitor voltage )=

1
i dt+ v c t=0
T c

Peak to peak ripple voltage of capacitor is


T
2

v c =v c v c t=0=

Or

vc=

1 I
IT
dt=

C 0 4
8C

I
8 fC

Using I from (3), we have


vc=

Va( VsVa)
8 LC f 2 Vs

There are some conditions for the inductor current and capacitor voltage to be continuous
33

Let IL = Average inductor current


8. Inductor ripple current ( I) = 2IL
t1
9. Now Va = Vs T
10. I = 2IL =

= kVs &

Vsk ( 1k )
fL

Vsk (1k )
= 2Ia
fL

11. The critical value for inductor (LC) is


LC = L =

( 1k ) R
2f

(4)

Let, VC = Average capacitor voltage


V = capacitor ripple voltage = 2 Va
C

Va=

Vs t 1
=kVs
T

&

V =
C

Vsk (1k )
=2 Va=2 kVs
8 LC f 2

12. The critical value of capacitor CC is


CC =

1k
16 L f 2

(5)

WAVEFORM
The waveforms of switching state, current and voltage during continuous conduction mode
(CCM) operation of Buck Converter are given below. In figure Fig 3.4, shown below
T on= ON period of transistor
T off = OFF period of transistor
V i= input voltage
V 0= output voltage

34

V L = voltage across inductor L


V D = voltage across diode Dm
I L = current flowing through the inductor
I max=

maximum value of

IL

I min=

minimum value of

IL

D=

duty cycle =

Vo
Vi

Fig 2.4 Waveforms obtained in continouous conduction mode of buck converter


During

T on , V L =V iV 0

, The diode Dm becomes reverse biased and current through inductor

rises in linear manner.


During

T off , V L =V 0

, The diode Dm becomes forward biased and current through inductor

decreases.

2.6-ADVANTAGES OF BUCK CONVERTER FOR POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

35

1) It requires only one transistor and is simple.


2) It has high efficiency, more than 90%.
3) The inductor limits the rate of change of load current.
But, the input current is discontinuous and a smoothing input filter is required.
Buck converter provides one polarity of output voltage and unidirectional output current.
In systems such as universal line AC-DC converters [2], it is very difficult to improve power
factor where high efficiency is required throughout the entire line. A Power Factor Correction
circuit using Boost Converter possesses 1% to 3% lower efficiency at 100 Volts than that at 230
Volts. This is due to increased input current that produces higher losses in semiconductors and
input filters. Also the high output voltage of Boost Converter in 380-400 Volts range has a
detrimental effect on its switching losses and on the size and efficiency of the isolation
transformer.
The above drawbacks of Boost Converter in Power Factor Correction circuit can be overcome by
using Buck Converter with output voltage in 135 Volts range which has higher efficiency
throughout the line. Also the lower input voltage to the DC-DC output stage can now be operated
with lower voltage rated semiconductors, optimized loss and size of isolation transformer and
better performance.

2.7 CURRENT MODE CONTROL


In this method, the buck regulator input current is forced or programmed to be proportional to
the input voltage waveform for power factor correction. Feedback is necessary to control the
input current.

2.8-Types of Current Mode Control


There are two types of current mode control:
36

1)Peak Current Mode Control(PCMC), and


2)Average Current Mode Control (ACMC).
Implementing peak current mode control in a PFC circuit has the following disadvantages:1) It has a low gain.
2) It has a wide band-width which makes it unsuitable for a high performance PFC since
there is a significant error between the programming signal and current which leads to
distortion and a poor power factor [1], [7], [11].
Hence, the control circuit for the buck converter is implemented using Average Current Mode
Control (ACMC) method.

2.9-AVERAGE CURRENT MODE CONTROL (ACMC)


It is based on a simple concept where an amplifier is used in the feedback loop around the buck
power stage so that the input current follows the current programming signal with minimum
error.
The power circuit of a buck power factor corrector is the same as that of a dc to dc buck
converter. There is a single phase diode bridge to rectify the AC input voltage. The output of the
buck regulator is a constant voltage but the input current is programmed by the input voltage.
The method involves the control of both the input current and the output voltage [1], [7], [11].
The salient features of ACMC are:

The current loop is programmed by the rectified line voltage so that the input to the
converter will be approximately resistive.

The average amplitude of the current programming signal is changed to control the
output voltage.

An analog multiplier is used which multiplies the rectified line voltage with the output of
the voltage error amplifier to give the current programming signal(Imo) which has the
shape of the input voltage and an average amplitude to control the output voltage.
37

The multiplier input from the rectified line voltage is shown as a current signal rather
than a voltage one.

A squarer, divider and a multiplier is used in the voltage loop.


The output of the voltage error amplifier (Vvea) is divided by the square of the average
input voltage before being multiplied by the input voltage signal. This is done to keep the
gain of the voltage loop constant without which it would vary as the square of the average
input voltage (Vff).

The voltage loop bandwidth is kept less than the input line frequency because if it is large
then it would modulate the input current to keep the output voltage constant thereby

resulting in large distortion of input current.


The basic control circuit arrangement necessary for an active power factor corrector is shown
below:

Fig 4.1: Active Power Factor Correction Circuit


38

The above picture was reproduced from [1].


The control circuit introduces both distortion and displacement into the input current waveform.
The sources of error mainly include the input diode bridge, the multiplier circuit and ripple
voltage, both on the output and on the feed forward voltage.

39

There are two modulation processes in an active power factor corrector:


1)The input diode bridge
2)The multiplier, divider and squarer circuit.
Cross products, harmonics or sidebands are generated between the two inputs during each
modulation process. The two modulators interact and one serves as a demodulator for the other
so that the result is quite simple and thus, all of the ripple voltages are at the second harmonic of
the line frequency.
The Vff should be as low as possible to minimize the distortion in input current [1].

2.10- ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:Advantages of ACMC:

Better line regulation is achieved using ACMC.

It operates with a constant switching frequency.

Here no compensation ramp is required.

Since the current is filtered the control is less sensitive to commutation noises unlike peak
current mode control.

The duty cycle is close to one near the zero crossing of the line voltage hence, better
input current waveforms are obtained than for the peak current control [1], [7], [11].

Disadvantages of ACMC :

The inductor current has to be sensed.

Here a current error amplifier is required for which a compensation network has to be
designed for different converter operating points [1], [7], [11].
40

41

3.1- DESIGN PARAMETERS:For modeling a sample circuit for power factor correction, a power factor corrector of output
rated at 90W is taken. Even though the power stage design varies, the design process is the same
for all ratings.

3.1.1-Specifications of Active Power Factor Corrector:


Pout (max): 90W
Input Voltage (Vin): 220Vac
Line frequency: 50Hz
Output voltage (Vout): 135Vdc

3.1.2- Selection of Frequency:The switching frequency should be large enough to minimize the size of the power circuit and
reduce distortion. Moreover it should be less for higher efficiency. Hence, a switching
frequency of 100 KHz is chosen.

3.1.3-Inductor Selection:
The maximum peak current (Ipk) which flows through the inductor when the input voltage value
is minimum, is first obtained.
At maximum peak line current Ipk, Pin = Pout (max)
I pk =

Or

P
V / 2

I pk =

90
=0.5785 amps
220 / 2

Ripple current is assumed to be 20

of peak inductor current.

I =0.2 0.5785=0.16 amps

V out
At

I pk

, duty factor (D) is given by D =

V ( RMS)

42

135
=0.87
220
2

V s D(1D)
=1.1 mH
Hence, inductance L is given by L =
I f

[1],[4]

3.1.4- Selection of Output Capacitor:


Peak to peak ripple voltage of the capacitor is assumed to be 20mV.
C=

I
=10 F
8 f V c

[4]

3.2- PASSIVE PFC CIRCUITS:Firstly, simulations are done using passive networks for different positions of filter
capacitors and inductors. For all the passive circuits, RLC load has been used and
the position of the filter has been shuffled to observe the variations in the input and
output voltages and currents and the amount of distortions present in them.

Further, improvement of power factor is taken care of in the subsequent circuits where feedback
loops are employed.

3.2.1-Passive PFC using a Rectifier with AC side inductor


Simulated results for the rectifier with AC-side inductor are presented in Fig. 2.6, where the
inductance La has been chosen so as to maximize the power factor.

43

Fig 2.6- Circuit showing Passive PFC using an Inductor in the Input side having
L=30mh, R=50ohm L=5mh, C= 378uf

Fig-2.7 waveform showing input current and input voltage

3.2.2- Passive PFC using a Rectifier with LC Filter in input side and R- load

44

Passive PFC using an inductor and capacitor together in AC side is represted here with simulated
waveforms.

Fig 2.8- Circuit showing rectifier circuit with LC filter used in input side where, La=30mH,
Ca=5uF ,Cf=500uF, and R=50 ohms.

45

Fig 2.9- Waveform showing input current and input voltage of rectifier circuit

Observation from previous two circuits


We observe that by using passive pfc methods for power factor correction (PFC), the nature of
input current is still distorted somehow and there is some phase difference between the voltage
and current waveform is of considerable amount which results in very poor power factor.
So, we go for PFC using buck converter. The following circuit is designed feedback amplifier
using PI controller with the Buck Converter for obtaining maximum power factor.

3.3-Active PFC Circuit:3.3.1 PFC using Buck Converter:-

46

Fig 3.0- Circuit Showing PFC using Buck converter

47

Fig 3.1- Waveform showing input current (Iin) & input voltage (Vin)
As we have seen by using active pfc methods using buck converter here the input line current
waveform follows input line voltage waveform so that distortions in the current waveform is
degraded and also power factor is improved nearer to unity.

48

4.1 RESULT ANALYSIS:49

Firstly we took a passive PFC circuit with AC input side inductor to improve the input
power factor. An inductor at the AC-side of the diode bridge, in series with the line
voltage as shown in Fig. 2.6 and to create circuit conditions such that the line current is
zero during the zero-crossings of the line voltage. The maximum power factor obtained is
PF = 0.76 , with the theoretical assumption of constant DC output voltage. We should
note here that in reality, as explained later on in this chapter, the DC output voltage of the
PFC circuit has ripple at twice the line-frequency, ripple that is also dependent on the
load current.

Further, The shape of the line current can be further improved by using a combination
inductor and capacitor in AC side. Here an LC filter is introduced in-between the AC
source and the load, as shown in Fig. 2.8. the power factor maximum obtained is 0.79.
But in above two PFC circuits the input line current waveform is not purely sinusoidal as
input voltage. And power factor is not very close to unity. So there is distortion is the
current waveform. For further improvement we took an active PFC circuit in which buck
converter is used with average current mode control method to maximize the power
factor as fig-3. In fig 3.1 we can see the input current waveform is improved and became
a purely sinusoidal waveform as voltage. And power factor also very close to unity i.e
0.95 obtained.

Simulation Results for the Active Power Factor Correction Circuit:Specifications of the Active PFC Circuit:
NAME OF THE PARAMETERS

PARAMETER VALUES

Pout (max)

90Watts

Input Voltage (Vin)(Peak)

180-230Volts (AC)

Line Frequency

50Hz

Output Voltage(Vout)(Rms)

110-140Volts (DC)

Load Resistance

10 Ohms

Output Capacitor

10uF

Inductor Value

1.1mH

Table 1.0- Specifications of Active Power Factor corrector

Analysis:Table 1.1- Simulation Result of the Active PFC circuit:50

Sl No

Input Voltage in Volts

Output Voltage in Volts

Power Factor

180

110.13

0.9775

190

117.14

0.9645

200

122.23

0.9620

208

127.11

0.9604

216

132.08

0.9558

220

134.45

0.9553

225

137.50

0.9549

230

140.5

0.9543

51

5.1- CONCLUSION:52

The implementation of AC to DC converter with Buck converter provided appreciable power


factor. The power factor can be improved to about 96% by using this technique.
Also, on varying the input voltage from 180 230 Volts, the output voltage did not vary by a big
margin; rather the range of Output voltage obtained was in the range of 110 140 Volts DC. This
shows that the line regulation obtained on varying the input voltage is very good.
Hence, the distortion produced in the line current in the electronic devices used for industrial and
domestic applications due to harmonics and phase displacement caused by the non-linear loads
connected in the grid can be nullified by Active Power Factor Correction circuits implementing
average current mode control using PI controller with Buck converter. This PFC technique can
be considered to be a better alternative for power quality improvement because of reduced size
of overall converter, higher efficiency, lower cost, and enhanced reliability compared to other
means of power quality improvement. It provides improved power quality not only at the input
ac mains but also at dc output for the better overall design of equipment. Moreover, the use of
this power factor improvement method results in equipment behaving as a linear resistive load at
the ac mains. The new developments in device technology, processors, magnetics, and control
algorithms will give a real boost to the PFC techniques in the near future.

5.2 FUTURE WORK:Through this project work we have made an attempt to analyze Active Power Factor Correction
with the help of simulations. In future the hardware implementation of the PFC circuit can be
done and its results obtained in real time situations can be compared with the simulation results
obtained in the thesis.

5.3 RECOGNITION OF THE NEED FOR ,AND AN ABILITY TO ENGAGE


IN LIFELONG LEARNING
In this section the need for doing this project, technical and scientific information,
organizing information and lifelong learning are discussed.
53

5.5.1 Gathering relevant technical and scientific information


To carry out this project we as a group have gone through different journals, papers
and books. Also we have gathered huge information from our project guide. Some of the
literature papers, we have gone through to assemble the information regarding our projects are
Input power factor correction of ac to dc converter by Jagannath Prasad Mishra and Rutwik
Rath, A Review of single-phase improved power quality AC-DC converters,by Bhim singh,
Brij N. singh , Ambrish Chandra. etc. some of the books that we followed are Power Electronics
Circuits Devices and Applications, by Muhammad H. Rashid and power system by Haddi Sadat
etc.

5.3.2 Identifying, Retrieving & Organizing information


After going through different literature papers, journals ,books and consulting
teachers we gathered information regarding our project and assemble it according
to the need of project .By going through the papers and gathered information we
found the basic need for the power factor improvement of Ac to Dc converter and
to improve it we had started from basics like basic converter and tries to found the
reason for harmonic distortion and poor input power factor. Ongoing different
converter circuits and by doing different modifications in it and changing the
parameters we obtain the required result.

5.3.3 Writing a Project to proposal to engage in lifelong learning


Under this project we have tried to improve the input power factor of ac to
dc converter by using buck converter topology. Even we can adopt different
54

topology for more better results. This project can be carried out in order to find
more efficient and effective result by comparing the different topologies and by
adopting new techniques. In this project the power factor correction is done at
input side which can be done by utility only not by consumers .so in lifelong
learning we can also improve the quality of current and can minimize the power
loss by improving power factor at load side ,which can be done by consumers also
by using static capacitor or synchronous condenser techniques. Since the objective
of improving power factor and maximum power transfer is consisting of numerous
topologies, techniques and technical skills so we can carry out this project as
lifelong learning also.
5.4 Techniques, skills & Modern tools used in accomplishment of the project
There are numerous techniques available to improve the power factor of input current .some of
the techniques include buck converter topology , boost, buck-boost, dual boost, static capacitor,
synchronous condenser etc. In this project the technique we have used for the Power Factor
Correction of AC to DC converter is Buck converter topology.
The modern tool we have used for the accomplishment of this project is Matlab Simulink. The
complexity of device models and switching nature of switching converters make simulation
difficult due to converge in Pspice. Simulink is a windows oriented dynamic modeling package
thai is an extension to Matlab. The advantage is that models are entered as block diagrams after
corresponding mathematical equations are developed for the target systems.

5.3 REFERENCES:[1] Vlad Grigore, Topological Issues in Single Phase Power Factor Correction , Dissertation

55

for the degree of Doctor of Science in Technology, Helsinki University of Technology (Espoo,
Finland) , 30th of November, 2001
[2] Huai Wei, IEEE Member, and Issa Batarseh, IEEE Senior Member, University of Central
Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, Comparison of Basic Converter Topologies for Power Factor
Correction , 0-7803-4391-3/98/$10.00 1998 IEEE
[3] Control techniques for power factor correction, *L. Rossetto, **G. Spiazzi, **P. Tenti,
*Department of Electrical Engineering, **Department of Electronics and Informatics
University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova ITALY
[4] A Review of Single-Phase Improved Power Quality AC-DC Converters, Bhim Singh, Brij N.
Singh, Ambrish Chandra, IEEE Transaction on industrial electronics, Vol 50, No. 5,October 2003

[5] Muhammad H. Rashid, Power Electronics Circuits Devices and Applications, Pearson
Education, Inc., 2004
[6] Smruti Ranjan Samal and Sanjay Kumar Dalai, Power Factor Correction in a Single Phase
AC-DC Converter, N.I.T. Rourkela, 2010.
[7] Laszlo Huber, Member IEEE, Liu Gang, and Milan M. Jovanovic, Fellow, IEEE, Design
Oriented Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Buck PFC Front End, 0885-8993/$26.00,
2010, IEEE.
[8] Temesi Erno, Michael Frisch, PFC-Fundamentals, 2. Active Power Factor Correction
Principle of Operation, Tyco Electronics / Power Systems, Sept. 04
[9] B. Singh, K. Al. Haddad, and A. Chandra, A review of active filters for power quality
improvement, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 46, pp. 960971, Oct. 1999.

56

[10] N. Mohan, T. Udeland, and W. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and
Design, 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 2005.
[11] H. Wei and I. Batarseh, Comparison of basic converter topologies for power correction, in
Proc. IEEE SOUTHEASTCON98, 1998, pp. 348353.
[12] H. Endo, T. Yamashita, and T. Sugiura, A high power-factor buck converter,
in Proc. IEEE PESC92, 1992, pp. 10711076.
[13] V. Grigore and J. Kyyra, A step-down converter with low ripple input current for power
factor correction, in Proc. IEEE APEC00, 2000, pp. 188194.
[14] G. Spiazzi, Analysis of buck converters used as power factor preregulators, in Proc. IEEE
PESC97, 1997, pp. 564570.
[15] R. Srinivasan, M. Palaniapan, and R. Oruganti, A single phase two switch buck type ACDC converter topology with inductor voltage control, in Proc. IEEE PESC97, 1997, pp. 556
563.

57