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Proceedings of IMECE07

2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition


November 10-16, 2007, Seattle, Washington, USA

DRAFT IMECE2007-43427
1-D MODEL AND EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF PRESSURE WAVE SUPERCHARGER
Ludk Pohoelsk
Josef Boek Research Center
Czech Technical University in Prague
Technicka 4,CZ-166 07 Praha 6
Phone +420 2 2435-2507
Fax.+420 2 2435 2500
Email :ludek.pohorelsky@fs.cvut.cz
Ji Vvra
Josef Boek Research Center
Czech Technical University in
Prague
Technicka 4,CZ-166 07 Praha
6
Phone +420 2 2435-1827
Fax.+420 2 2435 2500
Email :jiri.vavra@fs.cvut.cz

Philippe Obernesser
RENAULT
TCR GRA 085-1, avenue du Golf - 78288
Guyancourt cedex, France
tel: +33 1 76 85 30 70
fax:+33 1 76 85 77 16
Email : philippe.obernesser@renault.com

Vojtch Klr
Josef Boek Research Center
Czech Technical University in
Prague
Technicka 4,CZ-166 07 Praha
6
Phone +420 2 2435-1855
Fax.+420 2 2435 2500
Email :vojtech.klir@fs.cvut.cz

ABSTRACT
In this contribution an interesting boosting device, called
pressure wave supercharger (PWS) according the wave
phenomena inside it and taking advantage of speed of sound
for air compression, is investigated both at diesel engine and at
combustion chamber test bench using 1-D simulation and
experimental measuring. Moreover, combustion engine
supercharged by PWS has been compared using 1-D simulation
to turbocharged one at steady state and transient operations.
Pressure wave supercharger is simulated using detailed model
based on the partial differential equations capturing non-linear
effects of gas dynamics. The work has been performed using
the commercial 1-D code GT-Power. Concept of modeling used
enables to integrate the PWS model with all other models
which are already created in the commercial codes (like more
precise model of combustion, vehicle model, etc.)
The PWS takes advantage of the direct pressure and enthalpy
exchange between exhaust gases and fresh air in narrow
channels to provide boost pressure. Due to the direct contact
between exhaust gas and fresh air a mixing occurs.
Nevertheless, this internal recirculation of exhaust gas can be
used for lowering of NOx emissions, but in the same time it

Jan Macek
Josef Boek Research Center
Czech Technical University in
Prague
Technicka 4,CZ-166 07 Praha
6
Phone +420 2 2435-2504
Fax.+420 2 2435 2500
Email :jan.macek@fs.cvut.cz

could deteriorate engine power as the result of a lack of


oxygen. The internal mixing has been investigated using 1-D
simulation and different possibilities to avoid mixing have been
tested. The PWS has showed during the simulation work
behavior it could fulfill demand on a modern car propulsion
system. Finally PWS measurements with a combustion
chamber have been undertaken and compared to the 1-D
simulation results. Using the results of PWS measurement at
the test bench and the 1-D simulation the usage of PWS in fuel
cell applications is discussed, as well.
This work is resulting from the collaboration between Josef
Boek Research Center and Renault SA.
Keywords: 1-D code simulation, pressure wave
supercharger, diesel engine, test bench, flow characteristics,
fuel cell
INTRODUCTION
Current research activities on new propulsion systems
insist on the increase of their efficiency and power. On the
other hand the stake consists in reducing the fuel consumption
and the level of the pollutants produced by such new concepts.
Lowering of emission of the green house gas CO2 forces

Copyright 2007 by ASME

manufactures to develop more economical vehicle and


therefore more efficient engines. Moreover, in case of car
propulsion systems the satisfactory driveability to satisfy
drivers demands during the accelerations has to be provided at
the same time. An approach of utilization of downsized
propulsion systems may lead successfully up to these aims. The
main idea of downsizing is the reduction of the swept volume
of the engine without lowering the original output power. The
performance increase of the downsized engine to the same
power level of the original one is achieved by boosting devices.
Engine researchers and developers are nowadays wondering,
which boosting devices are the most suitable and so are trying
to find compromises with regards to costs, packaging, engine
behavior and emission regulations. In addition to commonly
utilized turbocharger mechanical superchargers as for instance
Roots-type supercharger are more and more placed on the
market. In comparison with these boosting devices the pressure
wave supercharger (PWS) with usage of todays control
possibilities represents mainly in transient and low-end torque
behavior an extraordinary possibility. The PWS takes
advantages of a unique principle of direct pressure energy
exchange between the exhaust gas and the fresh air in a narrow
channel using nearly 1-D unsteady flow with a distinctive
contact surface between the both gases.
The idea of the energy exchange between two mediums without
any separation goes down to the beginning of the 20th century.
Namely in its second decade, along the longitudinal axis
perforated drum, a channeled rotor, has been patented by the
German engineer Burghard - [24] - a machine delivering an
uninterrupted mass flow of the pressurized air. As the unsteady
flow theory, a necessity for the development of a usable
machine has not been developed until the 1920s and 1930s,
the Burghards invention did not succeed to an available
device.
In the 1940s, the Brown Boveri (BBC, today ABB)
turbocharger engineer Seippel designed a pressure exchanger
as an air compressor of a gas turbine used as the propulsion of
an experimental locomotive - [28]. He started to call this
exchanger COMPREX according to the processes in the rotor
compression-expansion.
In the 1950s took place first experimental attempts in using
COMPREX for supercharging of truck diesel engines - [12],
[26], in framework of partnership among the ETH Zrich, the
I-T-E Circuit Breaker Company, the BBC and the Saurer
Company.
In the 1970s, first experiments of COMPREX supercharged
car diesel engines followed (partnership between BBC and
Mercedes-Benz) [30]. In 1979 BBC developed a race version
of PWS for supercharging of F1 engine [10], which has been
used only for the practice runs. In 1995, the Swissauto Wenko
Company, which is dealing with development of pressure wave
supercharger up to now - [19], designed for the environmental
organization Greenpeace a so-called SmiLE car with SI engine
with displacement of 360cm3 and PWS supercharging [20].

Moreover, in 1980s many companies tested the COMPREX supercharged diesel engines, but only two started the serial
production. The Opel Company sold in a special Opel Senator
set of about 700 units with 2.3l diesel engine and pressure
wave supercharging [31] whereas Mazda sold about 150 000
COMPREX diesel passenger cars [4].
Recently, several Universities (ETH Zrich, Indiana University
Purdue University Indianapolis, Michigan State University,
University of Tokyo, Warsaw University and Beijing
University of Technology), companies (Swissauto Engineering
S.A., Rolls Royce Alison) and governmental research centers
(NASA) investigate pressure wave process intensively for
various thermal applications. In [4] a comprehensive review of
past and current research in developing of wave rotor
technology is explained in more details and in a well arranged
way.
In framework of our study the PWS has been investigated and
analyzed at first using 1-D diesel engine simulation. Then by
means of experimental tests at the test bench to find out
whether the pressure wave supercharging with regard to
todays state of art in control, actuation, materials and
technology could fulfill requirements on a modern and
perspective car propulsion system and become a serious
competitor to current boosting systems.
1-D SIMULATION OF PWS SUPERCHARGED DIESEL
ENGINE
For the study the Renault 1.5 diesel engine has been used
for 1-D investigations to compare PWS supercharged engine to
the turbocharged one.
Stroke
Bore
Total swept volume
Number of cylinders
Compression ratio
Combustion system

80.5 mm
76 mm
1461 cm3
4
16:1
2valves/cylinder
Direct injection

Table 1: Diesel engine parameters


1-D model of PWS used, whose qualitative reaction to changes
in design are in good agreement with published sources [1],[2]
and with a simple model based on the theory of adiabatic shock
waves and on the linear gas dynamics principles, has been
created in commercial code GT-Power and is introduced and
described in detail in [37].
Simulation of Full Load of Engine with PWS
Diagrams in Figure 1-Figure 7 point out comparisons of
PWS supercharged engines with turbocharged one. PWSs with
unity length-to-diameter ratio of rotor (quadratic design) have
been simulated. The PWS sucks more air into its channeled
rotor than it compresses and delivers to the engine cylinder
[25]. This fresh air scavenges and cools down the rotor and

Copyright 2007 by ASME

Boost pressure comparison


3.2

Engine torque comparison

260
240
220
Torque [N.m]

flows direct to the low pressure part of exhaust manifold PWS


downstream. Therefore, the diameter of fresh air pipings and
diameter of exhaust pipings PWS downstream have been
enlarged in comparison to turbocharged engine. (In this study
the diameter of particular pipings equals to 75% of PWS rotor
diameter.)
Air fuel ratio for PWS supercharged engines has been kept the
same as for turbocharged engine.
Proper function of PWS depends on the control geometry (i.e.
location of inlet and outlet orifices at the air and exhaust
flanges of PWS).Two different types of control geometry have
been simulated: control geometry previously optimized by
method of characteristics based on the linear gas dynamics [37]
and patented geometry from Swissauto Engineering S.A. [7]
The PWS speed has been optimized to reach maximum engine
torque at each operation point.
Boost pressure behavior is presented in Figure 1. The smaller
the PWS the higher boost pressure can be achieved. The
PWS70 (i.e. with rotor diameter and rotor length of 70 mm)
achieves the highest boost pressure. The usage of the control
geometry from Swissauto Company at PWS83 and PWS95
increased the boost pressure significantly.

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
1000

PWS83
PWS83_patented_Swissauto_geometry
PWS70
PWS95
Turbo
PWS95_patented_Swissauto_geometry

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Engine speed [1/min]

Figure 2: Comparison of engine torque


Figure 4 presents the indicated specific fuel consumption. As
the computation model of combustion for PWS supercharged
engines was the same as in case of turbocharged engine (i.e. it
did not take into account the increased amount of exhaust gas
in the engine cylinder) the differences in indicated specific fuel
consumption are given only by pumping work during the
cylinder exchange. Figure 4 and Figure 5 demonstrate
favorable behavior of the exhaust back pressure of the PWS
supercharged engines. Up to the middle engine speed the boost
pressure is distinctly higher than the back pressure.

Exhaust gas recirculation into engine cylinder


60

2.6
2.4

50

2.2
2
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

PWS83
PWS83_patented_Swissauto_geometry
PWS70
PWS95
PWS95_patented_Swissauto_geometry

40

PWS83
PWS83_patented_Swissauto_geometry
PWS70
PWS95
Turbo
PWS95_patented_Swissauto_geometry

1.8

EGR [%]

Boost pressure [bar]

2.8

30
20

4500

10

Engine speed [1/min]


0
1000

Figure 1: Comparison of PWS and turbocharger boost pressure

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Engine speed [1/min]

Figure 3: Exhaust gas recirculation into engine cylinder of


PWS engines
Idicated specific fuel consumption
240
PWS83
PWS83_patented_Swissauto_geometry
PWS70
PWS95
Turbo
PWS95_patented_Swissauto_geometry

230

ISFC [g/kW/h]

In comparison to boost pressure, the engine torque (Figure 2)


of PWS supercharged engines falls down at highest engine
speeds. This is caused by internal exhaust gas recirculation
(Figure 3) over the channeled rotor of PWS, which deteriorates
the engine torque. Due to the direct contact of exhaust gas and
fresh air, the exhaust gas can be delivered direct to the engine
cylinder together with the compressed air. The smaller PWS the
higher internal exhaust gas recirculation.

220
210
200
190
180
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Engine speed [1/min]

Figure 4: Comparison of indicated specific fuel consumption

Copyright 2007 by ASME

the operation of the supercharger away from the optimum


(tuned) point. Moreover, the gas pocket can be used in function
of the waste-gate for control of the boost pressure.

Boost pressure and exhaust back pressure

3.4
3.2
3
Pressure [bar]

2.8

Low-Pressure
part

2.6
2.4
2.2

Exhaust outlet orifice

Air inlet orifice

Turbo-boost pressure

1.8
1.6

PWS95_patented_Swissauto_geometry-boost pressure

1.4

Turbo-back pressure

1.2

PWS95_patented_Swissauto_geometry-back pressure

1
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

Variable Gas Pocket

Expansion Pocket

4500

Engine speed [1/min]

Air outlet orifice

Figure 5: Boost pressure and back pressure behavior


Exhaust inlet orifice

PWS Speed
Figure 6 shows the PWS speed characteristics. As the time
of pressure wave propagation from exhaust to air side
decreases with the reduction of the PWS size, the smallest
PWS achieves the highest speeds.
Diagrams on Figure 7 present dependences of the engine toque,
boost pressure, indicated specific fuel consumption and the
exhaust gas recirculation on the PWS speed. Each observed
quantity achieves its optimum at a certain PWS speed. The
increase of the PWS speed contributes to the lowering of the
exhaust gas recirculation.
PWS speed optimized for maximum engine torque
15000

PWS speed [1/min]

14000
13000
12000
11000
PWS83
PWS70

10000

PWS95

9000
8000
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

High-Pressure
part
Compression
Pocket

Channel
Exhaust
Flange

Air Flange

Figure 8: Pressure wave diagram and variable gas pocket in


function of waste gate
The variable gas pocket bypasses pressurized exhaust gas to the
exhaust outlet via the rotor channel. The bypassed exhaust gas
amplifies the expansion wave in the low-pressure part, which
provides better fresh air suction into channeled rotor.
The function and efficiency of the variable gas pocket have
been confirmed by means of the simulation. Simulation results
presented in Figure 1-Figure 7 show turbocharger controlled by
the variable turbine geometry, whereas the boost pressure of
PWS has not been controlled.
Diagrams on Figure 9 show results of boost pressure control
for PWS95 with the variable gas pocket at highest engine
speeds (Figure 9 left). Moreover, utilization of the variable gas
pocket for boost pressure control contributes to the lowering of
the internal exhaust gas recirculation (Figure 9 right).

4500

Engine speed [1/min]


Boost pressure control by variable gas pocket

Figure 6: PWS speed characteristics

Influence of gas pocket control on the internal gas


recirculation

2.9

Boost pressure [bar]

20
19

2.8

1.9

13

230

Boost pressure [bar]

11

1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3

PWS83-engine torque

225

7
5

220

1.2

PWS83-boost pressure

PWS83-ISFC
PWS83-EGR

1.1
100
10000

1
11000

12000
13000
14000
PWS speed [1/min]

15000

16000

17

3
1

215

10000

11000

12000
13000
14000
PWS speed [1/min]

15000

16000

Figure 7: Dependence of engine parameters on PWS speed for


engine speed of 1500rpm
Variable Gas Pocket
In order to extend the operating range of the PWS, so
called pocket in the inner face of air and exhaust flanges have
been patented by BBC in the 1960s. Compression pocket,
expansion pocket and gas pocket (Figure 8) by pass the gas
between the channels and the control orifices and thus improve

PWS95 w/o VGP control


PWS with VGP

16

PWS95 w/o VGP control

2.6

15

PWS with VGP

14

2.5

ISFC [g/kW/h]

Engine torque [N.m]

1.8

150

18

2.7

EGR [%]

200

Influence of PWS speed on engine parameters

EGR [%]

Influence of PWS speed on engine parameters

13
2.4

3500

3600

3700

3800

3900

4000

4100

Engine speed [1/min]

4200

4300

4400

4500

12
3500

3600

3700

3800

3900

4000

4100

4200

4300

4400

4500

Engine speed [1/min]

Figure 9: Influence of variable gas pocket control (VGP) on


the boost pressure and internal exhaust gas recirculation
Influence of Flow Losses
Figure 10 describes influence of flow losses on the PWS
behavior. Flow losses have been increased by changing inlet
(Air inlet orifice upstream -Figure 8) and outlet (Exhaust outlet
orifice downstream -Figure 8) pipings diameters from 75% to
40% of PWS rotor diameter.
From the 1-D simulation follows that to throttle the air inlet and
exhaust outlet of PWS deteriorates scavenging of the PWS

Copyright 2007 by ASME

rotor by increasing internal exhaust gas recirculation, and


consequently lowers engine torque considerably.

Internal exhasut gas recirculation during transient

Engine torque comparison

26

230
210

21
EGR [%]

190
Torque [N.m]

170
150
130

16
PWS83
11

110
90
70
50
30
1000

6
PWS83_pipings with diameter of 75% of PWS rotor diameter
PWS83_pipings with diameter of 50% of PWS rotor diameter
PWS83_pipings with diameter of 40% of PWS rotor diameter

1500

2000

2500

3000

1
1.5

3500

4000

2.0

2.5

4500

3.0

3.5

4.0

Time [sec]

Engine speed [1/min]

Figure 10: Influence of flow losses on the PWS engine torque


Transient Simulation of Engine with PWS
To investigate the transient response of PWS
supercharged engine the engine torque vary from the low load
to full load at a constant engine speed. The load of engine was
defined to be equal to the instantaneous engine torque, which
prevents speed changes. Since the engine torque rises during
the load step faster than the engine speed, this test of dynamic
behavior corresponds to the first instant of vehicle acceleration.

Figure 13: Internal exhaust gas recirculation in transient


operation
During the simulation of spark-ignited engine, presented in
[38], more considerable deterioration of engine torque appeared
than in case of 1.5 diesel engine. Change of PWS speed
(Figure 14 right) during the transient operation was an efficient
remedy to improve engine torque behavior (Figure 14 left) and
to decrease the internal exhaust gas recirculation in transient
operation.

Boost pressure response


1.2 SI Engine torque response

1.8

1.5
1.4
1.3

PWS83
Turbo

1.2

150
100
PW S83_constant_speed
Turbo
PW S83_with_speed_control

50
0

1
1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Time [sec]

Figure 11: Boost pressure response for 1.5 diesel engine with
PWS83 at engine speed of 1250 rpm
The PWS boost pressure increases steeper than the
turbocharger one (Figure 11). During the load step an increased
internal exhaust gas recirculation appears (Figure 13), this is
the reason of the decreasing delay at the middle of the load step
between the PWS supercharged and turbocharged engine
(Figure 12).
Engine torque response
200
180
160
140
120
100
PWS83
Turbo

80
60
40
20
0
1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Time [sec]

Figure 12: Torque response for 1.5 diesel engine with PWS83
at engine speed of 1250 rpm

19000
18000
17000
16000
15000
14000
13000
12000
1

1.1

PWS speed [rpm]

Engine torque [N.m]

Boost pressure [bar]

1.6

Engine torque [N.m]

PWS speed control during the load step

200

1.7

1.5

2.5
3
3.5
Time [s]

4.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Time [s]

Figure 14: Engine torque and its remedy during the load step
of spark ignited 1.2l engine at engine speed of 2000rpm from
[38]
EXPERIMENTAL TESTS ON PWS
For the engine 1-D simulation, presented in this paper, a
PWS model has been used, whose physical behavior was
representative enough. From the 1-D engine simulation a
favorable PWS low end torque behavior and transient response
arise. Moreover, the PWS could be with advantage used for
control of quantity of recycled exhaust gas to combustion
engine. However, the internal exhaust gas recirculation, boost
pressure and mass flow value should be checked and settled to
enable the model. Therefore, to keep developing 1-D model of
supercharging system with PWS the PWS operating points
have been tested and measured at the combustion chamber test
bench with open circuit (Figure 15). The specimen of tested
PWS was model CX93 used by Mazda Company for
supercharging of 2.0l diesel engine [27].
In framework of experimental testing of PWS the mass flow
range at PWS air inlet (AI), air outlet (AO) and exhaust inlet
(EI), the PWS speed range and range of the PWS exhaust inlet
(EI) temperature have been largely explored.

Copyright 2007 by ASME

Mass flow control


m2
(0 to 200g/s)

p3 T3

m 2, C

p2
T2

Mass flow control


m3
(0 to 200g/s)

Noise

AO

m3 , C

EI

Electrical motor
(RPMc from 0 to 20000)

AI
p1

EO

m1

p4

Backpressure
floodgate

p1 pressure control (1 to 3b)


Tatm
p4 pressure control (1 to 3 b)

Figure 15: Scheme of the test bed


The PWS test bench has been created using the existing
turbocharger test bench (equipped with the combustion
chamber and the external source of constant boost air pressure
of 350 kPa and mass flow up to approximately 1000 kg/h) and
its adopting for PWS tests at Josef Boek Research Center
(JBRC) - Figure 16.

All temperature measurements have been carried out by


electrically isolated thermocouples. The most problematic
temperature measurement was the temperature T3 at EI after the
combustion chamber. Therefore, five thermocouples have been
utilized to obtain the temperature distribution within the
manifold.
To estimate the internal exhaust gas recirculation of PWS molar
fractions of CO2 at EI and AO have been measured by means of
exhaust gas analyzer.
The PWS has been driven directly by electrical motor, whose
speed has been controlled by frequency converter and could
vary between 0-20000 rpm. The PWS speed has been measured
using optical sensor. As the PWS had to be braked in specific
operation regimes, the brake resistors had to be additionally
connected to the frequency converter.
In framework of this project a new automated data acquisition
system has been developed under the Testpoint development
environment, which enabled to display all instant measured
values and control panel with diagrams showing their trends
(Figure 17).

DAQ Control Panel


with time history
diagram for settling
identification

EI
Gas analyzer
display

EO

AI
AO

Figure 16: PWS at the combustion chamber test bed


Mass flow and temperature have been enforced at the exhaust
inlet (EI). EI mass flow was continuous and has been varied
between 0-200 g/s. Air outlet (AO) and exhaust inlet (EI) mass
flows have been controlled separately by means of remotely
controlled slide valves enabling precise tuning of flows. Mass
flow at air outlet (AO) has been controlled at the same value as
that of exhaust inlet (EI). The temperature has been scanned
from 800K to 1050K at exhaust inlet.
Measuring of EI and AO mass flows has been performed using
metering orifices in pipelines. AI mass flow has been measured
using intake nozzle.

Figure 17: Displays of measured values and DAQ software


control panel with time history diagrams.
Performance maps of measured PWS
Diagrams on Figure 18-Figure 23 show performance maps for
exhaust inlet temperature of 900K. The total PWS efficiency,
AO temperature, internal exhaust gas recirculation, air inlet
mass flow and electrical input to PWS are depicted legible in
form commonly used for turbochargers, so these maps can be
with advantage used for direct comparison to turbochargers
maps.
From the flow characteristics diagram on Figure 18 the
influence of PWS speed on boost pressure ratio is clearly
visible. For PWS speed from 14000 rpm to 18000 rpm the
highest PWS total efficiencies are achieved (Figure 19).
Lowering of the PWS speed decreases the PWS efficiency and
increases the boost pressure (Figure 18). From a certain mass
flow, here for mass flow higher than 550kg/h, the PWS boost
pressure ratio falls abruptly down.

Copyright 2007 by ASME

Figure 18: PWS performance map of PWS speed for EI


temperature of 900K
Internal exhaust gas recirculation over the channeled rotor is
presented in Figure 20. In the PWS speed range from
10000rpm to 20000rpm no recirculation appears up to the mass
flow of 400kg/h.
The AO temperatures traces are shown in Figure 21. Up to the
PWS speed of 16000 rpm the increase of PWS speed decreases
the AO temperature. AO temperature starts to rise significantly
bellow the PWS speed of 10000 rpm.
The PWS sucks in AI much more fresh air than it delivers to
the air outlet. Amount of sucked fresh air increases with the
increase of the AO mass flow (Figure 22) whereas for the EI
mass flows from 400 to 650 kg/h there is no considerable
difference between the sucked amounts of fresh air into PWS.
The diagram on Figure 23 presents power input to the electrical
motor, which drives the PWS. The negative sign of the power
input means that the PWS drives the el. motor.

Figure 19: PWS performance map of PWS total efficiency for


EI temperature of 900K

Figure 20: PWS performance map of internal exhaust gas


recirculation for EI temperature of 900K

Figure 21: PWS performance map of air outlet (AO)


temperature for EI temperature of 900K

Figure 22: PWS performance map for air inlet mass flow for
EI temperature of 900K

Copyright 2007 by ASME

A lower EI mass flow is necessary with EI temperature increase


to achieve the same EI pressure (Figure 25). The increase in EI
temperature decreases the internal exhaust gas recirculation
(Figure 26) and deteriorates the PWS efficiency (Figure 27).
0.5

egr [1]

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0

Figure 23: PWS performance map for electrical power


input/output of PWS for temperature of 900K

10000

15000

20000

25000

PWS speed [rpm]


p3=50kPa T3=800K
p3=50kPa T3=900K
p3=50kPa T3=1050K

p3=100kPa T3=800K
p3=100kPa T3=900K
p3=100kPa T3=1050K

p3=150kPa T3=800K
p3=150kPa T3=900K
p3=150kPa T3=1050K

p3=200kPa T3=800K
p3=200kPa T3=900K
p3=200kPa T3=1050K

Figure 26: Internal exhaust gas recirculation in dependence on


EI temperature
0.5

0.4
etaPWS [1]

Influence of the temperature at PWS exhaust inlet


Diagrams in Figure 24-Figure 27 present influence of the
EI temperature for four different levels of EI pressure p3 (1.5,
2, 2.5 and 3 bar - absolute). The PWS operation points have
been measured for EI temperature of 800K, 900K and 1050K.
The increase of the EI temperature increases the boost pressure.
The highest EI temperature of 1050K extended the range where
the boost pressure is higher than the back pressure p3 (Figure
24).

5000

Relative pressures

0.3
200

150
p2 [kPa]

0.2
0

100

5000

15000

20000

25000

PWS speed [rpm]


p3=100kPa T3=800K

50

p3=100kPa T3=900K

p3=100kPa T3=1050K

Figure 27: Total efficiency of PWS in dependence on EI


temperature

0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

PWS speed [rpm]


p3=50kPa T3=800K
p3=50kPa T3=900K
p3=50kPa T3=1050K

p3=100kPa T3=800K
p3=100kPa T3=900K
p3=100kPa T3=1050K

p3=150kPa T3=800K
p3=150kPa T3=900K
p3=150kPa T3=1050K

p3=200kPa T3=800K
p3=200kPa T3=900K
p3=200kPa T3=1050K

Figure 24: Boost pressure in dependence on the EI temperature


700
600
500
m3 [kg/h]

10000

400
300
200
100
0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

PWS speed [rpm]


p3=50kPa T3=800K
p3=50kPa T3=900K
p3=50kPa T3=1050K

p3=100kPa T3=800K
p3=100kPa T3=900K
p3=100kPa T3=1050K

p3=150kPa T3=800K
p3=150kPa T3=900K
p3=150kPa T3=1050K

p3=200kPa T3=800K
p3=200kPa T3=900K
p3=200kPa T3=1050K

Figure 25: EI mass flow in dependence on the EI temperature

Influence of Flow Losses in Air Inlet


The influence of the flow losses in AI has been
investigated at EI temperature of 900K and PWS speed of
15000 rpm for two orifice plates with diameters of 35 mm and
50 mm (origin AI manifold diameter of 100 mm).
The orifice with diameter 35 mm deteriorates the boost
pressure significantly above the mass flow of 400 kg/h. The
throttling of the AI mass flow increases the AO and EO
temperatures and the internal exhaust gas recirculation. On the
other hand, the reduction of the AI mass flow improves the
PWS efficiency at low EI mass flow rates (Figure 29 left).
All diagrams described in above paragraphs have been
measured without boost pressure control using waste gate
(WG). Diagrams in Figure 28 and Figure 29 show influence of
waste gate control on PWS operation, as well. The waste gate
trims the boost pressure and tries to keep it approx. constant
(Figure 28 left). The waste gate does not influence the internal
exhaust gas recirculation (Figure 29 right).

Copyright 2007 by ASME

2.40

2.20

2.00

1.80
1.60

dia 35 mm
dia 50 mm
WG
w / o Loss

1.40
1.20

140

Flow losses

120
Relative pressure p2 [kPa]

p1 [kPa]

C [1]

2.60

5
4

dia 35 mm
dia 50 mm

3
2

1.00

1
0

100

200

300
400
m2red [kg/h]

500

600

700

100

200

300
400
m3 [kg/h]

500

600

700

100
80
60
100kg/h

300kg/h

400kg/h

97

97.5

500kg/h

40
20

Figure 28: Influence of pressure losses (right) and waste gate


on pressure ratio in dependence on reduced AO mass flow

0
95.5

96

96.5

98

98.5

99

99.5

Absolute pressure p4 [kPa]


0.50

0.35

0.45

0.30

0.35

0.25

0.30

0.20

egr [1]

0.25
0.20

dia 35 mm
dia 50 mm
WG
w / o Loss

0.15
0.10
0.05

Figure 31: Influence of the EO pressure on the boost pressure

dia 35 mm
dia 50 mm
WG
w / o Loss

0.45
0.4

0.15

0.35

0.10
0.05

0.00

0.3
100kg/h

0.00

100

200

300
400
m2, m3 [kg/h]

500

600

700

100

200

300

400

500

600

egr [1]

etaPWS [1]

0.40

700

m2, m3 [kg/h]

Figure 29: Influence of pressure losses in AI manifold on PWS


efficiency and internal egr

300kg/h

400kg/h

500kg/h

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05

Influence of Flow Losses in Exhaust Outlet


The EO pressure has been increased using throttle which has
been controlled by stepper electric motor. A snail gear box has
been placed between the throttle and the electrical motor to
prevent throttle flapping by EO flow.

PWS

EO
Figure 30: EO throttle controlled by stepper electrical motor
with snail box
Diagrams in Figure 31 and Figure 32 present the sensitivity of
the PWS on the EO pressure for EI mass flows of (100,300,400
and 500) kg/h and for EI temperature of 900K. The PWS speed
has been kept at 15 000rpm. The change in EO pressure by
2kPa deteriorates the boost pressure significantly (Figure 31).
The increased EO pressure lowers the amount of sucked AI
mass flow and increases the internal exhaust gas recirculation
rises (Figure 32).
Moreover, increased EO pressure may cause the back flow of
the exhaust gas to the AI.

0
95.5

96

96.5

97

97.5

98

98.5

99

99.5

Absolute pressure p4 [kPa]

Figure 32: Influence of the EO pressure on the AI mass flow


Supercharging of the PWS
In framework of the measurement the feasibility of the
PWS for the two stage supercharging has been investigated.
To enable pressure increase in AI the test bench has been
equipped with inlet pipeline of pressurized air (Figure 33).
External source could deliver constant boost air pressure of
350kPa and mass flow approx. of 1000kg/h into AI. AI mass
flow has been controlled using slide valve, which has been
actuated by an electric stepper motor. Moreover, metering
orifice has been placed into the AI pipeline.
The measurement has been performed for EI mass flow of 300
kg/h and for two different PWS speeds of 15000 rpm (Figure
34) and 10000 rpm (Figure 35). As in the all previous
paragraphs the mass flow at air outlet (AO) has been controlled
at the same value as that of exhaust inlet (EI). The EI
temperature has been kept at 900K. For the fully opened EO
throttle (Figure 30) the air inlet mass flow has been set to be
the same as the naturally aspirated mass flow for this PWS
operation point. By adjusting of the EO throttle the EO and AI
pressures have been increased.

Copyright 2007 by ASME

shown for EI mass flows of 100kg/h, 400kg/h and 500kg/h.)


The 1-D model predicts maximal boost pressure higher than the
measured one (Figure 36). The simulated difference between
boost pressure and back pressure is higher and in larger PWS
speed range than measured one. 1-D PWS model recirculates
more exhaust gas than the real PWS (Figure 37 right).

Absolute pressure [bar]

Boost and back pressure comparison

Pipeline of pressurized
air to PWS air inlet

Figure 33: Supercharging of PWS

2.50
2.40
2.30
2.20
2.10
2.00
1.90
1.80
1.70
1.60
1.50
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.00
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]

Mass flows
580
m1, m2, m3 [kg/h]

Relative pressures [kPa]

530

p2_300
p3_300
p4_300

480
430

m1
m2
m3

20
30
40
50
Relative pressure p1 [kPa]

60

380
330

10

20
30
40
50
Relative pressure p1 [kPa]

60

70

Figure 34: Influence of AI pressure on AO, EI and EO


pressures and on AI mass flow for PWS speed of 15000 rpm
PWS Supercharging
10 000 rpm, m2=m3=300 kg/h, T3=900K

Mass flows

530
m1, m2, m3 [kg/h]

Relative pressures [kPa]

580
250
200
p2_300
p3_300
p4_300

150
100
50

480
430

m1
m2
m3

380
330
280
230
180

0
0

20

40
60
80
Relative pressure p1 [kPa]

100

120

0.35

120

0.3

100

0.25

80
60
40

20

40
60
80
Relative pressure p1 [kPa]

100

120

Figure 35: Influence of AI pressure on AO, EI and EO


pressures and on AI mass flow for PWS speed of 10000 rpm
COMPARISON OF 1-D MODEL SIMULATION TO
MEASUREMENT
To compare the simulation results to measurements a 1-D
model of the tested PWS at the test bench has been developped
in GT-Power, whereas the PWS without pockets has been
simulated. Analogous to experiment the mass flow at air outlet
(AO in Figure 15) has been controlled at the same value as that
of exhaust inlet (EI).
Diagrams on Figure 36 and Figure 37 present comparison of
boost pressure p2, back pressure p3, air inlet mass flow and
internal exhaust gas recirculation for constant exhaust inlet
mass flow of 300kg/h. (In Annex A the same comparison is

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05

0
5000
10000
15000
20000
PWS speed [rpm]
m1-300kg/h-measured
m1-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m2-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m3-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets

280

70

Internal exhaust gas recirculation


0.4

180
10

Mass flow comparison

140

20

230
0

p3-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets

160

0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]


egr-300kg/h-measured

egr-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets

Figure 37: Comparison of measured and computed AI mass


flow and internal exhaust gas recirculation for EI mass flow of
300kg/h
Diagrams on Figure 38 - Figure 41 compare 1-D simulation
results for three different EI temperatures (800K, 900K and
1050K) and for constant EI pressure of 2 barAbsolute. The
qualitative reaction of the 1-D model on EI temperature change
is in a good agreement with the measurement for every
observed quantity. The boost pressure increases with the EI
temperature. The maximal simulated boost pressure is for every
temperature higher than the EI pressure (Figure 38). An
increase of EI temperature increases the amount of fresh air
which is sucked into the PWS (Figure 40) and decreases the
internal exhaust gas recirculation (Figure 41).
Absolute boost pressure
for absolute back pressure of p3=2bar

2.40
2.30
2.20
2.10
p2 [bar]

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

p3-300kg/h measured

p2-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets

EGR [1]

PWS Supercharging
15 000 rpm, m2=m3=300 kg/h, T3=900K

p2-300kg/h-measured

Figure 36: Comparison of measured and computed pressures


for EI mass flow of 300kg/h

Mass flow [g/sec]

The boost pressure and EI pressure rise with the AI pressure


increase both for 10000 rpm and 15000rpm (Figure 34 and
Figure 35 left).The boost pressure increases by the same value
as that set at AI.
The AI mass flow did not change with the AI pressure increase
(Figure 34 and Figure 35 right). No internal exhaust gas
recirculation appeared at both cases.

2.00
1.90
1.80
1.70
1.60
1.50
0

5000

10000
PWS speed [rpm]

p3=2bar T3=800K measured


p3=2bar T3=1050K measured
p3=2bar T3=900K 1-D model w/o pockets

15000

20000

p3=2bar T3=900K measured


p3=2bar T3=800K 1-D model w/o pockets
p3=2bar T3=1050K 1-D model w/o pockets

Figure 38: Comparison of measured and computed boost


pressures for tree different EI temperatures and constant EI
absolute pressure of 2bar

10

Copyright 2007 by ASME

Absolute pressure comparison


3.5

110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Absolute pressure [bar]

m2 [g/s]

Air outlet mass flow


for absolute back pressure of p3=2bar

p3=2bar T3=800K measured


p3=2bar T3=900K measured
p3=2bar T3=1050K measured
p3=2bar T3=800K 1D model w/o pockets
p3=2bar T3=900K 1D model w/o pockets
p3=2bar T3=1050K 1D model w/o pockets

5000

10000

15000

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0

2000

6000

8000
10000 12000
PWS speed [rpm]

p3-300kg/h with pockets


p2-300kg/h-measured
p2-300kg/h without pockets

20000

PWS speed [rpm]

Figure 39: Comparison of measured and computed air outlet


mass flows for tree different EI temperatures and constant EI
pressure of 2bar

4000

EGR comparison

0.7

100

0.6

80
60

m2-300kg/h with pockets


m1-300kg/h-measured

0.5
0.4

0.2
0.1
0

80

egr-300kg/h-measured

0.3

m3-300kg/h with pockets


m1-300kg/h with pockets
m1-300kg/h without pockets

40
20

100

egr-300kg/h with pockets


egr-300kg/h without pockets

0.8

120
EGR [1]

Mass flow [g/sec]

m1 [g/s]

120

20000

1
0.9

140

140

18000

p2-300kg/h with pockets


p3-300kg/h-measured
p3-300kg/h without pockets

Mass flow comparison


160

160

16000

Figure 42: Comparison of measured and computed pressures


for EI mass flow of 300kg/h and 1-D PWS model with pockets

Air inlet mass flow


for absolute back pressure of p3=2bar

5000

10000

15000

20000

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]

PWS speed [rpm]

60
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]


p3=2bar T3=800K measured
p3=2bar T3=1050K measured
p3=2bar T3=900K 1D model w/o pockets

p3=2bar T3=900K measured


p3=2bar T3=800K 1D model w/o pockets
p3=2bar T3=1050K 1D model w/o pocktes

Figure 40: Comparison of measured and computed air inlet


mass flows for tree different EI temperatures and constant EI
absolute pressure of 2bar
Internal exhaust gas recirculation
for absolute back pressure of p3=2bar
0.30

EGR [%]

14000

0.20

0.10

0.00
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]


p3=2bar T3=800K measured
p3=2bar T3=1050K measured
p3=2bar T3=900K 1D model w/o pockets

p3=2bar T3=900K measured


p3=2bar T3=800K 1D model w/o pockets
p3=2bar T3=1050K 1D model w/o pockets

Figure 41: Comparison of measured and computed internal


exhaust gas recirculations for tree different EI temperatures and
constant EI absolute pressure of 2bar
PWS model with all pockets has been simulated, as well (see
diagrams on Figure 42 and Figure 43). Pockets extended the
working range of the PWS model. Nevertheless, the modeled
pockets increased the boost pressure in low PWS speed too
much in comparison to measurement.

Figure 43: Comparison of measured and computed AI mass


flow and internal exhaust gas recirculation for EI mass flow of
300kg/h and 1-D PWS model with pockets
Presented and described comparisons in diagrams above
indicate that the flow losses in the 1-D model of PWS rotor
channel should be tuned with regard to pressure traces to come
closer to the measurement. Following paragraph discusses the
problematic of increased simulated exhaust gas recirculation in
comparison to measurement.
In the channel of the PWS rotor the fresh air and exhaust gas
are in direct contact. GT-Power is based on the finite volume
method. Thus, the 1-D model is discretized into many volumes
and the solution is carried out by time integration of equations
of continuity, energy and momentum. Finer discretization
results in better accuracy and extends the computation time
vice versa.
Diagrams in Figure 44 and Figure 45 show influence of the
discretization length on the simulated results. The influence has
been investigated for constant mass flow of 300kg/h and EI
temperature of 900K. By lowering of the dicretization length
by one third of the original length (here to 5mm) the internal
exhaust gas recirculation decreased by 10% (Figure 45) and the
simulated boost pressure increased by 5%. At the same time the
computation time has been 1.8 times longer than the original
one.

11

Copyright 2007 by ASME

Absolute pressure [bar]

Absolute pressure p2 [bar]

electric driven, compressor, which is necessary as a starter in


any case.

Absolute pressure comparison


2.50
2.40
2.30
2.20
2.10
2.00
1.90
1.80
1.70
1.60
1.50
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.00

p2-300kg/h-measured
p3-300kg/h measured
p2-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
p3-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
p2-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets with dx=5mm
p3-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets with dx=5mm
0

5000

10000
PWS speed [rpm]

15000

20000

Figure 44: Influence of discretization length of PWS rotor


channel on pressure traces

2.2
2.1
2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
6000

Absolute boost pressure for absolute back pressure


of 2bar

6500

7000

7500

8000

8500

9000

9500

10000

PWS speed [rpm]

p3=2bar T3=150degC 1-D model without pockets

EGR comparison
0.5

140

0.45
0.4

120

p3=2bar T3=500degC 1-D model without pockets

egr-300kg/h-measured
egr-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
egr-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets with dx=5mm

0.35

100

EGR [1]

80
60

m1-300kg/h-measured
m1-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m2-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m3-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m1-300kg/h 1-D model without pockets with dx=5mm

40
20
0
0

5000

10000
PWS speed [rpm]

15000

0.3
0.25
0.2

Figure 46: Computed boost pressure for back pressure of 2bar


and two different temperatures

0.15
0.1

Air outlet mass flow for absolute back pressure of


2bar

0.05

20000

0
5000

7000

9000

11000

13000

15000

17000

19000

PWS speed [rpm]

AO mass flow m2 [g/sec]

Mass flow [g/sec]

Mass flow comparison


160

Figure 45: Influence of discretization length of PWS rotor


channel on computed mass flow and internal exhaust gas
recirculation
PWS IN FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS
Fuel cells are among the most promising alternative
energy sources of the future with regard to clean and efficient
power generation [33]. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen producing
water, electric current and heat. Running of the fuel cell at
higher pressure increases the power due to the polarization
curve improvement [32], [35] and reduces the cell dimensions.
Therefore, the fuel cells of 10kW or more utilize boosting
device for air compression to increase oxygen partial pressure
[32]. As the flow through the fuel cell can be described as the
flow through a throttle the boost pressure has to be higher than
the back pressure. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel
cell, the most preferred fuel cell type for automotive systems,
must have sufficient water content in the polymer electrolyte
and the humidity of the air must be carefully controlled [32].
From the combustion chamber measurement of the tested PWS
model CX93 follows (Figure 24) that its boost pressure is
higher than the back pressure for EI temperature higher than
900K. This makes a burner PWS upstream necessary to have
enough energy for air compression. Due to the direct contact of
air and vapor in the rotor channel, the PWS could be of
advantage if used for air humidification realized by throttling at
AI of PWS (Figure 29).
Using the 1-D simulation the PWS93 with in [7] patented
geometry, which provided significantly increased boost
pressure (Figure 1), has been computed at the test bench for
back pressure of 2barAbsolute and EI temperatures of 150C and
500C. From the diagrams (Figure 46 and Figure 47) is visible
that at the lower temperature of 150C the PWS is unsuitable
for full cell applications. At the temperature of 500C the boost
pressure surpass the back pressure. Another way of using PWS
for this purpose would be a combination with serial connected,

131
121
111
101
91
81
71
61
51
41
31
21
11
1
6000

6500

7000

7500

8000

8500

9000

9500

10000

PWS speed [rpm]

p3=2bar T3=150degC 1-D model without pockets


p3=2bar T3=500degC 1-D model without pockets

Figure 47: Computed air outlet mass flow for back pressure of
2bar and two different temperatures
CONCLUSIONS
In framework of the study presented in this paper the
pressure wave supercharger (PWS) has been investigated using
1-D engine simulation and experimental measurement at the
combustion chamber test bench.
1-D simulation of different PWS sizes contributed to
understanding of PWS behavior in engine application. The
PWS has higher boost pressure at low engine speeds than the
turbocharger. Using the variable transmission ratio between the
PWS and the engine the boost pressure can be hold on high
level over the whole engine speed range. Whereas the engine
speed increases the scavenging of the PWS rotor decreases. At
the highest engine speeds the internal exhaust gas recirculation
rises and deteriorates the engine power. The variable gas pocket
improves the rotor scavenging and can be with advantage used
for boost pressure control. During the transient operation the
increased internal exhaust gas recirculation appeared. Change
of PWS speed during the load step improved transient
behavior.
The PWS has been largely explored at the combustion chamber
test bench and performance maps of measured PWS created.
The measurement showed high sensitivity of PWS on flow
losses mainly in exhaust outlet. Pressure increase in air inlet of
PWS increases the boost pressure by the same pressure.

12

Copyright 2007 by ASME

The 1-D model of PWS at the test bench has been created to
compare simulation to experiment. The established database of
measured data creates very good basis for further 1-D model
calibration. The qualitative reaction of PWS model is in a very
good agreement with the measurement. The 1-D model predicts
higher difference between boost pressure and back pressure and
in larger PWS speed range than measurements. In next steps
mainly the flow losses in the model should be tuned to calibrate
the model.
Utilization of the PWS in the fuel cell application makes a
burner PWS upstream necessary. 1-D model and measured
database could be with advantage used for further
investigations on this topic.
NOMENCLATURE
AI
AO
C
EI
EO
etaPWS
ISFC
m1
m2
m2red
m3
p0
p2
p3
p4
piC
PWS
t0
t1
t2
t3
t4

Air inlet
Air outlet
Molar fraction of CO2
Exhaust inlet
Exhaust outlet
Total efficiency of PWS
Indicated specific fuel consumption [g/kW/h]
Mass flow in AI [kg/h]
Mass flow in AO [kg/h]
Reduced air mass flow in AO [kg/h]
Air mass flow in EI [kg/h]
Ambient pressure [kPa]
Relative boost pressure [kPa]
Relative EI pressure [kPa]
Relative EO pressure [kPa]
Pressure ratio [1]
Pressure wave supercharger
Ambient temperature
Inlet temperature [deg C]
AO temperature [deg C]
EI average temperature [deg C]
EO temperature [deg C]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to express their grateful thanks to
Czech turbocharger maker Z a.s., division Turbo, namely to
Mr. Stulk, Mr. Havelka, Mr. Mach and division director Mr.
Pinkas for fruitful cooperation and support throughout the
project. Special thank belongs to prof. Takats from JBRC for
his kindly help with taking CO2 measurement into operation.
Additional thanks belong also to authors colleges from JBRC
prof. Uhl and prof. Novk for their kind help with taking of
PWS electric drive into operation.
.
REFERENCES
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einer
gasdynamischen Druckwellenmaschine. European Patent, EP
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[10] Oguri, Y., Suzuki, T., Yoshida, M., Cho, M.: Research on
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Engine. SAE Paper 2001-01-0368, 2001, pp. 101-107
[11] Jenny, E.: Berechnungen und Modellversuche ber
Druckwellen grosser Amplituden in Auspuff-Leitungen.
Dissertation ETH Zrich, Ameba Druck Basel 1949
[12] Berchtold, M.: Druckwellenaufladung fr kleine
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46, Switzerland, 1961, pp. 801-808
[13] Shapiro, A. H.: The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of
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1998, pp. 341-351
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Supercharger Effect of Pockets on the Comprex Supercharger
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XLV, No. 4, 1998, pp. 305-323
[16] Selerowicz, W., Piechna, J.: Comprex Type Supercharger
as a Pressure-Wave Transformer Flow Characteristics. The
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pp. 57-77
[17] Piechna, J.: Numerical Simulation of the Comprex Type of
Supercharger: Comparison of Two Models of Boundary
Condition. The Archive of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. XLV,
No. 3, 1998, pp. 233-250

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[18] Zehnder, G.: Berechnung von Druckwellen in der


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[25] Schruf, G.M., Kollbrunner, T. A.: Application and
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14

Copyright 2007 by ASME

ANNEX A
COMPARISON OF 1-D MODEL SIMULATION TO MEASUREMENT

Absolute pressure comparison

Mass flow comparison

1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

100
80
60
40

0
0

5000

Figure A1: 1-D simulation vs. measurement


for constant EI mass flow of 100kg/h

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

0.02
0
0

5000

10000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]


m1-400kg/h-measured
m1-400kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m2-400kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m3-400kg/h 1-D model without pockets

20000

20000

egr-100kg/h-measured

egr-400kg/h 1-D model without pockets

EGR comparison

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
6000

15000

PWS speed [rpm]

180
160
140

PWS speed [rpm]


p3-400kg/h-measured
p2-400kg/h 1-D model without pockets

15000

EGR [1]

Mass flow [g/sec]

8000

10000

Mass flow comparison

Absolute pressure comparison

6000

0.1
0.08

PWS speed [rpm]


m1-100kg/h-measured
m1-100kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m2-100kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m3-100kg/h 1-D model without pockets

p3-100kg/h-measured
p3-100kg/h 1-D model without pockets

3.1
3
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1

0.16
0.14
0.12

0.06
0.04

20

PWS speed [rpm]


p2-100kg/h-measured
p2-100kg/h 1-D model without pockets

EGR [1]

1.5

Absolute pressure [bar]

EGR comparison
0.2
0.18

120

1.6
Mass flow [g/sec]

Absolute pressure [bar]

1.7

0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]


egr-400kg/h-measured

p2-400kg/h 1-D model without pockets

p2-400kg/h-measured
p3-400kg/h 1-D model without pockets

Figure A2: 1-D simulation vs. measurement for constant


EI mass flow of 400kg/h
180

0.9

160

0.8

140

0.7

120

0.6

100

EGR [1]

Mass flow [g/sec]

Absolute pressure [bar]

EGR comparison

Mass flow comparison

Absolute pressure comparison


3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5

80
60

0.2

20

6000

8000

10000

12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
PWS speed [rpm]
p2-500kg/h-measured
p3-500kg/h-measured
p2-500kg/h 1-D model without pockets
p3-500kg/h 1-D model without pockets

0.4
0.3

40
0
6000

0.5

0.1
8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]


m1-500kg/h-measured
m1-500kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m2-500kg/h 1-D model without pockets
m3-500kg/h 1-D model without pockets

0
6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

PWS speed [rpm]


500kg/h-measured

500kg/h 1-D model without pockets

Figure A3: 1-D simulation vs. measurement for constant EI


mass flow of 500kg/h

15

Copyright 2007 by ASME