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0.

Derivative. Geometrical interpretation of


derivative.

Derivative. Let f (x) = y be a function and a and a + h be two points.


a) h is called the argument increment.
b) f (a + h) f (a) is called function increment.
Definition 0.1.1. Derivative of a function at a point x0 is the limit
f (a + h) f (a)
.
h0
h
The derivative can be written in the following ways:
lim

df
(a).
dx
Geometrical interpretation of derivative
f 0 (a) =

Figura 1: A picture of a gull.

Line equation
Definition 0.1.2. Let A(xA , yA ) and B(xB , yB ) two points. Then the line
equation which passed through this points is:
x xA
y yA
=
.
xB xA
yB yA
The above formula can be written in the following way:
yB yA
yB yA
y=
x
xA + y A .
xB xA
xB xA
The slop of the line is:
m=

yB yA
.
xB xA
1

0.2

Taylor Polynomial

Let f : I R be a function derivable for n times in the point a I. Taylor


Polynomial attached to the function f in the point a is:
xa 0
(x a)n (n)
(Tn f )(x) = f (a) +
f (a) + . . . +
f (a).
(1)
1!
n!
1. The Taylor formula for the function f in the neighbourhood of the
point a is:
f (x) = (Tn f )(x) + (Rn f )(x),
where
2. (Rn f )(x) is the rest in Taylor formula.
3. MacLaurin Formula If in the Taylor Formula it will be choosen a = 0
then:
xn
f (x) = f (0) + xf 0 (0) + . . . + f (n) (0) + (Rn f )(x).
(2)
n!
Example 0.2.1.

1. ex 1 + x +

x2
2!

+ ... +

xn
;
n!

2. sin x x

x3
3!

x5
5!

x +1
+ . . . + (1)n (2n+1)!
;

2n

3. cos x 1

x2
2!

x4
4!

x
+ . . . + (1)n (2n)!
.

2n

Figura 2: Taylor approximation

Example 0.2.2 (Approximation for cos function).


2

0.3

Newtons Method

The goal of this section is to find, using an approximation, the solution for
the the following equation:
f (x) = 0.
The function must have the following properties:
a) function must be continuous
b) function must be derivable
c) f (a) f (b) < 0.
Property c) and a) gave the a solution for the equation f (x) = 0. To obtain
the rule for Newtons method is it necessary to write the Taylor series for the
function f (x) around the point a.
f (x) = f (a) +

(x a)2 00
(x a)3 000
xa 0
f (a) +
f (a) +
f (a) + . . .
1!
2!
3!

(3)

Retaining only the first and the second terms of above series, it is obtained
the equation of the tangent in a point and an approximation for the initial
function. So:
f (x) f (a) + (x a)f 0 (a).
(4)
The steps to apply the Newtons method are:
Step 1. It is chosen a point x1 which is the close to the solution according with
an estimate.
Step 2. It is create the tangent line at the point (x1 , f (x1 ) using the equation
of the tangent:
y = f (x1 ) + f 0 (x1 )(x x1 ).
Step 3. The tangent line will intersect the Ox-axis when y = 0. So,
f (x1 ) + f 0 (x1 )(x2 x1 ) = 0
f (x1 ) = f 0 (x1 )(x2 x1 )
f (x1 )
= x2 x1
0
f (x1 )
f (x1 )
.
x2 = x1 0
f (x1 )

(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

Step 4. It is verified if f (x2 ) = 0. If the answer is YES then the algorithm is


closed; if not, the process will repeat with another approximation.
..
.
The Step 3. can be written in a general way:
xn+1 = xn

f (xn )
.
f 0 (xn )

(9)

Example 0.3.1. Use Newtons method to find the fourth approximation, x4 ,


to the root of the following equation
x3 x 1 = 0
starting with x1 = 1.
No.
f (x) = x3 x 1 f 0 (x) = 3x2 1
n)
n
xn
f (xn )
f 0 (xn )
xn+1 = xn ff0(x
(xn )
1
1
1
2
1.5
2
1.5
0.875
5.75
1.347826087
3
1.347826087
0.100682173
4.449905482
1.325200399
4
1.325200399
0.002058362
4.268468292
1.324718174
5
1.324718174
0.000000924
4.264634722
1.324717957