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International journal of Mechanical and Production

Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD)


ISSN(P): 2249-6890; ISSN(E): 2249-8001
Vol. 5, Issue 5, Oct 2015, 103-114
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON FOUR STROKE SI ENGINE USING PETROL


AND BIOGAS BLENDS AS AN ALTERNATE FUEL
YOGESH JADHAV, VINAYAK NARWADE, AWES ANSARI, SURAJ MASKE & SANKET THAKARE
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Pune, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
The worlds rapidly depleting petroleum supplies, their ever increasing costs and the constantly increasing
pollution from fossil petroleum fuels have led to an comprehensive search for alternate fuels. Vegetable oils or Biogas
owing to their reproducibility, can be considered as alternate option for fossil fuels. In this experimental investigation,
Biogas which is considered a potential alternate fuel, is blended in different proportions with petrol, and its efficiency at
various load and rpm was analyzed and used as a fuel in a Spark Ignition engine. Performance, combustion and emission
characteristics at various loads are calculated using a multi cylinder Spark Ignition engine and compared with neat Petrol.
The lessons learned from the experimental investigation will be discussed including comparisons between Brake thermal
efficiency, Brake Power and Emissions. The main advantage of Biogas is that it can be produced from readily available
materials like cow dung and municipal waste.

KEYWORDS: Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine, Biogas, Petrol, Renewable Energy Resources, Alternate Fuels,
Performance and Emission Characteristics, Blended Fuel

ABBREVIATIONS
Table 1
Sn
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Abbreviation
IC
SI
HC
CO
BSFC
BP
CV
G10
G20
G40

Full Form
Internal Combustion
Spark Ignition
Hydrocarbon
Carbon Monoxide
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
Brake Power
Calorific Value
Blend of 10% Biogas and 90% Petrol
Blend of 20% Biogas and 80% Petrol
Blend of 40% Biogas and 60% Petrol

INTRODUCTION
Biogas is useful as a substitute for firewood, coal, petrol and diesel. Biogas systems also provide a residue of
organic waste, which after anaerobic decompositionthat can be used as fertiliser.
Energy is essential for human existence. We know that energy is obtained from numerous sources, it is firewood,
coaland fossil fuels which have been voraciouslyused for many useful purposes. This century has been the witness of
tremendous growth of numerous industries which are entirely dependent on energy sources. Fossil fuels, in particular have
the most eminent role in the growth of industry and agriculture.The energy crisis has made it compulsary to search
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104

Yogesh Jadhav, Vinayak Narwade, Awes Ansari, Suraj Maske & Sanket Thakare

alternate sources of energy. It is impossible to replace fossil fuels entirely. On the other hand, dependence on fossil fuels
would have to be controlled so as to make it available for our posterities and in pivotal sectors till some tantamount
alternate energy sources, preferably renewable are made available. Though the calorific value of Biogas is not high as its
contemporaries, it could meet some local needs. Following table would provide an idea of thermal efficiency and calorific
values of different fuels used in day-to-day life.
Table 2
Calorific Value and Thermal Efficiency of Different Fuels
Fuels
Calorific Values in Kilo-Calories Thermal Efficiency in %
Biogas
4713/m3
60
Dung cake
2010/kg
11
Firewood
10300/kg
17
Diesel
10579/kg
33
Kerosene
10850/kg
60
Petrol
11169/kg
50

These values signify that biogas can perform similarly to fossil fuels with increased thermal efficiency with
regards to the content of methane. The biogascan also be used in IC engines for which there is scope for further research
and development. Biogas, thus can be used as an alternate energy resource for the fossil fuels. A typical composition of
biogas produced from the biogas plant is as follows:
Table 3
Components
Methane
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Carbon Monoxide
Oxygen
Hydrogen Sulphide

Percentage
60.0%
38.0%
0.8%
0.7%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
Experimental Setup
A multi-cylinder, water cooled, four stroke Spark Ignition engine generating 50 kW power at 6200 rpm was used
for this investigation. Fuels used were Petrol and blends of Biogas-Petrol. Exhaust gas characteristics were measured using
an exhaust gas analyzer. CO and HC proportion was shown by the exhaust gas analyzer. Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
was determined by using RTD probe.
Schematic Diagram
The diagram shows the experimental setup consisting of a WagonR engine and its components. It consists of
Eddy current Dynamometer which is connected to the engine on its front side. The engine is connected to a digital panel
which displays different readings on it. The exhaust outlet is at the rear side of the engine. At the exhaust outlet of the
engine a gas analyzer is connected to it to measure the exhaust readings of CO and HC. The fuel tank is located on the right
side of engine.

Impact Factor(JCC) : 5.6934

NAAS Rating: 2.45

105

Experimental Investigation on Four Stroke Si Engine


Using Petrol and Biogas Blends as an Alternate Fuel

Figure 1
Engine Specification
Table 4
Sn
1
2
3
4
5
6

Specifications
Bore diameter
Stroke Length
Rated Power
Compression Ratio
No. of cylinders
Cooling System

Value
69 mm
72 mm
50 kW @ 6200 rpm
10
4
Water cooled

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The experiment was carried out on a WagonR engine. At the start of the experiment petrol was loaded in the fuel
tank. The engine was started by a cell start on the digital panel. After the starting of engine, the engine was allowed to
become stable and readings were noted. The engine was first kept at constant speed of 1500 rpm and the torque was varied
on the digital panel. The exhaust gas temperature readings where noted down from the panel. The exhaust emission
readings of CO and HC were noted down from the exhaust gas analyzer located on the exhaust pipe. The time was
recorded for 10cc consumption of fuel through it. After this the torque was increased and the engine was allowed to
become stable and the readings were noted. The torque was increased from 0 to 20 with a interval of 5 and readings noted
for each.
After the petrol test was over blending tests were to be conducted. For this the blend mixture with 10% Biogas
and 90% petrol was prepared. Before putting this mixture in the engine, the remaining petrol in the fuel tank was removed
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Yogesh Jadhav, Vinayak Narwade, Awes Ansari, Suraj Maske & Sanket Thakare

and the engine was kept running till it consumes whole petrol that was present in it. This was done each time when the
blend mixture was changed in the tank so as to avoid mixing of the mixtures and to get accurate readings. Now the blend
mixture was supplied and readings were noted. Further for blend mixtures of 20% and 40% the readings were noted down.
After this the speed of the engine was increased to 1900 rpm and to 2100rpm and the similar procedure was carried out.

CALCULATIONS
Calculation for CV of Blended Fuel
For G10 BLEND:
CV of G10 = 0.10*CV per litre of Biogas + 0.90* CV per litre of neat Petrol
= 0.10*30000 + 0.90*44000
= 42600 kJ/kg
Similarly for all blends CV is calculated and is given in following table,
Table 5
SN
1
2
3

BLEND
G10
G20
G40

CV (kJ/kg)
42600
41200
38400

Calculation for Brake thermal Efficiency and BSFC:

For Brake power (BP)


BP =

kW

Where,
N = Revolutions per minute
T= Torque
For 10Nm torque, BP is
BP =

kW = 1.989 kW

Thus the BP is calculated and is summarized in following table,


Table 6
SN Torque(Nm) BP (kW) 1900rpm BP (kW) 2100rpm BP (kW) 2300rpm BP (kW) 2500rpm
1
10
1.99
2.20
2.41
2.62
2
15
2.98
3.30
3.61
3.93
3
20
3.98
4.39
4.82
5.23

b) For Brake Thermal Efficiency


Efficiency =

Impact Factor(JCC) : 5.6934

NAAS Rating: 2.45

107

Experimental Investigation on Four Stroke Si Engine


Using Petrol and Biogas Blends as an Alternate Fuel

Where,
mf = Total Fuel consumed per hour
B.P = Brake Power
CV = Combined Calorific value of Petrol and Biogas

c) For Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC)


BSFC =
Where,
Total fuel consumption = Biogas + Petrol consumed
B.P = Brake Power
In this way all efficiencies are calculated at the various values of torques.

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS
Graphs of Testing at Constant RPM
A) 1900 rpm
Brake Thermal Efficiency V/s Brake Power
60
55
50
45
%
yc
n
ie
ci
ffE
la
rm
e
h
T
ke
ar
B

40
35
30
Petrol
25
G10
20
G20
15

G40

10
5
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Brake Power KW

Figure 2
BSFCvsBP
0.600
0.550
n0.500
io
p
m0.450
u
s
n
o
C
l 0.400
e
u
F
c
fii 0.350
c
e
Sp0.300
e
ka
r
B0.250

Petrol
G10
G20
G40

0.200
0.150
0.500

1.000

1.500

2.000

2.500
BrakePower Kw

3.000

3.500

4.000

4.500

Figure 3

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Yogesh Jadhav, Vinayak Narwade, Awes Ansari, Suraj Maske & Sanket Thakare

COvs BP
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
O
C
0.6

Petrol
G10
G20

0.4
G40
0.2
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

BP

Figure 4

HCvsBP
160
140
120
100
Petrol

C 80
H

G10

60

G20

40

G40

20
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

BP

Figure 5
B) 2100 rpm :

Brake Thermal Efficiency V/s Brake Power


50
45
%40
yc
n35
ie
ci 30
ff
E
la25
m
r
e20
h
T
e
ka15
r 10
B

Petrol
G10
G20
G40

5
0
0

Brake Power KW
2
3

Figure 6

Impact Factor(JCC) : 5.6934

NAAS Rating: 2.45

109

Experimental Investigation on Four Stroke Si Engine


Using Petrol and Biogas Blends as an Alternate Fuel

bsfc vs B.P
0.6

0.5

0.4
Petrol

fcs0.3
b

G10
G20

0.2
G40
0.1

0
0

B.P

Figure 7

COvs BP
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
O
C
0.8

Petrol

0.6

G20

0.4

G40

G10

0.2
0
0

BP

Figure 8

HC vs BP
180
160
140
120
100
C
H
80

Petrol
G10

60

G20

40

G40

20
0
0

BP

Figure 9
Graphs of Testing at Constant Load:
A) 15 Nm

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Yogesh Jadhav, Vinayak Narwade, Awes Ansari, Suraj Maske & Sanket Thakare

Efficiency vs BP
60

50

40

cy
n
ie
c 30
fif
E

Petrol
G 10
G 20
G 40

20

10

0
2.9

3.1

3.3

3.5

3.7

3.9

4.1

4.3

BP

Figure 10
BSFC vs BP
0.350

0.300

0.250

0.200
Petrol

C
FS
B

G10

0.150

G20
G40

0.100

0.050

0.000
2.9

3.1

3.3

3.5

3.7

3.9

4.1

4.3

BP

Figure 11

COvsBP
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
O0.5
C
0.4

Petrol
G10
G20

0.3

G40

0.2
0.1
0
2.5

2.7

2.9

3.1

3.3

3.5

3.7

3.9

4.1

4.3

BP

Figure 12

Impact Factor(JCC) : 5.6934

NAAS Rating: 2.45

111

Experimental Investigation on Four Stroke Si Engine


Using Petrol and Biogas Blends as an Alternate Fuel

HCvsBP
160
140
120
100
Petrol

C 80
H

G10

60

G20

40

G40

20
0
2.5

2.7

2.9

3.1

3.3

3.5

3.7

3.9

4.1

4.3

BP

Figure 13
B) 20 Nm :

EfficiencyvsBP
60
50
yc40
n
e
ic30
fif
E
20

Petrol
G10
G20

10
0
3.5

G40

4.5

5.5

BP

Figure 14

BSFCvsBP
0.350

0.300
Petrol

C
FS0.250
B

G10
G20

0.200

G40
0.150
3.5

4.5

5.5

BP

Figure 15

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Yogesh Jadhav, Vinayak Narwade, Awes Ansari, Suraj Maske & Sanket Thakare

COvs BP
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
O
C
0.6

Petrol
G10
G20

0.4
G40
0.2
0
3.5

4.5

5.5

BP

Figure 16

HC vs BP
180
160
140
120
100
C
H
80

Petrol
G10

60

G20

40

G40

20
0
3.5

4.5

5.5

BP

Figure 17

RESULTS FROM GRAPHS

Engine was successfully operated with blends of Biogas with petrol upto 40% blending and 2500 rpm.

In comparison of petrol fuelled engine, Biogas blended with petrol is more efficient.

Higher the content of Biogas in petrol higher is the efficiency.

When the blends of Biogas were increased with 10%, 20% and 40% it was observed that Break Specific Fuel
Consumption decreases in proportion to the increase in blends.

The amount of CO and HC in the exhaust gases was increased due to the Biogas composition.

CONCLUSIONS
In our experimental investigation, four Cylinder Spark Ignition engine was operated successfully using Biogas
and Petrol blends at room temperature.

Both the fuels, Biogas and Petrol, were used without any change in their chemical composition.

Petrol and Biogas blends can be used in SI engine without any modification in engine.

Impact Factor(JCC) : 5.6934

NAAS Rating: 2.45

113

Experimental Investigation on Four Stroke Si Engine


Using Petrol and Biogas Blends as an Alternate Fuel

Brake thermal efficiency increases as the proportion Biogas is increased in blend.

Emission level for CO and HC increased with increase in Biogas proportion.

Exhaust gas temperature was found to be increased with increase in Blends.

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Decreases with the increase in the Biogas Blends.

REFERENCES
1.

Thring, R. H., Alternative Fuels for Spark-Ignition Engines, SAE Paper no. 831685, 471525, 1983.

2.

Prausnitz, P. and Reid, R.C., The Properties of Gases and Liquids, McGraw-Hill, 1987.

3.

Saw ant H.N., Emission and performance characteristics of a petrol Engine using emulsions of diesel fuel with
water, methanol and ethanol.

4.

Proceedings of the Interational conference on IC engines and combustion, 1989.

5.

An Introduction to Combustion Concepts and application by Stephen R. Turns, Tata McGraw Hill Production
International Editon.

6.

Alternative Fuels: Emissions,Economics, and Performance, Timothy T. Maxwell and Jesse C. Jones, 1995.

7.

Emission Comparison of LPG /Gasoline / Diesel in passenger Cars, TNO Road Vehicles Research Institute,
November 1993

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