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Submitted By,
Miss. Sushmita Subhash Navale
Under The Guidance Of
Mrs.Sukhada Kulkarni
Smt. Mathubai Garware Kanya


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6

Summary and Conclusion

The principal,
Smt. Mathubai Garware kanya Mahavidyalaya Sangli.
pollution and







written submitted by all under guidence of Mrs.Sukhada

The imperial/finding in these project based on data collected
by as the matten presented in this project is not coped from at other
sources well understand such copy is liable to punish any way institute
authority dream fet.
Name of student:- Sushmita Subasha Navale

Place:- Sangli


This is to certificate entities water pollution and submitted in partial






Smt. Mathubai



Mahavidyalaya Sangli. has been completed under oven supervision and

guidence to best of our knowledge and beliefs the matrer presented in this
project orgainisted and based of work and such kinds of work has not
submitted earlier.

Project Guide:- Mrs:Sukhada Kulkarni

Principal:- Dr.R.G.Kulkarni
Place:- Sangli

Aim and objective:Aim:- To study the water pollution their effects and find out their control
measure and solution.

Objective:1. Causes of water pollution.

2. Water pollution effects.
3. Water pollution problems.

4. Solution to water pollution.

Visit place:Sangli area- Sangli is placed on the edge of Krishna river. The main
attraction of Sangli is Ganesh temple. Sometime most of peoples wash the cloths
in the water of Krishna river, as well as some wastage material through in the
water so therefore water pollution is occurred here.

Krishna river:- Here water pollution is occurred.

Introduction:By chris woodford last updated: May 24,2014.

Over two thirds of Earths surface is covered by water; Less than a
third is taken up by land. As earths population continues to grow, people are
putting ever increasing pressure on the planets water resources. In a sense,

our oceans, rivers and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human
activities-not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced.
Poorer water quality means water pollution.
We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a
relatively recent development in the planets history: before the 19th century
Industrial Revolution, people lived more in harmony with their immediate
envivonment. As industrialization has spread around the globe, so the
problem of pollution has spread with it. When earths population was much
smaller, no one believed pollution would ever present a serious problem. It
was once popularly believed that the oceans were for too big to pollute.
Today with around 7 billion people on the planet, it has become apparent
that there are limits. pollution is one of the signs that humans have
exceeded those limits.
How serious is the problem? According to the environmental
campaign organization WWF: "Pollution from toxic chemicals threatens life
on this planet, Every ocean and every continent, from the tropics to the
once- pristine polar regions, is contaminated".
The ghats of river Ganges are polluted. Main article pollution
of the Ganges .More than 500 million people live along the Ganges River.
An estimated 2,000,000 persons ritually bathe daily in the river, which is
considered holy by Hindus. Ganges river pollution is a major health risk.
NRGBA was established by the central Government of India,
on 20 February 2009 under section 3 (3) of the Environment protection
Act,1986. It also declared Ganges as the "National River" of India and chief
ministers of states through which the Ganges Flows.



of the


River. The

Oshiwara River in Mumbai-severely polluted with solid and liquid wastes

generated by Mumbai.

By an estimate of 2012,delhs sacred Yamuna river contained

7,500 coliform bacteria per 100cc of water . A huge number of NGOs,
pressure groups, eco-clubs, as well as citizens movements , have been active
in there task to clean the river.
Even though India revised its National water policy in 2002
to encourage community participation and decentralize water management, the
countrys complex bureaucracy ensures that it remains a "Mere statement of
intent". Responsibility for managing water issues is fragmented among a
dozen different ministries and department without any coordination . The
government bureaucracy and state-run project department has failed to solve
the problem, despite having spent many years and 140 million on this


To know what is mean by water pollution.

Water pollution can be defined in many ways .Usually it means
one or more substances have built up in water to such an extent that
they cause problems for animals or people .Oceans ,lakes ,rivers ,and
other inland waters can naturally clean up a certain amount of
pollution by dispersing it harmlessly .If you poured a cup of black
ink into a river, the ink would quickly disappear into the rivers
much larger volume of clean water .The link would still be there in
the river ,but in such a low concentration that you would not be able
to see it
At such low levels, the chemicals in the ink probably would
not present any real problem .However ,if you poured gallons of ink
into a river every few second through a pipe ,the river would quickly
turn black .The chemicals in the ink could very quickly have an

effect on the quality of the water .This ,in turn, animals ,and humans
whose lives depend on the river
Thus , water pollution is all about quantities . how much of a
polluting substance is released and how big a volume of water it is
released into .A small quantity of a toxic chemical may have little
impact if it is spilled into the ocean from a ship .But the same
amount of the same chemical can have a much bigger impact
pumped into a lake or river, where there is less clean water to
disperse it.

Causes of water pollution:Most water pollution doesnt begin in the water it self. Take
the oceans: around 80 percent of ocean pollution enters our seas from the
land .Virtually any human activity can have an effect on the quality of our
water environment. When farmers fertilize the fields, the chemicals they use
are gradually washed by rain into the causes of water pollution are quite
surprising. Chemicals released by smokestacks can enter the atmosphere and
then fall back to earth as rain, entering seas, rivers, and lakes and causing
water pollution.

called atmospheric deposition. Water pollution has many

different causes and this is one of the reasons why it is such a difficult
problem to solve.

Sewage:With billions of people on the planet, disposing of sewage

waste is a major problem. According to 2004 figures from the world Health
organization, some 1.1 billion people dont have access to safe drinking water,
while 2.6 billion dont have proper sanitation. The position hasnt improved
much since. Sewage disposal affects peoples immediate environments and
leads to water-related illnesses such as diarrhea that kills 3-4 million
children each year.
In developed countries , most people have flush toilets that take
sewage waste quickly and hygienically away from their homes.
In theory, sewage is a completely natural substance that should be
broken down harmlessly in the environment: 90 percent of sewage is water.

practice, sewage






chemicals, from


pharmaceutical drugs people take to the paper, plastic and other wastes they
flush down their toilets. When people are sick

with viruses, the sewage

they produce carries those viruses into the


Nutrients:Suitably treated and used in moderate, quantities, sewage can

be a fertilizer: It returns important nutrients to the environment, such as
nitrogen and phosphouras , Which plants and animals need for growth .The &
trouble is, swage is often released in much greater quantities than the
natural environment can cope with chemical fertilizers used by farmers also
add nutrients to the soil, which drain into rivers and seas and add to the
soil, which drain into rivers and seas and add to the fertilizing effect of the
sewage. Together, sewage and fertilizing can causes a massive increase in the

growth of algae or plankton that overwhelms huge areas of oceans, lakes, or

This is known as a harmful algal bloom. It is harmful
because it removes oxygen from the water that kills other forms. Of life
,leading to what is known as a dead zone. The gulf of mexico has one of
the worlds most spectacular dead zones. Each summer, it grows to an area
of around 7000 square miles (18,000 square kilometers0, Which is the about
the same size as the state of New Jersey.

Waste Water :A few statistics the scale of the problem that waste can cause.
Around half of all ocean pollution is caused by sewage and waste and
waste water. Each year, the world generates 400 billion tons of industrial
waste, much of which is pumped untreated into rivers, oceans, and other
water ways. In the united states alone, around 400,000 factories take clean
water from rivers, and many pump polluted waters back in their place.
However, there have been major improvements in waste water treatment
Factories are point sources of water pollution, but quite a lot
of water is polluted by ordinary people from nonpoint sources this is how
ordinary water becomes waste water in the first place. Virtually everyone
pours chemicals of one sort or another down their drains or toilets. Even
detergents used in washing machines and dishwashers eventually end up in
our gardens.
A lot of toxic pollution also enters waste water from highway
runoff. Highways are typically covered with a cocktail of toxic chemicalseverything from spilled fuel and brake fluids to bits of worn tires and
exhaust emissions. When it rains, these chemicals wash into drains and
rivers . It is not unusual for heavy

summer rainstorms to wash toxic

chemicals into rivers in such concentrations that they kill large numbers of
fish overnight. It has been estimated that, in one year, the highway runoff
from a single large city leaks as much all into our water environment as a
typical tanker spill.

Chemical Waste:Detergents









substances .At





polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS). They were once widely used to manufa .

Cture electronic circuit boards , but their harmful effect have now been
recognized and their use is highly restricted in many countries.
Another kind of toxic pollution comes from heavy metals, such
as lead , cadmium, and mercury .lead was once commonly used in
gasoline(petrol), though its use is now restricted in some countries,
mercury and cadmium are still used batteries. Until recently, a highly
toxic chemical called tributyltin (TBT) Was used in paints to product
boats from the ravaging effects of the oceans. Ironically , however,
TBT was gradually recognized as a pollutant: boats painted with it
were doing as much damage to the oceans as the oceans were doing
to the boats.
The best know example of heavy metal pollution in the oceans. Took
place in 1938 when a Japanese factory discharged a significant amount
of mercury metal into minamata Bay, contaminating the fish stock
there. It took a decade for the problem to come to light. By that
time, many local people had eaten the fish and around 2000 were
poisoned. Hundreds of people were left dead or disabled.

Radioactive Waste :People view radioactive waste with great alarmand for good
reason. At






kill; in


concentrations it can cause cancers and other illnesses. The biggest

sources of radioactive pollution in Europe are two factories that
reprocess waste fuel from nuclear power plants; Sellafield on the
northwest coast of Britain and cap la Hague on the north coast of
france. Both discharge radioactive waste water into the sea, which
ocean currents then carry around the world.
Countries such as Norway, which lie downstream from Britain,
receive significant does of radioactive pollution from sellafield. The
Norwegian government has repeatedly complained that sellafield has
increased radiation levels along its coast by 6-10 times. Both the lrish
and Norwegian government continue to press for the plants closure.

Oil Pollution:When we think of ocean pollution, huge black oil slicks often
spring to mind, yet these spectacular occidents represent only a tiny
fraction of all the pollution entering our oceans. Even considering oil
by itself, tanker spills are not as significant as they might seem: only
12% of the oil that enters the oceans comes from tanker accident;
over 70% of oil pollution at sea comes from routine shipping and
from the oil people pour down drains on land. However, what makes
tanker spills so destructive is the sheer quantity of oil they release at
once-in other words.
The concentration of oil they produce in one very localized
part of the marine environment. The biggest oil spill in recent years
occurred when the tanker Exxon valdez broke up in prince william

sound in Alaska in 1989.

Around 12 million gallons (44million-liters) of oil were released
into the pristine wilderness-enough to fill your living room 800 times
over! Estimates of the marinc animals killed in the spill very from
approximately 1000 sea otters and 34,000 birds to as many as 2800
sea otters and 250,000 sea birds several billion salmon and herring
eggs are also believed to have been destroyed.

Plastics:If youve ever taken part in a community beach clean, youll

know that plastics is far and away the most common substance that
washes up with the waves. There are three reasons for this: plastics
is one of the most common materials, used for making virtually
every kind of manufactured object from clothing to automobile parts;
plastic it light and floats casily so it can travel enormous distances
across the oceans; most plastics are not blodegradable.
Which means that things like plastic bottle tops can survive in
the marine environment for a long time. (A plastic in the can survive
an estimated 450 years in the ocean and plastic fishing line can last
up to 600 years).

Effects On Water Pollution:There are various effects of water pollution:

Spread of disease: Drinking polluted water can cause cholera or
typhoid infections, along with diarrhea

Affects body organs: The consumption of highly contaminated

water can causes injury to the heart and kidneys.
Harms the food chain: Toxins within water can harm equatic
organisms, thus breaking link in the food chain.
Causes algae in water: Urea, animal manure and vegetable
peelings are food for algae. Algae grow according to how much
waste is in a water source. Bacteria feed off the algae, decreasing the
amount of oxygen in the water. The decreased oxygen causes harm to
other organisms living in the water.
Flooding: The erosion of soil into waterways causes flooding ,
especially with heavy rainfull.
Harms animals: Birds that get into oil contaminated water die
from exposure to cold water and air due to feather damage. Other
animals are affected when they eat dead fish in contaminated
The effects of water pollution are not always immediate. They are not
always seen at the point of contamination. They are sometimes never known
by the person responsible for the pollution. However, water pollution has a
huge impact on our lives. With knowledge, consideration and preparation,
water pollution can be decreased. It doesnt take much effort just a little

Primary Data:The answers-or data-used from the responses are called primary data.
An advantage of using primary data is that researchers are collecting
information for the specific purposes of their study. In essence, the questions
the researchers ask are tailored to elicit the data that will help them with


study. Researchers


the data

themselves, using


observation(Such as observing safety practices on a shop floor).

Secondary Data:Other Institute project involve using data that has already been gathered by
someone else, such as surrey information from the canadian census,
Researchers then examine this information in a different way to find a
response to their question. This data are called secondary data. We are using
some environment studies books, newspaper etc:

How You Collected Data:We are collected this data by using onside observation &by
using Internet web site.
This data is also related to the subject, By using Questioneries
we are collect the information.

Data About Your Subject:We are collected this data this is related to the water
pollution the objective for this subject is as follows:1. Causes of water pollution.
2. Water pollution effect.
3. Water pollution problem.
4. Solution to water pollution.

Observation:Krishna river is famous place of sangli. All peoples can come

here & enjoy yourself. Krishna ghat is one of the place where people can
enjoy yourself. Some peoples take the visit in the form of picnik. They are
coming & enjoyed the nature of the river. They can take lunch, But some
activies is not good in kirshna ghat. This is responsible for water pollution.
Water pollution is one the most important problem in sangli
City. Humans are also responsible for his pollution. In krishna ghat some
womens can come to washing cloths, washing vtensill& some gents
&boys can come to swimming etc: This activity can done by the
people then water can be made pollutecl. Government can be make
some rules &lows about the krishna river but nobody can obey this
rules& laws why people do this?
Water is very important need for the human life then why
people made this pollution our-indian frestivals is also responsible for
water pollution. In ganesh frestivals time ganesh statues is goes in
the river. Ganesh statues is made by same dangours type of soil. Then
why people do this? also people through the same flowers &other
material which is used in puja ceremoney.
In krishna river drnage pipe is very big problems, which is
mostly responsible for water pollution, drenage pipe means wastage of
water can be flow in this stream & which is rich in river. This
drenage water mixing in the krishna river. Water & this polluted water
we are drinking. It is very shocking news. Without filtering the
drenage water

we are drinking it .Government make the rules & low

but they can also take the action in this activity drenage . water is
mix in the river water then it is very harmful for people health &

fish health in the water.

Water pollution is very important problem in sangli then
people thinking about this problems get the solution about this
problem. It is very dangowrs to people health, 1/3 peoples are died in
water problem so it is very critical problems in sangli.

Discussion:I am going to krishna ghat & this krishna ghat is very famous
place, but peoples are not working very well. The beviour of people
is not good. For the river the following question can be explain the
1) Which type of pollution we have to studied ?
Ans: We have to studied water pollution.

2) Define causes of water pollution in krishna river ?

Ans: Problems for animals & people is the causes of water pollution.
3) Which type of substances can be made water polluted ?
Ans: Oil, raw material, cloths, washing, utensil, washing, bath, uehicle washing,
swimming, many frestival this type of substernces can be made water
4) Krishna river is which type of water pollution ?
Ans: Surface water pollution.

5) In which purpose krishna river water is used ?

Ans: For drinking, process, for forming activies etc:
6) Which Indian frestival is caused for water pollution ?
Ans: Ganpati frestival is mostly causes for water pollution.
7) Why factories are causes for water pollution ?
Ans: Because factories waste water is going to the krishna river so it is
causes for water pollution.
8) How people made water polluted ?
Ans: By washing cloths, utensil, vehicles, swimming this activities are made
water polluted.
9) Which chemical is mixed in water ?
Ans: Mercury chemical.
10) I heard there is mercury in the water and fish/ shellfish in the pacific
northwest. Where does all the mercury come from ?
Ans: When elemental mercury is deposited into the air ,soil or water, It often
settles out and is most comm only found in allurial sediments .Mercury
released into the environment from natural process like weathering of rocks
and from volcrnic eruptions. Its is also a product of anthropogenic activities
such as incineration of waste, coal burning, mining and smelting, There are
hundreds of other sources ranging from batteries and them a meters to
drilling mud and municipal waste water.
11) Is it safe to swim in the water ?
Ans: Yes, the concentration of mercury in most surface waters is extremely
low-usually less than 5 parts per trillion.one part pertrillion is the same as
one drop of detergent in enough dish water to fill 500 swimming pools. The

safety standard for drinking water is 2 parts per billion which means that
most swimming water would have less mercury that the maximum allowed
for drinking water.
12) What are potential health effects of mercury contamination ?
Ans: Mercury is a heavy metal that effect the human nervous system. Most
studies to date have concentrated on the effects of mercury on children born
to mothers who ate large amounts of fish or whale meat during pregnancy.
Some of these children scored slightly lower on standard tests and showed
delayed development.
13) What do you think are effective ways to clean up polluted water?
Explain your answers ?
Ans: Answer may vary students should mention people and factories
reducing pollution, better methods for disposing of trash that is more
advanced landfills proper disposal of household chemicals ,etc:

Summary:The source of any water supply determines the kind and

amounts of its impurities groundwater obtained from deep wens usually
contains high concentrations of dissolved minerals. This water is usually
clear and sand. It also may contain various types of pollution, including
detergents and industrial wastes. It is now known that such farms of
pollution may travel quite some distance in water. Shallow wells provied
water with varying amounts of mineral impurities. There is also the danger
that water from such sources may become contaminated with human and
animal wastes.
Surface waters contain many impurities, silt, sand and clay,
which give them a muddy or cloudy appearance. If run off them passes
over agricultural land, it may also absorb chemical wastes and toxic refuse
from animals.
Where water flows sluggishly through swampland, it may
acquire objectionable taste, odor and plant color, during periods of flooding,






vegetation, color


microorgonisms into moving streams and rivers.

Deep wells and large lakes alone provide water that is more
or less consistent from season to season. Smaller bodies of water, shallow
wells and springs often reflect seasonal even daily variations in their


Conclusion:1) Water pollution is bad and its not good for people to drink the
water thats polluted and for all organisms that need water. To
survive there are millions of people that dont have good clean
access to water and that they even have to drink the bad polluted
water for them it survive, sewage can cause water pollution along
with the toxic chemicals from Industrial business.
2) There are a bunch of water pollution like toxic and organic and
thermal water.
3) To try to stop the water pollution cleanup your yard and make sure
there is no garbage left anywhere around in the area you live like
the streets and neighborhood.
4) There are approximately 10 million people in the world today who
are exposed to high levels of the toxic chemicals that there are in
their water supply.
5) In 2006 there had been many reports that move than 2,500 sites in

this whole world are really heavily polluted.

6) There are some places in this world where the water is so polluted
that its not even safe to drink.
7) There are a lot of badly polluted rivers and lakes in the world that
people cant even select which ones are the least polluted because
there all or pretty bad.
8) Water pollution in South Africa is pretty bad.
9) The people that are in South Africa Say that the main source of the
water pollution is coming from untreated or somewhat treated water
from municipal and industrial sources.
10) The storm water has also affected the quality of the water from
whenever it rains.


1. 1.^- c. Michael Hogan. 2010. Water pollution. Encyclopedia of

Earth, Topic ed. Mark Mc Ginley, ed. In chief c. clereland,







Washington Dc.
2. Environment canada.2006 quick facts.
3. 2.http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/en/e_quickfacts.htm.
4. 3.Times of Indian-Newspaper.