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Amplitude

Soundpath
Soundpath ss11-s
-s22,, angle
angle
crack
crack length
length
s1
angle

2
1

tip
diffraction

s2
crack

corner reflection

Time
-

Incident
wave
Diffracted
waves

Reflected
wave

CRACK

Diffracted
waves

Diffracted waves
properties:
to all directions
low amplitude
depending on
incidence angle
.

A-scan
bottom tip

top tip

1
" $

" $

" $

" $
2

2
%

" $
*3 ) -3 4

"

+
Typical set-up

through
transmission
signal
lateral
wave

17 $

Receiver

Transmitter
Lateral wave
Longitudinal wave

Diffracted waves

Backwall reflection
6

!9

" $

'

"

'

" $

97

:"
$

$
8

,
Transmitter

Receiver

Lateral wave

Diffracted waves
Backwall reflection

UT

LW

LT

BW

+
-

Non-rectified A-scan presentation is needed to identify the phase changes


;3

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;;

Transmitter

transit time t
sound path s = ct

Receiver

d depth

d=
LW

1
2

c 2t 2 D 2
BW

t
;*

D
Receiver

Transmitter

d1
h

d2

h = d 2 d1
Since only transit time measurements are used to calculate the
height, very accurate height estimation is possible. In practice 1
mm accuracy on real cracks is achievable (0.1 mm on artificial
reflectors)
;-

&

Transmitter

Lateral wave is blocked

Receiver

Backwall reflection
BW
No Lateral wave

Crack tip
;.

:"

:
Receiver

Transmitter

Lateral wave

Backwall echo blocked


LW

Tip

No backwall
echo
;/

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:

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Receiver

Transmitter

Lateral wave
Reflected signal

Back-wall reflection
BW

LW

Reflection echo

;0

1'
"

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7

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Amplitude gray (color) scale

A-scan

One A-scan picture is replaced by one gray-coded line


*;

(
LW

A-scan

D-scan

Upper
surface

BW

Backwall
**

*-

PCS
t0
T

A-scan

t0

LW

BW

PCS, thickness,
velocity, probe
delay, lateral wave
or back-wall
Not all of the parameters have
to be known
D-scan
*.

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A-scan
d1
h

d1
t1

t2

Cursors
Build-in calculator
l
t1,t2
d1, d2 and h are
automatically calculated

P
D-scan
*/

'
9

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9
Non-Parallel
or D-scan or
line scan
Perpendicular
to the probe
beam direction

Weld

Most
frequently
used for weld
inspection

Detection
Initial sizing
High speed
inspection
*5

1
"
"
:

"

*6

D
Receiver

Transmitter

t0

t0
d
x

*8

Transmitter

t1
Constant time
locus
(t1+t2=t)

Receiver

t2

dmin dmax

In practice:
Maximum error on absolute depth position lies below 10%.
Error on height estimation of internal (small) defect is
negligible.
Caution for small defects located at the back-wall.
-3

,
Lateral,
transverse
or B-scan

Weld

Movement is
parallel
to the probe
beam
direction

Precise sizing and positioning


-;

,
Time will be
minimum
when probes
are
symmetrically
positioned
over the
defect

This type of scan


yields a typical
inverted parabola

Lateral
wave

Upper surface

Backwall
B-scan

-*

1
7
#

17
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LW

BW

A-scan

D-scan

Upper
surface

Backwall

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45 SW

60 SW
TOFD

This system allows for simultaneous


acquisition and analysis of TOFD and
pulse echo technique

-6

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