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CHAPTER: 1

1.1 Introduction
Disability is a universal element in the human condition to which no one is immune. In our
past society attitude towards physically challenged people were negative. People didnt
accept physically challenged people normally in their society & family also. They were
neglected everywhere and treated as burden for society & family.
But now-a-days the situation has been changed positively. People with disability are
welcomed in the mainstream of the society. The current scenario is that people with disability
can take part in normal activities such as getting job in organization, enrollment educational
institution, public transportation etc. This neglect bars persons with disabilities from normal
economic, social and political activities in their families, communities, essential services and
education, etc.
Many people in the Bangladesh view disability as a curse and a cause of embarrassment to
the family. In Bangladesh, there have been only a few systemic interventions to raise
awareness of persons with disabilities at the community level. Women with disabilities are
particularly vulnerable to social discrimination and neglect. The number of employed persons
with disabilities is assumed to be less than 1%.
Over the years, attitude towards disability have varied significantly from one generation to
another. Limited literature in disability history, however, continues to pose a great challenge
to students of disability studies in their endeavor to trace the development and formation of
perceptions towards persons with disabilities.

1.2 Objectives
The objective of this study in broad sense is to find out that whether there is any change in
attitude towards people with disabilities over the generations. And there are some specific
objectives such as To understand the societal attitudes toward people with disabilities by conducting
a survey on two group of people (categorized by age).
To identify whether there has been a change in attitude of the general public over
a period of 20 years.

1.3 Limitations
The study mainly focused on general peoples attitude toward people with disabilities in
society in the respective field. It does not reflect view of people with disability as the
majority of the respondents were from general group. .

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Most of the respondents had received by simple random sampling and the sample size was
small, which limits access to the overall situation of the country where disability
interventions are absent.

1.4 Scope
The scope of this project is comprised the societal attitudes toward people with disability in
Bangladesh. The study has been able to reflect upon the current situation over other
generation towards the people with disabilities either in employment or with the education or
skills essential for employment and other participation in social activities. It is expected
that the findings would contribute in the design and development of planned and
systematic interventions towards addressing the needs of attitude change towards the people
with disabilities in the country with specific reference to treatment.

1.5 Methodology
For prevalence study a total of 20 samples are surveyed throughout the country which
comprises 50% of people age group below 30 years and 50% of people age group above 50
years. Due to the time limitation the survey has been conducted in the city area. For the study
procedure to assess the intervention on attitudes toward people with disabilities, we
developed a questionnaire using likert scale. The participants in this study were 20 general
people consisting students, businessmen, service holders.

1. Data Collection: The study is based on the data collected through primary and
secondary sources.
Primary Data: An interview schedule was designed to collect primary data
general people in Bangladesh.
Secondary Data: Secondary data was collected from journals, magazines,
web sites and from other relevant publications.
2. Sampling Universe: The working population was limited to the general people in
Dhaka city due to the convenience of the authors. People from two age groups were
taken as the sample universe.
3. Sample Size: From the universe, sample sizes of 20 general people were selected for
the purpose of the study.
4. Sampling Method: Convenience sampling was used based on the willingness and
availability of the respondents. The study was conducted on people with different
type of profession.
5. Data Analysis: Survey data are analyzed with the use of MS Excel and MS Word.

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1.6 Literature Review


Some researches on people with disability have been conducted with specific issues. Some of
study and its results are mentioned as follows.
As Roeher (1969) observes, an examination of attitudes towards people with
disabilities across culture suggests that societal perceptions and treatment of persons with
disabilities are neither homogeneous nor static.
During the 16th century, however, Christians such as Luther and John Calvin
indicated that the mentally retarded and other persons with disabilities were possessed by evil
spirits. Thus, these men and other religious leaders of the time often subjected people with
disabilities to mental and/or physical pain as a means of exorcising the spirits (Thomas 1957).
In the 19th century, supporters of social Darwinism opposed state aid to the poor and
otherwise handicapped. They reasoned that the preservation of the "unfit" would impede the
process of natural selection and tamper the selection of the "best" or "fittest" elements
necessary for progeny (Hobbs 1973).
Franzen Bjorn (1990) observed that in some communities in Kenya and Zimbabwe, "a
child with a disability is a symbol of a curse befalling the whole family. Such a child is a
"shame" to the whole family, hence their rejection by the family or the community.
Lee and Rodda, 1994; Unger, 2002; Wells, 2001 identified that Negative attitudes
toward people with disabilities are rooted in lack of knowledge and the perpetuation of
erroneous, often negative, stereotypes.

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CHAPTER: 2

2.1 Understanding Disability


A disability is an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional,
developmental, or some combination of these. A disability may be present from birth, or
occur during a person's lifetime.
An individual may also qualify as disabled if he/she has had impairment in the past or is seen
as disabled based on a personal or group standard or norm. Such impairments may include
physical, sensory, and cognitive or developmental disabilities. Mental disorders (also known
as psychiatric or psychosocial disability) and various types of chronic disease may also
qualify as disabilities.
Someone who is physically challenged has a problem with their body that makes it difficult
for them to do things that other people can do easily.

2.2 Bangladesh and Persons with Disabilities


No comprehensive empirical study has been conducted at present to determine the incidence
and prevalence of disabilities in Bangladesh. While no reliable national data exist, anecdotal
information and a number of micro studies generally suggest a disability prevalence rate of
between 5 to 12 per cent. This is close to the WHO estimate, which states that 10 per cent of
any given population can be considered to have some or other form of disability.
Ignorance and wrong beliefs surrounding disability, compounded with a negative and
derogatory attitude of the community (including family members) have contributed to the
marginal development in the disability sector in Bangladesh.
In a surprising revelation, the final results of the 5th Population and Housing Census 2011
showed the number of people with disability is only 1.4 percent of Bangladeshs total
population.
The percentage is far below the last years estimation of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
(BBS) Household Income Expenditure Survey that had found people with disability at 9.07
percent of the population. However, the percentage was 0.6 percent in the 2001 census.
The new estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) suggest disability can comprise 15
percent of a countrys population.

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2.3 Analysis and Interpretation


Attitude
Pcp are welcomed in the public transport
Pcp are getting more job
Educational institutions providing proper
amenities for the Pcp
Treatment facility are adequate for the
physically challenged people Pcp
Pcp are socially more acceptable
Helping Pcp to grow strong in mentally
Skill shown by the Pcp are properly accepted
in the economic arena
Public administration systems are getting good
toward the Pcp
Pcp are facing the physical and psychological
brutality
Todays society ready to accept a Pcp as head
of an organization
Pcp= physically challenged people

Age Group
Below 30 years
Accept
Reject

Age Group
Above 50 years
Accept Reject

90%
80%

10%
20%

50%
30%

50%
70%

50%

50%

10%

90%

10%

90%

80%
40%

20%
60%

30%
20%

70%
80%

90%

10%

05%

95%

50%

50%

10%

90%

85%

15%

95%

05%

70%

30%

10%

90%

2.4 Peoples Attitude in Past and Current Scenario


After this survey we can say that, during the past 40 to 50 years there have been numerous
changes in our society with respect to the management and treatment of people with
disabilities. In addition, there has been much advancement in medical care, public transport,
getting job, economic arena. This report gives us some important information such as 70%
people in our society today ready to accept a physically challenged people as head of an
organization, only 30% is not ready for accept them, but in the past only 10% people in our
society ready to accept a physically challenged people as head of an organization. Prior to the
twentieth century, social attitudes reflected the view that persons with disabilities were
unhealthy, defective and deviant.
In our research project we found that most of the people try to help the disabled people. Most
people think that education is useful for them. Bangladeshi people do not hate them and they
are ready to take them as leader or team-mate if they can prove themselves. Most people
think that disabled peoples low capability of work is the main reason of failure. Most of the
respondents said a when a person needs support for movement then he/she is disabled.
We found that most people help the disabled. It does not match with our hypothesis. We also
found that people have no problem taking them as co-worker. It also does not match our
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hypothesis. Another thing that does not match with our hypothesis is fixed job for the
disabled people. One thing that matches is that education is effective for the disabled people.
The reason for it may be people now think that disabled people are not useless. Now people
think that every single person is gifted. We cannot do well by separating disabled people
apart from us.

2.5 Conclusion
Disability will always remain in Bangladeshi society, with the entire social stigma attached to
it. But in now Government we can change our attitude towards physically challenge people
by treating them as skilled an efficient. There is a huge demand for skilled people in the
industrial sector. If the physically challenged people are provided with skill development
training, they will easily find jobs. If we are given little support and an opportunity, we can
prove that we are no longer burden of society and we can also contribute to society like
others. Though our research was a topic, We think that we could have done better. We have
found that, people does not hate the people and help them. We were happy to find this
because our hypothesis was different at this point. We think the word disabled people
should no longer exist because we should stop making classes. If it is done properly then
there will be a time where we will live in harmony. So, our suggestion will be to consider
disabled people as normal people and help them in every possible way then they can give us
something new and creative.

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REFERENCES
Chomba Wa Munyi, Past and Present Perceptions Towards Disability: A Historical
Perspective ,Vol 32, No 2 (2012)
Cindy Davis, Samuel A. MacMaster, Kim Cassie, ATTITUDES TOWARDS PEOPLE
WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES, 2010
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) Household Income Expenditure Survey, 2001
Population and Housing Census 2011

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APPENDIX
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
A Study on Attitude Change towards Physically Challenged People in Bangladesh
Question No:

Date:

We would be grateful if you could spare a few minutes to complete this Questionnaire to help
us for preparing our report about Attitude Change towards Physically Challenged People
in Bangladesh. We assure you that we will not use the filled information for any other
purpose other than academic purpose.
1. Personal Information
A. Name
_____________________
B. Gender
Male [ ] Female [ ]
C. Contact No _____________________
D. Email
_____________________
2. Age:
A. Below 30 years
B. Above 50 years
3. What is your profession?
A. Student
B. Business
C. Government service
D. Private service
E. Other
4. Do you think physically challenged people (PCp) are welcomed in the public
transport than before?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
5. Do you think the physically challenged people (pcp) are getting more job than
before?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
6. Are educational institutions providing proper amenities for the physically
challenged people (pcp)?
A. Strongly Agreed
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7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
What is your opinion about the treatment facility are adequate for the physically
challenged people (pcp)?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
Do you think that physically challenged people (pcp) are socially more acceptable?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
Is our society is helping physically challenged people (pcp) to grow strong in
mentally?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
What do you think about the sentence- The skill shown by the physically
challenged people (pcp) are properly accepted in the economic arena?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
Is our public administration systems are getting good toward the physically
challenged people (pcp)?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
Is the physically challenged people (pcp) are facing the physical and psychological
brutality more than before?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
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E. Strongly Disagreed
13. Do you agree with the statement- Todays society ready to accept a physically
challenged people (pcp) as head of an organization?
A. Strongly Agreed
B. Agreed
C. Neutral
D. Disagreed
E. Strongly Disagreed
14. What do you think that in changing attitude towards physically challenged people?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

______________
Signature

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PROPOSAL
Background:
In order to explore societal attitudes toward physically challenged people, it is important to
be clear as to what is meant by the term attitude. Attitudes have been defined in a variety of
ways over the past century, and have various meanings as a result of having bridged both
psychology and sociology (Allport, 1954). An attitude may be defined as the individual's
tendency to react positively or negatively to some person, object, situation, institution or
event (Aiken, 1985; Thomas, 1982). This definition concurs with that of Graharn and LiIly
(1984) who describe an attitude as an opinion about something, reflecting how favorable
people are towards groups, people, ideas or issues.
In addition, the consequences of negative attitudes toward disabled people in terms of social
exclusion will be explored. Likewise, the emerging positive attitudes toward disabled
people from general persons perspectives will be discussed. There is also presented a trend
in societal attitude change toward physically challenged people by comparing between two
generations.
In this report, we will provide a brief overview of the employment status of people with
disabilities, followed by a short discussion of research on attitudes toward people with
disabilities in the workplace. We then describe the methods we employed to test our main
research question and summarize the results of our study. The article concludes with a
discussion of our findings and the limitations of the present study, as well as a discussion of
opportunities for future research.

Objectives:
1. To understand the societal attitudes of toward people with disabilities by conducting

a survey on two group of people (categorized by age).


2. To identify whether there has been a change in attitude of the general public over a

period of 20 years.

Scope:
The scope of this project is comprised the societal attitudes of toward people with disability
in Bangladesh.

Limitations:
The study mainly focused on general peoples attitude toward people with disabilities in
society in the respective field. It does not reflect view of people with disability as the
majority of the respondents were from general group.
Most of the respondents had received by simple random sampling and the sample size was
small, which limits access to the overall situation of the country where disability
interventions are absent.

Literature Review:
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Some researches on people with disability have been conducted with specific issues. Some of
study and its results are mentioned as follows.
As Roeher (1969) observes, an examination of attitudes towards people with
disabilities across culture suggests that societal perceptions and treatment of persons with
disabilities are neither homogeneous nor static.
During the 16th century, however, Christians such as Luther and John Calvin
indicated that the mentally retarded and other persons with disabilities were possessed by evil
spirits. Thus, these men and other religious leaders of the time often subjected people with
disabilities to mental and/or physical pain as a means of exorcising the spirits (Thomas 1957).
In the 19th century, supporters of social Darwinism opposed state aid to the poor and
otherwise handicapped. They reasoned that the preservation of the "unfit" would impede the
process of natural selection and tamper the selection of the "best" or "fittest" elements
necessary for progeny (Hobbs 1973).
Franzen Bjorn (1990) observed that in some communities in Kenya and Zimbabwe, "a
child with a disability is a symbol of a curse befalling the whole family. Such a child is a
"shame" to the whole family, hence their rejection by the family or the community.
Lee and Rodda, 1994; Unger, 2002; Wells, 2001 identified that Negative attitudes
toward people with disabilities are rooted in lack of knowledge and the perpetuation of
erroneous, often negative, stereotypes.

Work Plan:
Week
Week-1
Week-2
Week-3
Week-4

Activities
Collecting data and Tabulating data
Analyzing data and Preparing progress report
Writing the draft and Revising the draft
Editing the draft and printing the final report

Person
Ujjol, Himadri, Mamun
Ujjol, Himadri
Himadri, Mamun
Ujjol, Mamun

Report Structure:
Prefatory parts
1. Cover or Title Fly
2. Title Page
3. Acknowledgement
4. Executive Summary
5. Table or Graph List

The body of the report


1. Introduction
2. Discussion
3. Summary
4. Conclusion

Appended parts
1.List of References
2.Bibliograph

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