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Management Information

Systems (MIS121)
Lecture 1

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Student Understanding
What is your understanding of Management
Information Systems (MIS)
What are the effects of information systems on
business
Why information systems are so essential in business
today
Why do people need information
What are your course expectations expect for;
Answering these above questions correctly
Passing the module
Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Introduction
System
A system is a set of inter-dependent components that create
the whole entity and work together in pursuit of a common
goal.
Substystem, Closed System and Open System

General Systems Theorem (GST)


It is a theorem, which states that the whole is greater than
the sum of the independent elements. This means a system
works better and more efficiently and achieves greater
results when its elements work as an entity as compared to
working individually.
Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

System Elements

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

System Elements
Input - This takes the form of money, raw materials, energy, decisions,
information etc. Physical input to information system may be in the form of
computer media such as keyboard or manuscript documents.
Process - This is what translates Input into Output. For example in the case
of a production system, this is what converts raw materials into finished
products.
Output This is the result of processing.
Feedback is data about the performance of a system and can be used to
control the system e.g. data about sales performance is feedback to a
sales manager. Feedback can be NEGATIVE (which discourages
processing) or POSITIVE (which encourages processing).
Control involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine
whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goal.
Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

System Elements
Sensor - This is a means of measuring output from the system. It can
be in the form of a human being or mechanised equipment.
Standard - This is a set of measurements or expected results used to
benchmark success or failure of the system. E.g. this can be a quality
or quantity value.
Comparator - A means of comparing the system output against the
set standard. E.g. an employee can compare monthly output
against expected monthly output
Effector A means of effecting change to either the input or the
output. An example would be an increase in the efficiency of the
system or reduction or increase in the quantity or quality of input.

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

System Elements
Environment Refers to the area within which a system operates.
Boundary Refers to the confines or limits of a system that mark its
size.
Interface This is the region within which a system exchanges
material or resources with other systems or its environment. Other
authors define it as the process of exchanging material or resources
with other systems or the environment.

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Information System
An information system is a manual or computer system designed to
collect data, process it and provide management with appropriate
information to support decision-making, planning and control of the
operations of an organisation.
What then is an Information system from the managers perspective?
An information system is a set of people, procedures and
resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information in
an organization to support decision-making and control in an
organization.

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Information System Components


People users and information technology specialists
Hardware / machines refers to physical computer equipment and
associated devices. Most modern systems are computer based.
Procedures user-instructions, for users of the application to record
data, enter data or retrieve data. Instructions for preparation of input
by data preparation personnel. These include all processing and
information flow activities, computer programs and program
specifications. Operating instructions for computer operations
personnel.

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Information System Components


Database contains all the data utilized by application software. It
forms the foundation upon which the information system is based.
Control - the part of the information system that measures,
performance provides feedback and adjust mechanisms for costeffective performance.

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Information System Resources


Information systems consist of 4 major resources. These are:
Hardware
Software
System Software
Application Software

People and
Data.

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Types of Information Systems

Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems

Assignment One (1) Question


Your friend has called you for help and advice regarding her
new role as lead user representative for an enterprise system.
This system is of strategic importance for her organisation
which has failed to make a profit for the last two years.
Prepare an email to your friend which:
a) Describes the fundamental purpose AND likely duties
of a user representative. (10 marks)
b) Recommends and justifies THREE areas of
Management Information Systems knowledge that
would be useful in her new role. (15 marks)
Mr. T. Mugari
Management Information
Systems