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Private Schooling and the Extravagant

Nation of Pakistan
Proliferation of private schools in Pakistan has
harmed the state owned schools alarmingly.
Education in public schools has extinct and they
have turned into ghost schools. The route cause
is not the administration or teachers but the mindset of public that a paid item is
always high in quality, has been developed for last two decades.
If parents are alive, make a living and are not oblivious of childrens future, it is
considered their parental obligation to send their children to any but at least
private school. any denotes the quality of not necessarily being qualitative but
quantitative in terms of fees structure. This attitude is same as customers
attitude towards products which have high price tags are believed to be
After denationalization in 1990s the rapid increase of 69% in the number of
private schools in 1999-2008. The private sector was catering to the educational
needs of about 6 million and then 12 million children in 2000 and 2007-08
respectively, the number of teachers also doubled. But it did not keep pace with
Pakistans literacy rate 43.9 percent in 1998, 57 percent in 2009, 58 percent in
2012, and according to UNESCO it is still 55 percent in 2015 for which it stands
at 160th in the world.
It will not of course keep pace because it does not offer education for all but
actually education under the hammer, and being professed the quality
education, which needs to be vetted.
Curriculum is well designed but it is not well implemented. Courses are in English
and as it is not first language and not spoken widely here, therefore rot learning
is practiced. Extra/co-curricular activities do serve as eye candies and then just
euphoria for the children and result in lavishing and sometimes lasciviousness.
The teachers appointment is claimed to be on merit, as opposed to government
schools where teachers are recruited on the basis of what they contributed in
elections to the winning party and will keep on serving in polling stations in
future for the party. In private schools teachers with average 13.5 years of
education are appointed who never dare to bargain with masters in private
school. Why do such schools compromise on teachers qualification? Purpose is
to exploit their ordeal which made them opt for a job with less than minimum
wage rate Rs.13000 instead of continuing education.
Being too much merit conscious not only do the schools interview the candidate
but parents must also prove to be well-educated & well-mannered in interview.

Are we going back to Middle Ages when in Europe the only children that were
able to attend school were the sons of wealthy, aristocrat families before 1852?
The merit, private schools purport does not reflect in evaluation and assessment;
Taking admission in private school is not only means to end but the parents have
to access the tutor who would make a difference in childrens results as well.
Tutors assist the student (whom they tutor) in the same way as a printed guide in
govt. schools exam, I have seen my friend forging a students answer sheet and
giving him good grades in assessing the schools exam copies, and making a
difference. In this way education is being sold.
Concept of stick fear and drill has been replaced by motivation and
recapitulation, but motivational techniques actually motivate for not to be
motivated in acquiring knowledge and embolden them in enjoying the bought
life and obtain a degree.
Mostly the teacher in private school is not even allowed to scold or punish the
pupil as it will discourage him (from the mischief he has been doing), you find
heads offices bulging with parents; mothers teach the teaching staff the recent
vogue with teamed up dresses, shoes and accessories, grumbling about
teachers attitudeso meticulous about the money they spend! The person at
helm of affairs frowns and admonishes the teacher and with the nightmare of
again standing guilty at trial s/he makes the pupil apple of his/her eye that s/he
has ever been reckless at treatment.
Having profit making a goal private schools focus is customer satisfaction and
they never condone the laborer who displease or repulse the customer.
Both, parents and students are well versed that one who is compelled to work on
a meager salary should never dare turn harsh on the payers (students).
Eventually brats succeed in buying degree and being waited on gone were the
days when teachers were waited on in exchange of the knowledge they
imparted; knowledge was priceless those days.
Instead of being extravagant heed could be taken in the prosperous era of
government schools. If parents had scrutinized the teachers behavior,
curriculum, evaluation and assessment, the government schools would not be
devoid of teachers and education in Pakistan.
Institute of Social and Policy Sciences. (2010). Private Sector Education in
Pakistan, Mapping and Musing. Retrieved from

Sumber http://www.edarticle.com/article/2016/private-schooling-andextravagant-nation-pakistan.php

Importance Of Test And Examination At College Level

Examinations play a crucial role at the entry or exit level of college life. Many
may feel it is prudent to skip it but the fact remains that it is a bad idea. Some of
the top notch colleges are saying goodbye to final exams. As far as educational
theory goes the concept of exams are supposed to benefit the students hugely. It
offers the last opportunity of going through the study materials and filling in any
gap present in understanding the concept. Forming the big picture after gleaning
information from the courses over the year becomes easier and helps in learning
the knowledge more thoroughly.
Regular and consistent preparation
Since exams are not to be taken lightly, students put in their best so that
maximum retention takes place and the knowledge gained can be utilized in
future in work or business. The constant pressure of exams is something that
drives you to stay ahead of the class and prepare for the semesters in advance.
It acts as a motivation for most and efforts are made to memorize the lessons all
through the semester. Many serious pupils detest last minute cramming which

serves no real purpose. It neither improves memory nor cognitive skills. Regular
practice sessions help to better grasp the concepts and ideas that help in
acquiring sound knowledge.
Doing away with exams
No matter how beneficial the process most students prefer not to give the
cumulative exams in the final year and the decisions is wholeheartedly
supported by the administration of a college because it means less work for
them. Grading the students and correcting the scripts is another responsibility
many would not like to take. Sometimes the final exams are made optional for
students who are interested in it as a reward for the good performance in the
semester. However students miss out the fact that both good and weak students
stand to gain by the process. The revision work and preparation had been
designed in the best interests of the students.
Grades over knowledge
Often the fact that the cumulative exams dont consist of a sizeable chunk of the
final exam and hence dont affect the grades makes many students immune to
the pressure of preparation. It keeps them stay away from crucial preparation
which can otherwise benefit them. Education has become mechanical and all
that most students can think of is getting good grades. The application of
acquired knowledge in daily life is important but students rarely have time for
that. Examinations help not only gauge the amount of knowledge but also work
out the deficiency areas and making them strong. Problems and questions help
to make out the amount of knowledge gathered and how strong the base is for
further studying.
Work after final review
The process of grade submission does not allow enough time for reviewing the
final exams. Students dont show enough interest in meeting with the professors
following the exams and undermine the references and letters of
recommendations that professors are capable of. They are simply happy with the
grades and how it can help in moving into the wide job market ahead. The
knowledge after the review remains incomplete and the students are too busy to
pay attention to that. Exams create a stress among students which contributes
to their aversion for it. The amount of knowledge gained becomes negligible in
front of the stress of good grades because they are highly necessary for bagging
good jobs.
Running the last lap
College life is the last lap before entering the professional one wherein
perseverance, time management, determination and motivation are important
qualities that you will need to show later on. Exams and the preparation before
that prepare you for the challenges in life not just knowledge-wise but also in
terms of behavior. Controlling situations beyond your capacity with the help of

acquired knowledge is something that you learn and practice here before the
actual implementation. Escape from tests saves you from hard work that aids in
character building and overcoming weaknesses which paves the way for future
success. Stimulation of the thought process is important and what better way
than answering difficult questions based on real life applications.
Sumber http://www.edarticle.com/article/2005/importance-test-and-examinationcollege-level.php

Effective Teaching
A student spends most of her productive waking hours in school. Thus, teachers
play a pivotal role in her life. It is very important for a teacher to assess the
needs of her students. A comfortable and congenial environment is very
important for effective teaching and learning. Students will feel motivated to
learn only if they understand the significance of what they are learning. A
teacher knows that all the knowledge imparted in school, according to the
prescribed syllabus, may not directly fulfill the needs of each of her students.

However, through her teaching, she can create the need, the urge to learn by
connecting the theoretical with the practical i.e. interlinking the knowledge that
she wants to impart with the day-to-day relevance of such knowledge.
It is very important for a teacher to plan her lessons in advance. However,
sticking to the plan to the core is not advisable. There should be enough scope in
her lesson plan to incorporate changes that make teaching and learning more
effective. A teacher, who is prepared, is confident. She comes across as someone
who is sure of what she is doing and this creates a degree of trust between the
students and the teacher. If I am interested in the topic that I am teaching,
students will also be interested. People naturally feel drawn towards people who
are sprightly. Stress is a part of everyones life these days including students.
Thus, it is important for the teacher to be happy, lively and enthusiastic so that
learning becomes interesting.
As a human being I know that it is very difficult for me to pay attention to
something that I am naturally not interested in. The same applies to students.
Lessons can be made interesting by involving the students in the learning
process. They shouldnt be passive listeners. Regular questioning and inviting
suggestions and opinions from them, forces them to concentrate. The teacher
can quote famous personalities, use examples from popular T.V. programmes,
movies, books etc. Creative association between the lesson and popular media
captivates the attention of students and helps in retention. The students should
know that the teacher has put in a lot of effort to make her lesson interesting.
Students respect teachers who do that and try their best to please them by being
more efficient themselves.
Students dont like it if they are expected to acquire a whole lot of new skills to
understand what is being taught. While delivering her lesson, a teacher should
be able to utilize the existing skills of her students to the optimum. She should
understand that new skills can be acquired only gradually with a lot of hand
holding. Also, children shouldnt be insulted if they dont know the things that the
teacher thought they knew. Everyone deserves to be treated with respect. Just
because a teacher is older than her students does not authorize her to be rude
and insensitive towards her students. So a teacher should try her best to be
likeable and approachable. It is only when you give respect that you get respect.
And If I as a teacher get respect, then, I will also feel motivated to be a good
I know it is not possible to be a perfect human being. Also, it is very difficult to be
around perfectionists. When a teacher acknowledges some of her shortcomings,
mistakes and choices she made in life and shares her own school life
experiences, children feel more comfortable with her. They feel less pressurized.
So the aim of a teacher should not to be to become perfect but be someone who

is human, humane and wants to make a positive difference in the lives of her
Sumber http://www.edarticle.com/article/2004/effective-teaching.php

Significance of identifying different types of learners

There are three different types of learners - visual, auditory and kinesthetic. Visual
learners have a photographic memory. They create a mental picture of everything they
learn. Auditory learners are active listeners.

They learn best by listening and can

memorize and recall things easily. Kinesthetic learners learn by doing. They want to be
active all the time. My experience of assessing the different types of learners in my
classroom has indeed been an interesting one. I feel that it is very easy to classify some
learners whereas it is extremely difficult to classify the others. The visual learners stare
at me all the time while I am teaching. They draw flowcharts and maps in their
notebooks. They enjoy watching PowerPoint presentations and short videos.
The auditory learners listen to me very carefully. They are disturbed by sounds in the
corridor, the playground etc. They enjoy participating in group discussions. They could
memorize things very easily. The kinesthetic learners are hyper active. They dont like
sitting at one place for more than five minutes. Unless they are allowed to express
themselves in some way in the class, they become very restless. Some of them even
start day dreaming. They like learning through games and other activities. I feel that It is
easiest to find the kinesthetic learners. However, there are many students who display
the learning traits of both visual and auditory learners. The auditory learners can be
taught easily by using traditional teaching methodologies. They are the conventional
type (Indian) of learners. The visual learners improvise the teachers lessons on their
own. They make mind maps, flowcharts, web-charts and drawings in their notebooks to
understand whatever the teacher says in class. But kinesthetic learners are different. My
knowledge about the various types of learners has helped me in a lot of ways. Earlier I
didnt know what to do with the kinesthetic learners. They seemed to be disinterested.
They were easily distracted and disturbed everyone in the classroom.
After assessing the types of learners in my classroom, I realized that there must be
something in my lesson to facilitate learning for every kind of learner. I introduce a
lesson by using PowerPoint presentations, short videos and photographs for the visual
learners. I recapitulate the content shown through the audio-visual media by explanation
and questioning for the auditory learners. I ask children to draw something related to the
lesson and make a flow chart about the theme for the kinesthetic learners.


teaching the lesson, I allow the kinesthetic learners to express their opinions freely. I ask
developing questions for the benefit of the auditory learners and I move around in the
classroom for the benefit of the visual and kinesthetic learners. I also ensure that there is
at least one group activity related to the lesson, so that the children learn through peer
interaction. Recapitulation questions are also asked to capture the attention of the
auditory and kinesthetic learners. I make optimum use of the blackboard while teaching

for the visual learners. I also plan the post lesson assignments according to the needs of
various types of learners. The visual learners are encouraged to get pictures related to
the lessons, the auditory learners are encouraged to gather information about the central
theme of the lesson and the kinesthetic learners are encouraged to interpret and
analyze the lessons.
My knowledge of the different types of learners has also helped me plan the seating
arrangement of the class. I ensure that the auditory learners sit at a place where there is
minimum noise or disturbance. The visual learners have been seated in the front rows so
that they can see the teacher and the blackboard. The kinesthetic learners have been
seated in places where free movement is possible. This has made the classroom
environment very comfortable. I think it is very important for a teacher to assess how
every child in her classroom wants to be taught. Traditional teaching methodologies need
to be improvised regularly to address the needs of different types of learners. Every child
is gifted. It is the job of a teacher to bring out the best in her students. Sumber

Bullying - A misnomer in preschool terminology

The idea of of writing this musing is to present a case to state that the word
'bully' is not a relevant one to describe a child in an ECE environment.
As a teacher, I have always thought it inappropriate to label children in this age
group with a negative connotation. This has long term effects on a child as he
could very easily grow out of a particular behaviour with guidance at this stage
of development. These are the years for children to develop their social skills,
and comprehend the foundation for socially acceptable behaviour. I feel that the
word 'bully' has a very negative connotation for any young child before they
even comprehend the concept. Let me reason why I believe 'bullies' do not exist
in early childhood settings and why we should not label them so. Behaviour
management is an important area for us as teachers to keep reflecting on. We
need to keep working on strategies depending on the type of behaviour of the
individual child that we are addressing. I consider the development of social skills
for children as the key factor for teachers to address and promote in the
Farrell (1999) states that, "A range of authors concurs that bullying is repeated,
intentional, gendered oppression, of a physical or psychological nature, of a less
powerful person by a more powerful person or group of persons and exclusion
from the social group" (p. 40). Now think of any child in your early childhood
establishment and decide for yourself if any of them fit that description. These
are adult perceptions of people with intentional behaviour that is repeated and I

suggest that bullying is different from aggression. Tepetas et al. (2010) cites
Olweus (1993) who states that, "There is a general agreement that for a behavior
to be considered bullying, it must have three elements: It must be intended to
harm, it must be repetitive, and a difference of power--physical, social, or other-must exist between the bully and the victim" (p. 1675). With current teacherchild ratios in an early childhood environment I cannot fathom how this adult
perception of the word could even have a place. Teachers as a team are aware of
a child's patterns of behaviour and address them through positive guidance.
Farrell (1999) reiterates this point as she states that, "In early childhood
education, however, we note a relative paucity of research into bullying using the
nomenclature of the bully and the bullied or victim. Perhaps a different lexicon is
used by early childhood teachers to provide descriptors of the deleterious
attitudes and behaviours which others may describe as bullying" (p. 43).
Drewery & Bird (2007) suggest that bullies are,"people who intentionally harm
another person, are not fully developed in social role-taking, that they do not
realise how extremely harmful their actions are to another person" (p. 195). I
would consider this to be the case during post preschool development,
otherwise, we would be labeling a child who bites, snatches toys, pushes, or not
being able to keep his hands to himself, as a bully. Intent is the key word for me
in that definition and I do not think that children in their early years have yet
developed that cognitive function to that particular level. Aggression is a
different issue and we all have to deal with it in some form or another during our
working day. Strategies that we use to deal with inappropriate behaviour need to
be consistently applied by a teaching team. Boundaries are then automatically
established and a social awareness around those boundaries begin to develop.
That is why ongoing PD is also vital to keep up the momentum of our own
reflective practice. A programme like 'The Incredible Years' is one such behaviour
management programme that I can think of offhand that offers strategies for us
to take back to our own environment, and to apply them as we see fit. The
foundation before applying any strategies is to build a strong relationship with
the child in question for these strategies to be effective.
Not enough research has surfaced around bullying in preschools in comparison to
what has been established in this topic regarding older children. Alsaker &
Ngele (2008) have conducted studies that suggest bullying does occur in
preschools and offer examples of day care centres in Norway, Switzerland, and
United States. They also state that,"we still need more precise knowledge
concerning the similarities in bullying between younger and older children, the
impact that bullying and victimization has on younger children's well-being, and
the stability of the roles before and during the transition to elementary school"
(p. 230). Once again we are getting into lexical semantics around the word
bullying. The demarcation for me between aggression in preschool and bullying
at school is a more developed social mindset during the school stage when there

is intent to victimize. I do feel that this intent is beyond the cognitive capability
of preschool children and once again state that social skills and understanding
are still in a developmental stage. The behaviour in preschool could be the
precursor to bullying that sets in with intent at a later stage, but that doesn't
mean that we label a child a 'bully' right from preschool. This is where we as
preschool teachers play such a defining role in our behaviour management
strategies. Offering positive guidance based on a centre's policy, as well as one's
own pedagogical beliefs, further strengthens my stance of a necessity to have
100% qualified staff at a centre that cover acceptable ratios.
In conclusion, I request my fellow colleagues in the ECE profession to not get too
caught up with semantics by applying the word 'bully' with reference to a child in
the early years. Let them learn their social skills through trial and error, as well
as role modeling and guidance from us. This will enable them to build on their
foundation towards a greater social awareness in their school years. Sure, some
may turn out to be bullies in the future, but to stigmatise them from the start
does not offer them any positive guidance towards a better social understanding.

Men in early childhood education

A brief personal perspective from New Zealand
A number of years ago when I was teaching English to students of other
languages in Hong Kong, I did some work for an international kindergarten. My
job was to create a programme to promote language for children who were about
to leave for primary school. Having taught children of all ages at primary and
secondary levels, I particularly enjoyed my time with the kindergarten group and
decided to pursue a career as an early childhood teacher.

I can still remember the day I walked into my first class as a student at AUT in
Auckland. Initially I thought that it was the wrong class and actually walked out
and asked someone if it was the midwifery section. When I walked in again I did
feel a touch out of place but sat down and took a deep breath. It turned out that I
was one of two men in a class of over a hundred women. The only reason I didn't
recognise the other guy was because he had long hair and got a bit lost in the
crowd. As I settled into life in the campus as a male ECE student I got to know
most of the women in my class and have to say that they were extremely
welcoming. After a while I didn't feel awkward or out of place at all and didn't
think of myself as anyone different.
What helped me a lot was having an excellent Associate Teacher during my very
first practicum. To continiue in this profession it was important for me to
generally feel accepted as a team member and this teacher was extremely
supportive and encouraging. What also helped as far as I was concerned was the
support that I received from a number of lecturers at AUT and at the end of Year
One I finally felt that I was on my way and would continue to pursue a career in
early childhood education. I was also introduced to a group of men in the
profession who are part of a support network for male teachers in New Zealand,
known as EC-MENz. I did find it comforting to know that I could discuss any
apprehensions with other men in the profession.
Another aspect that I had to get used to was a constant enquiry by people to
whom I was introduced as to why I wanted to be an early childhood teacher.
Although a number of them offered a positive response some couldn't resist
reminding me of an old and questionable case of child abuse by an early
childhood teacher many years ago. With that mindset it is no wonder that a
number of men are apprehensive about entering this profession that is still
balanced in favour of women. I do, however, feel that the social mindset has
improved with regard to men entering the early childhood profession. To quote
the Chief Executive of the Early Childhood Council, Peter Reynolds who refers to
ECE teaching as one of the most gender segregated, "Such segregation would
not be tolerated in law or medicine. It is ridiculous that it exists in a sector that
has the fundamentally important job of nurturing our youngest of children" (Early
Childhood Council).
I have often wondered why more men, especially young men setting out to find a
career in life, do not consider becoming an early childhood teacher. To some
extent one can say it's because of the nurturing aspect that is associated with
young children which has historically been looked upon as a female role. As a
preference some parents possibly look upon caregivers as female and don't
make that connection if a male is involved in nurturing their child in an early
childhood environment. Nevertheless, I often wonder why the government has
never promoted its support for male early childhood teachers as they have for
women in the police force. Based on her own research Dr Sarah Farquhar of

ChildForum initiated invitation awards and scholarships for men training to

become a fully qualified ECE teacher. Further details of this incentive can
be viewed here.
In a New Zealand survey based on 834 responses conducted by Dr Sarah
Farquhar ofChildForum in August 2012, 64% of respondents thought that the
government should take some form of action to increase male teachers in early
childhood education. A majority of respondents also felt that men in an early
childhood environment would help better staff relationships and team dynamics.
I can personally vouch for this from my own personal experience as I work in a
centre that strongly supports men in the environment and I have often had
discussions around this issue with my colleagues who see the benefits of gender
balance not only for themselves but for the children as well. To view the findings
of this survey by Dr Sarah Farquhar you can download this PDF file.
So what differences do I think men offer as a part of a team in an early childhood
centre? I do feel that along with benefitting the teaching team by offering a male
perspective, it also benefits a number of children who possibly don't have male
role models in their lives. This exposure to male and female teachers at a centre
offers children the exposure to different body language, perceptions, and
activities. In an earlier musing on 'A workshop on boys in ECE' I mentioned that
giving boys the opportunities to take risks are important which can be linked to
the four year old testosterone boost. In this context, perceptions can differ
between male and female teachers as to what is considered risky and what is
considered dangerous and as such, not encouraged. This could also include
aspects of rough and tumble play and setting guidelines to determine what forms
of play are acceptable in the environment. The benefits of rough and tumble play
are briefly reflected on in my short 'Musings on rough and tumble play'.
Being a male early childhood teacher also offers whnau a gender choice to
approach for discussions that they may want to have with regard to their child. A
father may on occasion feel more comfortable to approach a male teacher as a
personal preference and that choice is available with male teachers present in
the team. I have noticed this preference personally, particularly from a cultural
perspective and reflect on a father from the Middle East who appeared more
comfortable addressing me when discussing his son. Offering gender balance as
a teaching team in an early childhood centre can also be looked upon as a
marketing tool when families visit centres with male teachers which I'm sure will
generally be looked upon in a positive light.
As part of an effort to demonstrate that early childhood education is not just
babysitting which is often perceived by men as a woman's role, I started these
musings to reflect on what we do as teachers in this profession to try and
encourage more men to look at this profession as a career choice. To offer a
quality education system for young children I firmly believe that all teachers
need to be fully qualified through an educational institution to analyse,
document, and reflect on children's learning and development. This can only be

done after study, just as a lawyer studies to be a

lawyer, and a doctor a doctor. In my mind there is
no doubt that we need more men as early
childhood teachers to bridge the gender gap. This
can only happen if the profession is made to look
attractive in terms of job satisfaction, salary,
postive social recognition of male role models for
children, and a warm welcome by women who dominate the workforce in ECE.
Gender balance not only benefits children with the presence of male teachers in
the mix, but also offers different perspectives for the teaching team as a whole.


Why Teachers Need Smart and Effective Administration Tool

In many schools and colleges across the world, teachers have been facing a lot of
inconveniences which is directly affecting student productivity. In order to get rid of that
problem, academic institutes have started to feel the need for a smart and effective
administration tool. Everyone at a school including, admin, students, teachers and even
parents are interconnected with each other. If one of these are not satisfied, it will ultimately
affect the overall student productivity.
After years of research and personal experiences, one thing has become obvious that it is
almost impossible to a run a school efficiently without an appropriate school management
strategy. This is where cloud-based technology comes into picture. One thing is for sure that a
teacher cannot put 100% focus on his/her students until or unless the working environment is
up to the mark. That can only be possible if and when a school tries using newer and smarter
methods of administration preferably an online school management system.
How Does a Web-Based System Work As A Helping Tool for Teachers?
Teachers in many schools and colleges across the world do not just have to teach the pupils,
in fact, they are also responsible for organizing most of the important paperwork such as
student appraisal reports, class schedules, attendance and so on. In some academic institutes,
such procedures are being completed via the pen and paper approach. Every single report has
to be hand written and student attendance is marked via traditional methods.
Such procedures do not just waste time, but always have a greater margin of errors and
mistakes. Cloud-based technology automates most of the procedures for a teacher and makes
it easy for him/her to manage time. Attendance can now be marked via smartphones. Student
appraisal reports can be printed in bulk or sent via the internet to parents or students. Teachers
dont have to calculate exams manually; the archivist school management
program is there to do that with complete accuracy.
Teachers with busy schedules dont have time to meet parents of a hundred students and this
is where the internet portal comes into play. Teachers can share student result cards and
reports via the internet and also discuss about the weaknesses and strong areas of each

student. Teachers dont have to sit after school to complete various time consuming tasks
because the digital system has finished most of their work already..
Teachers and students are connected with each other throughout the academic years. If one of
them fails to generate positive results, there is a greater chance students will perform badly.
Therefore, it is important for the teaching staff to put their 100% efforts on each and every
student or else they will not be able to perform well in class. The digital system is helping
teachers to enjoy a well-managed and organized class ambiance resulting in outstanding
student productivity throughout the academic years.