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PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA

Vth Year B.ARCH


MIT-Aurangabad

INTRODUCTION
Mixed-use High Rise Habitat isin a broad senseany urban,
suburban development, or even a single building, that blends a
combination of residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or
industrial uses, where those functions are physically and
functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections.

NEED OF PROJECT

MIXED-USE
HIGH RISE
CASE STUDIES
KOHINOOR SQUARE

Since the 1990s, mixed-use zoning has once again become desirable as
the benefits are recognized. These benefits include
greater housing variety and density
reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and
other destinations
more compact development
stronger neighborhood character
pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments
Mumbai currently faces Space shortage issue and various social issues
one of which is travelling from one end to another. A resilient mixed-used
complex is an attempt to Address these issues.

LINKED HYBRID

Dadar, Mumbai, 2009-15


Architect: SSA Architects, Mumbai
Client: The Kohinoor Group
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m
Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m for commercial
Height: 203 meters Main building,
142 meters Residence Building
Floor counts: 52 stories, 28 stories
Cost US$: 0.33 billion
Lifts: 28
Status: Under-Constructed
OBJECTIVE: TO study Mixed-use Habitat in context to Mumbai

Beijing, China, 2007


Architect: Steven Holl Architects
Client: Modern Investment Grp
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 61.800 m2
Building Footprint: 15,500 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 2,21,000 sq.m
Height: 68 m
Floor counts: 21 stories
Lifts: 34
Status: Constructed
OBJECTIVE: To understand programmatic planning of urban space at
community level or mixed use habitat at international level

KANCHANJUNGA
APARTMENT
Bombay, India, 1970-1983
Architect: Charles Correa
Program: Residential
Plot Area: 2900m2
Building Footprint: 432 m2
Gross Floor Area: 5,260 m2
Height: 84 m
Floor counts: 28 stories
Lifts: 3 + 1
Status: Constructed

Beijing
Mumbai

L
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L
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T
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Sr PROJECT NAME
1

LOCATIO
N

KOHINOOR SQUARE MUMBAI

TYPE

SELECTION CRITERIA

MIXED USE

FIRST MIXED USED


HIGH RISE IN MUMBAI

KANCHANJUNGA
APT.

MUMABI

RESIDENTAIL ONE OF THE FISRT


HIGH RISE STURUCRE

AQUARIA GRANDE

MUMBAI

RESIDENTAIL HIGH RISE STRUCTURE


ABIDING DCR RULES

Sr PROJECT NAME

LOCATIO
N

TYPE

SELECTION CRITERIA

LINKED HYBRID

BEIJING
,CHINA

MIXED USE

A 3D URBAN
STURCUTRE
OF MIXED HIGH RISE

TAIPEI 101

TAIPEI,
TAIWAN

COMMERCIAL

ICONIC STRUCTURE

KOHINOOR SQUARE
Dadar, Mumbai, 2009-15
Architect: SSA Architects, Mumbai
Client: The Kohinoor Group
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m
Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m for Office
Height: 203 meters Main building,
142 meters Residence Building
Floor counts: 52 stories, 32 stories
Cost US$: 0.33 billion
Lifts: 28(24+4)
Status: Under-Constructed
Parking -3500
132 residential units

OBJECTIVE: To study planning and design of Mixed-use High rise in context to Mumbai

Climate of Mumbai

The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical


wet and dry climate.
Mumbai's climate can be best
described as moderately hot with high
level of humidity.
Its coastal nature and tropical location
ensures temperatures won't fluctuate
much throughout the year.
The mean average is 27.2 C

Site &
Surrounding
In India, Aquaria Grande
is located Borivali, a
suburb of Mumbai. The
site is surrounded by a
dense Low-Rise
residential areas hence
its Tallest structure in
the vicinity.
There are many parks
and schools as well near
to the site

Taipei

OBJECTIVE: TO study vernacular in high rise in context to Mumbai

OBJECTIVE: TO study The Structural concept implied


for a high ride building

AQUARIA GRANDE
Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004

01

OBJECTIVE:
TO study A high Rise
structure according to
the DCR for Mumbai

Architect: james Law


Client: Wadhwa Group
Program: Residential
Building Footprint: 13,680 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m
Height: 164 m , Two tower
Floor counts: 42 stories
Lifts: 8
Status: Constructed

TAIPEI 101
Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004
Architect: C.Y. Lee & partners
Client: Taipei Financial Center Corp
Program: Commercial
Building Footprint: 2500 m2
Gross Floor Area: 412.500 m2
Height: 508 m
Floor counts: 101 stories
Cost US$: 1.6 billion
Lifts: 61
Status: Constructed

KOHINOOR
SQUARE

Floor Plan Analysis

Structural
Glazing

The Central Core is surrounded by


the office spaces and refuge areas
(at 24 meter of height)
There are segregated office space
from 2nd to 24th floor with toilets to
each office and a common toilet s
also provided on all these floors.

11th to 24th Floor

11th to 24th Floor

The design of the building makes it environmentally friendly, using


technologies such as floor-to-ceiling insulated glazing to contain
heat and maximize natural light, and an automatic daylight dimming
system. The tower also features a greywater system, which
captures rainwater for reuse. Kohinoor group pvt ltd. States that the
building is made largely of recycled and recyclable materials. Air
entering the building is filtered, as is common, but the air exhausted
is cleaned as well. The Kohinoor square building is one of the first
skyscraper building in india to achieve a leadership in energy and
environmental design platinum rating for environmental
sustainability a gold (leed) certification from green building council.
Construction of the Kohinoor square started in early 2009, with an
Residential Tower
completion date of march 2013.
132 units from 14th to 26th floor
Central core consist of
13 Stories of Parking below
3 Lobbies of 6 Lifts serving levels
PARKING-3500 (brought from BMC)
25th to 39th
Central core serves 3 lifts and 1
Spaces between the lifts where a lift
services lifts
lobby is not provided are used as
There are 8 units on each floor
toilets with dust at either side: 2 lifts
6 on 17th floor which is refuge floor
from this pack of 6 are assessable to
UNITS- 2.5 bhk 3bhk 3.5 bhk
Sales
lower floors as well
1 lobby of 4 lifts serving levels 1st to
Hotel
Office
24th
Residential
Retail
th
There is a lift bank at 24 floor .
Parking
Services
2 services lifts travelling Throughout
Recreational ground
the building
3%
10%
13%
2 Stair cases are also placed in the
26%
core
21%

Refuge Floors
At 11th floor the first refuge floor is
provided
DCR RULE
In case of high-rise bldg. more than 30
m then first refuge floor shall be
provided at 24 m or first habitable floor
whichever is higher. Thereafter at every
seventh habitable floor.

25th to 39th Floor

11%

16%

The combined pile raft foundation (cprf) is a geotechnical


composite Construction that combines the bearing effect of
both foundation elements raft and Piles by taking into
account interactions between the foundation elements and
the
Subsoil the piled raft foundation system has recently been
widely used for many structures, especially high rise
buildings. In this foundation, the piles play an important role
in settlement and differential settlement reduction, and thus
can lead to economical design without compromising the
safety of the structure. In several design cases, the piles are
allowed to yield under the design load. Although the load
capacity of the pile is exceeded, the piled raft foundation can
hold additional loads with controllable settlement. Thus,
accurately determining the settlement of the foundation is
critical and for this the designers must consider the role of
the raft and the role of piles in combination, as well as the
interactions between the foundations components.

PLIE FOUNDATION USED

02

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

KOHINOOR
SQUARE

KANCHANJUNGA APT.
Bombay, India, 1970-1983
Architect: Charles Correa
Client: Plot Area: 2900m2 Building
Footprint: 432 m2 Gross
Floor Area: 5,260 m2
Height: 84 m
Cost $ Unknown Lifts: 3 + 1
Status: Constructed

Charles correa
bombay,india
1970-1983

OBJECTIVE: TO study vernacular in


high rise in context to Mumbai

The architect, Charles Correa,from


india and was born in1930. Started
his private practice in 1958 in
Bombay. He was at the age of 40
when the Kanchanjunga
Apartments project began

Site & Surroundings


In India Kanchanjunga is located
in Pedder Road of Greater
Mumbai, The Island city. Near
the site to the west is the Arabian
sea and the neigh hood is
surrounded by many high rise
structures influenced by
Kanchanjunga as it was the First
High rise in the area

Concept
CONCEPT OF THEARCHITECT
The Tower is one of the masterpieces of Indian
architect, Charleas Correa. Kanchanjunga Apartments
is a 28 story height high end residential building built
in Bombay, 1983. It was clear that the architect has
reference to Lecorbusiers crossover units in Unit
habitation in Marseilles in 1952. Correa planned
the 3 and 4 bedroom units interlocking with 5 and
6 bedroom units. 3-4 bedroom units occupies on
and half level, and 5-6 bedroom units occupies two
and half levels. There are small level displacement
within the units to differenciate outdoor terrace and
indoor living space, dining room and bedrooms and
so on. These change of levels hide the living and bed
rooms from the heat of sun and rains, while the big
opening of balcony could get as much day light as
possible. The whole building structure is built by
reinforced concrete. The open terrace part is a 6m
deep cantilever structure. Central core with lifts and
shafts and building services so it also provide central
stability element for lateral loads.
The appearance of the building has strong
resemblance of modern western building design.
Especially the white plain surface with concrete
construction. But the apartment design is an
interperation of traditional Indian bungalow with
verandah which is a main part of living area of indian
family.
The tower is 21m square on plan, and 1:4 proportion
on elevation, 84m height. It has a plain facade surface,
with cut away to open up double height balcony.
EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION
EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT
The tower design reinterperated the traditional
living style of indian with modern architecture.
And it is succesfully merged with environmential
consideration, and social needs in this tower. Correas
strong design signiture of sectional displacement
where appropriate by changes in oor surface is
most elaborated in this project. The complexity of
internal spacial organization to create level changes
and interlocking four types of units was pushed to an
extreme in this project..

KANCHANJUNGA
APARTMENT

MAIN
ENTRY

PARKING
EXIT

PARKING
ENRTY

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

03

The building is oriented in eastwest direction to catch the natural


wind from the sea and also this
direction has best view from city
to the sea. But this face is also most
heat up surface by the sun. The old
bungalows solved this problem by
warpping a thick layer of around
living area verandas to protect
from heay monsoon rain and sun
heat. Kanchanjuna Apartment is
applying this concept into the
apartment design.

Great deal of transparency has been achieved by


the use of large opening and terrace gardens on
every floor. Because of American training, Correa
has rarely been tempted to import Western ideas
into India. Like most architects of his generation he
has been influenced by Le Corbusier, but by his
response to the Mediterranean sun with his Great
sculptural decisions (the over-hangs, the doubleheights), placed facing the elements.

STRUCTURE
Whole structure is
made of reinforced
concrete. The
building is a 32
storied rein-forced
concrete structure
With 6.3 m
cantilevered open
terraces. The
central core houses
lifts and other
services also
provides the main
structural element
for resisting lateral
loads. The central
core was
constructed ahead
of the main
structure by slip
method of
construction. This
technique was used
for the first time in
India for a multistoried building.

KANCHANJUNGA
APARTMENT

MATERIALS&COLOURS

With its concrete


construction and large
areas of white panels,
bears a strong
resemblance to modern
apartment buildings in the
west. However, the garden
terraces of Kanchanjunga
apartments are actually a
modern interpretation of a
feature of the traditional
Indian bungalows the
verandah. In a bungalow,
the verandah wraps the
main living area. According
to the architect there are
some elements to combine
the whole city as form axis
of color. The color expert
says that the quality of
sunlight, climate and
culture influence color
choices : hence one would
observe a preference for
blue and its shades in the
west while in India and
other Asian countries one
finds a predominance of
reds and yellows

04

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

AQUARIA GRANDE
THE

MUMBAI,INDIA
Architect: james Law
Client: Wadhwa Group
Program: Residential
Building Footprint: 13,680 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m
Height: 164 m , Two tower
Floor counts: 42 stories
Lifts: 8
Status: Constructed
Parking- 409
202 residential units

RESIDENTIAL

PROPOSED

OBJECTIVE:
TO study A high Rise
structure according to
the DCR of Mumbai

BY

DEVELOPMENT
DEMOLISHING

IS
THE

EXISTING STRUCTURES.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS PROPERTY
HAS BEEN PROPOSED AS A RESIDENTIAL
DEVELOPMENT

ALONG

WITH

PUBLIC

PARKING DCR 33(24).


AREA OF THE PLOT : 13678.70 sq.mts.
PROPOSAL TO

BUILD

A RESIDENTIAL

BUILDING WITH 2 BASEMENTS, 3 LEVEL


PODIUMS, AND SUPER STRUCTURE WING

Site & surroundings


In India, Aquaria Grande is
located Borivali, a suburb of
Mumbai. The site is surrounded
by a dense Low-Rise residential
areas hence its Tallest structure in
the vicinity.
There are many parks and
schools as well near to the site

1st

A, WING B UPTO STILT + 32 UPPER


FLOORS WITH 180 FLATS & WING C AS
THE CLUB HOUSE.
TOTAL HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING 137.15

Total bldg. :

meters.

Wing A : 2 basements + 3 podiums


+ stilt + 32 upper floors.
Wing B : 2 basements + 3 podiums
+ stilt + 32 upper floors.

Podium

Total height : 137.15 mts.


Total no. of flats : 202 Residential flats.
Stilt

2nd Podium

3rd Podium
Refuge Floor

SECTION

AQUARIA GRANDE

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

05

No. of staircases / wing : 2 nos. ( 2.00mts.


each )

CLUB HOUSE & OTHER AMMENITIES

CLUB

HOUSE

INCLUDES

GYM, SWIMMING

POOL, RESTAURANT & BAR.

CLUB

HOUSE

IS

No. of lifts / wing : 3 passenger lifts @ 1


service lift.
Refuge floors : 5th, 11th, 17th, 23rd & 29th

FOR BOTH

BUILDING

MEMBERS & OTHER MEMBERS.

IT HAS SEPARATE ENTRANCE ALSO.

IT IS ALSO HAVING BANQUET HALL.

IT

ALSO

INCLUDES

SPORTS

CLUB

PANAROMIC VIEW FROM CURVED BALCONIES


Adequate open spaces all around the building for
easy movement of fire
tender.

WITH

BADMINTON CLUB, SNOOKER TABLE, SQUASH


COURT.

Building is accessible by Fire tender driveway on


podium level.
Lower Basement

Each unit accessible from two stair cases.


Provision of Refuge floors as per CFO requirement.
Floor

SECTION
SHOWING
REFUGE FLOORS
WHICH IS 4%
AREA OF THE
HABITABLE ZONE
ABOVE
Refuge floors
: 5th, 11th, 17th,
23rd & 29th

AQUARIA GRANDE

Total car park

1st podium (+1.00 m. Lvl.)

92 nos.

2nd podium (+5.10m. Lvl.)

140 nos.

3rd podium (+9.30m. Lvl.)

149 nos.

Stilt (+14.50m. Lvl.)

Upper Basement

28 nos.

Total

409 nos.

Parking Statement
Carpet Areas

Rule (DCR)

No. of Flats

Parking
Required

Below 35.00 sq.mt.

1 for 4 flats

--

--

35.00 to 45.00
sq.mt.

1 for 2 flats

--

--

45.00 to 70.00
sq.mt.

1 for 1 flat

--

--

Above 70.00 sq.mt.

2 for 1 flat

180

360

Total

360

Visitors parking

36

Total parking required

396

Total parking provided

409

06

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

LINKED HYBRID
Beijing, China, 2007
Architect: Steven Holl Architects
Client: Modern Investment Group,
Beijing Plot Area: 61.800 m2
Building Footprint: 15.500
m2 Gross Floor Area:
221.000 m2 Height: 68 m
OBJECTIVE: To understand programmatic planning of urban
Cost US$:
space at community level or mixed use
habitat at
Unknown Lifts: 34
international level
Status: Constructed
664 Residential units

Concept
CONCEPT OF THEARCHITECT
Linked Hybrid projects a renewed thinking about the public space within
large scale high rise projects. Holl shows us in this project how his ideal
vertical city should work. It is his ideal city within a city.
The horizontal traditional urban structure, continuous plinth with services,
is combined with the vertical cit y, disrupted plinth.

Site & Surroundings


In China, Linked Hybrid is
located Beijing. The site is
surrounded by many high rise
colonies of same developer. It is
also adjacent to the old city.It
has Good connectivity the cities
express way. Hence can attract
a many visitors in their city within
a city

Living is combined with commercial program in various towers. The


commercial program is located in the plinth and living above. An urban
ring of commercial and cultural public activities link the towers on the
t wentieth floor. This skyhigh public space provides a cinematc experience
of the whole complex and the cit y surrounding it. A big variation of
urban functions are located in this ring, for example: a swimmingpool, a
fitness centre, a nail and hair studio, an architecture office, galeries, bars,
theesaloons and stores (more info on page 3).
To prevent the cit y within a cit y to become an isolated island, Holl
introduces the term urban porosit y. He connects his ideal cit y with it s
context by attracting people to the centre of linked hybrid. Urban space is
enclosed in the heart of the project. On street level pedestrians are able to
move in and out the project.
These t wo themes, cit y within a cit y and urban porosit y are also the basis
for Holls second big housing project in China, the sliced urban porosit y
block.
EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT
The ensemble of high rise towers instead of the vertical tower pinned in the
city projects a new way of thinking about high rise architecture.
The public space in heart of the large plot area connected with the highly
accesible program in the skyring makes a unique contribution to the public
life in the city.

EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION


Three different public entrances connect the skyring with the
public space on ground floor. These entrances (coloured red in the
floor plan above) each offer a different variety of pro- gram. One
area for health and sportcentre, one area for recreational program
opened through the day and one area for restaurants openede
during night. The entrance to the restaurant is located next to the
acces to the cinema within the heart of the project.

FUNCTIONS IN THE RING


1. reading room
2. design/book store
3. architecture gallery
4. sculpture gallery
5. art gallery
6. viewing platform
7.dinning deck
8. ultra lounge
9.bar/cocktail
10.listening lounge
11.fitness
12.juicebar
13.group axcersice space
14. spinning room

07

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

15.office, locker rooms


16.lane lap pool
17. suspended catwalk
18. spa/massage
19.meetin place
20. viewing platform
21.hair/nail salon
22.health food store
23.tea seating
24.tea store/gaming place
25. coffee shop
26. caf seating
27.book event space
28.book store

LINKED
HYBRID

SECTION THROUG SKY BRIDGE

Program given in sky bridge

Horizontal
and Vertical
circulation

08

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

LINKED
HYBRID

TAIPEI 101
Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004

OBJECTIVE: To study The Structural


concept implied for a high ride building

Architect: C.Y. Lee & partners


Client: Taipei Financial Center Corp
Building Footprint: 2500 m2
Gross Floor Area: 412.500 m2
Height: 508 m
Cost US$: 1.6 billion
Lifts: 61
Status: Constructed

Concept
CONCEPT OF THEARCHITECT
The unusual tower shape is an idea of the architect C.Y. Lee from
Taipei. He was inspired by local culture, the building reflects the
culture in which it functions. Lee was looking for balance between
local culture and internationalism. The tall building symbolizes
a broader understanding and anticipation of things to come:
we climb in order to see further. The building rises from the
ground like a bamboo, a symbol of everlasting strength in Chinese
culture. In the section, the shape of a pagoda is recognizable.
Taipe 101 Tower rises in 8 modules, a design based on the Chinese
lucky number 8. In cultures that observe a seven-day week the
number eight symbolizes a renewal of time (7+1). In cultures
where seven is the lucky number, 8 represent 1 better than lucky
seven. Each modue has 8 floors and flares wider t the top. There
are 101 floors above the ground and 5 floors underground.
It s more challenging to design and build a super-tal building
in Taipei than any other location in the world because t yphoon
winds, large potential earthquakes and weak soil conditions all
need to be overcome. A damping system was implemented to
reduce the excessive lateral accelerations from wind.
In the time it was build, the height of the Taipei 101 was
recordbreaking, previously held by the Petronas Towers with
452 meters. It was the highest building in the world, build in an
area with t yphoons and earthquakes! The height of 101 floors
commemorates the renewal of time: the new century that arrived
as the tower was built (100+1) and all the new years that follow
(January 1 = 1-01). It symbolizes high ideals by going one better
on 100, a traditional number of perfection.
EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT

EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION


The Taipei 101, formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a
landmark skyscraper located in the Hsinyi Distric of the city, the rapidgrowing Manhattan of Taipei. This is the future center of financial
power in Taiwan. Taipei 101 is owned by the Taipei Financial Center
Corporation (TFCC).
Taipei 101 has one of the fastest ascending elevator speed with 1010
meters per minute, which is 16.83 m/s (60.6 km/h). These Toshiba
elevators are able to take visitors from the main floor to the observatory
on the 89th floor in under 39 seconds.
Taipei 101s own roof and facade recycled water system meets 20-30
percent of the buildings water needs. Upgrades are currently under
way to make Taipei 101 the worlds tallest green building by LEED

IMAGES
1.
2.
3.

Construction drawings
Elevators overview
Taipei 101 as a landmark in the evening

SOURCES
Wells, M. (2003) Wolkenkrabbers. Alphen a/d Rijn, Atrium Uitgeverij

A mega mass demper reduces the effect of wind. The pendulum


has a weight of 660.000 kilogram and is situated on the 88th floor.
It sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong
gusts. Its sphere, the largest damper sphere in the world, consists
of 41 circular steel plates. The structure has to be flexible enough
to resist an earthquake, and stiff enough to resist a typhoon. Eight
mega columns giving the stiffness to the building.

http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/671/taipei-101-a-case-stud
http://www.architectureweek.com/2005/0330/building_2-2.html
http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/
http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1147437&lang=eng_news
http://www.skyscraperpicture.com/taipei101.htm
http://www.taipei-101.com.tw/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taipei_101#cite_note-etaiwannews.com-15east/10/17/taiwan.tower/

09

PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad

TAIPEI
101

SITE & SURROUNDINGS


In India Kanchanjunga
is located in Pedder
Road of Greater
Mumbai, The Island
city. Near the site to
the west is the Arabian
sea and the neigh
hood is surrounded by
many high rise
structures influenced
by Kanchanjunga as it
was the First High rise
in the area

In India Kohinoor
Square is located in the
heart of the city Dadar,
Greater Mumbai.
site is in commercial
hub. Surrounded by
various high end
national and
international office and
luxurious apartments.
The famous Shivaji park
is a 5 mins walk from the
site.

In India, Aquaria
Grande is located
Borivali, a suburb of
Mumbai. The site is
surrounded by a dense
Low-Rise residential
areas hence its Tallest
structure in the vicinity.
There are many parks
and schools as well
near to the site

In China, Linked
Hybrid is located
Beijing. The site is
surrounded by many
high rise colonies of
same developer. It is
also adjacent to the old
cityIt has Good
connectivity the cities
express way. Hence
can attract a many
visitors in their city
within a city

In Taiwan, Taipei 101 is


located in Taipei. It is in
a dense urban
environment in CBD
are of Taipei.
Surrounded by world
class urban
infrastructure and high
rise buildings with a
view to a near by
mountain.

A High-Rise Structure comes out


of necessity. Specially in a
booming economical center with
growing population.
Most populous cities have most
numbers of High rise structures
It is seen that tallest high rise
structures are found in the heart
of the city.
Or a new economic center of any
city

SOIL TYPE
Dadar is situated in the heart of mumbai, soil
is loamy and sandy, due to proximity to sea.
Similar to soil types in northwestern also
similar because of occurrence of basalt rock.

Malabar hills is situated in the heart of


mumbai, soil is loamy and sandy, due
to proximity to sea. Similar to soil types
in northwestern also similar because of
occurrence of basalt rock.

Borivali is situated in the Suburb of


mumbai, soil is loamy and sandy, due
to proximity to sea. Similar to soil types
in northwestern also similar because of
occurrence of basalt rock.

To Understand the type of soil of


any site is important to develop a
conceptual level structure
proposal for any high-rise
structure.

If a high rise structure is oriented


studying is climatic conditions its
can greatly increase the natural
ventilation and light thus
reducing the load on HVAC
system and lighting system .
Thus making it energy efficient.

Success of Vernacular approach


or passive sustainable
technology could be easily
enhanced by proper orientation

The user and types of user and


there circulation through a 3d
urban structure is a very
important aspect for orientation
of a MIXED-USE HIGH RISE
HABITAT.

It important to design a building


which is relevant to the urban
fabric of the city it proudly soars
the sky of.

A resilient mixed use cluster


development can be an attempt
to solve any high density urban
space issues

ORIENTATION
The homes and Offices offer unrivalled
and unrestricted views of the Northern
Suburbs, South Mumbai, Eastern Port
and the Arabian Sea.

In Mumbai, a building has to be oriented


east-west to catch prevailing sea breezes
and to open up the best views of the city.
Unfortunately, these are also the
directions of the hot sun and the heavy
monsoon rains. The old bungalows solved
these problems by wrapping a protective
layer of verandas around the main living
areas, thus providing the occupants with
two lines of defence against the elements.

As said in Correas design n Mumbai, a


building has to be oriented east-west
to catch prevailing sea breezes and to
open up the best views of the city.
Hence the Site is designed in such a
way that the enclouser of the two tower
trap maximum winds from the west to
east

The Linked Hybrid is mainly based on


User oriented planning as well as
climatic.

The Retail outlet of Taipei 101 are


located toward the south where as the
Main entrance to the skyscraper is in
the shades toward the North-east side.

Arabian
Sea.
View

City View.

CONCEPT
Design Concept: An iconic structure
drawing inspiration from the diamond.

It was clear that the architect has


reference to Lecorbusiers crossover
units in Unit habitation in Marseilles in
1952. Correa planned the 3 and 4
bedroom units interlocking with 5 and 6
bedroom units. 3-4 bedroom units
occupies on and half level, and 5-6
bedroom units occupies two and half
levels. There are small level displacement
within the units to differenciate outdoor
terrace and indoor living space, dining
room and bedrooms and so on. These
change of levels hide the living and bed
rooms from the heat of sun and rains,
while the big opening of balcony could
get as much day light as possible.

Plan form
basically evolved
from the cross
ventilation
process through
the west to east
travelling winds
of Mumbai
Where balconies
also gave an
artistic
impression to the
towers

The tower has served as an icon of modern.


Taiwan ever since its openingThe building
was architecturally created as a symbol of the
evolution of technology and Asian tradition.
Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates
traditional design elements and gives them
modern treatments.

"open city within a city". The


project promotes interactive
relations and encourages
encounters in the public
spaces that vary from
commercial, residential, and
educational to recreational.
The entire complex is a threedimensional urban space in
which buildings on the ground,
under the ground and over the
ground are fused together.

PRATEEK
SRIVASTAVA
Vth Year B.ARCH
MIT-Aurangabad

ZONNING-PARKING-FSI CONSUMED
RESIDENTIAL
TOWERS

12M MAIN WIDE


ENTRY

RETAIL SPACE

RESIDENTAIL

PARKING

Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m
Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m
Height: 203 meters Main building,
142 meters Residence Building
Floor counts: 52 stories, 32 stories
Cost US$: 0.33 billion
Lifts: 28
Status: Under-Constructed
50000 SQ.M FOR OFFICES
132 RESIDENTIAL UNITS
PARKING-3500 IN 13 STORIES
PLOT AREA 4.8 ACRE

PUBLIC
ENTRY

CLUB

OFFICES

RESIDENTAL SPACES REST OF


THE TOWERS

COMMERCIAL AND
ENTERTAIMENT SPACES

9M SERVICE
WIDE ENTRY

3 LEVEL OF PODIUM
PARKING BBELOW
GARDN

An approach where different


zones are infused in an
interlinked context of its urban
fabric.

FSI consideration is an Important


consideration for any high rise
proposal

Limiting the user to private


spaces and allowing free roam in
its public spaces both spaces
segregated by different levels
can be effective to create a
mixed use environment

High rise structure can be zoned


vertically and the connectivity is
an important factor between any
two zones

Service floors, lifts, shafts and


staircases are the most important
factor governing the daily
functionality of any high rise

Natural method of light and


ventilation solves these problems
at a residential level

But at commercial level there is a


need for mechanical ventilation
as there is a continues
requirement of larger floor space
to work collaboratively together.

A green approach like in linked


hybrid is a very innovative
approach to tackle this
increasing load on the
mechanical system.

PRIVATE ENTRY

Program: Residential
Plot Area: 2900 sq.m
Building Footprint: 432 sq.m
Floor Area: 5260 sq.m
Height: 84 m
Floor counts: 28 stories
Lifts: 4
Status: Constructed

Program: Residential
Plot Area: 13,680 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m
Height: 164 m , Two tower
Floor counts: 42 stories
Lifts: 6
Status: Constructed

Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 61.800 m2
Building Footprint: 15,500 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 2,21,000 sq.m
Height: 68 m
Floor counts: 21 stories
Lifts: 34
Status: Constructed

36 RESIDENTIAL UNITS
PARKING PROVIDED IN LEVELS
FSI CONSUMED 3.5

202 RESIDENTIAL UNITS


PARKING 409 IN LEVELS
FSI CONSUMED 2

LINKED HYBRID CONSISTS OF 644 APRT.


PARKING 1500 IN 3 LEVELS
FSI CONSUMED- 3.5

Program: Commercial
Building Footprint: 2500 m2
Gross Floor Area: 412500 m2
Height: 508 m
Floor counts: 101 stories
Cost US$: 1.6 billion
Lifts: 61
Status: Constructed

VERTICAL ZONING

LIGHT AND VENTILATION (Natural & Mechanical)


Mechanical

200 meter tall Kohinoor square has a well


designed HVAC system for its ventilation
purposes. As its a glass enveloped
structure the load of mechanical
ventilation is also high.
The cooling towers are situated near
water tanks at some levels in the buildings

Natural Method

In Mumbai, a building has to be oriented eastwest to catch prevailing sea breezes and to
open up the best views of the city.
Unfortunately, these are also the directions of
the hot sun and the heavy monsoon rains. The
old bungalows solved these problems by
wrapping a protective layer of verandas around
the main living areas, thus providing the
occupants with two lines of defence against
the elements.

Natural Method
Plan form basically evolved from the
cross ventilation process through the
west to east travelling winds of
Mumbai
Where balconies also gave an
artistic impression to the towers

Green method
Linked Hybrids ground source heat pump
system shoulders 70% of the complexs yearly
heating and cooling load. The system consists
of 655 geothermal wells, 100 meters below the
basement foundation. The underground wells
have taken the place of above-ground space
normally needed for cooling towers,
increasing available green areas, minimizing
noise pollution and significantly reducing the
CO2 emissions
created by
traditional
heating/cooling
methods.

PRATEEK
SRIVASTAVA
Vth Year B.ARCH
MIT-Aurangabad

SERVICE CORE
The Central Core
is surrounded by
the office spaces
and refuge areas
(at 24 meter of
height)
There are
segregated office
space from 2nd to
24th floor with
toilets to each
office and a
common toilet s
also provided on
all these floors.
Central core consist of 24Lifts
3 Lobbies of 6 Lifts serving levels
25th to 39th
Spaces between the lifts where a lift
lobby is not provided are used as
toilets with dust at either side: 2 lifts
from this pack of 6 are assessable to
lower floors as well
1 lobby of 4 lifts serving levels 1st to
24th
There is a lift bank at 24th floor .
2 services lifts travelling Throughout
the building
2 Stair cases are also placed in the
core

Residential Tower
Central core serves 3 lifts and 1
services lifts
It connects 8 units on each floor
It connects 6 on 17th floor which is
refuge floor
UNITS- 2.5 bhk 3bhk 3.5 bhk

PRATEEK
SRIVASTAVA
Vth Year B.ARCH
MIT-Aurangabad

Central core consist of 4 Lifts each


Lobby has 3 Passenger lifts
connecting all floors and 1 Fire
escape Lift
Core connects 2 units on envry
floor
It has one staircases and one
shaft

Central core
Central core is the heart of
any skyscraper
It must be efficiently designed
in terms of planning as well
as cost
A core holds all the services
of a skyscraper hence it
contains structural values as
well

Central core consist of 3 Lifts each


Each Lobby has 2 Passenger lifts
connecting all floors and 1 Fire
escape Lift
Core connects 3 units on envry floor
It has two staircases and one shaft
The planning is such that there is
natural ventilation in the core

AREA DISTRIBUTION
Kohinoor Square
Hotel

Office

Residential

Retail

Parking

Services

Recreational ground
3%
13%

10%

21%

26%

Central core
Central core is the heart of
Taipei
It connects all 101 floors
though a number of lifts
The Fastest lift is travelling at
a speed of 1010 m/ min.
That is 16.7 m/s
Travelling though 364 m of
height
The downward speed is 10m/s

16%
11%
Residential

Services

Parking

25%
15%

60%

Kanchanjunga Apt.

REFUGE AREAS
Refuge Floors
At 11th floor the first refuge floor is
provided
DCR RULE
In case of high-rise bldg. more than 30
m then first refuge floor shall be
provided at 24 m or first habitable floor
whichever is higher. Thereafter at every
seventh habitable floor.

Refuge floors
: 5th, 11th, 17th,
23rd & 29th

SECTION SHOWING
REFUGE FLOORS
WHICH IS 4% AREA OF
THE HABITABLE ZONE
ABOVE

A refuge floor is very important for the


safety of people living in a high rise
structure
In case of high-rise bldg. More than 30
m then first refuge floor shall be
provided at 24 m or first habitable
floor whichever is higher. Thereafter
at every seventh habitable floor.
Refuge floors
Which is 4% area of the habitable zone
above