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DEFLECTION

Wide spread use of ultimate load method or LSM of design of R.C.members


resulted in smaller sections. Such smaller and heavily reinforced sections deflect a greater
amount than those designed by WSM. The problem of deflection is further amplified due
to the increasing use of HYSD bars.
The permissible deflection is governed by the amount that can be tolerated by the
interacting components of the structure. It is essential to consider both the short time
deflection and long time deflection.
The factors affecting short time deflections are
(a) Magnitude and distribution of Live load.
(b) Span and type of end restraint.
(c) Cross-sectional properties including steel percentages.
(d) Type of concrete.
(e) Stress in steel reinforcement.
(f) Amount and extent of flexural cracking.
Long time deflection occur over a period of time mainly due to Shrinkage
and creep. It is about two to three times larger than the short-time deflection. The main
factors affecting long time deflections are
(a) Humidity and temperature conditions at the time of curing of concrete.
(b) Age of concrete at the time of loading.
(c) All other factors influencing shrinkage and creep, such as : type and size of
aggregate, W/C ratio, presence of compression reinforcement, size of member etc.
The aim of structural design by the LSM philosophy is to ensure both
safety and serviceability (interms of deflection, cracking, vibration, durability etc.), so
that the structure performs its intended function satisfactorily.
In previous chapters the forces has been on ultimate limit states( or
limit state of collapse ) dealing with strength ( flexure, shear and bond). This chapter
describes methods of calculating deflections and crack-widths in flexural members for
the purpose of checking serviceability limit states of deflection and cracking. This is
required especially when the limiting (l/d) ratios of the code are not compiled with, when

the specified load is abnormally high, and in special structures where limits to deflection
and crack-width are of particular importance.
Control of deflection:
The total deflection due to loads including the effects of temperature, shrinkage
and creep should not exceed span/250 when measured from the as last level of the
supports of floors, roofs, and all other horizontal members. The deflection including the
effects of temperature, shrinkage and creep occurring after the construction of partitions,
and finishes should not exceed span/350 or 20mm, which ever is lesser.
Two methods are given in the code for checking that deflection is not
excessive,These are
(1) Limiting l/d ratio given in clause 23.2.1 which should be used in all normal cases.
(2) Calculation of deflection given in Appendix c of the code to be used in special
cases.
l/d ratio:
This is a semi-empirical method based on calculations and tests on beams. The
permissible values for the l/d ratio depend on:
(a) The basic values given clause 23.2.1(a)
(b) The amount of tension steel.
(c) The amount of compression steel.
(d) The type of beam.
For beams and slabs, it is assumed that vertical deflection limit given earlier is
satisfied provided that the span to effective depth ratio(l/d) is not greater than the value
obtained below.
Actual l/d <= (basic l/d) ****
Where, = a factor which accounts for correction in basic l/d values for spans greater
than 10m.
= a factor which depends on area and stress in steel(tension reinforcement) as
per fig.4 of IS456-2000.
= a factor which depends on the area of compression reinforcement as per fig.5
of IS456-2000
= a factor for flanged beams which depends on the ratio of web width to flange

width as per fig.6 of IS456-2000.


Deflection calculations:
The analysis of the structure to obtain the moments for calculating deflections is
done under working or service loads.
The deflections of R.C.members are influenced by the following factors,
(1) Self weight and imposed loads.
(2) Strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete.
(3) Reinforcement percentage.
(4) Span of the structural member.
(5) Type of supports.
(6) Flexural rigidity.
(7) Creep and shrinkage of concrete.
The computations of deflections are generally considered in two
parts. Instantaneous or short term deflections occurring on application of load. Long term
deflection resulting from differential shrinkage and creep under sustained loading.
Annexure-c of IS456 presents a method of computing short and long term deflections.
(A) Short term Deflection:
The short term deflection is, a sd = KW[WL/EI]
Where K = constant depending on type of load and support conditions.
Ec = 5000* fck
W = Total load on beam.
L = span of the beam.
Serial No.

Support condition with type of loading.

Short term deflection( asd )

1.

Simply supported beam with UDL

(5/384)*[WL/EI]

2.

Simply supported beam with central point load.

[WL/48EI]

3.

Cantilever beam with UDL

[WL/8EI]

4.

Cantilever beam with central point load.

[WL/3EI]

5.

Fixed beam with UDL

[WL/384EI]

6.
7.

Fixed beam with central point load.


[WL/192EI]
Propped cantilever with UDL.
[WL/185EI]
Where E = Ec = 5000* fck
( short term static modulus of elasticity.)

The second moment of area, I to be considered in the deflection


calculations is influenced by % of reinforcement, extent of flexural cracling and
modulus of rupture fcr of concrete.

But Ir <= Ieff <= Igross


Where Ir = M.I. of the cracked section.
Mr = cracking moment = (fcr*Igr)/yt.
fcr = modulus of rupture of concrete.
Igr = M.I. of gross section about centroidal axis, neglecting the
reinforcement.
yt = Distance of extreme fiber in tension from centroidal axis.
M = Max. bending moment under service loads.
Z = lever arm.
x = depth of neutral axis.
d = effective depth.
bw = breadth of web.
b = breadth of compression flange.
(B) Shrinkage deflection:
The deflection due to shrinkage is
a cs = K3csL
where K3 = a constant depending upon the support condition.
= 0.5 for cantilevers
= 0.125 for simply supported beams.
= 0.086 for members continuous at one end.
= 0.063 for fully continuous member.
cs = shrinkage curvature = K4(cs/D)
Where cs = ultimate shrinkage strain of concrete ( 6.2.4.1)
D = total depth of section.
K4 = 0.72 [pt pc]/pt

<= 1.0;

for 0.25 <= (pt-pc) <1.0

= 0.65 [pt pc]/pt

<= 1.0;

for ( pt-pc) >= 1.0

Where pt = 100Ast/bd
Pc = 100Asc/bd
(c) Creep deflection:
The creep deflection due to permanent loads a cc per. is
a cc( per. ) = a i ,cc(per) a i (per)
where a i ,cc(per) = initial plus creep deflection due to permanent loads obtained
using an elastic analysis with an effective modulus of elasticity, Ece.
Ece = Ec/(1+); being creep coefficient.
a i , (per) = short term deflection due to permanent loads using Ec.
(1). A simply supported beam of span 3.5 m carries UDL of 22 kN/m. The cross
section of the beam is 230 mm x 500 mm with a clear cover of 25 mm. The tension
reinforcement consists of 4 16 mm dia. HYSD bars. If the grade of concrete is M20
determine the short term deflection of the beam due to load and shrinkage.
Shrinkage strain is 0.003.
(Ans). Ast
m

=4 * 201 =804 mm2.

280
280

13.33
3cbc 3 * 7

fck

20 N/mm2,

fy =415 N/mm2

Ec 5000 fck 5000 * 20 22360 N / mm 2

Modulus of rupture fcr =


Effective depth, d

0.7

fck 0.7 *

20 3.13 N / mm 2

=500-25-16/2 = 467 mm.

Loads
Super imposed load

= 22 kN/m.

Self weight
Total load

= 0.23 *0.5 * 25 * 1 =2.76 kN/m.


= 24.76 kN/m.

Max. Short term deflection


a sd

5
Wl 4
*
384 EcI eff .

whereI eff

Ir
[ Annex.CofIS 456]
x bw
Mr z
1.2
1

d b
M d

Where Ir = M. I. of cracked section.


To Find Depth of N. A:
bx 2
mAst ( d x )
2
230 x 2
13.33 * 804 * (467 x)
2

115*x2+10693.2*x-4993724.4=0
x = 167 mm.
z = d-x/3 = 467 167/3 = 411.3 mm.
Moment of inertia of cracked section
Ir =

bx 3
mAst ( d x) 2
3

230 * 167 3
13.33 * 804 * ( 467 167) 2
3

1.32 * 10 9 mm 4

Gross moment of inertia


I gross

bD 3 230 * 500 3

2.396 * 10 9 mm 4
12
12

Mr = Cracking moment =

f cr I gross
yt

where Yt

500
250mm
2

3.13 * 2.396 * 10 9
30kN .m.
250
Wl 2
24.76 * 3.5 2

37.9kN .m.
8
8

Effective moment of inertia

I eff

1.32 *10 9
167
30 411.3
1.2

1
*1
467
37.9 467

1.755 * 10 9 mm 4

I r I eff I gross .

asd

O.K.

5
24.76 * 3.5 4 * 1012
*
1.23mm
384 22360 * 1.755 * 10 9

Shrinkage Deflection:
acs

k3csl2

Where k3 = 0.125 for S. S. Beam


cs shrinkage Curvature = k4 (cs/D)
[Annex. C of IS456).
Pt

100 Ast 100 * 4 * 201

0.75%
bd
230 * 467

Pc

100 Asc
0
bd

cs Ultimate shrinkage strain of concrete = 0.003.


Pt Pc = 0.75 0 = 0.75 < 1.0
Pt Pc
1.0
Pt

Equation for k4 = 0.72

0.75 0
0.62
0.75

0.72

cs = 0.62 *(0.003/500) = 3.74 * 10-7


acs = 0.125 * 3.74 * 10-7 * 35002 = 0.573 mm.
(d) Creep deflection:
The creep deflection due to permanent loads a cc per. is
a cc( per. ) = a i ,cc(per) a i (per)
where a i ,cc(per) = initial plus creep deflection due to permanent loads obtained
using an elastic analysis with an effective modulus of elasticity, Ece.
Ece = Ec/(1+); being creep coefficient.=1.6 at 28 days (ref. 6.2.5.1)
Ece = Ec/(1+1.6) = Ec/2.6
a i , (per) = short term deflection due to permanent loads using Ec.
As per cl.23.2(a) the max. permissible long term deflection should not exceed
span/250

= 3500/250 = 14mm.
Actual deflection = 3.77mm < permissible value of deflection

(o.k)

a cc( per. ) = a i cc( per. ) - a i ( per. )


a i cc( per. ) = initial + creep deflection due to permanent loads obtained by using the effective
modulus of elasticity Ece
Ece = Ec/(1+)
= creep coefficient = 1.6 at 28 days(ref 6.2.5.1)
Ece = Ec/(1+1.6) = Ec/2.6 = 22360/2.6 = 8600
Modular ratio, m = Es/Ece = 2*10^5/8600 = 23.26
Let us recalculate Ieff.
Depth of N. A:
bx 2
mAst ( d x )
2
230 x 2
23.26 * 804 * ( 467 x)
2

115*x2+18697.7*x-8731814=0
x = 206 mm.
z = d-x/3 = 467 206/3 = 398.3 mm.
Ir =

bx 3
mAst ( d x) 2
3

230 * 206 3
23.26 * 804 * (467 206) 2
3

1.944 * 10 9 mm 4
M

Wl 2
0.5 * 38 19kN .m.
8

Assuming 50% of total load as permanent load.


Effective moment of inertia

I eff

1.944 * 10 9
206
30 398.3
1.2

1
*1
467
19 467

4.345 * 10 9 mm 4
I eff I gross .

so I eff I gross . =2.396*109 mm4.

a i cc( per. ) = (5/384)*[wL4/Ece*Ieff]


= (5/384)*[(0.5*24.8*35004)/(8600*23.96*108)] = 1.18mm
a i ( per. ) = (5/384)[(wL4)/(Ec*Ieff)] = (5/384)*[(0.5*24.8*35004)/( 22360*17.55*108)]
= 0.62mm
a cc( per. ) = a i cc( per. ) - a i ( per. )
= 1.18-0.62 = 0.56mm
Total deflection = 1.23+0.573+0.56
= 2.36mm < l/250 = 3500/250 = 14mm

(o.k)

The beam is safe in deflection.


CRACKING
Cracking in R.C.C. members develop due to various reasons
(1) Excessive flexural tensile stresses due to bending under applied loads since the
tensile strength of concrete is only a tenth of its compressive strength.
(2) Differential shrinkage, creep, thermal and aggressive environmental effects.
(3) Settlement of supports and excessive curvature due to continuity effects.
(4) Shear and diagonal tension cracks.
(5) Splitting cracks along with reinforcement due to bond and anchorage failure.
The various specifications prescribed in the codes regarding detailing of
Reinforcements are generally meant to reduce the width of cracks to allowable limits.
As per code (cl.35.3.2) cracks should not adversely affect the appearance or durability
of the structure.
Codal crack width limits:

When the structural member is completely protected against aggressive


environmental conditions, the surface crack width shall be limited to 0.3mm.For
aggressive environments the crack width shall be limited to 0.004*cover using a nominal
cover of 25mm, limiting crack width work out to 0.1mm.
For structures exposed to moderate environmental conditions, the limiting crack
width may be taken as 0.2mm.
Calculation of crack width:
Factors influencing crack width.
(1) Stress in steel
(2) Thickness of concrete cover.
(3) Spacing of bars.
(4) Portion of concrete below N.A. under tension (d-x).
The empirical formula for the design surface crack width, w cr is expressed
as

w cr = (3*a cr *m)/ [1+2((a cr - cmin )/(h-x))]

c
x
h
d

d-x
h-x
c
m
bt

1
where a cr = distance from the point considered to the surface of the nearest longitudinal
bar = [(0.5s) + cmin ]
where s

= spacing between bars

cmin = min. cover to the longitudinal bar


x
h

= depth of neutral axis


= overall depth

m = average strainat the level of steel when cracking, bending considered.


m = 1-

b(h-x)(a-x)
3Es*As(d-x)

1 = strain at the level considered


b = width of section
As = area of tension steel
a = distance from the compressive face to the point at which crack width is being
considered =h
1 = (fs/Es)[(h-x)/(d-x)]
fs = stress at the centroid of tension reinforcement.
Maximum width of cracks:
C min, clear cover = 25mm

Spacing of tension steel

D =500mm

S = (230-2*25-2*16/2)/3 = 54.7mm.
acr = (54.7/2)+25

= 37mm

h-x

Ast=4-16

d-x

y=300

crack width will be max. at the soffit of the


beam.

h, overall depth = 500mm.


1 = (fs/Es)[(h-x)/(d-x)]
fs = m(M*y/Ir)
where y= d-x = 467-167 =300mm.
M = bending moment at the section = 37.9*106N-mm.
Ir = cracked M.I. = 13.2*108 mm4.
fs = 13.3(37.9*106*300/13.2*108 )
= 114.56N/mm.
1= (114.56/2*105)[(500-167)/(467-167)]
= 6.3*10-4
m = 1-

b(h-x)(a-x)
3Es*As(d-x)

= 6.3*10-4-

230(500-167)(500-167)

3*2*105*804*(467-167)
= 0.00046 or 4.6*10-4
w cr = (3*a cr *m)/ [1+2((a cr - cmin )/(h-x))]
= (3*37 *4.6*10-4)/ [1+2((37 - 25)/(500-167))]
= 0.047mm.