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MBA III RD SEM Theoretical knowledge is the fundamental weapon for any management student. But apart

Theoretical knowledge is the fundamental weapon for any management student. But apart from theoretical studies we need to experience a deeper insight into the practical aspects of those theories by working on research project report. This is a period in which a student can apply his theoretical knowledge on practical field. Primarily practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge have a very vast difference. So this research project report work has high importance as to know how both the aspects can be applied together. The study of marketing strategies acquires most crucial position in the business administration. In order to be successful, it is necessary to give priority to the marketing department in an organization. But it can’t be denied that the study of management would be more educational, materialistic and even more interesting, if it is to be paired with the research work. The session helps to get details about the marketing process in the organizations. It has helped me to know about the organizational marketing management process and strategies, which has its own importance. The research is going to be a life long experience. Market Research is indeed an Ancient Art; it has been practiced in one form of the other since the day of Adam and Eve. Its emergence is of relatively recent origin for success of any business and with in this relatively short period, it has joined and carries great deal of importance and stature. Management in India is heading



towards a better profession as compared to other professions. The demand for professional managers is increasing day by day. To achieve professional competence, manager ought to be fully occupied with theory and practical exposure of management. A comprehensive understanding of the principle will increases their decision-making ability and sharpens their tools for this purpose. During the curriculum of management programmers a student has to attain a practical exposure of research project in addition to theory he studies. This research report is about the “New prospect of radio market” during the curriculum of MBA from “Shri Siddhi Vinayak Institute of Management R.B.M.I., Bareilly”.

Theory without practice sterile, while practice without theory is blind”



No work of great significance can be under taken and accomplished to one’s satisfaction without the

No work of great significance can be under taken and accomplished to one’s satisfaction without the help and guidance of other. It will rank in gratitude on my part to acknowledge all those persons who rendered their support. The main purpose of this research is to identify the impact of marketing strategies on detergent consumption. In this report I have put my liniest effort to compile the data with utmost accuracy and give our view to the best of our judgment according to data. I would like to thank Mr.Ajay Kumar Verma(Cluster Head,Radio Mantra) who gave their guidance and help which made it possible to complete my work successfully.

At last, I would thank the ultimate power God who made the conditions favorable & comfortable to make my work easy today for me.




TABLE OF CONTENT CONTENT Cover Page Certificate of college PAGE NO. Preface 2-3 Acknowledgement 4 Table



Cover Page Certificate of college






Table of content








Research Methodology Research Objective Research Design Sample Plan Sample Unit Research Instrument CHAPTER III Data Analysis and Findings


CHAPTER IV Recommendation & Suggestion





Limitation of Research











Who Invented Radio

Tesla, Marconi and Stubblefield

In 1893 a Serbian, Nikola Tesla, suggested a means of conduction using the Earth. He invented the Tesla coil which created high frequency oscillations. In 1895 Marconi experimented with Hertzian waves and was able to send and receive messages over a mile and a quarter. He made great strides when he created transmission between two ships 12 miles apart. He then solicited and secured investors for the Marconi Wireless Telegraph company, the first to commercialize wireless. He was 23. By 1899 he had covered distances of 74 miles. In 1899 he adopted Sir Oliver Lodge's principles of tuning circuits, perfecting them and obtaining a patent in 1900. In December 1901 when Marconi sent the first transatlantic signal, inventor H. Otis Pond told Tesla, "Looks like Marconi got the jump on you." Tesla replied, "Marconi is a good fellow, let him continue. He is using 17 of my patents." Tesla's attitude toward Marconi later changed after years of litigation between them. Tesla later referred to Marconi as "a donkey."

Tesla had come up with something different and superior to that of Hertz's original ideas. He developed a series of high frequency alternators producing frequencies up to 33,000 cycles per second (33,000 Hz). This, of course, was the forerunner to high frequency alternators used for continuous wave Radio communication. Tesla went on to build the Tesla coil, an air-core transformer with primary and secondary coils



tuned to resonate a step-up transformer which converts low-voltage high current to high-voltage low current at high frequencies. It is used today in all Radios and televisions.

In 1892, a Kentucky farmer and inventor, Nathan Stubblefield, publicly demonstrated wireless. Not only did he broadcast signals, but he also was able to broadcast voice and music. He demonstrated wireless again in 1898 to a documented (by The St. Louis Dispatch) distance of 500 yards. He demonstrated a ship-to-shore broadcast on the Potomac River in Washington, D.C., on March 20, 1902, and received patent number 887,357 for wireless telephone on May 12, 1908. Stubblefield was so afraid that someone would steal his invention, he sheltered it from everyone. He had been offered $500,000 for his invention but turned it down because he felt it was worth more. Stubblefield envisioned the device in motorcars (as shown on his patent). Following another demonstration in Washington his "secret box" with his apparatus inside was stolen (documented February 13, 1912) and he believed his invention was copied. Nathan B. Stubblefield died of starvation and a pauper in Murray, Kentucky, after going into seclusion because of his failed attempts for acceptance



Fessenden, De Forest & Fleming

In 1900, Professor Reginald A. Fessenden realized that Marconi's work was limited to telegraphy and wanted to find a way to transmit and receive telephony (voice). He began experimenting with continuous wave transmissions which led to the perfection of the arc transmitter. He also developed an alternator, similar to todays alternating current, with a higher frequency and thus eliminated the spark gaps which wasted energy. His work was to become a major milestone in the development of Radio. Simultaneously Lee De Forest built a wireless outfit, also less cumbersome than Marconi's. He used the electrolytic detector as did Fessenden, which later created legal conflicts between the two. (De Forest spent years in litigation with many other inventors and was often accused of taking credit for the inventions of others).

In 1904 J. Ambrose Fleming developed his two-element (diode) valve (The Fleming Valve) while working for Marconi. Though significant, the invention was short-lived due to De Forest's invention of a three-element (triode) valve, which later became the audion tube, said to be the most significant invention in Radio. Unfortunately DeForest could not interest the public in buying stock in his company and he was forced to sell the rights to the American Telephone and Telegraph company for $500,000. The decision made by AT&T was thought to be foolish at the time, but later proved to be the investment that made the company.



On Christmas Eve in 1906 Fessenden delighted listeners up and down the East Coast by broadcasting voice and music from his transmitter at Brant Park, Massachusetts, using a high frequency alternator based on Teslas designs and principles. The program consisted of music from phonograph records, a violin solo, and a speech by the inventor. Fessendens program did not prove to be a pioneering effort, however. For several years Radio remained a communications medium devoted to sending and receiving messages. It proved especially valuable to the armed forces during World War I. The broadcasting potential was not realized until after the war, though David Sarnoff in 1916 envisioned the possibility of a Radio receiver in every home. (He later became head of the Radio Corporation of America and the National Broadcasting Company.) In 1907 G.W. Pickard discovered that minerals made an excellent detector which led to the invention of the crystal detector. It was not only effective but inexpensive which made the availability of wireless receivers more widespread

The Radio Act of 1912

In 1910 the government required all ships to have a wireless telegraph. In 1912 the Titanic hit an iceberg and sent the first SOS signal which was heard by a nearby ship that came to the rescue of many survivors. It was later learned that another ship was closer, which would have resulted in more lives being saved, but that ship only had one wireless operator on board who happened to be "off-watch" at the time the Titanic went down. That resulted in the Radio Act of 1912, requiring that



two operators be employed on all ships with constant watch. When the Titanic sunk, a young wireless operator was stationed at the Wanamaker Radio station in New York City to receive signals between the distressed ship and its rescuers,

reports about the rescue work, and a list of the survivors so that the anxious world

could be advised. This kid stayed at the telegraph for 72 hours. His name


... Sarnoff. It was this event that made the public aware of the importance of the wireless. In 1913 Edwin H. Armstrong (who much later invented FM Radio) created a way to increase the sensitivity of receivers. This regeneration system ended up in litigation with De Forest who claimed he was the inventor. Ultimately De Forest prevailed. De Forest also continued to perfect the audion tube he had sold to AT&T. It now had the ability to function as an oscillator (generator of high frequencies). This led to the oscillator circuit created by W.E. Hartley. The result was improved long-distance transmission of speech, the forerunner of Radio broadcasting

The First Stations

In 1916 an amateur operator and engineer for Westinghouse Electric began broadcasting programs from his garage on amateur station 8XK in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. The broadcasts were enthusiastically received by other Radio amateurs who liked hearing wireless music. The broadcasts resulted in a newspaper article which generated such interest, that Westinghouse decided to build a station for the purpose of broadcasting. The station, KDKA, was rushed to launch its first broadcast for the election returns of the Harding-Cox presidential race. It was the



first programming to reach a sizable audience (perhaps 1,000 persons mainly ham and amateur Radio operators). The returns were read by Leo Rosenberg, who later

claimed to be the first professional Radio announcer. KDKA also hired the first full- time announcer Harold W. Arlin, who became the first sportscaster to do play-by- play football. The newspapers (2,000 across the country) having not yet realized that they were promoting a competitor, were so enamored with the medium that they printed daily broadcast schedules. KDKA broadcast the first remote, the first religious service, the first broadcast from a theater, and the first prizefight, all in


The first commercial was claimed to be sent out over WEAF in New York City in 1922, however that is disputed because in KDKAs initial broadcasts announcers mentioned a record store in exchange for records to play on the air, as did KQW announcers in San Jose, California. (It's interesting to note that Westinghouse, which owned KDKA, was founded by George Westinghouse, the first owner of an electric company to employ the principles of alternating current. These principles were obtained through a relationship with Nikola Tesla who held the patent, and also had the patent on wireless transmission.)



But was KDKA the first station? Though its November 2, 1920 debut is considered the official start of Radio broadcasting, others were doing the same prior to KDKA. Earlier that same year, in Detroit, WWJ using call letters 8MK began regular broadcasts. And much earlier, in 1912, Charles David Herrold began regular, continuous broadcasts of music and information in San Jose. The amateur station was well-known around the Bay area. It eventually became KQW and then KCBS.

In 1913 the physics department at Iowa State University began wireless demonstrations and is documented by a newspaper article to have done one such demonstration at the Iowa State Fair in 1915. It became station 9YI and later WOI. With groundwork dating back to 1904, the University of Wisconsin in Madison experimented with voice and music transmission in 1917. Their calls were 9XM, and later.

Radio's Father

So who was the father of Radio? We have credited Marconi traditionally, however there is much doubt that he is the true father of Radio. He was very industrious, highly inventive, and had the strongest and most successful entrepreneurial spirit of any of Radio's fathers. He made excellent commercial applications for wireless telegraphy. However our exhaustive research points to the father of Radio as Nikola Tesla who had disclosed wireless and the technology at a lecture in 1893, preceding Marconi's wireless inventions and practical demonstrations. In fact, a Supreme



Court case in 1943 ruled that Tesla was the father of Radio. Marconi's first patent was issued in 1900 and Tesla's in 1898.

But what about Nathan Stubblefield who had demonstrated wireless in 1892? If you go to the town square in Murray, Kentucky, you'll find a statue of Stubblefield inscribed with the words "Murray, Kentucky, Birthplace of Radio" Could it be that a forward-thinking albeit eccentric farmer from Kentucky outwitted the intellects of Tesla, Marconi, Edison (who once worked on wireless experiments and also won a suit against Marconi for patent infringement) and others? You will recall that after being very protective of his proprietary knowledge, Stubblefield's apparatus was stolen following a demonstration in Washington, D.C. Could it have surfaced as someone else's invention? Documents prove his early demonstrations of an actual working wireless system to have occurred one year before Tesla's lectures about

Radio which were prior to his working experiments. No one will ever know for sure.

The Supreme Court ruled that Tesla is the father of Radio

and Marconi is not.

... The question remains whether the honor should really go to Stubblefield.



History of Indian Radio

According to the history of Indian Radio, radio broadcast started in India with the

setting up of a private radio service in Chennai, in the year 1924. In that same year, British government gave license to the Indian Broadcasting Company, to launch Radio stations in Mumbai and Kolkata. Later as the company became bankrupt, the government took possession of the transmitters and began its operations as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. In the year 1936, it was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and the Department of Communications managed it entirely. After independence, All India Radio was converted into a separate Department. All India Radio has five regional headquarters in New Delhi, for the North Zone; in Kolkata, for the East Zone; in Guwahati, for the North-East Zone, in Mumbai, for the West








In the year 1957, All India Radio was renamed Akashvani, which is controlled by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. During the period of independence only a mere 6 radio stations existed through out the country. But during the late 1990s, the network of All India Radio extended to almost 146 AM stations. Moreover the Integrated North-East Service focused on reaching to the population in northeast India. All India Radio offers programmes in English, Hindi and numerous regional and local languages. In the year 1967, Commercial Radio services started in



India. The initiative was taken by Vividh Bharati and Commercial Service, from the headquarters in Mumbai. Vividh Bharati accumulated revenues from widespread sponsorships and advertisements. During the mid-1990s, broadcasting was carried








By 1994, there were around 85 FM stations and 73 short wave stations that linked the whole nation. The broadcasting technology in India is basically indigenous and reaches far and wide to various listeners like farmers who require various updated information on agriculture. Between 1970 and 1994, the amount of radio receivers increased manifold, almost five times. From the initial 14 million, the number increased to a staggering 65 million. The broadcast services from foreign countries are provided by the External Services Division of All India Radio. Almost 70 hours of news, entertainment programmes were broadcasted in 1994 in various languages








After Independence, Indian radio was regarded as a vital medium of networking and communication, mainly because of the lack of any other mediums. All the major national affairs and social events were transmitted through radio. Indian radio played a significant role in social integration of the entire nation. All India Radio mainly focused on development of a national consciousness as well as over all National integration. Programming was organised and created keeping in mind the solitary purpose of national political integration. This supported in prevailing over the imperative crisis of political instability, which was created after the Independence. Thus political enhancement and progressive nation building efforts



were aided by the transmission of planned broadcasts. All India Radio also provided assistance in enhancing the economic condition of the country. Indian radio was particularly designed and programmed to provide support to the procedure of social improvement, which was a vital pre-requisite of economic enhancement. The leading development beliefs of the time analysed the problems and hindrances in development as the primary ones in the developing nations. The function of broadcasting paved a way for the surge of modern concepts. Later, with the modernisation of the country, television was introduced and broadcasting achieved new status. But by then, radio had become a veteran medium in India. Diverse programmes including entertainment and melodious songs were also transmitted nationwide. Akashvani or All India Radio still stands as one of the biggest radio networks around the globe.



About Radio Mantra

Radio Mantra is owned and operated by Dainik Jagran Group promoting Shri Puran Multimedia Ltd (SPML). Radio Mantra has presence in eight cities across Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab & Jharkhand. It operates on frequency of 91.9 MHz.

After successfully launching its first radio station in Hisar,Radio Mantra had launch its second station in Karnal on April 5 and Bareilly will follow on April 9. The dry run for Karnal has been on from March 26 while that of Bareilly from March 30.

Rahul Gupta, Director, Radio Mantra, said, “Always being the first to launch in our markets, we are really enjoying creating the buzz and excitement for this new medium in our markets. It’s an amazing feeling cultivating the FM culture and changing the media scenario of a city.”

“We are extremely pleased with the launching of Karnal, which is one of the major towns of Haryana and is prospering at a great pace. With this launch we would have the maximum possible stations in Haryana. We put in a lot of effort in ensuring the best music mix based on our understanding of the market,” Gupta said.



On the Bareilly launch, Gupta said, “The Bareilly launch again is a very special one. It is Radio Mantra's first step in UP, a market that Jagran has dominated for more than 50 years. Although we are new to the FM market, we are very confident. With the help of our research and the guidance of our local experts, we have been able to determine the optimal mix of music and non-music content. We are already on-air playing some great music on our test-runs.”

Gupta said the official launch has been deferred a little to ensure that BECIL could complete the common infrastructure. “From the day of the launch, our signal is unparalleled and definitely uninterrupted,” he said. Radio Mantra follows a strategy of doing test runs for a week to 10 days before its commercial launch. Dry runs enable the station to test and ensure the best broadcast quality, he added.

The marketing activity for the new launches would include print campaign, which will be further extended to some BTL activities supported with outdoor and on-air and on-ground promotional activities.

On the occasion of Radio Mantra's Jalandhar launch, the director of the radio projects, Rahul Gupta, said, "We are riding high on three successful launches in the last month and have proven our newly developed radio expertise. No stone has been left unturned in gearing up for this launch and a lot of hard work has gone into it to get everything right."

Kanan Bhuta, RCS Project Coordinator, Airwaves Traffic, said, "With Airwaves, we were able to offer the Jagran Group a centralised structure that allows for flexible scheduling



of all commercial content in the local stations, as well as enabling them to handle all the billing, payments processing and contract management in one central location."



Regions where Radio Mantra are providing services to their listeners

Radio Mantra is the first FM Channel had launched in Agra and Gorakhpur.

Below is the list of cities, where Radio Mantra gives its service :


State / Territory




  • 91.9 Haryana




Radio Mantra



  • 91.9 Haryana




Radio Mantra



  • 91.9 MHz



Radio Mantra




  • 91.9 Uttar Pradesh


Radio Mantra




  • 91.9 Uttar Pradesh


Radio Mantra




  • 91.9 Uttar Pradesh


Radio Mantra




  • 91.9 Uttar Pradesh


Radio Mantra




  • 91.9 Punjab




Radio Mantra





According to the Radio Mantra,naye jamane ki nayi dhun,Radio Mantra Life ka


Radio Mantra is palce where you will discover all themantra of a life as business

mantra,love mantra,school mantraand many-many mantra,hey there,now tell me who is not

listening Radio Mantra & why??

I am just suggesting all of you to listening Radio Mantra where you can get new-new mantra

of life,which help you get success in life………



start out listening Radio Mantra.



Radio Mantra Revamps its stations, Unveils new Programming

Radio Mantra has revamped its operations in all eight cities where its present.

The Station will don a complete new sound, from station jingle to show intros to

other interstitials along with a couple of new shows. Mantra has also reworked

upon its library and will air music with different genres.

The station had started 'Janta Ka Mantra', a month long campaign to know its

audience preferences and also invited listeners to give their suggestions. Apart

from promoting the campaign on newspaper, the survey was also conducted

online on Facebook.

Talking about the campaign, Radio Mantra national programming head Kanwar

Sameer said, “We really wanted touch base with the audience to get the first

hand feedback and accordingly realign ourselves to their needs and wants,

hence 'Janta Ka Mantra' was rolled out. We wanted to go beyond the IRS and hit

the right chord for which the quintessential part was 'hearing it from the horse's


The new FCP (Fixed Point Chart) was announced on Thursday, 12th May 2011



Mantra has introduced a retro music show called 'Action Replay' from 11am –

1pm which will feature trivia regarding songs, artists and movies from 80's and

90's. From 4 to 6pm, ‘Ticket to Bollywood' will air favorite bollywood stars of

listeners with exclusive interviews and gossips. Mantra has also incorporated

regular show features like 'City Ka Khabri', 'City Ka Zaiqa' and 'City Ka Sitara'

news and happenings of the city.

Apart from the new shows, Mantra has shifted their current request show; 'Mera

Wala Hit' from late mornings to the afternoon time band: 1 to 4 pm. Devotional

music and spiritual talk show 'Arpan' will be a two hour show, from 5 to 7 am



Radio Mantra celebrated four years in Karnal, Bareilly and Jalandhar

Radio Mantra celebrated four years in Karnal, Bareilly and Jalandhar this month. The

celebration was a four day long activity where listeners won prizes, Mantra goodies,

silver coins, food and shopping vouchers every hour.

On the occasion, Radio Mantra national programming head Kanwar Sameer said, “In

these four years, Mantra has set trends and has made constant innovations to engage,

involve, and entertain our ever evolving audience. I'm confident that we'll continue to

stay in their hearts and remain at the top.”

Mantra continues to hold the number one position in all the cities and has shown

consistent growth over the years. According to the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) 2010

Q4 data on the radio industry, released by the Media Research Users’ Council (MRUC),

Radio Mantra grew despite the de-growth in the radio category.



With 5.37 million listeners, Radio Mantra continues to be one of the top five radio

stations in India with its pan India presence in Agra, Bareilly, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, Hisar,

Karnal, Jalandhar and Ranchi. Mantra aims to offer a differentiated listening experience

to its listeners across age groups and all SEC, states the release.

Some of the station campaigns includes RJ-Giri, Chhota Jockey, Music Marathon of the

Decade, Double Hafta Vasool, and CSR activities like Dil Toh Achha Hai Ji: Thandd Se

Jungg, No Tobacco Day, World AIDS Day along with many city-centric



The Radio Mantra 91.9 FM

Private Limited





Key People

Rahul Gupta (Director of the Radio Projects)

Kanwar Sameer (National Programming Head )


Media Service

Radio Mantra have many programme(contains) is given blow:










Help & advice

Tips(beauty, health)

Weather report





Participative Marketing for Local Radio

If you already have a radio station, you probably have a marketing strategy

already, even if it's implicit. But it may be confused or contradictory. By

dragging your marketing strategy - and the assumptions it embodies - into

the light of day, everybody can examine it more clearly, and perhaps even

improve it.

A marketing strategy for a radio station will answer these questions:




























What do we want them to think about this station?

In radio management jargon, those questions are referred to as station

objectives, target audience, and positioning.

Those are questions that any radio station might ask. But a community radio

station can go beyond those, adding questions such as ...






this community?












How can we build a community of listeners, helping them by encouraging

them to communicate with each

other, and not merely

listening to this


These are serious questions. If you live in a rich country, perhaps they seem

overblown. "Radio is such a minor part of people's lives," some broadcasters

say. "How can our station possibly improve the community in any way? How

can we hope to do more than entertain."

But in developing countries, where radio is expensive, a station will have to

justify itself in terms of its social value. For example, in southern Africa

where AIDS is rife, a vital role for radio is in social marketing: getting people

to change their behaviour, for the sake of community health. In those

countries, the success of radio is measured not in terms of audience numbers,

or funds raised, but by changes in life expectancy.

Even in the rich countries, the increasing concentration of commercial power

in the hands of fewer owners means that some ideas are squeezed out by

commercial networks. Anything judged likely to interest less than a majority

of the population can be, in effect, censored. But social trends have to begin

somewhere: they need a platform for discussion. Community radio can be

one of the most effective platforms for having new ideas reviewed and

eventually accepted.

Targeting the whole population

Imagine all the people who live in a station's coverage area as being within a

set of circles, one inside the other, as if caused by a stone thrown into water.

The smallest circles (closest to the centre) represent small numbers of people,

while each successive outer circle represents a larger group of the population.

For each type of listener group involved with a community radio station, let's

considers what types of marketing activity are best suited to it.

For most community stations (moving from the innermost circle toward the

outermost ripple) the main types of listeners include:

People who are closely involved with the station: the full-time and part-time

staff, management committee, volunteers, stringers, etc. This group probably

includes you - because you're involved enough to be reading this book.

The regular listeners. They may spend a lot of time listening to the station, and

some may donate money to it, but they're not involved in any other way.

The occasional listeners. Some will listen to other radio stations more often than

your one, and others will prefer other media (print or TV) but may tune to your

station at the few times they listen to radio. Some will know the station's name

and perhaps its frequency on the dial. Others are accidental listeners. They may

like what they hear, when they occasionally stumble on the station, but they don't

know its name, or how to find it again. (Maybe they're not very interested.)

Non-listeners who live in the station's coverage area. Some will know about the

station and not want to listen, while others have never heard of it, but might like


People who live outside the station's coverage area, and couldn't listen to it even if

they wanted to.

Those five population groups are about the smallest number for creating a useful

marketing strategy. Depending on your station's situation, you might want to

distinguish more groups. For example, you could divide group 3 (occasional

listeners) into two: the deliberate and the accidental listeners.


Other Stakeholders

As well as the above successive ripples in the water, there are a number of smaller

stakeholder groups whose members overlap with the above five categories. These

may be small groups of people, but they can be important to a community station:

Program sources, both people and organizations. These will include government

agencies, local authorities, and other organizations that the station mentions on

news and current affairs programs, as well as organizers of sports matches and

cultural events that are broadcast on radio.

You may want to divide this large group into three:

Those that contact you, wanting material put to air (organizations that send you

press releases, for example);

Organizations that you contact, seeking information: perhaps including local

libraries and government departments; and

Organizations that fall into both of the above categories: local politicians, for


Suppliers of equipment, goods, and services. Local merchants, who will be

interested in your station because they earn money from it.

Advertisers and sponsors. Some will be listeners, others not. Clearly, people who

listen to a station will be more likely to advertise with it.

Representatives of funding agencies. These can include local, regional, and

national government, as well as NGOs. Shareholders of commercial stations are

in this category too.

Competitors: other media that compete for your audience's time, or perhaps your

funding. These include other radio stations that serve your area, local TV stations,

and local newspapers.

Opinion leaders, such as critics, advocates, and analysts. These include other

media that may publish information about your station.

Industry organizations that your station belongs to: perhaps a national

broadcasters' organization, a program-exchange group, a Chamber of Commerce,

and an informal local media coalition.

Have I omitted any of your stakeholder groups? There are usually other groups,

but these vary from one area to another. One example might be an educational

institution that teaches media studies: its students may be a future source of

listeners and workers for your station.

All of these groups have some kind of relationship with your station - some on-

air, some off-air, some both. To survive well, a radio station needs to deal with all

the stakeholders, and to understand their expectations - even if it cannot always

fulfil them.

The need to keep enlarging your audience

When you throw a stone into water, waves flow outwards, and gradually fade to

nothing. Radio audiences are like that, too. If you don't keep "throwing stones into

the water," the audience will slowly drift away. I've seen this happen many times,

with stations that are complacent about their audiences. If the management is

making statements like "They'll have to listen to us, because we really have no

competitors" - that's when it's time to get worried.

But in fact people's habits are constantly changing, because their lives are

changing. Listeners move out of the area, they buy TV sets, their radios break

down; sometimes they die.

So to keep your audience, you must constantly renew it. Many other activities are

vying for people's time, and a radio station has to work hard to keep its audience

at the same size, by replacing every lost listener with a new one. This renewal is a

major task for radio marketing people.

Thinking back to those ripples in the water: you need to encourage people to float

in towards the centre, to replace those who float outward. So let's reconsider the

first 5 stakeholder groups, in reverse order.

People who live outside the coverage area

Though some of them may be able to listen occasionally, you'll be wasting your

time if you set out to attract members of this group. They're really not potential

listeners at all.

People who live in your coverage area, but have never heard of your station

The task is to convert some of them into group 3, by making them aware that your

station exists. It's no use advertising at them on air, because they don't listen to

your station. Chapter 5's section on off-air promotion could be helpful.

Occasional listeners

What can you do to encourage them to become regular listeners? They already

know the station exists, but they may not know the programs, or remember the

frequency. The most common times for the occasional listeners to tune into a

radio station are when the audience is largest, around mealtimes - but not early in

the morning, when many people don't feel like trying new things. If you have

popular programs that attract people who don't otherwise listen to your station,

these programs are a good occasion for promos aimed at occasional listeners. And

if they like what they hear on a promo, it's just possible they'll tune in at some

other time - perhaps around the same time of day, on different days of the week.

Regular listeners

Here we are dealing with people who already spend most of their radio listening

hours with your station. What more could you want from this keen group? Money

from some, perhaps. Others could join your army of volunteers and helpers.

Listeners in the innermost circle

These are the most active listeners, the staff, and the volunteers. They are already

highly involved with the station, and spend a lot of time listening to it. What more

is possible? Well, they usually tire of these busy roles after a few years. Instead of

losing them, why not offer them an opportunity to do something different? If a

person has done something for years, it's all too easy to think of them as being

able to do only that. Specially for volunteers, the chance to learn new skills (or to

use other skills) is a way of keeping them. For any organization that relies on

volunteers, the challenge is how to motivate them well, while remaining valuable

to the organization. Many good people are lost because of poor interpersonal

management - specially if they're not on the paid staff.

Where to focus your marketing effort

You usually find that most of the hours with the station are spent by a very small

number of people. This is expressed as the "Pareto principle" or the "80/20" rule:

it happens with almost every human activity, but in the case of community radio

it's more often 90/10 than 80/20. In other words, 10% of your listeners may

account for 90% of your person-hours.

Now consider how you spend your marketing time and budget. Is most of your

marketing effort being spent on the people who have least to do with your station?

(For most stations I've worked with, the answer is Yes.)

Radio listening is a habit, and habits are not easy to change. For most people,

simply noticing an advertisement is not going to make them change their habits.

Most new listeners to a radio station discover it through their friends, or by


When aiming at people within your target audience, persuading them to become

listeners, how should you choose who to aim at? Should you spend resources

trying to persuade non-listeners to tune in, or getting current listeners to listen

more often, or what?

To answer this question, I suggest you use the principle of triage. This is a

military medical concept, invented by the French during the Napoleonic wars.

When there are more battlefield casualties than a field hospital can handle, they

divide the sick into three groups: (a) those who would die anyway, (b) those who

would live anyway, and (c) those who would live only if they were treated. The

top priority is to help the third group.

You can do the same with marketing. Divide the population of your area into three

groups. There are those who already listen to your station, those who will never

listen, and those who might listen if they were persuaded enough. This sounds

reasonable, but the problem is that you can't find out who's in each group, or even

how many are in each group. Unlike the medical situation, it's impossible to pick

out listeners individually.

In practice, the most effective method is to aim your message more at existing

listeners, and hope that some borderline listeners will be convinced.

What I'm suggesting is that instead of wasting your marketing effort on people in

the outer ripple of the target audience - most of whom will never listen anyway -

you should focus on people in the inner ripples.

Because word of mouth is the best source of new listeners, make it easy for your

most faithful listeners to tell others about your station. Give them extra copies of

your program guide, stickers, posters, and so on, so that they can give them to

likely new listeners. Give them special incentives for winning new subscribers.


Why Radio?




Your growth is dependent on reaching new markets and new prospects. There

are a limited number

of consumers

who are


the market


buy your

products and services at any given time and a seemingly unlimited number of competitors who are also trying to attract them. The advertising media you select must be able to effectively reach and positively influence those who are most likely to buy your products and services.

Target Your Best Prospects It's common knowledge that the old "mass" or "shotgun" method is no longer viewed as a viable approach to advertising. Today, target marketing - identifying the best prospects for your products and services and focusing your advertising toward those primary targets - is the most important key to advertising success.

Generate Sufficient Message Frequency To be successful, your advertising program must not only be targeted toward

the right prospects, it must also deliver your message enough times during the course of the purchase cycle to make a favorable impact on the consumer. In other words, to be successful, advertising must be repetitive.

Reach Mobile Consumers To say we live in a highly mobile society may be the understatement of the decade! Your best, most acquisitive customers and prospects typically jam each and every day with nonstop activity - work, school, family,exercise, shopping, and leisure - and they spend their remaining time commuting, mostly by car, from one activity to the other!

Motivate People To Shop And Buy! Your advertising must do more than inform consumers about the products and services you have to offer. It must also make them want to buy those very same items! Experts agree that in order for advertising to be successful, an intangible but very real dynamic must take place between the advertiser and the consumer.


  Establish A Relationship With Consumers

The exploding proliferation of products and services available to consumers in today's marketplace is evidence that, from the consumers' perspective, one

size no longer fits all! It's true for merchandise and it's also true


advertising. Mass media is dead because your customers and prospects insist on being treated as individuals with unique needs and preferences. Meeting this emerging demand is no small challenge.

Break Through Competitive Clutter

The average consumer is bombarded by as many as 3,000 marketing

impressions per day - 3,000 attempts to influence his or her

purchasing behavior. The marketing community calls it media glut

and the situation is not likely to improve over time. In order for your

advertising to be successful, it must break through a barrage of media

clutter. It must sand out from the advertising efforts of all your

competitors in a way that solicits a quick, strong, and favorable

response from your current customers and new business prospects.

\Make A Lasting Impression

They can't buy from you if they can't remember you. The many

options of what to buy and where to buy it can be totally

overwhelming to consumers. That means your advertising must do

even more than be targeted, repetitive, mobile, personal, and intrusive.

It must also place a clear and memorable image in the mind of the


Maximize Your Media Investment

Let's face it you wouldn't be spending your hard-earned dollars on


advertising if you didn't have to! Your media costs are rising, you

have more competitors who continue to expand their advertising

efforts, and deciding where and how much to spend is getting

increasingly complicated. But the fact is that you must advertise to

influence your current customers and protect your market share, and

you must certainly advertise to attract new customers and help your

business grow.

Radio Advertising: Get Sales through Immediate Response

In America, 290 million people own more than 300 million radios! Only radio can take your advertising message to people while they ride bicycles, walk in the park, ride in cars or climb mountains. Radio brings a sense of urgency to its listeners that is second to none

  Contrary to the predictions of doom during the advent of television, radio is alive and well today, and radio advertising is a major part of the plan for advertisers of every size and description.

In its pre-television days, radio was the national advertisers' most economical way to communicate with millions at a time. Syndicated programs of music, drama and news were a common part of the American life-style. With the advent of television, radio moved to the automobile and the beach.

Along came the transistor and radio moved to the shirt pocket. Today radio is every where. Millions awake to the sound of clock radios, and for many the radio is the last sound they hear before going to sleep. How can a small business use this sound-only

medium for effective advertising? Only by understanding it and capitalizing on its strengths.

Today's radio station is judged on its effectiveness not only by the number of its listeners, but also who those listeners are. Many of today's stations have positioned themselves to reach a selective audience instead of a total market.

In one marketplace, one station may play only country-western music, another rock music, a third only religious music, while others feature 24-hour news broadcasts or talk shows.

As an advertiser, format programming allows you to buy advertising on stations whose listener characteristics most closely coincide with the profile of your firm's customers. Buying time on a given station also can help you reach audience segments that you may want to target to help expand your firm's total market segment thus enhancing your direct response method of marketing.

Radio advertising is sold on the basis of time. That time can vary from an entire program, which includes your commercial announcements, top spot announcements ranging from 10 to 60 seconds.

Price ranges are higher during drive time (the hours in the morning and evening when the maximum number of people are in their cars going to or from work, school or other daytime activities) and lower during the time when more people are watching television.

Most stations offer package rate plans with a specified number of commercials guaranteed within a particular time slot. Also, consider buying flights of commercials, i.e., an intense saturation of 30-second or 1-minute spots in a relatively short period of two or three weeks. Repeat this flight technique during key promotional times of the year.

The sounds you can employ on radio include not only the monologue of a man's or woman's voice, but dialogue and dramatic conversations, vocal and instrumental music, and sound effects of every imaginable nature, used individually or in combinations.

The size of radio's audience, like the circulation of newspapers, is audited by independent organizations and available to advertisers through station sales representatives. Arbitron, one of the auditing firms, conducts its survey by having a sample number of households keeping a written diary of the radio listening habits of each occupant during a pre-determined period (usually one week).

Arbitron then summarizes the various stations' listeners by time of day in 15-minute segments by sex and age of listener. An advertiser can use the Arbitron data to select the station or stations that best cover the desired target audience.

Radio advertising frequency is as high as you can afford. Many stations now broadcast 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The number of commercial minutes any station can air in each segment of programming is limited by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), but there is still the opportunity to have a message repeated frequently in any given period. It is also possible to have the radio station come to your business for a remote broadcast with customer interviews, prize giveaways and other crowd-drawing techniques.

Prospects Radio Market

Radio advertizing earn $450 m in india by 2012

Mumbai: With new FM stations mushrooming by the dozen in India, a study says

radio advertising industry will gross Rs 1800 crore ($450 million) by 2012 from

the present Rs 620 crore ($155 million).

Radio advertising was a mere Rs 500 crore industry in 2006, said the joint report

by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (Ficci)


"Approximately 60 per cent of the revenue of the radio advertising industry

comes from the private FM broadcasters and the balance from the state

broadcaster All India Radio (AIR)," said the report released at the Ficci-Frames


"In terms of share of ad pie, it is projected that the Indian radio advertising

industry will be able to increase its share from 3.2 per cent in 2007 to 4 per cent in

the next five years," the report said.

The annual global forum looks at the business aspects of the entertainment and

media industry.

Pitted as one of the Asia's biggest forums on the entertainment

industry, about 2,000 Indian and 500 foreign delegates are here to

discuss the growth and sustainability of the sector by addressin


Advertising is an important and legitimate means for the seller to awaken

interest in his goods and services. The success of advertising depends on public confidence; hence no practice should be permitted which tends to impair this confidence. The standards laid down here should be taken as minimum standards of acceptability which would be liable to be reviewed from time to

time in relation to the prevailing norm of listeners susceptibilities.

The following standards of conduct are laid down in order to develop and promote healthy advertising practices in All India Radio. Responsibility for the observance of these rules rests equally upon the Advertiser and the Advertising Agency.

All those engaged in advertising are strongly recommended to familiarize themselves with the legislation affecting advertising in this country, particularly the following Acts and the Rules

II GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT IN ADVERTISING:Advertising shall be designed as to confirm to the laws of the country and should not offend against morality, decency and religious susceptibilities of the people.

No advertisement shall be permitted which:

Derides any race, caste, color, creed and nationality; is against any of the directive principles, or any other provision of the Constitution of India;

tends to incite people to crime, cause disorder or violence, or breach of law or glorifies violence or obscenity in any way; presents criminality as desirable;adversely affects friendly relations with foreign States;exploits the national emblem, or any part of the constitution or the person or personality of a national leader or State Dignitary;relates to or promotes cigarettes and tobacco products, liquor, wines and other intoxicants;No advertisements message shall in any way be presented as News.No advertisements shall be permitted the objects whereof are wholly or mainly of a religious or political natures; advertisement must not be directed towards any religious or political end or have relation to any industrial dispute.

Proviso: "But advertisements in the form of spots and jingles on payment of prescribed fees,from Political parties / Candidates / any other person shall be accepted only in respect of General Elections to Lok

Sabha / General Elections to the State Assemblies / General Elections to Local bodies during the period when the model Code of Conduct is in force. Such advertisements shall be subject to pre-broadcast scrutiny by the Election Commission of India / authorities under the Election Commission of India in respect of elections to Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies and State Election Commissions in the case of Local bodies. " (As per DG: AIR's I.D.No. 15/3/2008-PIV dated November 20, 2008).

Advertisements for services concerned with the following shall not be accepted:-

Money lenders,Chit funds,Saving schemes and lotteries other than those conducted by Centeral and State Government organisations, nationalised or recgonised banks and public sector undertakings,Matrimonial agencies;

Unlicenced employment service. Fortune tellers or sooth-sayers etc. and those with claims of hypnotism.

Foreign goods and foreign banks.

Betting tips and guide books etc. relating to horse-racing or the other games of chance.

The items advertised shall not suffer from any defect or deficiency as mentioned in Consumer Protection Act 1986.

No advertisement shall contain reference which are likely to lead the public to infer that the product advertised or any advertised or any of its ingredients has some special or miraculous or super-natural property or quality, which is difficult of being proved, e.g. cure for baldness, skin whitener, etc.

No advertisement shall contain the words Guarantee or by the Directorate General, All India Radio, are clearly set out in the advertisement and are made available to the purchaser in Guaranteed etc., unless the full terms of the guanrantee are available for inspection the writing at the point of sale or with the goods; in all cases, terms must include details of the remedial action available to the purchaser. No advertisement shall contain a direct or implied reference reference to any guarantee which purports to take away or diminish the legal rights of the purchaser.

Advertisers or the agents must be prepared to produce evidence to substantiate any claims or illustrations. The Director General reserves the right to ask for such proofs and get them examined to his full satisfation. In case of goods covered by mandatory quality control orders, the advertiser shall produce quality certificate from the institutions recognised by the Government for this purpose.

Advertisements shall not contain disparaging of derogatory references to another product or service.

Testimonials must be genuine and used in a manner not to mislead the listeners. Advertisers or Advertising Agencies must be prepared to produce evidence in support of their claims.

No advertisement of any kind of jewellery (except artificial jewellery) or precious stones shall be accepted.

Information to consumers on matters of weight, quality or prices of products where given shall be accurate.

Advertisements indicating price comparisons or reductions must comply with relevant laws.

No advertisement shall be accepted which violates AIR Broadcast Code which is reproduced below:-


Criticism of friendly countries.

Attack of religious or communities.

Anything obscene or defamatory;

Incitement to violence or anything against maintenance of law and order;

Aspersions against the integrity of the President and Judiciary;

"Note: Advertisements concerning jewellery, foreign goods and foreign banks, besides those related to Indian Equity / Debenture issued for NRIs will, however, be accepted as far as the external services of All India Radio are concerned."

anything affecting the Anything amounting to contempt of court;

integrity of the Nation and criticism by name of any person.

Any such effects which might startle the listening public must not be incorporated in advertisements. For example, and without limiting the scope, the use of the following sound effects will not be permitted:

Rapid gunfire or rifle shots;Sirens;Bombardments;Screams;Raucous laughter and the like.

Any pretence in advertising copy must be avoided and such copy shall

not be

accepted by All India Radio. The `simulation of voices of a personality in connection with advertisements for commercial products is also prohibited unless bonafide evidence is available that such personality has given permission for the simulation and it is clearly understood that station broadcasting such announcements are indemnified by the advertiser or advertising agency against any possible legal action.


No advertising for a product or service shall be accepted if it suggests in any way that unless the children themselves buy or encourage other people to buy the products or services, they will be failing in their duty or lacking in loyalty to any person or organisation.

No advertisement shall be accepted which leads children to believe that if they do not own or use the product advertised they will be inferior in some way to other children or that they are liable to the condemned or ridiculed for not owning or using it.

No advertisement likely to bring advertising into contempt or disrepute shall be permitted. Advertising shall not take advantage of the superstition or ignorance of the general public.

No advertising of talismans, charms and character-reading from photographs or such other matter as well as those which trade on superstition of general public shall be permitted.

Advertising shall be truthful, avoid distorting facts and misleading the public by means of implications by false statements, as to :

The character of the merchandise, i.e. its utility, materials, ingredients, origin etc.

The price of the merchandise, its value, its suitability or terms of purchase.

The services accompanying purchase, including delivery, exchange, return, repair, upkeep etc.

Personal recommendations of the article or service.

The quality or the value of competing goods or trustworthiness of statement made by others.

Testimonials of any kind from experts etc. other than Government recognised standarisation agencies shall not be permitted.

No advertisement shall be permitted to contain any claim so exaggerated as to lead inevitably to disappointment in the minds of the public.

Methods of advertising designated to create confusion in the mind of the consumer as between goods by one maker and another maker are unfair and shall not be used. Such methods may consist in:

The imitation of the trademark of the name of competition or packaging or labeling of goods; or

The imitation of advertising devices, copy, layout or slogans.

Indecent, vulgar, suggestive, repulsive or offensive themes or treatment shall be

avoided in all advertisements. This also supplies to such advertisements which

themselves are not objectionable as defined above, but which advertise

objectionable books, photographs or other matter and thereby lead to their sale and


No advertisement in respect of medicines and treatments shall be accepted

which is in contravention of the code relating to standards of advertising medicines

and treatments.

In all other respect, the Director General will be guided for purposes of

commercial broadcasting in All India Radio by Code of Ethics for Advertising in

India as modified from time to time .

Notwithstanding anything contained herein, this code is subject to such

modification/ directions as may be made / issued by the Director General from

time to time.

All advertising agencies shall adhere to the standards of practice as prescribed by Advertising Agencies Association of India, Bombay


Complaints or reports on contraventions of the code, received by All India Radio

may in the first instant be referred by Director General to Advertisers Association

concerned with request for suitable action.

If complaints under the Code cannot be satisfactorily resolved at Association-

(s)s level, they shall be reported to Director General who

will than consider

suitable action.

For ant Complaints under the Code received by All India Radio concerning a

party outside the preview of various member Association(s), the Director General

will draw attention

Along with the development of a very complex distribution system, the

requirements of a market economy, faced with the need for ensuring a regular flow

of mass production, have given rise to the development of new techniques of sales


Of these, advertising has proved itself to be of inestimable value for

producers and distributors as well as for consumers. It enables the former to

maintain contact with customers who are widely scattered and often unknown, and

it assist the latter in choosing those goods and services that are the best suited to

their particular requirements.

Advertising has become an important social and economic force in the

world today. It is therefore, essential that any unfair advertising practice likely to

alienate public confidence would be eliminated. Hence the need for rules of

conduct drawn up for the purpose of preventing possible abuse and of promoting

and increasing sense of responsibily towards the consumer on the part of the

advertisers, advertising agencies and media owners and suppliers.

Recognising that the legitimate function of advertising is the advocacy of

the merits of particular products or services, this code is intended to be applied in

the spirits as well as in the letter and should be taken to set out the minimum

standards to be obsereved by the parties concerned. This code does override all

ethical standards in advertising laid down by individual organisations, but it does

not supersede the standards of practice laid down by individual organisations as

incumbent upon their own members and appling to their own particular trade or





This code has bee drafted for the guidance of advertisers, manufactures,

distributors, advertising agents, publishers and suppliers or various advertising

media. The harm to the individual that may result from exaggerated, misleading

or unguaranteed claims justified the adoption of a very high standard and the

inclusion of considerable detail in a Code to guide those who are concerned

with this form of advertising.

Newspaper and other advertising media are urged not to accept

advertisements in respect of any other product or treatment from any advertiser

or advertising or publicity relating to that product or treatment. The provisions of

this Code do not apply to an advertisement published by or under the authority

of a Government, Ministry or Department, nor to an advertisement published in

journals circulated to Registered Medical Practitioners, Registered Dentists,

Registered Pharmacists or Registered Nurses.

General Principles:

Cure: No advertisement should contain a claim to cure any ailment or symptoms

of ill-health, nor should any advertisement contain a word or expression used in

such a form or context as to mean in the positive sense the extirpation of any

ailment, illness or disease.

Illness etc., properly requiring medical attention : No advertisement should

contain any matter which can be regarded as offer of medicine or product for, or

advise relating to, treatment of serious diseases, complaints, conditions, indications

or symptoms which should rightly receive the attention of a Registered medical

practitioner (see Sec.2).

Misleading or Exaggerated Claim : No advertisement should contain any

matter which directly or by implication misleads or departs from the truth as to the

composition, character or action of the medicine or treatment advertised or as to its

suitability for the purpose for which it is recommended.

Appeals to fear: No advertisement should be calculated to induce fear

on the part of the reader that he is suffering, or may without treatment suffer

from an ailment, illness or disease.

Diagnosis or treatment by correspondence: No advertisement should

offer to diagnose by correspondence diseases, conditions or any symptoms of

ill-health in a human being or request from any person or a statement of his or

any other persons symptoms of ill-health with a view to advertising as to or

providing for treatment of such conditions of ill-health by correspondence. Nor

should any advertisement offer to treat by correspondence any ailment, illness,

disease or symptoms thereof in a human being.

Disparaging references: No advertisement should directly or by

implication disparage the products, medicines or treatments of another advertiser

or manufacturer or registered medical practitioner or the medical profession.

College, clinic, institute, laboratory : No advertisement should contain

these or similar terms unless an establishment corresponding with the

description used does in fact exist.

Doctors, hospitals etc.: No advertisement should contain any reference

to doctors or hospitals, whether Indian or foreign, unless such reference can be

sustained by independent evidence and can properly be used in the manner


Products offered particularly to women: No advertisement of

products, medicines or treatments of disorders or irregularities peculiar to

women should contain expression which may imply that the product, medicine

or treatment advertised can be effective in inducing miscarriage.

Family Planning: Advertisements for measures or apparatus concerning

family planning would be permissible in so far as they conform to the generally

accepted national policy in this behalf.

Illustrations: No advertisement should contain any illustration which by

itself or in combination with words used in connection therewith is likely to

convey a misleading impression, or if the reasonable reference to be drawn

from such advertisement infringes any of the provisions of the Code.

Exaggerated copy: No advertisement should contain copy which is

exaggerated by reason of improper use of words, phrases or methods of

presentation e.g., the use of word's magic, magical, miracle, miraculous.

Natural remedies: No advertisement should claim or suggest contrary to

the fact, that the article advertised is in the form in which it occurs in nature or

that its value lies in its being a natural product.

Special claim: No advertisement should contain any reference which is

calculated to lead the public to assume that the article, product, medicine or

treatment advertised has some special property or quality which is in fact

unknown or unrecognised.

Sexual weakness, premature aging, loss or virility: No advertisement

should claim that the product, medicine or treatment advertised will promote

sexual virility or be effective in treating sexual weakness or habits associated

with sexual excess or indulgence or any ailment, illness or disease associated

with those habits. In particular such terms as Premature aging,loss of virility will

be regarded as conditions for which medicines, products, appliances or

treatment may not be advertised.

Slimming, weight reduction or limitation or figure control: No

advertisement should offer any medical product for the purpose of slimming,

weight reduction or limitation or figure control. Medical products intended to

reduce appetite will usually be regarded as being for slimming purposes.

Tonics : The use of this expression in advertisements should not imply

that the product or medicine can be used in the treatment of sexual weakness.

Hypnosis : No advertisement should contain any offer to diagnose or

treat complaints or conditions by hypnosis.

Materials to students : Materials meant for distribution in educational

institutions must not carry advertisement of anything other than those of value

to students.

            \   

            \   



Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can

also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent

information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific

investigation. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the

problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done

scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a

research in studying his research problem along with logic behind them.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The prime objective of this research is to identify

the “New prospects of Radio Market”in Radio Mantra

RESEARCH DESIGN: Mainly descriptive research is used for the study.

Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different

kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of

affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we often

use descriptive research studies. The main characteristics of this method are

that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what

has happened or what is happening.

Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with

describing the characteristic of a particular individual, or of a group, where

as diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something

occur or its association with something else.

SAMPLE PLAN: A sample plan is a definite plan for obtaining a sample for

a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher

would adopt in selecting items for a sample. Sample design may as well lay

down the number of items to be included in sample i.e. the size of the sample.

Sample design is determined before data are collected.

SAMPLE TECHNIQUE: (A)-Primary Data: - for the collection of primary

data, two different methods are used.

Questionnaire: - For the collection of information about detergent products

questionnaires are used. Questionnaire is a set of questions which are related to the

topic by which researcher can collect information from there target respondent.

(B)- Secondary Data: - For the comparative study, it is essential that

researcher have deep and full knowledge about the Media Service companies

for that, related websites and magazines are use as secondary data source.

Sampling Unit: A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling unit before

selecting sample. Sampling unit may be a geographical one such as state,

district, village, etc., or a construction unit such as house, flat, etc., or it may

be a social unit such as family, club, school, etc., or it may be an individual.

The Researcher has decided individual public of Bareilly as there sample for

this research.

Size of sample: It refers to the number of items to be selected from the

universe to constitute a sample. This is the major problem before a researcher. The

size of the sample should be neither too large nor too small. An optimum sample is

one, which fulfills the requirements of efficiency, representative ness, reliability &

flexibility. The sample size taken is 150

Research Instrument: For the collection of information about listeners of the

Radio questionnaire is use as instrument for this research. Questionnaire is

structured and close ended with dichotomous and multiple-choice questions.

Tools and techniques of analysis:- The questionnaire was analyzed and

findings were made on a percentage basis. The findings were graphically

represented through pie diagrams and graphs. Correlation between different

questions was established in order to reach the conclusions.

 Research Instrument : For the collection of information about listeners of the Radio questionnaire is

              DATA ANALYSIS



Sample size: 250

  1. Do you listen to radio ?


(B) No

    INTERPRETATION:   Among 250 peoples 51% respondents thought that yes but


Among 250 peoples 51% respondents thought that yes but 49% respondent

denied that.

      2.Which radio channel do you listen to?

(A) Radio Mantra

(B) Big FM

(C) Others(MW/SW)

         INTERPRETATION:  Among 250 peoples 42% respondents


Among 250 peoples 42% respondents thought that they listen BIG FM,37% RADIO MANTRA & remaining 21% listen Others radio channels.



3. When do you listen to radio?


(A) While traveling

(B) At Home

(C ) At Office

     INTERPRETATION:   Among 250 peoples 29% respondents prefer to listen


Among 250 peoples 29% respondents prefer to listen while traveling , 51% prefer at home & remaining 20% listen at office.

   4. Which device used to you listen to FM?

(A) Only FM receiver

(B) Music System

(C) Car Radio

      INTERPRETATION:   Among 250 peoples 42% respondents used to


Among 250 peoples 42% respondents used to only FM receiver, 35% used to music system & remaining 23% are prefer to car radio.



     5. How much time do you spent in a day listening to FM?

(A)1/2 Hour

(B) 1-2 Hour

(C) 2-4 Hour



       INTERPRETATION:   Among 250 peoples 48% spent ½


Among 250 peoples 48% spent ½ hour to listen FM,21% spent 1-2 Hour,but 31% respondent spent 2-4 Hour in a day.

       6. Do you think the information provided by FM channel is useful?

(A) Yes

(B) No

           INTERPRETATION:   Among 250


Among 250 peoples 59% respondents thought FM channel provided useful information,But 41% respondent denied that.

     7.Are you satisfied with the quality of reception?

(A) Yes


 (A) Yes  (B)No           

       INTERPRETATION:

Among 250 peoples 43% respondent satisfied with the quality of reception, 57% respondent are not satisfied with quality orf reception.

8. During which time of the day do you normally listen FM?

(A) Morning

(B) AM


(D) Night

 8. During which time of the day do you normally listen FM?  (A) Morning


Among 250 peoples 23% respondents listen in morning,21% AM,15%

evening & remaining 41%respondent listen at the radio at night.




From the data analysis and interpretation, I analyze the new prospects of Radio Market.

Most of the peoples (51%) are listen the radio .

Most of the people (42%) are listen the Big FM, while Radio Mantra (37%).

51% peoples can prefer to listen the radio at home,29% while they traveling


& remaining (20%) at they office.

Most of the people prefer (42%) used to FM receiver to listen to radio music


system (35%) used car deck & remaining (23%) radio (transistor)

Most of the people (48)% are listen the radio 1-2 hours,(21%) say that they


listen to radio 2-4,but remaining (31%) spent ½ hour.

Most of people (59%) thought that radio provide the useful information

but 41% respondent denied that.

Most of the respondent (57% )are not satisfied with quality of reception, but


(43%)respondent still satisfied with the quality of recetion.


41% of peoples listen the radio at night,21% at AM,15% evening &


remaining 23% respondent listen the radio at morning.

 From the data analysis and interpretation, I analyze the new prospects of Radio Market. 

              RECOMMENDATION &


(1) Radio listeners is is widely preferred by the youth(Student)

(2) Advertising campaigns which generate huge impulse in the market needs

more aggressiveness and focused approach.

(3) Very less information reached regarding out of the

radio service to their listener.


(4) There sre many others sources to acquiring the


information about market

(5) Expansion of radio market should reach all possible

geographical areas.

(6) Various modes available for entertained to the people.

(7) People can not believe their information about product

because lack of visibility


In this area of changing world where things are changing per minute, quick changes are occurring in sector of radio market (advertisement) entering in this field every day with new modes of advertizing and new marketing strategies which causes the great competition in market. So to attract new clients, companies are now generating new ideas to influence their listeners about the radio(advertising).radio is still working on new marketing strategies. Here in the study, I analyze the Radio’s market are more popular and giving variety services to their listeners and there marketing strategies was also excellent. It is found during this survey that more than 59% peoples are thought that radio providing the useful information. Most of the people(51%) are says that they listen to radio.


The data was collected only from 250 sample size. May be if the sample was

large the result would have been more valid and reliable and could have been easy to generalized the result. If apart from the questionnaire method, interview method

would have been also used, it would have helped in better and deep understanding about the marketing strategies and there impact on consumers. If sample size is large it would have been possible to analyze the data across different grades.I would have given more wide perspectives to understand the perception of respondents.


Principles of Marketing

by: - Philip Kotler

Gary Armstrong

(Published by: Person Education and Dorling Kindersley pvt.ltd.)

Marketing Research

by: - Beri

(Published by: Tata McGraw-Hill) Economic Times (26 Jan 2009) Marketing Doctor Blog “P&G Must Proceed With Cautions,”(07 Oct 08) Economic Time (11 Jun 2008) Business today Outlook INBICS FMCG Sector Report http://www.pg.com/company/our_commitment/corp_gov/2008_Board_of_Dir ectors.pdf http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/Hindustan_Unilever_(HUL-BY)"      


New prospects of Radio mareket


Age: -


Contact no.:-

1. Do you listen to radio ?


(B) No

2.Which radio channel do you listen to?

(A) Radio Mantra

(B) Big FM

(C) Others(MW/SW)

3. When do you listen to radio?

(A) While traveling

(B) At Home

(C ) At Office

4. Which device used to you listen to FM?

(A) Only FM receiver

(B) Music System

(C) Car Radio

5. How much time do you spent in a day listening to FM?

(A)1/2 Hour

(B) 1-2 Hour

(C) 2-4 Hour

6. Do you think the information prvided by FM channel is useful?

(A) Yes

(B) No

7.Are you satisfied with the quality of reception?

(A) Yes


8. During which time of the day do you normally listen FM?

(A) Morning

(B) AM


(D) Night