Unit 1 Revision Notes

Water
 Solvent – substances can easily dissolve in it and be
transported around plants and animals
 Dipolar – The molecule has a negative and positive side;
this means it will completely surround and dissolve negative
or positive ions. (H =positively charged, O =negatively
charged)
 Cohesive – attracts molecules of the same type because it
is dipolar.
Monosaccharides
Single sugar units that provide a rapid source of energy as
they are readily absorbed.

Disaccharides
Two sugar units joined together in a condensation reaction,
where a water molecule is removed, creating a glycosidic
bond.
The glycosidic link can be split by a hydrolysis reaction,
where water is added to the bond.
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Polysaccharides
 Polymers made up from simple sugar monomers, joined by
glycosidic links into long chains.
 2 main types: Starch (plants), Glycogen (animals)
Starch
Amylose
 Insoluble storage molecule
 Unbranched chain of glucose
 Coiled structure-compact
Amylopectin
 Insoluble storage molecule
 Long, branched chain of glucose
 Side branches-easily hydrolysed-glucose released quickly
Glycogen
main energy storage molecule in animals
multiple side branches (more than amylopectin)
very compact molecule – good for storage
insoluble in water
Lipids: Triglycerides
 1 molecule of glycerol, and 3 hydrophobic fatty acid tails
 Insoluble in water
 Joined with ester bonds by condensation reactions and spilt
up with hydrolysis

causing the chain to kink  1 double bond = monounsaturated  2 or more double bonds = polyunsaturated Amino Acids  Joined together by peptide bonds to form polypeptides.Saturated Lipids Mainly found in animal fats Melt at higher temperatures    No double bonds  Every carbon is ‘saturated’ by at least two hydrogen atoms Unsaturated Lipids  Mainly found in plants  Melt at lower temperatures  Double bonds between carbon atoms in tails. formed via condensation reactions .

Proteins  Made from long chains of amino acids  4 Structural Levels: Primary. causing further alteration to the 3D shape Types of Protein Globular  Round and compact  Hydrophilic on outside. Tertiary. disulfide bridges and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions join to create a 3D shape Quaternary Structure  For several different polypeptide chains. hydrophobic on inside  Soluble  Easily transported  Example : Haemoglobin Fibrous  Long. insoluble polypeptide chains . more bonds are formed between the individual chains. Quaternary Primary Structure  The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain  Held together by peptide bonds Secondary Structure  Hydrogen bonds form between the amino acids  Coils into an alpha helix or folds into beta pleated sheets Tertiary Structure  Ionic bonds. Secondary.

making them break up more easily  Lock and Key model -Like a lock and key. enzymes only work with substrates that fit in their active site  Induced Fit Model -The substrate has to be the right shape to fit the active site -As the Substrate binds to the active site. the active site changes according to the shape of the substrate  Enzymes usually only catalyse one reaction. Tightly coiled to form a rope shape  Lots of very strong bonds  Example : Collagen Enzymes Biological catalysts of metabolic reactions Globular proteins Enzyme-Substrate complex -Lowers the activation energy required -Reduces the repulsion between substrates if they need to be joined -Puts a strain on bonds. only one substrate will fit  Active site’s shape is determined by the 3D protein structure  Enzyme concentration increases the rate of reaction -only to a certain point. where the substrate is limited and adding more enzymes has no effect The Circulatory System The    Heart Right = deoxygenated blood to lungs Left = oxygenated blood to body Left Ventricle thicker as has further to push blood .

The Cardiac Cycle Cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts in one heart beat Diastole .

muscular and have elastic tissues  Endothelium is folded. atria contract  Blood moves into ventricles Ventricular Systole  Atria are relaxed. ventricles  Atrioventricular valves close. allowing the artery to expand Veins  Carry blood to heart  Wider lumen.Ventricles and atria relax Semi-lunar valves close Atrioventricular valves open Blood flows into atria Atrial Systole  Ventricles are relaxed. preventing backflow  Blood forced into aorta and pulmonary arteries contract  Blood moves into ventricles Blood Vessels Artery  Carry blood from the heart at high pressure  Thick walls. with thinner walls and less elastic tissues  Have valves to prevent backflow as pressure is lower Capillaries  Small one cell thick  Substances are exchanged between the cells and the capillaries via diffusion  Capillary beds increase the surface area for exchange – increasing the speed of diffusion Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Atherosclerosis .

forming a clot Lipoproteins and Cholesterol High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)  Mainly protein  Transport cholesterol from body tissues to lover where it is excreted  Reduce blood cholesterol level when too high . narrowing the artery and reducing its elasticity  Plaque makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood. resulting in raised blood pressure  Positive feedback system results – as blood pressure increases. in which the heart and brain become starved of oxygen Atherosclerosis Stages  Endothelium cells become damaged due to high blood pressure or smoking  Damage causes an inflammatory response – white blood cells move into the artery wall. and the blood cholesterol accumulates . so does damage to the endothelium Thrombosis Stages  Protein called thromoboplastin is releases from the damaged vessel  Triggers conversion of prothrombin (protein) into thrombin (enzyme)  Thrombin then catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin (solid insoluble fibres)  Fibrin fibres tangle to form a mesh in which platelets and red blood cells get trapped. atheroma (fatty deposit) builds up  Calcium salts and fibrous tissue form a plaque at the site. The disease process that leads to Coronary Heart Disease and strokes  Blocks or increases the arteries chance of being blocked by thrombosis (blood clot)  This can result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.

where it circulates until needed by cells  Increases blood cholesterol when too low Lifestyle Risk Factors for CVD Diet  High level of saturated fats and blood cholesterol increases risk High Blood Pressure  Increases risk of damage to the walls and thus atherosclerosis and thrombosis Smoking  Carbon monoxide – reduces oxygen in cells. which increases risk of endothelium damage Risk Factors of CVD Beyond Control Genetics  Particular alleles make some people more susceptible to high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels Age  Risk of developing CVD increases with age Gender . can lead to heart attack or stroke  Nicotine – makes platelets sticky – increasing chance of thrombosis Exercise  Inactivity increases blood pressure.Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs)  Mainly fatty  Transport cholesterol from the liver to the blood.

Example : dizziness. less chance of cell damage Advantages  Can be combined to work more effectively  Can be monitored at to demonstrate effect Disadvantages  Adverse side effects. depression and drowsiness Plant Statins  Reduce cholesterol in the blood and atheroma formation Advantages  Reduce risk of suffering from CVD Disadvantages  Can reduce the absorption of vitamins from the gut  Hard to obtain enough to reduce cholesterol levels . Men are three times more likely to suffer from CVD than premenopausal women  There is no difference between men and women postmenopause Reducing the Risk Factor Diet  Reduce intake of saturated fats Smoking  Quitting smoking Exercise  Doing exercise regularly Treating CVD : Drug Therapies Antihypertensives (beta blockers)  Reduce high blood pressure.

Example : Rash. align on the outside The hydrophobic tails align on the inside Diffusion Passive (requires no ATP energy) Net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration Moves down the concentration gradient This is too slow for multicellular organisms as the distance to cover is far larger. diarrhoea. they use a different transport medium Gas Exchange Surfaces Adapted for efficient diffusion by large surface area to volume ratio . and nausea Cell Membranes Fluid Mosaic Model Phospholipid molecules form a bi-layer The phosphate heads are hydrophilic.Anticoagulants (Warafin and Heparin)  Reduce blood clotting Advantages  Prevent any new clots forming Disadvantages  Can damage the foetus if taken during pregnancy Platelet Inhibitory Drugs (Aspirin)  Prevent platelets from forming clots Advantages  Can be used to treat people who already suffer from CVD Disadvantages  Side effects.

thin – short diffusion pathways organism maintains steep concentration gradient of gases across the surface Lungs large surface area diffuses out the alveoli through epithelial cells good blood supply from capillaries – exchanging carbon dioxide for new oxygen Alveoli  provide large surface area for gas exchange Features of Alveoli for efficient gas exchange  large surface area to absorb oxygen  moist surface to allow oxygen to dissolve (phospholipid known as lung surfactant which coats the alveoli and prevents them from collapse)  thin lining to allow easy diffusion o gases Features of Capillaries for efficient gas exchange dense network to carry CO2 and O2 large surface area to transport gases Factors affecting the Rate of Diffusion larger the Surface Area the faster the particles will exchange the more concentrated the particles on one side of the membrane the faster they will move to the other less concentrated side Fick’s Law Rate of Diffusion = ∝ Surface area x concentration difference Thickness of exchange membrane or barrier Osmosis  passive (requires no ATP energy) .

and moving it into the cell Exocytosis  used for larger molecules . releasing it on the other side Endocytosis  used for larger molecules  cell takes in substances  cell surrounds a substance with its cell membrane  membrane pinches off to form a vesicle. allowing molecules to diffuse through them Active Transport  uses ATP energy to move molecules and ions across cell membranes across a concentration gradient  ATP is produced during cellular respiration  a molecule attaches to a carrier protein. the net movement of water molecules from an area of their high concentration to an area of their low concentration through a partially permeable membrane  Hypertonic = higher water potential  Hypotonic = lower water potential  Isotonic = no net movement Facilitated Diffusion  some large molecules and charged atoms use carrier and channel proteins to diffuse across a membrane  moves particles down a concentration gradient  passive (no ATP required)  carrier proteins – molecule attaches to protein. moving the molecule across the membrane. causing it to change shape. containing the ingested substance. which then changes shape and releases the molecule on the opposite side of the membrane  channel proteins – form pores in the membrane.

RNA has one Complimentary Base Pairing In DNA  Adenine pairs with Thymine  Cytosine pairs with Guanine In RNA  Adenine pairs with Uracil  Cytosine pairs with Guanine The strands join together by hydrogen bonding Purine  Adenine  Guanine Pyrimidine  Cytosine  Thymine / Uracil DNA’s Semi-Conservative Replication . and ribose in RNA The mononucleotides are joined through condensation reactions  DNA is made of two polynucleotide strands. cells secretes substance  vesicles fuse with the cell membrane. releasing their content outside the cell Genetics DNA    and RNA Polynucleotides – mononucleotides joined together The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose.

suggesting that the new DNA had one original strand and one new strand DNA  Proteins are made from amino acids  A gene is a sequence of bases that codes for the sequence of amino acids  A codon (three bases) codes for each amino acid  Other codons tell the cell when to start and stop the production of proteins  The strands run in opposite directions to each other they are said to be anti-parallel Protein Synthesis: Transcription . The DNA helix unzips. using the enzyme DNA topoisomerase forming two single strands that acts as a template as the helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases  Free mononucleotides join to each template by complimentary base pairing  The mononucleotides are joined by DNA polymerase  Hydrogen bonds form between the bases on the original and new strand  Each molecule contains one strand of DNA and one new strand Evidence: Semi – Conservative Model Experiment conducted by Meselson and Stahl  One test tube contained light nitrogen and one contained heavy nitrogen  When spun in a centrifuge. they appeared respectively at the top and bottom  The heavy nitrogen bacteria was then replicated in the light nitrogen broth  The DNA when spun in a centrifuge again settled in the middle.

catalysed by RNA polymerase  Free RNA nucleotides line up alongside the DNA template with complimentary base pairing  The mRNA moves out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores and attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm Protein Synthesis: Translation In the ribosome. meaning CF sufferers’ mucus is abnormally thick and sticky . hydrogen bonds between DNA strands unzips. the mRNA codes for amino acids The tRNA then collects these amino acids from the cytoplasm and attaches itself to the mRNA via complimentary base pairing This continues across the strand of mRNA.the protein that transports chloride ions out of cells and into mucus. In the nucleus. sticky mucus  Caused by a mutation in the CFTR protein . with the amino acids joining together with peptide bonds The process continues until a stop codon is read The protein then is released from the ribosome Genetic Disorders Mutations Some mutations in the base sequence of DNA or in DNA replication can cause genetic disorders The order of DNA bases in a gene determines which protein are created. a mutation could change the 3D shape of a protein so it does not work properly The genetic disorders can be inherited Cystic Fibrosis  Caused by recessive allele  Causes the production of thick. making it more watery  Mutant CFTR is much less efficient.

 This causes problems in the respiratory. inhibiting the production of enzymes. causing breathing difficulties  The mucus also contains many microorganisms which cannot be removed. digestive and reproductive systems CF and the Respiratory System  Cilia are unable to move the mucus from the lungs to the throat as it is too thick. reducing the ability to digest food and absorb nutrients CF and the Reproductive System Men Tubes in the testicles can be absent or blocked. or severely reduces.preventing digestive enzymes from absorbing nutrients  Mucus can cause cysts in the pancreas. meaning any sperm produced cannot be released Women Thickened cervical mucus prevents. increasing the risk of lung infections CF and the Digestive System  Mucus can block the tube that connects the pancreas to the small intestine . blocking the airways  This reduces gas exchange. the sperms chances of reaching the egg Testing for CF : Genetic Screening  Can confirm a diagnosis  Can identify carriers of the genetic disorder  Can test embryos  Can enable pre-implantation diagnosis when carrying out IVF Amniocentesis  Removing 20cm3 of the amniotic fluid which surrounds the fetus using a needle and syringe  Done at the 16th week of pregnancy .

thus. caused by a recessive allele  The sufferer’s blood do not contain efficient levels of oxygen . Fetal epithelial cells and blood cells can be recovered from the fluid after spinning it in a centrifuge  2-3 weeks later number of genetic defects can be determined Chorionic Villus Sampling  A small sample of embryonic tissue is taken from the developing placenta  Taken at 8-10 weeks Testing for CF: Ethics  Could lead to far higher incidence of abortion  The testing itself can cause miscarriage and is not always accurate  Religious standing. hair and eye pigmentation Thalassaemia  Inherited blood disorder. caused by recessive allele  Sufferers lack skin. For example : Catholics would consider the embryo a human. aborting the child is a sin Genetic Disorders Albinism  Inherited.

test the unknown solution in the same way. when you know how many drops it took to turn the solution colourless. Example: Temperature  Repeat the above procedure with each solution  Use the results to create a calibration curve  Next.Experiments Daphnia  Make up a range of different concentrations of caffeine  Transfer one daphnia into the dimple on a cavity slide  Place the slide under a microscope. constant  Repeat the experiment using other solutions  Compare the results to see how caffeine affects heart rate Vitamin C  Make at least 6 different Vitamin C solutions of known concentrations  Measure out a set volume of DCPIP into a test tube  Titrate one of the Vitamin C solutions into the DCPIP drop by drop  When the solutions turns colourless. Example : temperature and volume of solution. and times this value by 4 for bpm  Keep all other factors. record the volume of Vitamin C solution that was added  Repeat the experiment twice more with the same solution and take an average of the readings  Keep all the other variables constant. read the calibration curve to determine the solutions concentrations Beetroot  Cut five equal sized pieces of beetroot and rinse them to remove any pigment . focusing it on the heart  Place a small drop of caffeine solution onto the daphnia  Count the heart beat for 15 seconds.

so the higher the membrane permeability . Place the pieces on blotting paper before transferring them to five different test tubes  Add 5cm3 of water to each test tube  Place the test tubes in water baths at different temperatures (from 100 C to 500C) for 10 minutes  Remove the pieces of beetroot from the tubes. using a colorimeter. measure the absorbance level of the liquid  The higher the absorbance. the more pigment released.

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