Unit 1 Revision Notes

Water
 Solvent – substances can easily dissolve in it and be
transported around plants and animals
 Dipolar – The molecule has a negative and positive side;
this means it will completely surround and dissolve negative
or positive ions. (H =positively charged, O =negatively
charged)
 Cohesive – attracts molecules of the same type because it
is dipolar.
Monosaccharides
Single sugar units that provide a rapid source of energy as
they are readily absorbed.

Disaccharides
Two sugar units joined together in a condensation reaction,
where a water molecule is removed, creating a glycosidic
bond.
The glycosidic link can be split by a hydrolysis reaction,
where water is added to the bond.
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

Polysaccharides
 Polymers made up from simple sugar monomers, joined by
glycosidic links into long chains.
 2 main types: Starch (plants), Glycogen (animals)
Starch
Amylose
 Insoluble storage molecule
 Unbranched chain of glucose
 Coiled structure-compact
Amylopectin
 Insoluble storage molecule
 Long, branched chain of glucose
 Side branches-easily hydrolysed-glucose released quickly
Glycogen
main energy storage molecule in animals
multiple side branches (more than amylopectin)
very compact molecule – good for storage
insoluble in water
Lipids: Triglycerides
 1 molecule of glycerol, and 3 hydrophobic fatty acid tails
 Insoluble in water
 Joined with ester bonds by condensation reactions and spilt
up with hydrolysis

formed via condensation reactions .Saturated Lipids Mainly found in animal fats Melt at higher temperatures    No double bonds  Every carbon is ‘saturated’ by at least two hydrogen atoms Unsaturated Lipids  Mainly found in plants  Melt at lower temperatures  Double bonds between carbon atoms in tails. causing the chain to kink  1 double bond = monounsaturated  2 or more double bonds = polyunsaturated Amino Acids  Joined together by peptide bonds to form polypeptides.

Proteins  Made from long chains of amino acids  4 Structural Levels: Primary. Secondary. Quaternary Primary Structure  The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain  Held together by peptide bonds Secondary Structure  Hydrogen bonds form between the amino acids  Coils into an alpha helix or folds into beta pleated sheets Tertiary Structure  Ionic bonds. more bonds are formed between the individual chains. disulfide bridges and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions join to create a 3D shape Quaternary Structure  For several different polypeptide chains. hydrophobic on inside  Soluble  Easily transported  Example : Haemoglobin Fibrous  Long. insoluble polypeptide chains . causing further alteration to the 3D shape Types of Protein Globular  Round and compact  Hydrophilic on outside. Tertiary.

where the substrate is limited and adding more enzymes has no effect The Circulatory System The    Heart Right = deoxygenated blood to lungs Left = oxygenated blood to body Left Ventricle thicker as has further to push blood . making them break up more easily  Lock and Key model -Like a lock and key. the active site changes according to the shape of the substrate  Enzymes usually only catalyse one reaction. enzymes only work with substrates that fit in their active site  Induced Fit Model -The substrate has to be the right shape to fit the active site -As the Substrate binds to the active site. Tightly coiled to form a rope shape  Lots of very strong bonds  Example : Collagen Enzymes Biological catalysts of metabolic reactions Globular proteins Enzyme-Substrate complex -Lowers the activation energy required -Reduces the repulsion between substrates if they need to be joined -Puts a strain on bonds. only one substrate will fit  Active site’s shape is determined by the 3D protein structure  Enzyme concentration increases the rate of reaction -only to a certain point.

The Cardiac Cycle Cycle of events that occurs as the heart contracts in one heart beat Diastole .

with thinner walls and less elastic tissues  Have valves to prevent backflow as pressure is lower Capillaries  Small one cell thick  Substances are exchanged between the cells and the capillaries via diffusion  Capillary beds increase the surface area for exchange – increasing the speed of diffusion Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Atherosclerosis . ventricles  Atrioventricular valves close. allowing the artery to expand Veins  Carry blood to heart  Wider lumen. preventing backflow  Blood forced into aorta and pulmonary arteries contract  Blood moves into ventricles Blood Vessels Artery  Carry blood from the heart at high pressure  Thick walls.Ventricles and atria relax Semi-lunar valves close Atrioventricular valves open Blood flows into atria Atrial Systole  Ventricles are relaxed. muscular and have elastic tissues  Endothelium is folded. atria contract  Blood moves into ventricles Ventricular Systole  Atria are relaxed.

resulting in raised blood pressure  Positive feedback system results – as blood pressure increases. forming a clot Lipoproteins and Cholesterol High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)  Mainly protein  Transport cholesterol from body tissues to lover where it is excreted  Reduce blood cholesterol level when too high . atheroma (fatty deposit) builds up  Calcium salts and fibrous tissue form a plaque at the site. in which the heart and brain become starved of oxygen Atherosclerosis Stages  Endothelium cells become damaged due to high blood pressure or smoking  Damage causes an inflammatory response – white blood cells move into the artery wall. narrowing the artery and reducing its elasticity  Plaque makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood. so does damage to the endothelium Thrombosis Stages  Protein called thromoboplastin is releases from the damaged vessel  Triggers conversion of prothrombin (protein) into thrombin (enzyme)  Thrombin then catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin (solid insoluble fibres)  Fibrin fibres tangle to form a mesh in which platelets and red blood cells get trapped. and the blood cholesterol accumulates . The disease process that leads to Coronary Heart Disease and strokes  Blocks or increases the arteries chance of being blocked by thrombosis (blood clot)  This can result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs)  Mainly fatty  Transport cholesterol from the liver to the blood. where it circulates until needed by cells  Increases blood cholesterol when too low Lifestyle Risk Factors for CVD Diet  High level of saturated fats and blood cholesterol increases risk High Blood Pressure  Increases risk of damage to the walls and thus atherosclerosis and thrombosis Smoking  Carbon monoxide – reduces oxygen in cells. can lead to heart attack or stroke  Nicotine – makes platelets sticky – increasing chance of thrombosis Exercise  Inactivity increases blood pressure. which increases risk of endothelium damage Risk Factors of CVD Beyond Control Genetics  Particular alleles make some people more susceptible to high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels Age  Risk of developing CVD increases with age Gender .

less chance of cell damage Advantages  Can be combined to work more effectively  Can be monitored at to demonstrate effect Disadvantages  Adverse side effects. Men are three times more likely to suffer from CVD than premenopausal women  There is no difference between men and women postmenopause Reducing the Risk Factor Diet  Reduce intake of saturated fats Smoking  Quitting smoking Exercise  Doing exercise regularly Treating CVD : Drug Therapies Antihypertensives (beta blockers)  Reduce high blood pressure. Example : dizziness. depression and drowsiness Plant Statins  Reduce cholesterol in the blood and atheroma formation Advantages  Reduce risk of suffering from CVD Disadvantages  Can reduce the absorption of vitamins from the gut  Hard to obtain enough to reduce cholesterol levels .

and nausea Cell Membranes Fluid Mosaic Model Phospholipid molecules form a bi-layer The phosphate heads are hydrophilic. diarrhoea. Example : Rash. they use a different transport medium Gas Exchange Surfaces Adapted for efficient diffusion by large surface area to volume ratio .Anticoagulants (Warafin and Heparin)  Reduce blood clotting Advantages  Prevent any new clots forming Disadvantages  Can damage the foetus if taken during pregnancy Platelet Inhibitory Drugs (Aspirin)  Prevent platelets from forming clots Advantages  Can be used to treat people who already suffer from CVD Disadvantages  Side effects. align on the outside The hydrophobic tails align on the inside Diffusion Passive (requires no ATP energy) Net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration Moves down the concentration gradient This is too slow for multicellular organisms as the distance to cover is far larger.

thin – short diffusion pathways organism maintains steep concentration gradient of gases across the surface Lungs large surface area diffuses out the alveoli through epithelial cells good blood supply from capillaries – exchanging carbon dioxide for new oxygen Alveoli  provide large surface area for gas exchange Features of Alveoli for efficient gas exchange  large surface area to absorb oxygen  moist surface to allow oxygen to dissolve (phospholipid known as lung surfactant which coats the alveoli and prevents them from collapse)  thin lining to allow easy diffusion o gases Features of Capillaries for efficient gas exchange dense network to carry CO2 and O2 large surface area to transport gases Factors affecting the Rate of Diffusion larger the Surface Area the faster the particles will exchange the more concentrated the particles on one side of the membrane the faster they will move to the other less concentrated side Fick’s Law Rate of Diffusion = ∝ Surface area x concentration difference Thickness of exchange membrane or barrier Osmosis  passive (requires no ATP energy) .

which then changes shape and releases the molecule on the opposite side of the membrane  channel proteins – form pores in the membrane. and moving it into the cell Exocytosis  used for larger molecules . allowing molecules to diffuse through them Active Transport  uses ATP energy to move molecules and ions across cell membranes across a concentration gradient  ATP is produced during cellular respiration  a molecule attaches to a carrier protein. the net movement of water molecules from an area of their high concentration to an area of their low concentration through a partially permeable membrane  Hypertonic = higher water potential  Hypotonic = lower water potential  Isotonic = no net movement Facilitated Diffusion  some large molecules and charged atoms use carrier and channel proteins to diffuse across a membrane  moves particles down a concentration gradient  passive (no ATP required)  carrier proteins – molecule attaches to protein. causing it to change shape. moving the molecule across the membrane. releasing it on the other side Endocytosis  used for larger molecules  cell takes in substances  cell surrounds a substance with its cell membrane  membrane pinches off to form a vesicle. containing the ingested substance.

RNA has one Complimentary Base Pairing In DNA  Adenine pairs with Thymine  Cytosine pairs with Guanine In RNA  Adenine pairs with Uracil  Cytosine pairs with Guanine The strands join together by hydrogen bonding Purine  Adenine  Guanine Pyrimidine  Cytosine  Thymine / Uracil DNA’s Semi-Conservative Replication . cells secretes substance  vesicles fuse with the cell membrane. releasing their content outside the cell Genetics DNA    and RNA Polynucleotides – mononucleotides joined together The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. and ribose in RNA The mononucleotides are joined through condensation reactions  DNA is made of two polynucleotide strands.

suggesting that the new DNA had one original strand and one new strand DNA  Proteins are made from amino acids  A gene is a sequence of bases that codes for the sequence of amino acids  A codon (three bases) codes for each amino acid  Other codons tell the cell when to start and stop the production of proteins  The strands run in opposite directions to each other they are said to be anti-parallel Protein Synthesis: Transcription . using the enzyme DNA topoisomerase forming two single strands that acts as a template as the helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases  Free mononucleotides join to each template by complimentary base pairing  The mononucleotides are joined by DNA polymerase  Hydrogen bonds form between the bases on the original and new strand  Each molecule contains one strand of DNA and one new strand Evidence: Semi – Conservative Model Experiment conducted by Meselson and Stahl  One test tube contained light nitrogen and one contained heavy nitrogen  When spun in a centrifuge. they appeared respectively at the top and bottom  The heavy nitrogen bacteria was then replicated in the light nitrogen broth  The DNA when spun in a centrifuge again settled in the middle. The DNA helix unzips.

the protein that transports chloride ions out of cells and into mucus. making it more watery  Mutant CFTR is much less efficient. sticky mucus  Caused by a mutation in the CFTR protein . catalysed by RNA polymerase  Free RNA nucleotides line up alongside the DNA template with complimentary base pairing  The mRNA moves out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores and attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm Protein Synthesis: Translation In the ribosome. with the amino acids joining together with peptide bonds The process continues until a stop codon is read The protein then is released from the ribosome Genetic Disorders Mutations Some mutations in the base sequence of DNA or in DNA replication can cause genetic disorders The order of DNA bases in a gene determines which protein are created. a mutation could change the 3D shape of a protein so it does not work properly The genetic disorders can be inherited Cystic Fibrosis  Caused by recessive allele  Causes the production of thick. hydrogen bonds between DNA strands unzips. meaning CF sufferers’ mucus is abnormally thick and sticky . In the nucleus. the mRNA codes for amino acids The tRNA then collects these amino acids from the cytoplasm and attaches itself to the mRNA via complimentary base pairing This continues across the strand of mRNA.

preventing digestive enzymes from absorbing nutrients  Mucus can cause cysts in the pancreas. reducing the ability to digest food and absorb nutrients CF and the Reproductive System Men Tubes in the testicles can be absent or blocked. inhibiting the production of enzymes. This causes problems in the respiratory. digestive and reproductive systems CF and the Respiratory System  Cilia are unable to move the mucus from the lungs to the throat as it is too thick. meaning any sperm produced cannot be released Women Thickened cervical mucus prevents. the sperms chances of reaching the egg Testing for CF : Genetic Screening  Can confirm a diagnosis  Can identify carriers of the genetic disorder  Can test embryos  Can enable pre-implantation diagnosis when carrying out IVF Amniocentesis  Removing 20cm3 of the amniotic fluid which surrounds the fetus using a needle and syringe  Done at the 16th week of pregnancy . causing breathing difficulties  The mucus also contains many microorganisms which cannot be removed. increasing the risk of lung infections CF and the Digestive System  Mucus can block the tube that connects the pancreas to the small intestine . or severely reduces. blocking the airways  This reduces gas exchange.

hair and eye pigmentation Thalassaemia  Inherited blood disorder. thus. aborting the child is a sin Genetic Disorders Albinism  Inherited. For example : Catholics would consider the embryo a human. caused by recessive allele  Sufferers lack skin. caused by a recessive allele  The sufferer’s blood do not contain efficient levels of oxygen . Fetal epithelial cells and blood cells can be recovered from the fluid after spinning it in a centrifuge  2-3 weeks later number of genetic defects can be determined Chorionic Villus Sampling  A small sample of embryonic tissue is taken from the developing placenta  Taken at 8-10 weeks Testing for CF: Ethics  Could lead to far higher incidence of abortion  The testing itself can cause miscarriage and is not always accurate  Religious standing.

and times this value by 4 for bpm  Keep all other factors. read the calibration curve to determine the solutions concentrations Beetroot  Cut five equal sized pieces of beetroot and rinse them to remove any pigment . Example : temperature and volume of solution.Experiments Daphnia  Make up a range of different concentrations of caffeine  Transfer one daphnia into the dimple on a cavity slide  Place the slide under a microscope. record the volume of Vitamin C solution that was added  Repeat the experiment twice more with the same solution and take an average of the readings  Keep all the other variables constant. constant  Repeat the experiment using other solutions  Compare the results to see how caffeine affects heart rate Vitamin C  Make at least 6 different Vitamin C solutions of known concentrations  Measure out a set volume of DCPIP into a test tube  Titrate one of the Vitamin C solutions into the DCPIP drop by drop  When the solutions turns colourless. test the unknown solution in the same way. Example: Temperature  Repeat the above procedure with each solution  Use the results to create a calibration curve  Next. focusing it on the heart  Place a small drop of caffeine solution onto the daphnia  Count the heart beat for 15 seconds. when you know how many drops it took to turn the solution colourless.

the more pigment released. so the higher the membrane permeability . using a colorimeter. Place the pieces on blotting paper before transferring them to five different test tubes  Add 5cm3 of water to each test tube  Place the test tubes in water baths at different temperatures (from 100 C to 500C) for 10 minutes  Remove the pieces of beetroot from the tubes. measure the absorbance level of the liquid  The higher the absorbance.

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