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General Chemistry: Atoms First, 2e (McMurry and Fay)

Chapter 12 The Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions


12.1 Multiple Choice Questions
1) Which term describes the measure of the increase in the concentration of a product per unit
time?
A) activation energy
B) kinetics
C) reaction rate
D) reaction time
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
2) "Instantaneous rate" is defined as the
A) change in concentration per unit time.
B) equation showing how the rate depends on the concentration of each reactant.
C) rate of reaction at a particular time.
D) rate of reaction during a time interval.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
3) Molecular hydrogen can be made from methane gas by the reaction below. How is the rate of
disappearance of CH4 related to the rate of appearance of H2?
-

=?
CH4 (g) + H2O (l) CO (g) + 3H2 (g)

A) +
B) +
C) + 3
D) none of these
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions

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4) The burning of propane can be represented by the following equation:


(g) + 7 (g) 3
(g) + 4 O(g)
The general rate of this reaction may be expressed as:
A) +
B) C) D) +
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
5) The burning of propane can be represented by the following equation:
(g) + 7 (g) 3
(g) + 4 O(g)
Which of the following relationships is true?
A)

B) - 7

=+4

C) - 3

=+7

D) + 7

=-4

Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions

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6) Methanol can be produced by the following reaction:


CO(g) + 2 H2(g) CH3OH(g).
How is the rate of disappearance of hydrogen gas related to the rate of appearance of methanol?
-

=?

A) +
B) +
C) + 2
D) none of these
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
7) Hydroquinone, HOC6H6OH, can be formed by the reaction with acetylene below:
2 HCCH + 3 CO + H2O HOC6H4OH + CO2
How is the rate of disappearance of acetylene, HCCH, related to the appearance of hydroquinone
(Hq)?
-

=?

A) +
B) +
C) +
D) +
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions

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8) The reaction that occurs in a Breathalyzer, a device used to determine the alcohol level in a
person's bloodstream, is given below. If the rate of appearance of Cr2(SO4)3 is 1.24 mol/min at
a particular moment, what is the rate of disappearance of C2H6O at that moment?
2 K2Cr2O7 + 8 H2SO4 + 3 C2H6O 2 Cr2(SO4)3 + 2 K2SO4 + 11 H2O
A) 0.413 mol/min
B) 0.826 mol/min
C) 1.86 mol/min
D) 3.72 mol/min
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
9) The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide is described by the chemical equation
2 N2O5(g) 4 NO2(g) + O2(g)
If the rate of disappearance of N2O5 is equal to 1.40 mol/min at a particular moment, what is the
rate of appearance of NO2 at that moment?
A) 0.700 mol/min
B) 1.40 mol/min
C) 2.80 mol/min
D) 5.60 mol/min
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
10) The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide is described by the chemical equation
2 N2O5(g) 4 NO2(g) + O2(g)
If the rate of appearance of NO2 is equal to 0.560 mol/min at a particular moment, what is the
rate of appearance of O2 at that moment?
A) 0.140 mol/min
B) 0.280 mol/min
C) 1.12 mol/min
D) 2.24 mol/min
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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11) The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide is described by the chemical equation


2 N2O5(g) 4 NO2(g) + O2(g)
If the rate of appearance of O2 is equal to 2.40 mol/min at a particular moment, what is the rate
of disappearance of N2O5 at that moment?
A) 0.600 mol/min
B) 1.20 mol/min
C) 4.80 mol/min
D) 9.60 mol/min
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
12) Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to water and oxygen according to the reaction below:
2 H2O2(aq) 2 H2O(l) + O2(g)
In the presence of large excesses of I- ion, the following set of data is obtained. What is the
average rate of disappearance of H2O2(aq) in M/s in the first 45.0 seconds of the reaction if
1.00 L of H2O2 reacts at 25C and 1.00 atm pressure?

A) 9.09 10-7 M/s


B) 3.63 10-6 M/s
C) 4.33 10-5 M/s
D) 1.64 10-4 M/s
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions

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13) A concentration-time study of the gas phase reaction 2 A3 3 A2 produced the data in the
table below.
Time (s)
[A3] (M)
[A2] (M)
0
4.00 104
0
10
2.00 104 3.00 104
20
1.00 104 4.50 104
30
5.00 105
?
What is the average rate of decomposition of A3 in the time interval 20-30 seconds?
A) 4.00 104 M/s
B) 3.50 105 M/s
C) 5.00 106 M/s
D) 4.00 106 M/s
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
14) A concentration-time study of the gas phase reaction 2 A3 3 A2 produced the data in the
table below.
Time (s)
[A3] (M)
[A2] (M)
0
4.00 104
0
4
10
2.00 10
3.00 104
20
1.00 104 4.50 104
30
5.00 105
?
What is the average rate of formation of A2 in the time interval 20-30 seconds?
A) 6.00 104 M/s
B) 5.25 105 M/s
C) 7.50 106 M/s
D) 6.00 106 M/s
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions

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15) A concentration-time study of the gas phase reaction 2 A3 3 A2 produced the data in the
table below.
Time (s)
[A3] (M)
[A2] (M)
0
4.00 104
0
10
2.00 104 3.00 104
20
1.00 104 4.50 104
30
5.00 105
?
What is the concentration of A2 after 30 seconds?
A) 5.00 104 M
B) 5.25 104 M
C) 5.50 104 M
D) 6.00 104 M
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
16) Which statement is true for the general rate law: Rate = k[A]m[B]n?
A) It can be written from the stoichiometry of the overall reaction.
B) The overall order of the reaction is equal to m times n.
C) The values for the exponents must be determined by experiment.
D) The exponents in the rate law must be positive integers.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
17) The reaction shown below has the rate law: Rate = k[BrO3][Br][H+]2.
BrO3(aq) + 5 Br(aq) + 6 H+(aq) 3 Br2(aq) + 3 H2O(l)
What is the overall order of reaction?
A) first
B) second
C) third
D) fourth
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order

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18) For a reaction that follows the general rate law, Rate = k[A][B]2, what will happen to the rate
of reaction if the concentration of A is increased by a factor of 3.00? The rate will
A) decrease by a factor of 1/9.00.
B) decrease by a factor of 1/3.00.
C) increase by a factor of 3.00.
D) increase by a factor of 9.00.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
Algo. Option: algorithmic
19) For a reaction that follows the general rate law, Rate = k[A][B]2, what will happen to the rate
of reaction if the concentration of B is increased by a factor of 2.00? The rate will
A) decrease by a factor of 1/4.00.
B) decrease by a factor of 1/2.00.
C) increase by a factor of 2.00.
D) increase by a factor of 4.00.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
Algo. Option: algorithmic
20) The reaction between chlorine and nitric oxide to form nitrosyl chloride is shown below. If
the reaction rate doubles when the concentration of Cl2 is doubled and the rate quadruples when
the concentration of NO is doubled, by what factor will the rate increase if both concentrations,
NO and Cl2, are doubled?
Cl2(g) + 2 NO(g) 2 NOCl(g)
A) 2
B) 4
C) 8
D) 16
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
21) The hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride is given in the reaction below:
(CH3)3CCl(aq) + H2O(l) (CH3)3COH(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
If the rate law is: Rate = k[(CH3)3CCl], what is the order of the reaction with respect to water?
A) zero
B) first
C) second
D) third
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
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22) Given the following hypothetical reaction: 2 E(g) + F(g) + G(g) products. If the rate law
is: Rate = k[E]2[F]-1, what is the order of reaction with respect to E?
A) zero
B) first
C) second
D) third
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
23) Given the following hypothetical reaction: 2 E(g) + F(g) + G(g) products. If the rate law
is: Rate = k[E]2[F]-1, what is the overall order of reaction?
A) zero
B) first
C) second
D) third
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
24) The decomposition of ammonia to nitrogen and hydrogen on a tungsten filament at 800C is
independent of the concentration of ammonia at high pressures of ammonia. What is the order of
the reaction with respect to ammonia?
A) zero
B) first
C) second
D) third
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
25) Cerium(IV) ion reacts with thallium(I) ion in a one-step reaction shown below:
2 Ce4+(aq) + Tl+(aq) 2 Ce3+(aq) + Tl3+(aq).
If the rate law is: Rate = k[Ce4+]2[Tl+], what is the overall order of the reaction?
A) first
B) second
C) third
D) fourth
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order

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26) What is the overall reaction order for the reaction that has the rate law: Rate = k[H2][NO]2?
A) zero order
B) first order
C) second order
D) third order
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
Algo. Option: algorithmic
27) Iodide and hypochlorite ion react in aqueous solution according to the reaction below:
I- + OCl- OI- + ClIf the concentration of OH- in the solution is doubled, the rate of the reaction is halved. What is
the order of the reaction with respect to OCl-?
A) -2
B) -1
C) +1
D) +2
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
28) Chlorine reacts with chloroform according to the reaction given below:
Cl2 + CHCl3 CCl4 + HCl
When the initial concentration of Cl2 is doubled the reaction rate increases by a factor of 1.41.
What is the order of the reaction with respect to Cl2?
A) -1/2
B) -1
C) 1/2
D) 2
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
29) If the units for rate are M s-1, what are the units for the rate constant, k, if the overall order
of the reaction is three?
A) s-1
B) M2 s-1
C) M-1 s-1
D) M-2 s-1
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order

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30) Using the method of initial rates for the reaction A B, if the initial concentration of A is
doubled and the rate of reaction quadruples, what is the order of reaction with respect to A?
A) zeroth
B) first
C) second
D) fourth
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates
31) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
2 HgCl2(aq) + C2O42-(aq) 2 Cl-(aq) + 2 CO2(g) + Hg2Cl2(s)
What is the rate law for the reaction?

A) Rate = k[HgCl2][C2O42-]-2
B) Rate = k[HgCl2][C2O42-]-1
C) Rate = k[HgCl2]2[C2O42-]
D) Rate = k[HgCl2][C2O42-]2
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates

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32) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
2 HgCl2(aq) + C2O42-(aq) 2 Cl-(aq) + 2 CO2(g) + Hg2Cl2(s)
What is the value of the rate constant, k?

A) 1.4 10-8 1/M2s


B) 1.3 10-7 1/M2s
C) 1.4 10-5 1/M2s
D) 1.3 10-4 1/M2s
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates
33) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
(H3C)3CBr + OH- (H3C)3COH + BrWhat is the order of reaction with respect to ion, OH-?

A) zero
B) first
C) second
D) none of these
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates

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34) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
(H3C)3CBr + OH- (H3C)3COH + BrWhat is the value of the rate constant, k?

A) 8.8 10-4 s-1


B) 4.4 10-4 s-1
C) 1.8 10-4 s-1
D) none of these
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates
35) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
BrO3-(aq) + 5 Br-(aq) + 6 H+(aq) 3 Br2(aq) + 3 H2O(l).
What is the rate law for the reaction?

A) Rate = k[BrO3-][Br-][H+]4
B) Rate = k[BrO3-][Br-][H+]-4
C) Rate = k[BrO3-][Br-][H+]-2
D) Rate = k[BrO3-][Br-][H+]2
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates

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36) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
BrO3-(aq) + 5 Br-(aq) + 6 H+(aq) 3 Br2(aq) + 3 H2O(l).
Calculate the initial rate when BrO3- is 0.30 M, Br- is 0.050 M, and H+ is 0.15 M.

A) 6.1 10-5 M/s


B) 2.7 10-3 M/s
C) 5.3 10-2 M/s
D) 8.4 10-2 M/s
Answer: B
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates
37) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
S2O82-(aq) + 3 I-(aq) 2 SO42-(aq) + I3-(aq)
What is the rate law for the reaction?

A) Rate = k[S2O82-][I-]
B) Rate = k[S2O82-][I-]5
C) Rate = k[S2O82-][I-]2
D) Rate = k[S2O82-]2[I-]
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates

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38) The following set of data was obtained by the method of initial rates for the reaction:
S2O82-(aq) + 3 I-(aq) 2 SO42-(aq) + I3-(aq)
What is the initial rate when S2O82- is 0.15 M and I- is 0.15 M?

A) 4.10 10-6 M s-1


B) 8.10 10-3 M s-1
C) 1.22 10-2 M s-1
D) 5.40 10-2 M s-1
Answer: B
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates
39) The first-order decomposition of hydrogen peroxide occurs according to the equation
2 H2O2(aq) 2 H2O(l) + O2(g)
Using data from a concentration-time study of this reaction, which plot will produce a straight
line?
A) [H2O2] versus time
B) [H2O2]2 versus time
C) 1/[H2O2] versus time
D) ln[H2O2] versus time
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
40) For a particular first-order reaction, it takes 48 minutes for the concentration of the reactant
to decrease to 25% of its initial value. What is the value for rate constant (in s-1) for the
reaction?
A) 1.0 10-4 s-1
B) 4.8 10-4 s-1
C) 6.0 10-3 s-1
D) 2.9 10-2 s-1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic
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41) The first-order reaction, SO2Cl2 SO2 + Cl2, has a rate constant equal to 2.20 10-5 s-1
at 593 K. What percentage of the initial amount of SO2Cl2 will remain after 2.00 hours?
A) 1.00%
B) 14.7%
C) 17.1%
D) 85.4%
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic
42) The first-order reaction, 2 N2O(g) 2 N2(g) + O2(g), has a rate constant equal to 0.76 s-1
at 1000 K. How long will it take for the concentration of N2O to decrease to 42% of its initial
concentration?
A) 0.88 s
B) 1.1 s
C) 1.8 s
D) 2.4 s
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic
43) The isomerization reaction, CH3NC CH3CN, is first order and the rate constant is equal
to 0.46 s-1 at 600 K. What is the concentration of CH3NC after 0.20 minutes if the initial
concentration is 0.10 M?
A) 4.0 x 10-4 M
B) 9.1 x 10-4 M
C) 4.0 x 10-2 M
D) 9.1 x 10-2 M
Answer: A
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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44) The following reaction is first order: C2H6 2 CH3. If the rate constant is equal to 5.5
10-4 s-1 at 1000 K, how long will it take for 0.35 mol of C2H6 in a 1.00 L container to decrease
to 0.10 mol in the same container?
A) 7.6 min
B) 38 min
C) 106 min
D) 131 min
Answer: B
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic
45) The decomposition of cyclopropane, was observed at 500C and its concentration was
monitored as a function of time. The data set is given below. What is the order of the reaction
with respect to cyclopropane?

A) zero
B) first
C) second
D) third
Answer: B
Diff: 5
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
46) The half life of the reaction shown below is found not to depend on the concentration of
H2O2(aq).
2 H2O2(aq) 2 H2O(l) + O2(g)
What is the order of this reaction?
A) zeroth
B) first
C) second
D) third
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life

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47) The rate constant, k, for a first-order reaction is equal to 4.2 10-4 s-1. What is the half-life
for the reaction?
A) 2.9 10-4 s
B) 1.2 103 s
C) 1.7 103 s
D) 2.4 103 s
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
Algo. Option: algorithmic
48) Acetaldehyde decomposes at 750 K: CH3CHO CO + CH4. The reaction is first order in
acetaldehyde and the half-life of the reaction is found to be 530 seconds. What is the rate
constant for the reaction at this temperature?
A) 2.7 x 10-3 s-1
B) 1.3 x 10-3 s-1
C) 2.7 x 102 s-1
D) 7.6 x 102 s-1
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
49) The first-order reaction, SO2Cl2 SO2 + Cl2, has a half-life of 8.75 hours at 593 K. How
long will it take for the concentration of SO2Cl2 to fall to 12.5% of its initial value?
A) 0.165 hr
B) 3.22 hr
C) 6.06 hr
D) 26.2 hr
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
Algo. Option: algorithmic
50) For the first-order reaction, 2 N2O(g) 2 N2(g) + O2(g), what is the concentration of N2O
after 3 half-lives if 0.15 mol of N2O is initially placed into in a 1.00-L reaction vessel?
A) 9.4 10-3 M
B) 1.9 10-2 M
C) 3.8 10-2 M
D) 7.5 10-2 M
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
Algo. Option: algorithmic
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51) Fluorine-18 is an isotope used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to scan the brain. If a
researcher has 1.50 g of 18F, how long before it decays to 1.0 ng? The half-life of 18F is 109.8
minutes.
A) 5.2 10-2 hr
B) 4.6 10-2 hr
C) 19 hr
D) 51 hr
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
52) Iodine-131 is one of the many radioactive isotopes resulting from nuclear bomb explosions.
How long would it take for 99% of the iodine-131 produced a nuclear explosion to disappear?
The half-life of iodine-131 is 8.02 days.
A) 53.3 days
B) 80.2 days
C) 40.7 days
D) 802 days
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.6 First-Order Reactions: Radioactive Decay
53) Recent nuclear reactor accidents have contaminated many soils around the world. One of the
isotopes deposited in soils is cesium-137. If the activity must fall by a factor of
for
contamination to disappear, how long will it take before uncontaminated crops may be grown in
these soils? The half-life of cesium-137 is 30.2 years.
A) 301 years
B) 0.23 year
C) 33.1 years
D) 0.03 year
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.6 First-Order Reactions: Radioactive Decay
54) A plot of 1/[BrO-] vs time is linear for the reaction:
3 BrO-(aq) BrO3-(aq) + 2 Br-(aq)
What is the order of the reaction with respect to the hypobromite ion, BrO-?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
55) In aqueous solution, hypobromite ion, BrO-, reacts to produce bromate ion, BrO3-, and
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bromide ion, Br-, according to the following chemical equation.


3 BrO-(aq) BrO3-(aq) + 2 Br-(aq)
A plot of 1/[BrO-] vs. time is linear and the slope is equal to 0.056 M-1s-1. If the initial
concentration of BrO- is 0.80 M, how long will it take one-half of the BrO- ion to react?
A) 4.5 10-2 s
B) 7.1 s
C) 12 s
D) 22 s
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
56) The second-order reaction, 2 Mn(CO)5 Mn2(CO)10 has a rate constant equal to 3.0 109
M-1s-1 at 25C. If the initial concentration of Mn(CO)5 is 1.0 10-5 M, how long will it take
for 90.% of the reactant to disappear?
A) 3.3 10-16 s
B) 3.7 10-15 s
C) 3.0 10-4 s
D) 3.0 103 s
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
57) Nitrogen dioxide decomposes at 300C via a second-order process to produce nitrogen
monoxide and oxygen according to the following chemical equation.
2 NO2(g) 2 NO(g) + O2(g).
A sample of NO2(g) is initially placed in a 2.50-L reaction vessel at 300C. If the half-life and
the rate constant at 300C are 11 seconds and 0.54 M-1 s-1, respectively, how many moles of
NO2 were in the original sample?
A) 0.17 mol
B) 0.42 mol
C) 5.9 mol
D) 15 mol
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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58) Hydrogen iodide decomposes at 800 K via a second-order process to produce hydrogen and
iodine according to the following chemical equation.
2 HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g)
At 800 K it takes 142 seconds for the initial concentration of HI to decrease from 6.75 10-2 M
to 3.50 10-2 M. What is the rate constant for the reaction at this temperature?
A) 5.12 10-4 M-1s-1
B) 9.69 10-2 M-1s-1
C) 10.3 M-1s-1
D) 1.95 103 M-1s-1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
59) The reaction: 2 HI H2 + I2, is second order and the rate constant at 800 K is 9.70 10-2
M-1 s-1. How long will it take for 8.00 10-2 mol/L of HI to decrease to one-fourth of its initial
concentration?
A) 0.619 s
B) 124 s
C) 387 s
D) 429 s
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
60) Which statement below regarding the half-life of a second-order reaction is true?
A) Each half-life is half as long as the preceding one.
B) Each half-life is twice as long as the preceding one.
C) Each half-life is four times as long as the preceding one.
D) The length of the half-life remains unchanged throughout the course of the reaction.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
61) For the hypothetical second order reaction: A products, the general rate law is: rate =
k[A]2. How long is the third half-life of the reaction if [A]0 is 0.080 M and the first half-life is
22 minutes?
A) 0.57 min
B) 1.7 min
C) 7.3 min
D) 88 min
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
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62) If the units for rate are M s-1, what are the units for the rate constant, k, for a zeroth-order
reaction?
A) s-1
B) M-1
C) M s-1
D) M-1 s-1
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.8 Zeroth-Order Reactions
63) For the zeroth-order reaction: C products, -[C]/t = k, which of the following graphs
would be expected to give a straight line?
A) [C] vs. t
B) ln[C] vs. t
C) 1/[C] vs. t
D) [C]2 vs. t
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.8 Zeroth-Order Reactions
64) For the zeroth-order reaction: A products, what will happen to the rate of reaction if the
concentration of A is doubled?
A) The rate will be halved.
B) The rate will be doubled.
C) The rate will be quadrupled.
D) The rate will remain the same.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.8 Zeroth-Order Reactions
65) Which statement below regarding the half-life of a zeroth-order reaction is true?
A) Each half-life is half as long as the preceding half-life.
B) Each half-life is twice as long as the preceding half-life.
C) Each half-life is four times as long as the preceding half-life.
D) The half-life remains unchanged throughout the course of the reaction.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.8 Zeroth-Order Reactions

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66) The elementary reaction representing the formation of ozone:


is an example of a ________ reaction.
A) unimolecular
B) bimolecular
C) termolecular
D) tetramolecular
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms
67) The elementary reaction: 2 HI H2 + I2, is an example of a ________ reaction.
A) unimolecular
B) bimolecular
C) termolecular
D) tetramolecular
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms
68) A mechanism for a naturally occurring reaction that destroys ozone is:
Step 1: O3(g) + HO(g) HO2(g) + O2(g)
Step 2: HO2(g) + O(g) HO(g) + O2(g)
Which species is an intermediate?
A) HO
B) HO2
C) O
D) O3
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms
69) The decomposition of ozone in the stratosphere can occur by the following two-step
mechanism:
Step 1: Br + O3 BrO + O2
Step 2: BrO + O Br + O2
Which species is an intermediate in this mechanism?
A) Br
B) BrO
C) O
D) O3
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms

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70) A mechanism for a naturally occurring reaction that destroys ozone is:
Step 1: O3(g) + HO(g) HO2(g) + O2(g)
Step 2: HO2(g) + O(g) HO(g) + O2(g)
What is the molecularity of the overall reaction?
A) unimolecular
B) bimolecular
C) none of these because molecularity is the difference of the exponents in the rate law
D) none of these because molecularity only refers to elementary steps
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms
71) A three-step mechanism has been suggested for the formation of carbonyl chloride:
Step 1: Cl2 2 Cl
Step 2: Cl + CO COCl
Step 3: COCl + Cl2 COCl2 + Cl
Which species is an intermediate in the mechanism?
A) Cl
B) CO
C) COCl
D) COCl2
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms
72) The slowest step in a reaction mechanism is called the ________ step.
A) activation
B) elementary
C) rate law
D) rate-determining
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.13 Rate Laws for Overall Reactions
73) Which of the following statements are true about reaction mechanisms?
I. A rate law can be written from the molecularity of the slowest elementary step.
II. The final rate law can include intermediates.
III. The rate of the reaction is dependent on the fastest step in the mechanism.
IV. A mechanism can never be proven to be the correct pathway for a reaction.
A) I, II, III
B) II, IV
C) I, III
D) I, IV
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.13 Rate Laws for Overall Reactions
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74) Which general rate law below corresponds to an elementary bimolecular reaction?
A) Rate = k[A]
B) Rate = k[A][B][C]
C) Rate = k[A]2[B]
D) Rate = k[A][B]
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.12 Reaction Laws for Elementary Reactions
75) What is the rate law for the elementary reaction shown below?
2 HI H2 + I2
A) Rate = k[HI]
B) Rate = k[HI]2
C) Rate = k[H2][I2]
D) Rate = k[H2][I2]/[HI]2
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.12 Reaction Laws for Elementary Reactions
76) A three-step mechanism has been suggested for the formation of carbonyl chloride:
Step 1: Cl2 2 Cl (fast, equilibrium)
Step 2: Cl + CO COCl (fast, equilibrium)
Step 3: COCl + Cl2 COCl2 + Cl (slow)
What is the molecularity of the rate-determining step?
A) unimolecular
B) bimolecular
C) termolecular
D) none of these
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.13 Rate Laws for Overall Reactions

25
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77) When the concentration of A is doubled, the rate for the reaction:
quadruples.
When the concentration of B is doubled the rate remains the same. Which mechanism below is
consistent with the experimental observations?
A) Step 1: A + B D (fast equilibrium)
Step 2: A + D 2 C (slow)
B) Step 1: A + B D (slow)
Step 2: A + D 2 C (fast equilibrium)
C) Step 1: 2 A D (slow)
Step 2: B + D E (fast)
Step 3: E 2 C (fast)
D) Step 1: 2 A D (fast equilibrium)
Step 2: B + D E (slow)
Step 3: E 2 C (fast)
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.13 Rate Laws for Overall Reactions
78) A gaseous reaction occurs by a two-step mechanism, shown below.
Step 1:
AX +Y2 AXY2
fast
Step 2:
AXY2 + AX 2 AXY
slow
Including concentration of only reactants and products, what is the rate law for this reaction?
A) Rate = k[AX][Y2]
B) Rate = k[AXY2]/[AX][Y2]
C) Rate = k[AX]2[Y2]
D) Rate = k[AXY]2/[AXY2][AX]
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.13 Rate Laws for Overall Reactions
79) What is the minimum energy barrier that must be overcome for a chemical reaction to occur?
A) activation energy
B) net energy
C) potential energy
D) rate limiting energy
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation

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80) What factor affects the rate of a chemical reaction?


A) collision frequency
B) fraction of collisions with sufficient energy
C) orientation of molecules
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation
81) A gas molecule at 298 K and 1 atm pressure undergoes a collision with another gas molecule
approximately every ________ seconds.
A) 10-15
B) 10-9
C) 10-6
D) 10-3
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation
82) The fraction of collisions with sufficient energy to react is equal to
A) A
B) Ea
C) e-Ea/RT
D) p
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation
83) What fraction of collisions will have sufficient energy to react for a gas whose activation
energy is 68 kJ/mol at 25C?
A) 1.2 10-12
B) 2.7 10-2
C) 0.96
D) 8.3 1011
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation

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84) When the temperature of a gas whose activation energy is 55 kJ/mol is increased from 300 K
to 320 K, the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy to react
A) decreases by a factor of 2.
B) decreases by a factor of 4.
C) increases by a factor of 2.
D) increases by a factor of 4.
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation
85) A common rule of thumb in organic chemistry is that increasing the temperature of a reaction
at room temperature by 10C doubles the rate. Calculate Ea for a reaction that follows this rule of
thumb. Assume room temperature is 25C.
A) 0.576 kJ
B) 12.2 kJ
C) 38.4 kJ
D) 52.9 kJ
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.10 Using the Arrhenius Equation
86) Consider a bimolecular reaction in the gas phase. Which one of the following changes in
condition will not cause an increase in the rate of the reaction?
A) add a catalyst
B) increase the temperature at constant volume
C) increase the volume at constant temperature
D) All of the above will increase the rate of reaction.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.14 Catalysis
87) Which part of the Arrhenius equation contains a term which measures the number of
molecules that have the correct orientation for reaction?
A) activation energy
B) e-Ea/RT
C) frequency factor
D) none of these
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation

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88) The reaction for the decomposition of dinitrogen monoxide gas to form oxygen radicals is:
. If the rate constant is 3.04 10-2 s-1 and the frequency factor is 8.00
1011 s-1, what is the activation energy for the first-order reaction at 700C?
A) 0.262 kJ/mol
B) 38.2 kJ/mol
C) 180 kJ/mol
D) 250 kJ/mol
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation
89) The reaction for the decomposition of dinitrogen monoxide gas to form an oxygen radical is:
. If the activation energy is 250 kJ/mol and the frequency factor is 8.0
1011 s-1, what is the rate constant for the first-order reaction at 1000 K?
A) 1.1 10-3 s-1
B) 7.0 10-2 s-1
C) 1.6 1013 s-1
D) 9.1 1024 s-1
Answer: B
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation
90) The aquation of tris(1, 10-phenanthroline)iron(II) in acid solution takes place according to
the equation:
Fe(phen)32+ + 3 H3O+ + 3 H2O Fe(H2O)62+ + 3 phenH+
If the activation energy is 126 kJ/mol and frequency factor is 8.62 1017 s-1, at what
temperature is the rate constant equal to 3.63 10-3 s-1 for the first-order reaction?
A) 0C
B) 36C
C) 50C
D) 94C
Answer: C
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.10 Using the Arrhenius Equation

29
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91) The aquation of tris(1, 10-phenanthroline)iron(II) in acid solution takes place according to
the equation:
Fe(phen)32+ + 3 H3O+ + 3 H2O Fe(H2O)62+ + 3 phenH+
If the activation energy, Ea, is 126 kJ/mol and the rate constant at 30C is 9.8 10-3 min-1, what
is the frequency factor, A?
A) 2.4 10-24 min-1
B) 2.4 10-20 min-1
C) 5.2 1019 min-1
D) 5.2 1023 min-1
Answer: C
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.9 Reaction Rates and Temperature: Collision Theory and the Arrhenius
Equation
92) The aquation of tris(1, 10-phenanthroline)iron(II) in acid solution takes place according to
the equation:
Fe(phen)32+ + 3 H3O+ + 3 H2O Fe(H2O)62+ + 3 phenH+.
If the activation energy, Ea, is 126 kJ/mol and the rate constant at 30C is 9.8 10-3 min-1, what
is the rate constant at 50C?
A) 4.4 10-4 min-1
B) 2.2 10-1 min-1
C) 4.6 100 min-1
D) 2.3 103 min-1
Answer: B
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.10 Using the Arrhenius Equation
Algo. Option: algorithmic
93) The first-order isomerization reaction: cyclopropane propene, has a rate constant of
at 470C and
What is the activation energy, Ea, for the
reaction?
A) 46 kJ/mol
B) 110 kJ/mol
C) 260 kJ/mol
D) 380 kJ/mol
Answer: C
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.10 Using the Arrhenius Equation

30
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94) The first-order isomerization reaction: cyclopropane propene, has a rate constant of
at 470C and an activation energy of 264 kJ/mol. What is the temperature of the
reaction when the rate constant is equal to
A) 126C
B) 411C
C) 510C
D) 540C
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.10 Using the Arrhenius Equation
95) The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is given by the following reaction:
2 H2O2(aq) 2 H2O(l) + O2(g)
In the presence of KI the reaction is thought to occur by the following mechanism:
Step 1: H2O2 + I- H2O + IOStep 2: IO- + H2O2 H2O + O2 + IWhat is the role of I- in this mechanism?
A) catalyst
B) frequency factor
C) intermediate
D) transition state
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.14 Catalysis
96) A mechanism for a naturally occurring reaction that destroys ozone is:
Step 1: O3(g) + HO(g) HO2(g) + O2(g)
Step 2: HO2(g) + O(g) HO(g) + O2(g)
Which species is a catalyst?
A) HO
B) HO2
C) O
D) O3
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.14 Catalysis

31
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97) The decomposition of ozone in the stratosphere can occur by the following two-step
mechanism:
Br + O3 BrO + O2
BrO + O Br + O2
Which species is a catalyst in this mechanism?
A) Br
B) BrO
C) O
D) O3
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.14 Catalysis
98) Which of the following does not affect the rate of a bimolecular reaction?
A) concentrations of reactants
B) presence of a catalyst
C) temperature
D) All of the above affect the rate.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: Section 12.14 Catalysis
99) An aqueous reaction occurs by a two-step mechanism, shown below.
Step 1: A2X2 + Y A2X + XY
Step 2: A2X2 + XY A2X + X2 + Y
What is the catalyst in this reaction?
A) A2X
B) X2
C) XY
D) Y
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.14 Catalysis
100) A mechanism for a naturally occurring reaction that destroys ozone is:
Step 1: O3(g) + HO(g) HO2(g) + O2(g)
Step 2: HO2(g) + O(g) HO(g) + O2(g)
Which species is a catalyst and what type of catalysis is occurring?
A) HO, homogeneous
B) HO, heterogeneous
C) HO2, homogeneous
D) HO2, heterogeneous
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.15 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts
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101) The Haber process is the synthesis of ammonia gas from hydrogen and nitrogen on a hot
metal surface. What is the catalyst and what type of catalysis is occurring?
A) H2, homogeneous
B) N2, homogeneous
C) NH3, homogeneous
D) metal surface, heterogeneous
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.15 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts
Shown is a concentration versus time plot for a reaction involving gases A, B, and C.

102) Which equation best represents the reaction?


A) 4A(g) B(g) + 2C(g)
B) 4A(g) + B(g) 2C(g)
C) 2C(g) 4A(g) + B(g)
D) 2C(g) + B(g) 4A(g)
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Conceptual Problems

33
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103) Over the time interval 300 to 400 seconds, the rate of reaction with respect to A is [A]/t
= 3.7 10-5 M/s. Over the same time interval what is the rate of reaction with respect to B,
[B]/t?
A) [B]/t = [A]/t = 3.7 10-5 M/s
B) [B]/t = (1/4)([A]/t) = (1/4)(3.7 10-5 M/s) = 9.2 10-6 M/s
C) [B]/t = (1/2)([A]/t) = (1/2)(3.7 10-5 M/s) = 1.8 10-5 M/s
D) [B]/t = -(1/2)([A]/t) = -(1/2)(3.7 10-5 M/s) = -1.8 10-5 M/s
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
104) Over the time interval 300 to 400 seconds, the rate of reaction with respect to A is [A]/t
= 3.7 10-5 M/s. Over the same time interval what is the rate of reaction with respect to C,
[C]/t?
A) [C]/t = [A]/t = 3.7 10-5 M/s
B) [C]/t = (1/4)([A]/t) = (1/4)(3.7 10-5 M/s) = 9.2 10-6 M/s
C) [C]/t = (1/2)([A]/t) = (1/2)(3.7 10-5 M/s) = 1.8 10-5 M/s
D) [C]/t = -(1/2)([A]/t) = -(1/2)(3.7 10-5 M/s) = -1.8 10-5 M/s
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
105) Over the time interval 300 to 400 seconds, the rate of reaction with respect to A is [A]/t
= 3.7 10-5 M/s. What is the rate of reaction with respect to A over the time interval 700 to 800
seconds?
A) 0 M/s
B) less than 3.7 10-5 M/s
C) 3.7 10-5 M/s
D) greater than 3.7 10-5 M/s
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
106) Over the time interval 300 to 400 seconds, the rate of reaction with respect to A is [A]/t
= 3.7 10-5 M/s. What is the rate of reaction with respect to A over the time interval 0 to 100
seconds?
A) 0 M/s
B) less than 3.7 10-5 M/s
C) 3.7 10-5 M/s
D) greater than 3.7 10-5 M/s
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
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The relative initial rates of the reaction A2 + B2 products in vessels (a)-(d) are 1:1:4:4.
Unshaded spheres represent A2 molecules, and shaded spheres represent B2 molecules present at
the beginning of the reaction.

107) What is the order of reaction with respect to A2?


A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
108) What is the order of reaction with respect to B2?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
109) What is the overall order of reaction?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
110) What is the rate law for this reaction?
A) Rate = k[A2]2
B) Rate = k[B2]2
C) Rate = k[A2][B2]
D) Rate = k[A2]2[B2]2
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
35
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111) The following reaction is first order in A and first order in B:


A + B Products
Rate = k[A][B]
What is the initial rate of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the initial rate of this reaction in
vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules, and
unshaded spheres represent B molecules present at the beginning of the reaction.

A) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
112) The following reaction is first order in A and first order in B:
A + B Products
Rate = k[A][B]
What is the initial rate of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the initial rate of this reaction in
vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules, and
unshaded spheres represent B molecules present at the beginning of the reaction.

A) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems

36
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113) The following reaction is second order in A and first order in B:


A + B Products
Rate = k[A]2[B]
What is the initial rate of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the initial rate of this reaction in
vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules, and
unshaded spheres represent B molecules present at the beginning of the reaction.

A) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate in vessel (b)/rate in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
114) The following reaction is first order in A and first order in B:
A + B Products
Rate = k[A][B]
What is the rate constant k of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the rate constant k of this
reaction in vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules,
and unshaded spheres represent B molecules.

A) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems

37
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115) The following reaction is first order in A and first order in B:


A + B Products
Rate = k[A][B]
What is the rate constant k of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the rate constant k of this
reaction in vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules,
and unshaded spheres represent B molecules.

A) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
116) The following reaction is first order in A and first order in B:
A + B Products
Rate = k[A][B]
What is the rate constant k of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the rate constant k of this
reaction in vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules,
and unshaded spheres represent B molecules.

A) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems

38
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117) The following reaction is second order in A and first order in B:


A + B Products
Rate = k[A]2[B]
What is the rate constant k of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the rate constant k of this
reaction in vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules,
and unshaded spheres represent B molecules.

A) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
118) The following reaction is second order in A and first order in B:
A + B Products
Rate = k[A]2[B]
What is the rate constant k of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the rate constant k of this
reaction in vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules,
and unshaded spheres represent B molecules.

A) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate constant k in vessel b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems

39
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119) The following reaction is second order in A and first order in B:


A + B Products
Rate = k[A]2[B]
What is the rate constant k of this reaction in vessel (b) relative to the rate constant k of this
reaction in vessel (a)? Each vessel has the same volume. Shaded spheres represent A molecules,
and unshaded spheres represent B molecules.

A) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:2


B) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 1:1
C) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 2:1
D) rate constant k in vessel (b)/rate constant k in vessel (a) = 4:1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
120) Consider the first-order reaction A B in which A molecules (unshaded spheres) are
converted to B molecules (shaded spheres). Given the following pictures at t = 0 seconds and t =
100 seconds, which picture represents the number of A and B molecules remaining at 300
seconds?

A) picture a)
B) picture b)
C) picture c)
D) picture d)
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
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121) Consider the first-order reaction A B in which A molecules (unshaded spheres) are
converted to B molecules (shaded spheres). Given the following pictures at t = 0 seconds and t =
100 seconds, which picture represents the number of A and B molecules remaining at 200
seconds?

A) picture a)
B) picture b)
C) picture c)
D) picture d)
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
122) Consider the first-order decomposition of A molecules (shaded spheres) in two vessels of
equal volume. What is the half-life of decomposition in vessel (b) relative to the half-life of
decomposition in vessel (a)?

A) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 4:1


B) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 2:1
C) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 3:2
D) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 1:1
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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123) Consider the first-order decomposition of A molecules (shaded spheres) in two vessels of
equal volume. What is the half-life of decomposition in vessel (b) relative to the half-life of
decomposition in vessel (a)?

A) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 4:1


B) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 2:1
C) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 3:2
D) half-life in vessel (b)/half-life in vessel (a) = 1:1
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
124) Consider the first-order decomposition of A molecules (shaded spheres) in two vessels of
equal volume. How will the rate of decomposition in vessel (a) be affected if the volume of the
vessel is decreased by a factor of 2?

A) decrease by 1/2
B) increase by 2
C) increase by 4
D) stay the same
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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125) Consider the first-order decomposition of A molecules (shaded spheres) in two vessels of
equal volume. How will the half-life of decomposition in vessel (a) be affected if the volume of
the vessel is decreased by a factor of 2?

A) decrease by 1/2
B) increase by 2
C) increase by 4
D) stay the same
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
Consider the first-order reaction A B in which A molecules (shaded spheres) are converted to
B molecules (unshaded spheres).

126) Which drawing (a)-(d) represents the reaction mixture at t = 2 minutes?


A) drawing (a)
B) drawing (b)
C) drawing (c)
D) drawing (d)
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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127) Which drawing (a)-(d) represents the reaction mixture at t = 3 minutes?


A) drawing (a)
B) drawing (b)
C) drawing (c)
D) drawing (d)
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
The following pictures represent the progress of a reaction in which two A molecules combine to
give a more complex molecule A2, 2A A2.

128) What is the order of reaction with respect to A?


A) 0
B) 1/2
C) 1
D) 2
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Conceptual Problems
129) What is the time required to achieve the molecular mixture in drawing (d)?
A) 4 min
B) 5 min
C) 7 min
D) 8 min
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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130) Which of the elementary reactions shown above has a molecularity of one?
A) elementary reaction (a)
B) elementary reaction (b)
C) elementary reaction (c)
D) elementary reactions (a), (b), and (c)
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems
131) Which of the elementary reactions shown above has a molecularity of two?
A) elementary reaction (a)
B) elementary reaction (b)
C) elementary reaction (c)
D) elementary reactions (a), (b), and (c)
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems
132) Which of the elementary reactions shown above has a molecularity of three?
A) elementary reaction (a)
B) elementary reaction (b)
C) elementary reaction (c)
D) elementary reactions (a), (b), and (c)
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems
Consider a reaction that occurs by the following one-step mechanism:
A2 + B2 2 AB
The potential energy profile for this reaction is shown below.

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133) What is the species present at reaction stage 1?


A) an intermediate
B) a product
C) a reactant
D) a transition state
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems
134) What is the species present at reaction stage 2?
A) an intermediate
B) a product
C) a reactant
D) a transition state
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems
135) What is the species present at reaction stage 3?
A) an intermediate
B) a product
C) a reactant
D) a transition state
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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136) The activation energy for the forward reaction is given by the difference in energy between
which two reaction stages?
A) reaction stage 2 reaction stage 1
B) reaction stage 2 reaction stage 3
C) reaction stage 1 reaction stage 3
D) reaction stage 3 reaction stage 1
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems
137) The energy of reaction, E, is given by the difference in energy between which two reaction
stages?
A) reaction stage 2 reaction stage 1
B) reaction stage 2 reaction stage 3
C) reaction stage 1 reaction stage 3
D) reaction stage 3 reaction stage 1
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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Consider a reaction that occurs by the following mechanism:


A + BC AC + B
AC + D A + CD
The potential energy profile for this reaction is shown below.

138) Transition states occur at which reaction stages?


A) reaction stages 1 and 5
B) reaction stages 2, 3, and 4
C) reaction stages 2 and 4
D) reaction stage 3
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
139) Intermediates occur at which reaction stages?
A) reaction stages 1 and 5
B) reaction stages 2, 3, and 4
C) reaction stages 2 and 4
D) reaction stage 3
Answer: D
Diff: 4
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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140) What is the activation energy for the formation of ozone?


A) 14 kJ
B) 392 kJ
C) 406 kJ
D) none of these
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Conceptual Problems
141) What is the activation energy for the destruction of ozone?
A) 14 kJ
B) 392 kJ
C) 406 kJ
D) none of these
Answer: A
Diff: 4
Topic: Conceptual Problems

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12.2 Algorithmic Questions


1) The reaction that occurs in a Breathalyzer, a device used to determine the alcohol level in a
person's bloodstream, is given below. If the rate of appearance of Cr2(SO4)3 is 1.64 mol/min at
a particular moment, what is the rate of disappearance of C2H6O at that moment?
2 K2Cr2O7 + 8 H2SO4 + 3 C2H6O 2 Cr2(SO4)3 + 2 K2SO4 + 11 H2O
A) 0.547 mol/min
B) 1.09 mol/min
C) 2.46 mol/min
D) 4.92 mol/min
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
2) The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide is described by the chemical equation
2 N2O5(g) 4 NO2(g) + O2(g)
If the rate of disappearance of N2O5 is equal to 1.60 mol/min at a particular moment, what is the
rate of appearance of NO2 at that moment?
A) 0.800 mol/min
B) 1.60 mol/min
C) 3.20 mol/min
D) 6.40 mol/min
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
3) The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide is described by the chemical equation
2 N2O5(g) 4 NO2(g) + O2(g)
If the rate of appearance of NO2 is equal to 0.560 mol/min at a particular moment, what is the
rate of appearance of O2 at that moment?
A) 0.140 mol/min
B) 0.280 mol/min
C) 1.12 mol/min
D) 2.24 mol/min
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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4) The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide is described by the chemical equation


2 N2O5(g) 4 NO2(g) + O2(g)
If the rate of appearance of O2 is equal to 3.00 mol/min at a particular moment, what is the rate
of disappearance of N2O5 at that moment?
A) 0.750 mol/min
B) 1.50 mol/min
C) 6.00 mol/min
D) 12.0 mol/min
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
5) For a reaction that follows the general rate law, Rate = k[A][B]2, what will happen to the rate
of reaction if the concentration of A is increased by a factor of 5.00? The rate will
A) decrease by a factor of 1/25.0.
B) decrease by a factor of 1/5.00.
C) increase by a factor of 5.00.
D) increase by a factor of 25.0.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
Algo. Option: algorithmic
6) For a reaction that follows the general rate law, Rate = k[A][B]2, what will happen to the rate
of reaction if the concentration of B is increased by a factor of 3.00? The rate will
A) decrease by a factor of 1/9.00.
B) decrease by a factor of 1/3.00.
C) increase by a factor of 3.00.
D) increase by a factor of 9.00.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
Algo. Option: algorithmic
7) What is the overall reaction order for the reaction that has the rate law: Rate = k[O2] [NO ]2?
A) zero order
B) first order
C) second order
D) third order
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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8) For a particular first-order reaction, it takes 24 minutes for the concentration of the reactant to
decrease to 25% of its initial value. What is the value for rate constant (in s-1) for the reaction?
A) 2.0 10-4 s-1
B) 9.6 10-4 s-1
C) 1.2 10-2 s-1
D) 5.8 10-2 s-1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic
9) The first-order reaction, SO2Cl2 SO2 + Cl2, has a rate constant equal to 2.20 10-5 s-1 at
593 K. What percentage of the initial amount SO2Cl2 will remain after 6.00 hours?
A) 1.00%
B) 37.8%
C) 40.2%
D) 62.2%
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic
10) The first-order reaction, 2 N2O(g) 2 N2(g) + O2(g), has a rate constant equal to 0.76 s-1
at 1000 K. How long will it take for the concentration of N2O to decrease to 12% of its initial
concentration?
A) 0.62 s
B) 2.8 s
C) 6.3 s
D) 8.4 s
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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11) The isomerization reaction, CH3NC CH3CN, is first order and the rate constant is equal
to 0.46 s-1 at 600 K. What is the concentration of CH3NC after 0.20 minutes if the initial
concentration is 0.30 M?
A) 1.2 10-3 M
B) 2.7 10-3 M
C) 1.2 10-1 M
D) 2.7 10-1 M
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
Algo. Option: algorithmic
12) The following reaction is first order, C2H6 2 CH3. If the rate constant is equal to 5.5
10-4 s-1 at 1000 K, how long will it take for 0.35 mol of C2H6 in a 1.00 L container to decrease
to 0.20 mol in the same container?
A) 4.5 min
B) 17 min
C) 53 min
D) 65 min
Answer: B
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
Algo. Option: algorithmic
13) The rate constant, k, for a first-order reaction is equal to 4.2 10-4 s-1. What is the half-life
for the reaction?
A) 2.9 10-4 s
B) 1.2 103 s
C) 1.7 103 s
D) 2.4 103 s
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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14) The first-order reaction, SO2Cl2 SO2 + Cl2, has a half-life of 8.75 hours at 593 K. How
long will it take for the concentration of SO2Cl2 to fall to 16.5% of its initial value?
A) 0.143 hr
B) 2.28 hr
C) 6.99 hr
D) 22.7 hr
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
Algo. Option: algorithmic
15) For the first-order reaction, 2 N2O(g) 2 N2(g) + O2(g), what is the concentration of N2O
after 3 half-lives if
mol of N2O is initially placed into a 1.00-L reaction vessel?
A) 1.6 10-2 M
B) 3.1 10-2 M
C) 6.2 10-2 M
D) 1.2 10-1 M
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life
Algo. Option: algorithmic
16) Carbon-14, which is present in all living tissue, radioactively decays via a first-order process.
A one-gram sample of wood taken from a living tree gives a rate for carbon-14 decay of 13.6
counts per minute. If the half-life for carbon-14 is 5715 years, how old is a wood sample that
gives a rate for carbon-14 decay of 11.9 counts per minute?
A) 5.3 102 yr
B) 7.6 102 yr
C) 1.1 103 yr
D) 9.4 103 yr
Answer: C
Diff: 5
Topic: Section 12.6 First-Order Reactions: Radioactive Decay
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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17) In aqueous solution, hypobromite ion, BrO-, reacts to produce bromate ion, BrO3-, and
bromide ion, Br-, according to the following chemical equation.
A plot of 1/[BrO-] vs. time is linear and the slope is equal to 0.056 M-1s-1. If the initial
concentration of BrO- is 0.80 M, how long will it take one-half of the BrO- ion to react?
A) 4.5 10-2 s
B) 7.1 s
C) 12 s
D) 22 s
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
18) The second-order reaction 2 Mn(CO)5 Mn2(CO)10, has a rate constant equal to 3.0 109
M-1 s-1 at 25C. If the initial concentration of Mn(CO)5 is 2.0 10-5 M, how long will it take
for 90.% of the reactant to disappear?
A) 6.7 10-16 s
B) 7.4 10-15 s
C) 1.5 10-4 s
D) 6.0 103 s
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
19) Nitrogen dioxide decomposes at 300C via a second-order process to produce nitrogen
monoxide and oxygen according to the following chemical equation.
2 NO2(g) 2 NO(g) + O2(g).
A sample of NO2(g) is initially placed in a 2.50-L reaction vessel at 300C. If the half-life and
the rate constant at 300C are 11 seconds and 0.54 M-1 s-1, respectively, how many moles of
NO2 were in the original sample?
A) 0.17 mol
B) 0.42 mol
C) 5.9 mol
D) 15 mol
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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20) Hydrogen iodide decomposes at 800 K via a second-order process to produce hydrogen and
iodine according to the following chemical equation.
2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g)
At 800 K it takes 142 seconds for the initial concentration of HI to decrease from 6.75 10-2 M
to 3.50 10-2 M. What is the rate constant for the reaction at this temperature?
A) 5.12 10-4 M-1s-1
B) 9.69 10-2 M-1s-1
C) 10.3 M-1s-1
D) 1.95 103 M-1s-1
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
Algo. Option: algorithmic
21) The activation for the following reaction is 180 kJ/mol:
(g) + (g)
(g)
If the rate constant at 202C is 4.13 1
, what is the rate constant at 277C?
A) 2.10 1
B) 1.66 1
C) 5.39
D) 3.99
Answer: A
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.10 Using the Arrhenius Equation
Algo. Option: algorithmic
22) The aquation of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) in acid solution takes place according to the
equation:
Fe(phen)32+ + 3 H3O+ + 3 H2O Fe(H2O)62+ + 3 phenH+.
If the activation energy, Ea, is 126 kJ/mol and the rate constant at 30C is 9.8 10-3 min-1, what
is the rate constant at 35C?
A) 4.4 10-3 min-1
B) 2.2 10-2 min-1
C) 4.5 101 min-1
D) 2.3 102 min-1
Answer: B
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.10 Using the Arrhenius Equation
Algo. Option: algorithmic

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12.3 Short Answer Questions


1) For the reaction shown below, if the rate of formation of O2 is 6.0 106 M/s, the rate of
decomposition of N2O5 over the same time interval is ________.
2 N2O5(g) 4 NO2(g) + O2(g)
Answer: 1.2 105 M/s
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
2) The reaction shown below has the rate law: Rate = k[BrO3][Br][H+]2. The order of
reaction with respect to H+ is ________ and the overall order is ________.
BrO3(aq) + 5 Br(aq) + 6 H+(aq) 3 Br2(aq) + 3 H2O(l)
Answer: 2, 4
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.2 Rate Laws and Reaction Order
3) At 300C decomposition of NO2(g) occurs with a rate law: Rate = k[NO2]x. If the initial
rate of decomposition is 3.2 105 M/s when [NO2]o = 8.0 103 M and the initial rate of
decomposition is 8.0 106 M/s when [NO2]o = 4.0 103 M, then the order of reaction with
respect to NO2, x = ________.
Answer: 2
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.3 Determining a Rate Law: The Method of Initial Rates
4) The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide occurs according to the equation
2 H2O2(aq) 2 H2O(l) + O2(g)
A concentration-time study of this reaction produces a straight line when ln[H2O2] is plotted
versus time. Therefore, this is a ________ order reaction.
Answer: first
Diff: 2
Topic: Section 12.4 First-Order Reactions: The Integrated Rate Law
5) At 55 the decomposition of N2O5 is first order, having a rate constant, k = 1.7 103 s1. If
the initial concentration of N2O5 is 6.4 103 M, the number of half-lives that are required for
the N2O5 concentration to fall to 2.0 104 M is ________, and the amount of time required is
________ minutes.
Answer: 5, 34
Diff: 4
Topic: Section 12.5 First-Order Reactions: Half-Life

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6) Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5715 years. Currently living organisms decay at a rate of 15.3
disintegrations/ min per gram of carbon. If an archeological artifact has a carbon-14 decay rate
of 12.0 disintegrations/ min per gram of carbon, the approximate age of the artifact is ________
years old.
Answer: 2000
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.6 First-Order Reactions: Radioactive Decay
7) At an elevated temperature the decomposition of a gaseous oxide, AO2 occurs with a rate
constant, k = 0.54 M1s1. If the half-life of this reaction is 926 seconds when [AO2] = 2.0
103 M and 462 seconds when [AO2] = 4.0 103 M, this reaction is ________ order.
Answer: second
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.7 Second-Order Reactions
8) A gaseous compound, C, undergoes catalytic decomposition at an initial rate of 0.45 M/s when
[C]o = 3.0 103 M and 0.45 M/s when [C]o = 9.0 103 M. Therefore, this is a ________
order reaction.
Answer: zeroth
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.8 Zeroth-Order Reactions
9) A reaction occurs by a two-step mechanism, shown below.
Step 1: AX2(g) AX(g) + X(g)
Step 2: AX2(g) + X(g) AX + X2(g)
The intermediate in this reaction is ________, and the molecularity of the second step is
________.
Answer: X(g), two
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms
10) A gaseous reaction occurs by a two-step mechanism, shown below.
Step 1:AX +Y2 AXY2
Step 2:AXY2 + AX 2 AXY
If the rate law for this reaction is Rate = k[AX]2[Y2], the intermediate is ________, and step
________ is the rate-determining step.
Answer: AXY2, 2
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.11 Reaction Mechanisms

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11) An aqueous reaction occurs by a two-step mechanism, shown below.


Step 1: A2X2 + Y A2X + XY
Step 2: A2X2 + XY A2X + X2 + Y
In this reaction the intermediate is ________, and the catalyst is ________.
Answer: XY, Y
Diff: 3
Topic: Section 12.14 Catalysis

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