Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 120

' Ler'

ln/r":h""ru l'1.rh,"aJqJ1ia1:r

Cku , [',{n.15..:t"o) Frzru.j**r1,p1..!d


?,1 Shour l-hnl i:udqsl- tolo-cecln.,t o,'.,J huro,og*',e,1-9 oL kCPlf crre un relaled conrJtfrorr:
Snrny hci

i'r |hg serr14 |h-i- nerl'he. ,rrurplre: hre. 6l'he' Ii'h,b*ocje,ae


r]Y tlE Y (P'"fi
u

()r) = u (x (?:U)) *

u e x {&P, *Y))

(p4) a^d {l'p, l-y) are Yl-< 5a#v1e s l' p X ( Y


r' Cr':yJ .,nd x (lp,l-y) ore fe* u,tl* $"h'-.,: >rCpr ifi* x {,Fp r't'yJ
'o[ cley"eg
lh6- dre;t"r*n.rc! lo- evsrg g*aei ><dLt"JY)
'* h*vr'"r{,:.# m*au}
L*rer F{,-t**cl l*a *t b*d g*}" 1:*[ou"6ecl ,,"-res)
bccau:<, brclge,L

L'

bg fheo rs*-) Z"E


U"T3-*'rerfl
{3o"lget [3o}o*"e*ln'*:e Ar'tu 5ym're}-ry 4
lr-rply bat)ge'Y bolattCetlm11
dor
*oY-nete)Jcr*-tlY1
l4ornogene&g
ry$6n,.18
t.;hr*h
ALOr{le g}$es noF w:yt\3 hc*ro3ul,e'r}Y

<)v.
fr<;.r pa1c. BI

bu.l3e.1-

tolo..".dr.ess

b9 buclge! batorc< ulnes>


CLp,by)= ky

te"t

a'-,

ct

lry ]"1"e s t * w1 ! .tT

v*(?e,b)

=9

Z.o, ?t'Lq'3)
]; r
?.?i

* '-xi (P''9) .."'J

Lr;

i=l

x':qFf 'oq)-*
u,rfh DiLD=,
"l-ho,trboh ho prov.- PiCr) =
S{?rtl} r: >yn-rrneh't C
L$e rreed cinoFr<.r q,)5,,v*rppq.,.i

cl

2.V Suppols l-i".1- x tp,g) lR? s"ri-rr}r.e.r budgel bal*^e.ecih>t ..rv-,cl hor.',c,g6.ms,L-7
on"' lR
i? Shou., l'h.*l- Fo" qii (p,g") iRiS , s tp,y) . p =o *shere" s(pry)
cl*rtol-ey i-he Siulskg r"ncrLri> dibo 6iralud r^rrl-h 'X (pr)
t+

K*..rll Fr"r- lhe pr@D ol Theo'e",- L.t1

li*e {*"Jt *l-

t.r!.,e", burtgel- b.alsareJnc>s hcrldU u-t v'nctg *fu[f"srur, fieo]c

r"r,l-h rclFe*F f o p.rcs5 syrct rncerne }c, obFo'tr f,u* 'i *

.* n fi

-= *xjtp,yJ (n<l Z p;
*t
L p; ?:gjv)
"'c?Y)
aE
b?'t
L+

moycwrsll'y
"
lwrl-l.i f,**.1

g , xi (lP, {rg) : X,. [pry) V t


hne,^ rF xi [fF, Fy) = f; (l) = con5f61r'rl ar Pi&)=a

|olof

L+ hrokq.
N.
.L

<r^d

cier-tv<,*!rr"e

6f

"(r)= f- er:ltr*blo,
j;r

Vp;

$h..,: r..'(r).

f_

pi

f')

s Xi Lrf ,Fg)

Xt (t,p,Fy) ;
)_::'**

#3

,
t
/,
shce tg=
bp.x1lp, l-g) ,a^J

g:. j't2

r(

lh"l

qre.: u5<-

r.n 1"lre>

(_4

by clr vr chr.S

cr

{:y [ > c:

ki {,lp,ty;

l-#,*O

o, *.

>a!j:,rr)

O = e p.i ia tj-fP,ig) n
,=r'+
apj
lf

"

S ( p, u)

o = Zpi. sfpj.U]
4): s(p.g)"F

xi

(,t_r*,

ly).

P'J

)>,r (lp.Fy) ,.
_-all'"----"
XJ ( tp, l.r1
|

" ?11bpii*?-b) -

Jef

"

-J

ruHY)

u:Gp,ty)

{.*uftq.,a

eCPt r) e l(*, n.:l' pscetl't''t1"1 qn eXY)en qlr'lur' g


, sdf-r; fy
[u-ol-rcr-, au.,d x (Pr VJ e lR: , hol- necetsa"'l', $ $ev"o"nJ h"rrl-ron
l^
/--2
*cvtor,
It'r
g.l.rrorl'r.c,6
>
gtven
q,L
p.-[-rol
l-h<- sgrl'e.rn
drPD <r<nVta1[
l-h..rl- lh'e. fut'ol-tc,'.r

2.E Sropo*

l-L

5l,r6c\,

L{,11cl sr'rrnry:

sal-r,ll.,ru tudg.u lr.rl--.colnc>b, Vh"^ e,Cpr') muJ- be ho^ro9ens"':


oF delr<<, <>r, In p,
tb) ID e [Pru) r,.lnor"og ev-te,otb cL A"gree c'ne rh p q'.,J Lov^ eq"h P , .i h
da5u!.ae) everJ nOn ncgFal-rw volue c4) U Vorrter, l-Lr.-, >< Cpry) rrar.rs|
lrc hornnogeneou5 op cl<gr<.e ZC"<, th (frrg)

(") tp xCprj)

L'

a""o'.|,^? t-o

(P,

u:

) ?j.9l!l
zpi

L lr= YLe,y) ss.l-rrPre: l'l"e L" d,r.l


11

z PiXi (.prlj) * !

X cI

p.,

{r,u))

$c," .{,2 I "-" n

(e

lou,Lonce.lr-,e:: cc)nJ&ro'-l

For anY

1-.L

conar<]<v"

"ub'hF.uk

)= e

(pru) .rod urq, geL

z Fr Xc Cp, e Cpru)) = e- (p,u)


z p.
= e(p,u) = t.e,Cp,u)
. l-!P-)j
L ap.i

(tJ

I
tl
L$ by
l\eor**.

h.2.1

ZX1 L
l-

t). l*

,nl

irt*" ,s The *-** J

+!9
}Xi' I =

k -c.,J

tcx) !)

ho*urt*neorool

Jtgv*e k ,i *

Lovnc:geneoks o p deSree oF In p
lhe". CZ) 'rnplte> [h-L e [p,u)
'>
ft e Cp.,u) rt hornayvrsc,u) oF drSree on iu^? c,v.,.[ p* eqcLt

' e (" &frt-r) *

L- OrPlore.'F,.*he

{p,r) kr" **y t }o


''
tEtl-i6a*.J s,td*:i [lH,t] r . :,

l.c:

zr

\ae /.
tFp,,u/
v
,?P'
l",

l,rle ,*'7h, ha;'d stcJ<. I Rl-+5)


iplagce,g)l

Dt P FeF*

,r..f,tg}1*g

'Thso,oc"",

alg

?p

fJ

fi'e.

-b

-%

lt

2_9coi)
=
?p
t+ lse *P.$ S c,nJ brtng LH S **d q $-t* l'CIgeF.ei-

ar":

l=j|p^,)'. & = 1s[gf) e

urh,ch

[prg) yt

rr,,--.'

1clr<s

Clp,g)

x(t-p"y).\= X(r,r,\

XCp,y) rs hoh+ole.vre.$u5 of clego"*e


Zgrc

h,n6

2.6 A c*,rr,r- ar ho,e gxpenoliYur< puncl1on e(Pt, P:, u) = U Pt P" ftpt t Pz)
F,nJ a d,.ecl sl-rlrly Frn.'cl-roy. u(XtiX") i-hs,,l- rtril-tonql'@e) i-l'; perlot'l
cJernond b<,hstr.,l og',

' eCp, , po, u)= u P,'Pz " <*


@
!r',)r zt Jr'
v L'r
w e
&>ta' Vv (ptrpz,g))=
{et>?zt
fFa+pt)

e> v(?rrpr,g)

(%u vz)

H.#)-

L.! crx.,v'.g th.l. g =.1, t Jhere l?t 'Xr t ?1YZ t1


a\* 1P1+?)
v(p.^
1)H2r&./

l*

(X, )xz-)

z Yntr, V (pt, pz,1) s.l Ftxt


ftrfn Pt+P?
Pt?z
lP)

LLo3u.oFJe'
r

Lr F:oC

.rD

4d-

?PI

+ P2x2z

k, Vn - !V,lPzNt * v$z=o

Lz)

(P' Pr)'
(tt,Pr)2

3Fz

+*
z7

Pr

Pr>Cr

(a1
*t

L subrf-,|'vle (t7

>.!

yv It-'p,x,-Pz^z)
*= ryP
ft?z
U,"PA : tq r vr] tu -)Xr =o

-.YJ..-

a=
Y2

4 Pzx2=1

tpl

'

- -prn

Cs)

1-FrX1 -P2x.=g

o.n"l Cz)

Pz

* Cp,tfi) tt

Vrfz-Pv(z*P22.
PyP,

- Py?z - Pt1

D2
tz
1) Y,- #b-ef
Xz Pf 'Ft

P"2

* Pt'

Xt

Ky

cP;p4z

xrbclrlvle

V<,

Ct)

t-P,X1 -PzK> =O 45

1r' %xt

1 vt ,{, x, t'

tr.re

hqVc Pt = xr* /xr,

lt uCx,,*t)= v(Pt tPz,t)

U C).r

xt

Xr +Xy

a-d

Pzz+Xz + '{ Xtx2

(P, + pr)

?r"Pz

* Z-* Xr:r'z

?r \
",

J. ---:xr * -lX,.xr
Xz{-tIxr{-r

(x, + fi[r)(xr* rf*,",

* -,lx,x, )
-r

(x2+

[x,

J;;xt

+ [xr

+-&p

*TxE]r<=<#iil)

Cx,+-dfE)6&c+ {TFz)