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Title of Subject Functional Anatomy of the Locomotor System

2. Subject code HAP1029

3. Status Major for B. Sc. (Hons.) Medical IT

Elective for B. Sc. (Hons.) Bioinformatics

4. Stage Degree

5. Version March 2008

6. Credit Hour 3

7. Pre-Requisite HAP1019 Anatomy and Physiology of Major Organ System

8. Proposed Teaching Staff Kiew Lik Voon

Ajantha Sinniah

Tutor Ong Chia Sui

9. Semester Year 2, Trimester 3

10. Objective of Subject 1. To describe the structure and function of the musculoskeletal system.
2. To introduce the student to the mechanics of movement for different types
of joints.
3. To demonstrate the integration of these systems for locomotion.

11. Synopsis of Subject The course will cover the anatomy and physiology of the intergumentary
system, the skeletal system, the articular system, the muscular system and the
nervous system. For each system, the structural characteristics and its
relationship to its function will be looked at. The course will focus on how
structure relates to function and vice versa, and explore the interrelationship
and interdependency of the various systems.

Kursus ini merangkumi anatomi dan fisiologi bagi sistem intergumentari,

sistem skeletal, sistem artikular, sistem otot dan sistem saraf. Bagi setiap
sistem ini, ciri-ciri struktur dan fungsinya akan dibincang. Kursus ini menekan
kepada hubungan antara struktur dan fungsi dan sebaliknya. Kursus ini juga
menyelidik hububgan dan kait rapat antara pelbagai sistem.
12. Learning Outcome of (Fundamental Knowledge of Medical Science)
Subject 1. Basic knowledge of the structure and function of the musculoskeletal
2. Knowledge of the physiology of muscle and bone.
3. Able to relate structure to function.
4. Foundational knowledge for understanding the disorders of bones and

Upon completion of the subject, students should be able to:

1. Describe the general functions of skin and explain how the body
membranes are classified.
2. Name and discuss the functions of the skeletal system and identify the
subdivisions of the skeleton as axial or appendicular.
3. Identified the classification of joints structurally and functionally.
4. Distinguish the gross structure of skeletal muscles and identify the major
skeletal muscles of the body.
5. Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system.
6. List the major regions of the brain and relate them to their functions.
7. Compare and contrast the autonomic and peripheral nervous system.

% of
Programme Outcomes Contribution

• Acquisition of strong foundational knowledge in the

biological sciences necessary for the practice in the 70
field of bioinformatics.
• Competence in the use and application of technical
skills necessary for the practice in the field of 20
• Good and effective communication skills. 5
• Ability to work independently as well as with others
in a team.

13. Assessment Scheme Lab 10%

Test/Quiz 30%

Tutorial/Assignment 10%

Final Examination 50%

14. Details of Subject Topics Covered Hours

1. The Intergumentary System

• The Skin and appendages of the skin
• Functions of the intergumentary system 2
• Homeostatic imbalances of the skin
• Developmental aspects of the intergumentary
2. The Skeletal System

i. Bones
• Types of bones and their mechanical functions
• Anatomy of a long bone
• Bone tissue (matrix) and bone cells
ii. The skeleton
• Axial skeleton – skull and vertebral column
• Appendular skeleton – shoulder and hip girdles
i. Physiology of Bones
• Bone development and growth
• Bone remodeling and repair
• Calcium and phosphate storage and release
• Effects of hormones and nutrition on bone
• Effect of aging

3. The Articular System

i. Joints
• Classification of joints
• Structure of joints
ii. Synovial Joints
• Types of synovial joints 3
• Structure
• Cartilage, ligaments, bursae and tendons
• Movement at synovial joints

i. Effect of aging on joints

4. The Muscular System

i. Muscles
• Types of muscles and their functions
• Structure of different types of muscle
ii. The Muscular System
• Nomenclature
• Attachment of muscles
• Principle muscle groups
• Muscle actions and lever systems

i. Contraction of skeletal muscle
• Control
• Metabolism
• Effect of exercise
5. The Nervous System

• Organisation of the Nervous System
• The Nervous Tissue
• General Structure of the Brain and Spinal Cord
• The Major cranial nerves
• Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Physiology of Neurons
• Basic Concepts of Neural Integration
• Function of Major Brain Regions
• Functions of the Major Ascending and Descending
Pathways of the Spinal Cord.
• Functions of the Reflex Arc
• Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System.

Lecture Hours 28
15. Teaching and Learning
Activities Supervised Tutorial Hours 6

Laboratory Hours (13x2.5) 32

Total Contact Hours 66

16. Laboratory Lab 1

The Skin

Lab 2
Structure and Classification of Bones

Lab 3
Organization of the Skeleton

Lab 4
Vertebrae Column and Thoracic Cage

Lab 5
Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

Lab 6
Pectoral Girdle and Lower Limb

Lab 7
The Joints

Lab 8
Muscle System

Lab 9
Skeletal Muscle Physio Ex

Lab 10 :
Introduction to the Nervous System

Lab 11
Nerves of the lower Limb
Lab 12
Webpage Interactive Media

Lab 13
Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulse
17. Reading Material 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 8
Edition. Elaine N. Marieb. Pearson Benjamin
Cummings. 2006.
2. Learning Human Anatomy. A Laboratory Text and
Workbook. 3rd Edition. Julia F. Guy. 2005.
3. PhysioEx™ 6.0 for Human Physiology: Laboratory
Simulations in Physiology (Version 6.0). Peter Zao,
Timothy Stabler, Greta Peterson and Lori Smith.
Pearson Benjamin Cummings. 2006.

1. Human Anatomy and Physiology (Pearson

International Edition). 7 Edition. Elaine N. Marieb and
Katja Hoehn. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2007.
2. Principle of Anatomy & Physiology. 10th Edition.
Reference Gerard J Tortora, Sandra Grabowski. Wiley
International, 2003.
3. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach
(International Edition). 3rd Edition. Dee Unglauib
Silverthorn, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2004.