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Psalm 16

a. Oratio David. Exaudi Domine


iustitiam
meam,
intende
deprecationem
meam.
Auribus
percipe orationem meam, non in
labiis dolosis. De vultu tuo iudicium
meum prodeat: oculi tui videant
aequitatem. Probasti cor meum, et
visitasti nocte: igne me examinasti, et
non est inventa in me iniquitas. Ut
non loquatur os meum opera
hominum: propter verba labiorum
tuorum ego custodivi vias duras.
Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis,
ut non moveantur vestigia mea.

The prayer of David. Hear, O Lord, my justice:


attend to my supplication. Give ear unto my
prayer, (which proceedeth) not from deceitful
lips. Let my judgment come forth from thy
countenance: let thy eyes behold the things
that are equitable. Thou hast proved my heart,
and visited it by night, thou hast tried me by
fire: and iniquity hath not been found in me.
That my mouth may not speak the words of
men: for the sake of the words of thy lips, I
have kept hard ways. Perfect thou my goings
in thy paths: that my footsteps be not moved.

b. Ego clamavi, quoniam exaudisti


me Deus; inclina aurem tuam mihi, et
exaudi verba mea.

I have cried (to thee), for thou, O God, hast


heard me: O incline thy ear unto me, and hear
my words.

c. Mirifica misericordias tuas, qui


salvos facis sperantes in te. A
resistentibus dexterae tuae custodi
me, ut pupillam oculi. Sub umbra
alarum tuarum protege me, a facie
impiorum qui me afflixerunt.

Shew forth thy wonderful mercies; thou who


savest them that trust in thee. From them that
resist thy right hand keep me, as the pupil of
the eye. Protect me under the shadow of thy
wings. From the face of the wicked who have
afflicted me.

d. Inimici mei animam meam


circumdederunt,
adipem
suum
concluserunt, os eorum locutum est
superbiam. Proiicientes me nunc
circumderunt me: oculos suos
statuerunt declinare in terram.
Susceperunt me sicut leo paratus ad
praedam; et sicut catulus leonis
habitans in abditis.

My enemies have surrounded my soul: they


have shut up their fat: their mouth hath
spoken proudly. They have cast me forth and
now they have surrounded me: they have set
their eyes bowing down to the earth. They
have taken me, as a young lion dwelling in
secret places.

e. Exurge Domine, praeveni eum, et


supplanta eum; eripe animam meam
ab impio, frameam tuam ab inimicis
manus tuae. Domine a paucis de
terra divide oes in vita eorum et de
absconditis tuis adimpletus est
venter eorum. Saturati sunt filiis, et
dimiserunt reliquias suas parvulis
suis.

Arise, O Lord, disappoint him and supplant


him; deliver my soul from the wicked one: thy
sword from the enemies of thy hand. O Lord,
divide them from the few of the earth in their
life: their belly is filled from thy hidden (stores).
They are full of children: and they have left to
their little ones the rest (of their substance).

f. Ego autem in iustitia apparebo


conspectui
tuo;
satiabor
cum
apparuerit gloria tua.

But as for me, I will appear before thy sight in


justice: I shall be satisfied when thy glory shall
appear.

a. Supra describit psalmista divinam


iustitiam, et ostendit quod eam servabat;
hic proponit orationem in qua petit
exaudiri, propter iustitiam.

Previously, the Psalmist described divine justice


and showed that he observed it. In this psalm, he
offers a prayer in which he asks to be heard for
the sake of justice.

Titulus, oratio David. Et est primus


psalmus qui intitulatur ab oratione, quia
huiusmodi totaliter est oratio; et ideo ab
oratione incipit, quia inter tribulationes
singulare refugium est oratio; Psalm.
108: Pro eo ut me diligerent,
detrahebant mihi, ego autem orabam.

Its title is "The Prayer of David", and it is the first


psalm entitled with (the word) "prayer" (for the
whole of it is a prayer). This psalm arises from
prayer because in the midst of tribulations, prayer
is an unparalled refuge; Psalm 108: "Instead of
making me a return of love, they detracted me: but
I gave myself to prayer."

Dividitur ergo psalmus iste in duas


partes. In prima orat pro stabilitate
propria; in secunda petit liberationem a
malo, ibi, ego clamavi. Circa primum
duo facit. Primo petit exaudiri; secundo
proponit petitionem suam, ibi, de vultu
tuo.

This psalm, then, is divided into two parts. In the


first, he prays for his own endurance. In the
second, he asks for deliverance from evil, at I
have cried. Concerning the former, he does two
things. First, he asks to be heard, and second,
sets forth his petition, at From they countenance.

Considerandum est autem, quod in


exauditione sit triplex gradus. Primo ille
cui fit petitio, audit verba. Secundo
attendit sensum. Tertio implet petitum.

Now, in hearkening (to another), a three-fold


approach must be considered. Frist, he to whom
the petition is made hears the words, second, he
considers (its) meaning, and third, he fulfills what
is prayed for.

Primo ergo petit ut exaudiatur, dicens,


exaudi etc.; Dan. 9: Exaudi, Domine
Deus, orationem servi tui. Secundo in
exauditione ponit meritum petentis; et
ideo dicit, iustitiam meam: quasi dicat:
in me est meritum ut exaudias. Glossa:
Iustitia habet vocem apud Deum, qua
penetrat caelum: Iac. ult.: Multum valet
deprecatio iusti assidua: Ioan. 9:
Peccatores Deus non audit: sed si quis
Dei cultor est, hunc Deum exaudit.

Accordingly, he asks first that he be heard, saying


Hear etc; Daniel 9: "Hear O Lord God the prayer
of thy servant". In his hearkening, he next states
the merit of the petitioner. Thus, he says My
justice. It is as if he were saying, "There is merit in
me so that you may hearken (to me)". The Gloss
states "Justice has a voice before God, by which
(voice) it penetrates the heavens"; James 5: "The
continual prayer of a just man availeth much";
John 9: "God doth not hear sinners: but if a man
be a server of God (and doth His will), him He
heareth".

Secundo petit quod intendat ad sensum


orationis, intende deprecationem meam.
Glossa dicit: Deprecationem, quae est
pro malis amovendis. Alia littera,
Intende ad canticos meos, quasi ad
spiritualem intellectum: Ps. 129: Fiant
aures tuae intendentes in vocem
deprecationis meae.

(With respect to the) second (step), he asks that


he strive after the meaning of his prayer, Attend to
my supplication. The Gloss says "Supplication,
which is for removing evils." Another version has
"Attend to my songs", to (my) spiritual
understanding, as it were; Psalm 129: "Let thy
ears be attentive to the voice of my supplication".

Tertio quod audiat verba orantis; et ideo


dicit, auribus percipe orationem, quae
e s t , non
in
labiis
dolosis, sed
simplicibus: Isa. 53: Dolus non fuit in
ore eius.

(And as for the ) third (step, he asks) that He listen


to the words of (his) praying. And so, he says Give
ear unto my prayer which is not from deceitful lips
but from sincere ones; Isaiah 53: "There was no
deceit in his mouth".

Sed cum omnia audiat, quare dicitur


quaedam audire, et quaedam non?
Sap. 1: Spiritus sanctus disciplinae
effugiet fictum, et auferet se a
cogitationibus quae sunt sine intellectu.

But since He hears all things, why does He hear


one prayer, but not another? Wisdom 1: "The Holy
Spirit of discipline will flee from the deceitful, and
will withdraw himself from thoughts that are
without understanding."

Deus non dicitur audire nisi verba vera,


et non quae proveniunt ex labiis
dolosis: et ideo dicit, non in labiis
dolosis. Ps. 11: Labia dolosa in corde
etc. Et sic dolosum dupliciter accipitur:
scilicet fictio respectu oris, et respectu
operis, cum opus non concordat ori.
Pharisaeus qui dicebat, Luc. 18: non
sum sicut caeteri hominum etc. non fuit
exauditus; sed alius qui non in labiis
dolosis, sed recte orabat, fuit exauditus,
quia descendit iustificatus in domum
suam. Glossa: Labia dolosa sunt qui
dicunt Domine Domine, et non faciunt
voluntatem Patris mei.

(In response to this I say that) God is not said to


listen except to true words, and not to those which
come from deceitful lips; and so he says not with
decietful lips. Psalm 11: "(with) deceitful lips (and)
with a (double) heart (they have spoken)".
"Deceitful" is thus taken in a two-fold way,
namely, as insincerity with respect to mouth and
deed when the latter does not agree with the
former. The Pharisee who said "I am not as the
rest of men" (Luke 18), was not heard, but the
other man (the publican) who prayed not with
deceitful lips, but uprightly, was heard because
"he went down into his house justified" (Luke 18).
The Gloss has "Deceitful lips are those which say
'Lord, Lord', and do not do the will of my Father".

De
vultu
tuo. Iudex non profert
sententiam nisi audita petitione et
discussa causa. Et ideo hic petitionem
ponit: et petit tria. Primo sententiam.
Secundo causae examinationem, ibi,
Probasti. Tertio sententiae qualitatem,
Perfice. Circa primum duo facit. Primo
petit
iudicium.
Secundo
temperamentum, ibi, Oculi tui.

From they countenance. A judge does not deliver


(his) sentence unless he has heard the petition
and has considered the affair. For this reason, he
makes his petition at this point. He asks for three
things. First, a sentence, second, an examination
of the affair, at, You have proved, and third, a
condition of sentence, at, Perfect. Concerning the
first, he does two things. First, he asks for
judgment, and second moderation (or "that it be
moderate), at, Let thy eyes.

Dicit ergo, De vultu tuo, idest de


cognitione tua: Iudicium meum prodeat,
idest pro me: Hier. 10: Corripe me
Domine, verumtamen in iudicio, non in
furore tuo, ne forte ad nihilum redigas
me. Sed hic petit iudicium non
severitatis: Isa. 64: Omnes iustitiae
vestrae quasi pannus menstruatae, sed
aequitatis, secundum quod patitur
humana natura: et ideo dicit, Oculi tui
videant aequitatem, idest iudicent
iudicium aequitatum: Isa. 11: Arguet in
aequitate pro mansuetis terrae: Iob. 22:
Aequitatem proponat contra me, et ad
victoriam proveniet iudicium meum;
quasi dicat: non peto iudicium, quia
causa mea tibi examinata est. Quod
causa sua sit examinata coram eo,
ostendit cum dicit, Probasti etc. Et primo
ponit ordinem examinationis. Secundo
quid sit inventum exponit, et non est
inventa.

Thus he says From the countenance, that is from


thy thought, Let my judgment come forth, that is,
for my benefit; Jeremiah 10: "Correct me, O Lord,
but yet with judgment, and not in thy fury, lest thou
bring me to nothing". But here, he asks for a
judgment not of severity (Isaiah 64: "All our
justices as the rag of a menstruous woman"), but
of equity, in so far as human nature permits.
Consequently, he says, Let thy eyes behold the
things that are equitable, that is, let (them) decide
an equitable judgment; Isaiah 11: "He shall
reprove with equity for the meek of the earth"; Job
23: "Let him propose equity against me, and let
my judgment come to victory." It is as if he were
saying "I do not ask for judgment, because my
cause has been examined by you." He shows that
his cause has been examined in his presence
when he says Thou has proved etc. First, he
shows the order of examintion, and second, what
was discovered, (which latter) he explains at, And
iniquity has not been found in me.

Dicit
ergo, Probasti cor meum.
Differentia est inter probare et
examinare: probare quaerit rationem
facti, examinare quaerit ipsum factum.
Ratio autem facti magis tangit cor, sed
factum magis tangit corpus. Dicit ergo,
Probasti cor meum, idest probatum
ostendisti, quod non est turbatum
propter tribulationes quas patior.

Consequently, he says, Thou hast proved my


heart. There is a difference between proving and
examining. Proving (in the sense of testing,
inspecting, trying) enquires after the reason for
what has been done, while examining enquires
after the deed itself. The former pertains more to
the heart, but the latter more to the body. Thus, he
says, Thou hast proved my heart, that is having
proved (my heart), you have seen that it has not
been disturbed according to the tribulations which
I have suffered.

Deus cum examinat, tria facit. Probat,


visitat, et examinat. Probat cum diiudicat
an habeat cordis rectitudinem: quia si
non habet, non curat examinare; sed
quando hoc habet, indiget examinari
utrum habeat firmitatem: Hier. 17: Ego
Dominus scrutans corda et probans
renes, qui do unicuique iuxta viam
suam. Sed haec examinatio est dura et
fortis, ita quod nullus sustineret nisi
adiutus ab eo: Iob 6: Quae fortitudo mea
ut subsistam et quis finis meus ut
patienter agam? nec fortitudo mea nec
caro mea aenea est. Et ideo praemittit
visitationem: Psalm. 88: Visitabo in
virga, vel adiuvando, vel corrigendo.

When God examines, He does three things,


namely, he proves, visits, and examines. He
proves when he discerns whether an individual
has rectitude of heart. For if he does not (have this
rectitude), then he does not trouble himself to
examine (him). But when (an individual) has this
(rectitude), he will need to be examined (to see)
whether he has constancy; Jeremiah 17: "I am the
Lord who search the heart and prove the reins:
who give to every one according to his way". But
this examination is severe and powerful, so much
so that no one would withstand it unless helped
by Him; Job 6: "For what is my strength that I can
hold out? or what is my end that I should keep
patience? My strength is not the strength of
stones, nor is my flesh of brass (Neither my
strength or my flesh is of brass)". And so, he goes
forward in visitation; Psalm 88: "I will visit with a
rod", either helping or correcting.

Visitasti nocte. Sed potest idem intelligi


per noctem et ignem, quia turbat
animam: Iob 30: Nocte os meum
perforatur doloribus: et incendium facit
hoc idem.

Thou hast visited (my heart) by night. (This


visitation) can be understood by "night" and "fire"
because (either) disturbs the soul; Job 30: "In the
night my bone is pierced with sorrows...and fire
does the same".

V e l nocte, idest defectu spiritualis


intelligentiae. Quandoque quis habet
rectum cor, et supervenit sibi tentatio et
negligentia; et haec est in nocte: et in
hac visitat Dominus adiuvando contra
tentationes, et negligentiam excutit et
confortat: Ps. 49: Cum defecerit virtus
mea, ne derelinquas me.

By night (can also be understood as) "in the


absence of spiritual understanding". At times, one
has an upright heart when temptation and
negligence falls upon one and one's heart is in
the night. The Lord visits in one's heart by helping
(one) against temptations, driving away
negligence, and comforting (one); Psalm 49:
"When my power fails, do not abandon me".

Vel nocte, idest quiete et silentio, et tunc


visitat per consolationes: Matth. 25:
Media nocte clamor factus est, ecce
sponsus venit.

By night (can also be understood as) "in quiet and


silence", and (in this situation) he visits through
consolations; Matthew 25: "And at midnight there
was a cry made: Behold the bridegroom cometh".

Examinasti igne, idest tribulatione; quia


tunc apparet si est bonus amicus, et non
recedit: Eccl. 6: Est amicus secundum
tempus suum, et non permanebit in die
tribulationis. Invenitur autem per istam
examinationem innocentia et perfectio,
quia examinat si in eo inveniatur
innocentia. Hoc autem in isto invenitur.
Et primo ponit eius innocentiam.
Secundo perfectionem, ibi, Non est
inventa in me iniquitas.

Thou hast tried me by fire, that is, by tribulation,


because it is then apparent if he is a good friend
and does not withdraw; Ecclesiasticus 6: "There
is a friend for his own occasion, and he
will...abide in the day of thy trouble". Innocence
and perfection are discovered by this very
examination since it examines if innocence is to
be found in him, and indeed it is found in him. He
first sets out his innocence, and second, his
perfection, at, And iniquity hath not been found in
me.

Sed contra. 1 Ioan. 1: Si dixerimus quia


peccatum non habemus, nosipsos
seducimus, et veritas in nobis non est:
Et Prov. 20: Quis potest dicere, mundum
est cor meum? Eccl. 7: Non est homo
iustus in terra qui faciat bonum et non
peccet. Glossa, nec infans unius diei.

But on the contrary there is 1 John 1: "If we say


that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and
the truth is not in us", and Proverbs 20: "Who can
say: My heart is clean (I am pure from sin?", and
Ecclesiastes 7: "(For) there is no just man upon
earth that doth good and sinneth not". The Gloss
adds "Nor an infant of one day".

Dicendum, quod loquitur de iniquitate


peccati per quam in tribulatione recedit
a Deo. Perfectio innocentiae invenitur in
eo, intantum quod non loquitur Opera
hominum, idest peccatum; quasi dicat:
non solum in corde, sed nec in ore eius
est iniquitas: Iob. 6: Non invenietis in
lingua mea iniquitatem, nec in faucibus
meis iniquitas personabit: Eph. 4:
Omnis sermo malus de ore vestro non
procedat.

(I respond) by saying that he speaks concerning


the iniquity of sin through which one withdraws
from God in tribulation. The perfection of
innocence is found in him in so far as he does not
speak The works of men, that is, sin. It is as if he
were saying "Iniquity is not only not in his heart,
but also not in his mouth"; Job 6: "You shall not
find iniquity on my tongue, neither shall folly
sound in my mouth"; Ephesians 4: "Let no evil
speech proceed from your mouth".

Vel sic: Non est inventa in me iniquitas,


ut non loquatur os meum, cum post
sequitur, opera hominum etc.: quasi
dicat, tu vidisti quod in me non est
iniquitas: et hoc, quia non decet me
loqui, tu tamen vidisti hoc. Prov. 27:
Laudet te alienus, et non os tuum:
extraneus, et non labia tua.

Or (it could be interpreted) in this way: ...and


iniquity hath not been found in me. That my mouth
may not speak, when after follows The works of
men, as if to say "You yourself have seen that
there is no iniquity in me; and this is so because it
is not proper for me to speak (of such); but you
yourself have seen this"; Proverbs 27: "Let
another praise thee, and not thy own mouth: a
stranger, and not thy own lips".

Hieronymus habet sic: probasti cor


meum, visitasti nocte; conflasti me, et
non
invenisti
cogitationes
meas
ascendere super os meum; quasi dicat:
non intantum turbatio processit, ut
veniret a corde ad os per murmura.

Jerome has "You have proved and you have not


found my thoughts to ascend beyond my mouth",
as if to say, "Confusion does not proceed so far
that it comes from the heart to the mouth by
murmurings".

Secundo exponit quo igne fuerit


examinatus, cum dicit, Propter verba
labiorum tuorum ego custodivi vias
duras. Viae durae sunt adversitates; et
hoc sustinui, Propter verba labiorum
tuorum, idest ut servarem verba, aut
annunciarem verba tua: Hier. 20: Factus
est sermo domini in opprobrium et in
derisum.

Next, he sets forth by what fire the examination


was made, when he says, For the sake of the
words of thy lips, I have kept hard ways. The hard
ways are adversities, and I have sustained this for
the sake of the words of thy lips, so that I might
serve, or announce, your words; Jeremiah 22:
"The word of the Lord was done in opprobrium
and in derision".

Hieronymus habet, ut vias latas.


Latrones quaerunt diverticula ut lateant:
ita David quando persequebatur eum
Saul: Ps. 17: Posuit pedes meos quasi
cervorum. Spiritualiter dicitur de Christo
punito inter latrones ut malefactor: Ioan.
18: Si non esset hic malefactor, non tibi
tradidissemus eum.

Jerome has "(...I have kept) as hidden ways".


Thieves seek out-of-the-way places that they may
hide, as David did when Saul was pursuing him;
Psalm 17: "Who hath made my feet like the feet of
harts". Spiritually, it is said of Christ punished
among theives as an evildoer; John 18: "If he
were not an evildoer, we would not have
delivered him up to thee".

Si incipias versum ibi, Propter opera


hominum custodivi vias duras, dicas
vias duras quae sunt opera hominum:
Prov. 4: Viam sapientiae monstrabo tibi,
ducam te per semitas aequitatis, quas
dum ingressus fueris etc.

If you begin the verse at For the sake of...the


works of men...I have kept hard ways, you assert
hard ways which are the works of men; Proverbs
4: "I will shew thee the way of wisdom, I will lead
thee by the paths of equity, which when thou shalt
have entered" etc.

Consequenter determinat quid petit:


Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis,
scilicet iustitiae: Iob 4: Ubi est fortitudo
tua, patientia, et perfectio viarum? Et
hoc ut Vestigia, idest affectus meus,
Non moveantur a mandatis tuis.

Next, he determines what he seeks, Perfect thou


my goings in thy paths, namely of justice; Job 4:
"Where is...thy fortitude, thy patience, and the
perfection of thy ways?" And this, so that the Feet,
which is to say, my desire, may not be moved from
your commands.

Vel petit Christus pro ecclesia ut


gressus eius perficiantur, et Vestigia,
idest sacramenta, Non moveantur.

Or (one could say that) he seeks Christ on behalf


of the Church so that his ways may be perfected,
and that his Feet (or footsteps), which is to say,
the sacraments, may not be moved.

Item, cum ex actibus generentur


habitus, actus vestigia relinquuntur in
voluntate.

Again, since habits are generated from actions,


(one could say that) actual vestiges (or footsteps
so to speak) are left in the will.

Vel ad litteram petit David, quod non


praecipitetur de praeruptis per quae
transibat fugiens Saul: 1 Reg. 24:
Sequebatur
eum
Saul
per
praeruptissimas petras.

Or literally, he seeks David, that he may not be


hurled down from the craggy rocks through which
he passed, fleeing Saul; 1 Kings 24: "Saul...went
out to seek after (David)...upon the most craggy
rocks".

Alia littera habet, sustenta gressus


meos in calcibus meis, et non labentur
vestigia mea.

Another version has "Sustain my steps in my


ways, and let not my footsteps fail".

Vel quod Christus secundum quod


homo perficiatur in sempiternum gloria
divinitatis: Ioan. 17: Clarifica me, Pater,
apud temetipsum, claritate quam habui
priusquam mundus fieret.

Or, (it could be said) that Christ, as man, is


perfected in the eternal glory of divinity; John 17:
"Glorify thou me, O Father, with thyself, with the
glory which I had before the world was".

b. Ego. Supra petit psalmista ut


stabiliatur in bono; hic autem petit ut
liberetur a malo: et circa hoc tria facit.
Primo petit exaudiri in sua petitione.
Secundo
ponit
eam,
ibi, Mirifica
misericordias tuas. Tertio exauditionem
suae petitionis manifestat, ibi, Ego
autem. Circa primum duo facit. Primo
proponit spem conceptam de Deo.
Secundo ex hac petit se exaudiri, ibi,
Inclina aurem.

I have cried. Previously, the Psalmist set forth that


he be made steadfast in goodness. But here, he
asks that he be liberated from evil. Concerning
this he does three things. First, he asks to be
heard in his petition. Second, he sets it (his
petition) forth, at, Shew forth thy wonderful
mercies. Third, he shows the granting of his
petition, at, But as for me. Concerning the first he
does two things. First, he demonstrates his hope
received from God. Second, from this received
hope he asks that he be heard, at, O incline thy
ear.

Dicit ergo, Ego clamavi. Videtur ordo


praeposterus:
quia
convenientius
videtur dici, quoniam clamavi, exaudisti
me. Et ideo tripliciter exponitur. Uno
modo
secundum
Glossam.
Ego
clamavi. In clamore validior intentio
mentis est, et libera. Tunc ergo clamant
qui cum magna devotione orant, et
libertate cordis. Et unde hoc? Quoniam
exaudisti, dando scilicet libertatem.

And so, he says I have cried. It would seem that


the order is inverted. It would be more suitable to
have said, "Because I have cried, you have heard
me." This is explained thus in a three-fold way.
First, according to the Gloss, I have cried. In a cry,
the intent of the mind is more powerful, and (is)
unrestrained. Therefore, at that moment, they cry
who pray with great devotion and freedom of
heart. And on account of what? For thou has
heard, namely by giving freedom.

Gregorius: neminem exaudit Deus nisi


quem ut precetur inspirat, animam
scilicet per aliquam devotionem: Psalm.
118: Concupivit anima mea desiderare
etc.

Gregory states "God hears no one except he


whom He inspires to entreat." And he inspires the
soul namely through some devotion; Psalm 118:
"He desired my soul to desire" etc.

Alio modo, secundum Augustinum 10


de civit. Dei, quod ly quoniam non
designat causam, sed signum; quasi
dicat: hoc est signum quod clamavi,
quia exaudisti me.

The second way is according to Augustine's City


of God, Book 10. (There, he says) that the (word)
"since" does not designate a cause, but a sign, as
if to say, "This is a sign that I have cried, for you
have heard me."

Tertio modo, quia cum quis exauditur


semel, iterum fiducialius petit. Et ideo
dicit, quoniam exaudisti ego clamavi.

The third way (of explaining this is) that when


someone is heard, he asks time and again more
confidently. And so, he says "Since you have
heard, I have cried."

Hieronymus habet, plane quoniam


exaudisti. Semper haec duo coniungit,
clamorem, et exauditionem, quia qui sic
clamat exauditur: Ionae 2: Clamavi de
tribulatione mea ad Dominum, et
exaudivit me: Psalm. 141: Clamavi ad
te, dixi tu es etc.

Jerome has, "(I have cried) since you have heard


(me) completely." He always joins these two
(words), cry and hearkening, because he who
cries thus is heard; Jonah 2: "I cried out of my
affliction to the Lord, and He heard me"; Psalm
141: "I cried to thee (O Lord): I said, Thou art (my
hope)" etc.

Consequenter petit exaudiri. Et qui


exaudit primo audit; ideo dicit, Inclina,
nisi Dominus sit in alto loco, oportet
quod inclinet aurem ad audiendum illum
qui est in imo. Dominus sedet in
maiestate sua; et si vellet nostra agere
secundum altitudinem suae iustitiae,
non salvaremur, quia Isa. 64: Quasi
pannus menstruatae omnes iustitiae
nostrae. Et ideo oportet quod inclinet, et
tunc exaudiat: Dan. 9: Inclina domine
aurem tuam, et audi.

Following this, he asks to be heard. And he who


hearkens first hears. Thus he says O incline.
Unless the Lord were in a high place, it would be
appropriate that he incline his ear so as to hear he
who is in the least (place). The Lord sits in his
majesty, and if he wanted us to treat our affairs
according to the height of his justice, we would
not be saved, because (according to) Isaiah 64: "
(We are all become as one unclean, and) all our
justice as the rag of a menstruous woman." Thus,
it is appropriate that he incline and then hear:
Daniel 9: "Incline, O my God, thy ear, and hear."

c . Mirifica. Hic ponitur petitio: et est


duplex. Prima de sui liberatione.
Secunda de inimicorum deiectione,
Exurge Domine, praeveni eum. Circa
primum
duo
facit.
Primo
petit
liberationem.
Secundo
subdit
necessitatem liberationis, ibi, Inimici
mei. Circa primum tria facit. Primo petit
misericordiam. Secundo salutem, ibi,
Qui salvos facit. Tertio liberationis
modum, ibi, Custodi me ut pupillam
oculi.

Shew forth thy wonderful mercies. Here, he


makes his petition which is two-fold. First,
concerning his liberation, and second, concerning
the defeat of his enemies, at, Arise, O Lord,
disappoint him. Concerning the first, he does two
things. First, he asks for liberation, and second,
adds the necessity of liberation, at, My enemies.
Concerning the first, he does three things. First,
he asks for mercy, second for safety, at Thou who
savest them, and third, the mode of liberation, at,
Keep me, as the pupil of thy eye.

Dicit ergo, Mirifica. Quod quis liberetur a


parvo hoste, non est mirum: sed cum
quis liberatur a maximo malo, vel hoste,
hoc est mirum; et hoc petit, Mirifica,
idest mirabiliter libera me. Et hoc non
secundum iudicium hominis, sed
secundum misericordiam tuam: Eccl.
36: Innova signa et immuta mirabilia,
glorifica manum et brachium dextrum,
excita furorem et effunde iram, extolle
adversarium, et afflige inimicum. Et
huius ratio est, quia tuum est et
proprium.

Thus, he says, Make wonderful. It is not wonderful


when one is liberated from an insignificant enemy.
But when one is liberated from a great evil, or
enemy, this is wonderful. And this he asks, Make
wonderful, that is wonderously liberate me, not
according to the judgment of man, but according
t o Thy mercy; Ecclesiasticus 36: "Renew thy
signs, and work new wonders. Glorify thy hand,
and the right hand. Raise up indignation, and pour
out wrath. Take away the adversary, and crush
the enemy." And the reason for this is that it is
yours and appropriate (to do this).

Qui salvos facis sperantes in te: Eccl. 2:


Nullus speravit in Domino, et confusus
est. Et salvas, A resistentibus dexterae
tuae. Dextera Dei sive virtus est
operativa spiritualiter in bonis: Prov. 3:
Longitudo dierum in dextera eius, et in
sinistra illius divitiae et gloria. Dicuntur
resistere dexterae Dei daemones sive
peccatores qui impediunt spiritualia. Vel
dextera Dei dicitur Christus: Psal. 117:
Dextera Dei fecit virtutem. Cui resistunt
Iudaei contradicendo eius doctrinae: Io.
7: Quomodo hic litteras scit, cum non
didicerit? et detrahendo illius operationi:
Io. 9: Non est hic homo a Deo qui
sabbatum non custodit: Luc. 11: In
Beelzebub principe daemoniorum eiicit
daemonia.

Thou who savest them that trust in thee;


Ecclesiasticus 2: "No one hath hoped in the Lord,
and hath been confounded." And saved From
them that resist thy right hand. The right hand of
God is (his) power working spiritually in the good;
Proverbs 3: "Length of days is in her right hand
and her left hand riches and glory." Demons and
sinners who impede spiritual matters are said to
resist the right hand of God. The right hand of God
is also said of Christ; Psalm 117: "The right hand
of God wrought strength", whom the Jews resist
by contradicting his teachings (John 7: "How doth
this man know letters having never learned?"),
and by disparaging his activities; John 9: "This
man is not of God who keepeth not the Sabath";
Luke 11: "He casteth out devils by Baelzebub, the
prince of devils."

Sed est quaestio contra psalmum (ps.


75): Tu terribilis es, et quis resistet tibi?
Nullus ergo suae voluntati potest
contradicere: Iob 9: Deus cuius irae
nullus potest resistere.

But is the question "You are terrible, and who will


resist you?" contrary to (this) Psalm? No one
therefore can contradict His will; Job 9: "God,
whose wrath no man can resist."

Et dicendum, quod nullus efficaciter


potest resistere ei, sed potest habere
voluntatem sive propositum resistendi.

(In response) it must be said that no one


effectively is able to resist Him, but can have the
will or intention of resisting (Him).

Consequenter ponit modum liberationis,


quia diligenter et tute: ideo dicit Custodi
me ut pupillam oculi. Pupilla oculi cum
diligentia custoditur, quia nihil quod
laedere
possit
permittitur
appropinquare; sic et facit Deus in
custodia servi sui: Deut. 32: Circumduxit
eum, et docuit et custodivit quasi
pupillam oculi sui: Zach. 2: Qui vos
tetigerit, tangit pupillam oculi mei.

Next, he sets down the mode of liberation, that


(He do this) diligently and safely. And so, he says,
Keep me as the pupil of the eye. The pupil of the
eye is kept with diligence because nothing which
can wound (it) is permitted to draw near. And in
this way, God takes his servant into (His)
protection; Deuteronomy 32: "He led him about,
and taught him: and he kept him as the pupil of his
eye"; Zacharias 2: "For he that toucheth you,
toucheth the pupil of my eye."

Vel secundum Glossam, pupilla oculi


dicitur Christus dirigens: Eccl. 3: Virtus
visiva est in pupilla qua discernimus
bonum a malo, et Christus discernit
fideles ab infidelibus, et a bonis malos,
ad
hanc
diligentem
custodiam
manifestandam utitur duplici metaphora:
scilicet umbrae et alarum. Umbra enim
refrigerat ab aestu, sic et tutela Dei
refrigerat dans securitatem. Item alis
gallina pullos contra milvum custodit;
sic et Deus suis alis, quae sunt charitas
et misericordia, iustos defendit a
rapacitate daemonum. Matth. 23:
Quoties
volui
congregare
vos,
quemadmodum
gallina
congregat
pullos sub alas, et noluistis? His ergo
alis Deus nos elevat ad superna: Ps.
88: Misericordia et veritas praecedent
faciem tuam, beatus populus etc.; Hier.
31: In charitate perpetua dilexi te, ideo
attraxi te miserans.

Or, according to the Gloss, "The pupil of the eye is


said of Christ directing"; Eccl. 3: "The power of
sight is in the pupil of the eye whereby we discern
good from evil", and Christ discerns the faithful
from the unfaithful, and the bad from the good. To
show clearly this diligent protection, a two fold
metaphor is employed, namely of shadow, and of
wings. Now shade refreshes (one) from heat, just
as God's care refreshes (one) with safety. Again, a
hen protects her chicks in her wings against a bird
of prey, just as God defends the just from the
rapacity of the demons in His Wings, which are
charity and mercy; Matthew 23: "How often would
I have gathered together thy children, as the hen
doth gather her chickens under her wings, and
thou wouldest not?" Therefore, in (his) wings, God
raises up to the heavens; Psalm 88: "Mercy and
truth shall go before thy face: blessed is the
people (that knoweth jubiliation); Jeremiah 31: "I
have loved thee with an everlasting love,
therefore have I drawn thee, taking pity on thee."

V e l Pupilla oculi dicitur anima; quia


sicut pupilla quae est in medio oculi,
circumdatur
multis
pellibus
ad
defensionem, et homo apponit manum,
et fere omne quod habet, ne laedatur;
sic debet homo facere pro anima: Iob 2:
Pellem pro pelle etc.: quia, ut dicitur
Marc. 8, Quid prodest homini si
mundum universum lucretur et animae
etc.

The pupil of the eye (could also be) said of the


soul, for as the puil, which is in the middle of the
eye, is encompassed by much skin for its
protection (and as a person hold out his hand and
almost everything that he has so that it may not be
injured), so too should a person do (this) for his
soul; Job 2: "Skin for skin (and all that a man hath
he will give for his life") for, as it is said at Mark 16:
"What does it profit a man to gain the whole world
but lose his soul?"

Vel Custodi me, ut pupillam oculi, idest


ut Christum, Sub umbra alarum tuarum
protege
me, idest sub custodia
angelorum: Ps. 90: Angelis suis
mandavit de te etc.

Or, Keep me as the pupil of the eye, that is, as


Christ, Protect me under the shadow of they
wings, that is, under the protection of the angels;
Psalm 90: "For he hath given his angels charge
over thee" etc.

Vel duae alae sunt duo brachia Christi


extenta in cruce: Deut. 32: Expandit
alas suas, et assumpsit eos atque
portavit in humeris suis.

Or, the two wings are the two arms of Christ


extended on the cross; Deuteronomy 32: "He
spread his wings, and hath taken them and
carried them on his shoulders."

Consequenter ostendit a quibus


competit liberari, quia A facie impiorum
qui me afflixerunt; idest a potestate et
praesentia daemonum, vel falsorum
fratrum: 2 Cor. 11: Periculis in falsis
f r a t r i b u s . Qui
me
afflixerunt,
tentationibus et persecutionibus: Exod.
1: Oderant filios Israel Aegyptii, et
affligebant illudentes eis. Sic nos
debemus petere liberari a peccato: Eccl.
21: Quasi a facie colubri fuge peccatum.

Next, he shows from which (things) it is suitable to


be freed, namely From the face of the wicked who
have afflicted me, that is from the power and
presence of the demons, or of false brothers; 2
Corinthians 11: "In perils from false brethren."
Who have afflicted me with temptations and
persecutions; Exodus 1: "The Egyptians hated the
children of Israel and afflicted them and mocked
them." In this way we ought to seek to be freed
from sin; Ecclesiasticus 21: "Flee from sins as
from the face of a serpent."

d . In i m i c i . Hic ponit necessitatem


liberationis: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo
proponit afflictionem quam patitur.
Secundo afflictionis similitudinem, ibi,
Susceperunt me. Circa primum duo
facit. Primo praemittit afflictionem.
Secundo afflictionis modum, ibi, Adipem
etc.

My enemies. Here he sets down the necessity of


(his) freedom. Concerning this, he does two
things. First, he sets forth the affliction which he
suffers, and second, an image of (this) affliction,
at, They have taken me. Concerning the first, he
does two things. First, he presents the affliction,
and second, the mode of the affliction, at, Fat etc.

Dicit
ergo, Inimici, daemones, sive
peccata ita affligunt me, quod,
Circumdederunt animam meam, idest
sic undique concludunt, quod non
inveniam viam liberationis. Et dicit,
Animam, quia nihil quaerunt nisi
animam. Hostes corporales quaerunt
tollere vitam; hostes vero spirituales
quaerunt animam.

And so, he says Enemies, demons, or sins, afflict


me in such a fashion that they Have surrounded
my soul, that is, they have enclosed (me) on all
sides, such that I will not find freedom's path. He
says Soul because they seek nothing other than
(his) soul. Bodily enemies seek to take (one's) life,
while spiritual enemies seek the soul.

Vel potest intelligi de Christo, cuius


animam
Iudaei
suis
malitiis
circumdabant; Ps. 117: Circumdederunt
me sicut apes etc. Item Ps. 21:
Circumdederunt me canes multi,
concilium malignantium obsedit me.

Or, it can be understood of Christ, whose soul the


Jews surrounded with their malice; Psalm 117:
"They surrounded me like bees" etc.; Psalm 21:
Many dogs have surrounded me, the council of
evildoers besets me."

Consequenter ponit modum; unde dicit:


Adipem. Adeps in Scriptura quandoque
in bono, quandoque in malo accipitur. In
bono,
secundum
quod
signat
devotionem mentis: Ps. 62: Sicut adipe
et pinguedine repleatur anima mea. In
malo. Primo secundum quod signat
nequitiam cordis. Secundo oris. Tertio
operis: et ideo designat detestabilem
malitiam: Iob 21: Viscera impii plena
sunt adipe, et medullis ossa illius
irrigantur. Et hoc est multiplex.
Quandoque delectatio de peccato quod
faciunt: Prov. 2: Qui laetantur cum male
fecerint, et exultant in rebus pessimis.
Item superbia et falsitas: Iob 11: Vir
vanus in superbiam erigitur, et quasi
pullum onagri se liberum natum putat.
Item carnalis sensus. Dicit ergo, Adipem
suum, idest carnalem sensum, vel
superbiam,
vel
delectationem:
Concluserunt, in se, ut non capiant
spiritualem sensum.

Next, he sets down the mode (of his affliction);


thus he says Fat. Fat, in the Scriptures, is
understood sometimes in a good, and sometimes
in a bad way. (It is understood in the former) in as
much as it signifies a devotion of the mind; Psalm
62: "Let my soul be filled as with marrow and
fatness." (It is understood) in a bad way, first as it
signifies wickedness of heart, second, of the
mouth, and third of (one's) works: and in this
fashion (fat) designates detestable wickedness;
Job 21: "His bowels are full of fat, and his bones
are moistened with marrow. And this is manifold.
Sometimes (there is) pleasure in the sin that they
committ; Proverbs 2: "Who are glad when they
have done evil, and rejoice in most wicked
things." Also, pride and falseness; Job 11: "A vain
man is lifted up into pride, and thinketh himself
born free like a wild ass's colt." Also, carnal
sensuality. Therefore, he says, Their fat, that is,
carnal sensuality, either pride or pleasure: They
have shut up, in themselves so that they do not
take hold of the spiritual meaning.

Hieronymus habet, adipe suo, idest


abundantia temporalium et saecularis
potestatis, concluserunt me.

Jerome has "In their fat, that is, they have shut me
up in an abundance of temporal and secular
power."

Secundo, quoad os, quia, Os eorum


locutum est superbiam. Et hoc quando
Iudaei dicebant contra Christum; Matth.
27: Si es rex Israel etc.

Secondly, with respect to their mouth, Their mouth


hath spoken proudly. And this when the Jews
spoke against Christ; Matthew 27: "If he be the
king of Israel (let him now come down from the
cross, and we will believe him"

Tertio quoad opus. Et primo ostendit


quomodo procedit ad opus. Secundo
causam huius, ibi, Oculos suos. In
operatione autem duo ponit. Primo
defectum.
Secundo
solicitudinem
nocendi: et tamen quando quis
contemnit, non solicitatur nocere: et
ideo
dicit, Proiicientes,
idest
despicientes: Isa. 33: Proiecit civitates,
non reputavit homines, et tamen
circumdederunt me undique solicite. Et
hoc fecerunt Iudaei Christo, quando
proiecerunt eum extra civitatem: Luc. 2:
Et circumdederunt me, convenientes ad
spectaculum ut irriderent, Act. 7. Et
huius ratio est, quia non respiciunt ad
Deum, sed ad terrena: Ps. 3: Non est
salus illi in Deo eius.

Thirdly, with respect to their work. And he first


shows how (the wicked) proceed to (their) work,
and second, its cause, at, Their eyes. In (their)
activity, he sets down two things. First, a defect,
and second, the solicitude to injure. However,
when one despises, one is not solicitous to do
harm: and so he says Those who cast (me) forth,
that is, those who despise (me); Isaiah 33: "He
hath rejected the cities, he hath not regarded the
men (and yet they have surrounded me on all
sides carefully with solicitude"). And this the Jews
did to Christ when they ejected him from the city;
cf. Luke 2. And they have surrounded me, those
comming to the spectacle so that they might mock
(him); cf. Acts 7. The reason for this is that they
care not for God, but rather for earthly things;
Psalm 3: "There is no salvation for him in his
God."

Statuerunt oculos suos declinare in


terram, scilicet peccatores statuerunt
intentionem cordis sui declinare in
terram, cum deliberatione et mora: Prov.
17: Oculi stultorum, idest peccatorum, in
finibus terrae, et ideo non recipiunt
lumen gratiae: Eccl. 2: Oculi sapientis in
capite eius; stultus, idest peccator, in
tenebris idest in peccatis, ambulat. Dan.
13: Declinaverunt oculos suos ut non
viderent caelum. Et hoc ad litteram fuit
in Iudaeis, cum dicebant, Ioan. 11: Ne
forte veniant Romani, et tollant locum
nostrum et gentem.

They have set their eyes bowing down to the


earth, namely sinners have set the intention of
their heart bowing down to the earth with
deliberation and delay; Proverbs 17: "The eyes of
fools", that is, of sinners, "are in the ends of the
earth", and as such they do not receive the light of
grace; Ecclesiastes 2: "The eyes of a wise man
are in his head; the fool", that is, the sinner,
"walketh in darkness", that is, in his sins; Daniel
13: "They have turned away their eyes, that they
might not look unto heaven." And exactly this was
done among the Jews when they said at John 11:
"(if we let him alone so, all will believe in him);
and the Romans will come and take away our
place and nation."

V e l In terram, idest in carnem Christi,


cuius
infirmitatem
tantum
considerabant, et non eius divinitatem:
quasi dicat: statuerunt oculos suos etc.

O r , to the earth (could mean) "at the flesh of


Christ", whose infirmity they regarded so much,
but not his divinity, as if to say, "They have set
their eyes (upon the flesh of Christ").

De industria similitudo ponitur quantum


ad violentiam, quia, Sicut leo paratus ad
praedam susceperunt me, vel a Deo,
vel a Pilato milites: quantum ad
fraudulentiam, quia, Sicut catulus leonis
habitans in abditis. Leo in agro invadit:
sed catulus eius in occulto morans,
raptam praedam comedit vel invadit:
Matth. 26. Osculo enim fuit traditus, de
nocte captus, per falsos testes
condemnatus, et princeps sacerdotum
scidit vestimenta sua.

Concerning (their) diligence, a likeness is set


down with respect to its violence, As a lion
prepared for the prey, they have taken me, either
from God, or from Pilate's soldiers. (A likeness is
also set down) with respect to fraud, And as a
young lion dwelling in secret places. The lion
attacks in open spaces, but her young, remaining
hidden, consume or attack the prey once seized;
cf. Matthew 26. For he was betrayed by a kiss,
taken by night, condemned by false witnesses
and the high priest tore his own clothing.

e. Exurge. Hic ponit aliam petitionem,


idest deiectionem inimicorum; et ponit
tria.
Primo
petitionem.
Secundo
expositionem, ibi, Eripe animam meam.
Tertio petitionis rationem, ibi, De
absconditis. Circa primum duo facit.
Primo petit occultationem auxilii.
Secundo destructionem adversarii.

Arise. Here he sets down another petition, namely


for the defeat of his enemies. He sets down three
things. First, his petition, second, an explanation,
at, Deliver my soul, and third, the reason for his
petition, at From (thy) hidden (stores). Concerning
the first he does two things. First, he asks for the
concealment of (His) help, and second, the
destruction of his adversaries.

Dicit ergo: dormire videris dum pateris


me
affligi,
sed, Exurge Domine,
praeveni eum, ut citius subvenias quam
nocere possit: Et supplanta eum, idest
destitue eum quasi astute: Iob 5: Qui
apprehendit sapientes in astutia eorum:
Prov. 19: Astutia hominis supplantat
gressus
eius. Supplanta
eum, in
duobus: scilicet in mei liberatione; et
quantum ad hoc dicit, Eripe animam
meam ab impio, quia contra iustitiam
persequitur me, et ideo impius est: Ps.
42: Ab homine iniquo et doloso eripe
me. Et huius ratio est, quia anima mea
e s t Framea, idest gladius acutus ex
utraque parte, qua destructus est
diabolus. Et hoc proprie dicitur de
anima Christi: Isa. 27: In die illa visitabit
Dominus super Leviathan in gladio duro
et forti. Dicit, Frameam tuam ab inimicis
manus tuae, supple, Eripe: Psal. 66:
Intende animae meae, et libera eam.

Thus, he says, "You seem to sleep when you


allow me to be afflicted, but Arise, O Lord,
disappoint him" so that you might come to my
assistance more quickly than he is able to harm
(me): And supplant him, that is, forsake him, as it
were, in a shrewd way; Job 5: "Who catcheth the
wise in their craftiness"; Proverbs 19: "The folly of
a man supplanteth his steps". Supplant him in a
two-fold way, first, in my freedom. And with
respect to this, he says, Deliver my soul from the
wicked one because he persecutes me contrary to
justice, and is thus wicked; Psalm 42: "Deliver me
from the unjust and deceitful man." The reason for
this is that my soul is a spear, that is a sword
sharpened on both sides by which the devil was
destroyed. And this is properly said of Christ's
soul; Isaiah 27: "in that day the Lord with his
hard...and strong sword shall visit Leviathan." He
says Thy sword from the enemies of thy hand
complete deliver; Psalm 68: "Attend to my soul
and deliver it."

V e l , Eripe frameam tuam ab inimicis,


idest aufer gladium et potestatem, quam
habent a te: Sap. 6: Data est vobis a
Deo potestas. Et voluntatem quam
habent a se: Zach. 13: Framea suscitare
super pastorem meum.

Or, Deliver thy sword from the enemies, that is,


take (their) sword and power which they have
from you (Wisdom 6: "Power was given to you by
God"), and the will which they have from
themselves (Zacharias 13: "Awake the sword
against my shepherd").

V e l , Supplanta
eos, in
eorum
frustratione, et Eripe animam meam ab
inimicis manus tuae, idest Christi filii tui;
nam filius dicitur manus patris: Deut. 32:
Tollam in caelum manum meam, idest
filium meum.

Or, Supplant them, (secondly) in their deception:


And deliver my soul from the enemies of thy hand,
that is, of Christ your son: for a son is said to be
the hand of his father; Deuteronomy 32: "I will lift
up my hand to heaven", that is, my son.

Domine, a paucis de terra divide eos;


quia propter hoc persequuntur me, ut
regnum suum stabiliant. Haec est
duplex littera: in psalmo romano sic, o
Domine dispartire eos in vita eorum;
quasi dicat, ipsi oculos habent ad
terram, et ideo mala faciunt; sed tu
exclude eos de terra quam dedisti eis.
Sed quomodo? Numquid ut vadant in
unum locum? Non, sed dispartire eos
per totum mundum.

O Lord, divide them from the few of the earth that


for this the former persecute me, so that the latter
may establish their own kingdom. This passage is
two-fold: in the Roman version, it is thus: "O Lord
disperse them in their life", as if to say, "They
have their very eyes to the earth, and thus they do
evil; but you, exclude them from the earth which
you have given to them." But how? That they may
go about in one place? No, but disperse them
throughout the world.

Alia littera, Domine a paucis de terra


dimitte eos; quasi dicat: divide eos de
terra, et a paucis, idest a societate
electorum, in vita eorum, idest dum
vivunt.

In the other version, "O Lord, release them from


the few of the earth", as if to say, "Divide them
from the earth and From the few, that is from the
society of the elect, In their life, that is while they
live.

Vel quia legitur quod imminente


destructione sunt admoniti per angelum,
quod fideles recederent et irent in
regnum Agrippae. Et ideo, divide eos a
paucis, idest Christianis, qui sunt
reservati.

Or, it is written that they were warned by an angel


of their immanent destruction and the faithful
withdrew and went into the kingdom of Agrippa.
And so, Divide them from the few, that is, from
Christians who have been preserved.

De absconditis tuis adimpletus est


venter eorum, idest de peccatis non
confessis: Prov. 28: Qui abscondit
scelera sua, non dirigetur: Iob 31: Si
abscondi quasi homo peccatum meum,
et celavi in sinu meo iniquitatem meam.

Their belly is filled from hidden stores, that is, from


(their) sins not confessed; Proverbs 28: "He that
hideth his sins will not be guided"; Job 31: "If as a
man I have hid my sin, and have concealed my
iniquity in my bosom."

Vel hic ponitur ratio petitionis, et


huiusmodi ratio est duplex: videlicet
quia potest referri ad peccata, vel ad
beneficia de quibus sunt ingrati. Si
primo
modo,
sic.
Primo
ponit
abundantiam peccatorum. Si secundo
modo, ostendit quomodo beneficia Dei
derivabantur ad filios.

Or, the reason for (his) petition is set down here.


And this reason is two-fold, namely because it can
be referred to (their) sins, or to the benefices
concerning which they are ungrateful. If in the first
way, he thus sets down the abundance of (their)
sins. If in the second way, he shows how the
benefices of God were distributed to (His) sons.

Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, De


absconditis tuis adimpletus est venter
e o ru m, idest de peccatis quae sibi
abscondita sunt: non quod non videat,
sed quia non vult ea videre: Habac. 1:
Mundi sunt oculi tui, Domine, ne videat
malum; et ad iniquitatem respicere non
possunt. Adimpletus est venter eorum,
idest conscientia, vel memoria, vel
carnalis
concupiscentia,
vel
sensualitas.

He thus says with regard to the first, Their belly is


filled from hidden stores, that is, from (their) sins,
which were hidden from themselves, not that he
does not see, but that he does not want to see
them; Habacuc 1: "Thy eyes, O Lord, are too pure
to behold evil, and thou canst not look on iniquity."
Their belly, that is, their conscience, or memory, or
carnal concupiscence, or sensuality, is filled.

Saturati sunt filiis, idest peccatis, vel


malis operibus. Mala opera dicuntur filii
malorum, sicut bona opera filii bonorum.

They are full of children, that is of sins, or of evil


works. The latter are called the children of the evil,
just as good works are (referred to as) the children
of the good.

Alia littera habet, Saturati sunt porcina,


idest immunditia peccatorum; et est
expositio
eius
quod
dicit, De
absconditis: et diviserunt reliquias suas
parvulis suis; quasi dicat, derivantur ad
filios, qui imitati sunt peccata eorum:
Sap. 4: Ex iniquis omnes filii qui
nascentur, testes
sunt nequitiae
adversus parentes in interrogatione sua.

Another version has, They are full of swine's flesh,


that is, with the impurity of sins; and it is his
explanation that says (it is) From hidden
stores...and they have left the rest to their little
ones, as if to say, they are drawn off to (their)
children who have imitated their sins; Wisdom 4:
"For the children that are born of unlawful beds
are witnesses of wickedness against their parents
in their trial."

Vel Saturati sunt filiis, idest ad utilitatem


filiorum, Et diviserunt reliquias suas
parvulis suis, qui eos ad peccatum,
quantum in eis fuit, obligaverunt: Matth.
27: Sanguis eius super nos et filios
nostros.

O r , They are full of children, that is, of the


advantage of (their) children, And they have left
the rest to their little ones, who bound them to sin
in so far as it was in them; Matthew 27: "His blood
be upon us and upon our children."

V el , Saturati sunt filiis, idest pro filiis:


quasi: ita saturati sunt peccatis, quod
suffecit eis et filiis suis; idest reliqua
peccata quae non fecerunt ipsi,
dimiserunt facienda filiis suis.

Or, They are full of children, that is, on behalf of


(their) children, as if, thus full of sins, which meet
both their need and their children's, the remaining
sins, which they themselves have not committed,
they have left for their children to be done.

Si secundo modo, sic duo beneficia


receperunt. Primo spiritualia, quia
legem. Et ideo dicit, De absconditis,
sapientiae tuae, adimpletus est venter
eorum, idest carnalis sensus: Psal. 147:
Non fecit taliter omni nationi. Secundo
bona temporalia, quia, Saturati sunt
filiis, et quod plus est, reliquerunt ea eis.

If (we consider the second reason for his petition),


they have thus received two benefices. First, a
spiritual benefice, the law. And so he says, From
hidden stores, of your wisdom, Their belly is full,
that is, their carnal sense; Psalm 147: "He hath
not done in like manner to every nation." Second,
(the benefice of) temporal goods, because They
are full of children, and because it is more, they
leave these to them.

Hieronymi littera habet ab illo loco,


eripe animam meam ab impio, quasi
scilicet impius sit gladius tuus: Isai. 10:
Vae Assur virga furoris, a viris manus
tuae, qui sunt mortui in profundo,
quorum pars est in vita; quasi dicat,
eripe animam meam ab impio, idest a
Saule, et a viris manus tuae, qui
contradicunt manui tuae, qui sunt mortui
in profundo, idest peccato, quorum pars
est in vita, scilicet ista, quorum venter
adimpletus est etc.

At this place (in the text), Jerome's version has


"Deliver my soul from the wicked one", as if the
wicked one were your sword; Isaiah 10: "Woe to
the Assyrian, the rod of anger, by the men of your
hand, who died in the depths, whose part it is in
life", as if he were saying, "Deliver my soul from
the wicked one", that is, from Saul, "and from the
men of your hand" who have contradicted your
hand. Those "who died in the depths", that is, in
sin. "Whose part it is in life", namely those very
ones "whose belly is filled" etc.

Saul secundum Glossam significat


mortem; et sicut mortuo Saule David
regnavit in pace, ita Christus morte
devicta post resurrectionem.

According to the Gloss, "Saul" signifies "death",


and just as with the death of Saul, David reigned
in peace, so too Christ banished death after the
resurrection.

f. E g o . Hic ostendit spem suae


exauditionis: et ponit duo: scilicet
iustitiam quam habet, et visionem Dei.
Et consequuntur se: quia per iustitiam
pervenitur ad Dei visionem: Ps. 14: Quis
habitabit in tabernaculo tuo etc.? qui
ingreditur sine macula, et operatur
iustitiam.

But as for me. Here he shows the hope of his


having been heard. And he describes two things,
namely the justice which he possesses, and the
vision of God. And these two follow in order, for
through justice one arrives at the vision of God;
Psalm 14: "Lord, who shall dwell in thy
tabernacle...He that walketh without blemish and
worketh justice."

Alia littera, ego autem in iustitia videbo


faciem tuam, et ideo apparebo in
conspectu tuo, idest veniam ad
videndum te;

Another version has "But as for me, I will see your


face in justice" and thus "I will appear before thy
sight", that is, I will come to you to be seen.

Et satiabor cum apparuerit gloria tua,


idest quando videbo te, replebor
omnibus bonis: Psal. 102: Qui replet in
bonis desiderium tuum, scilicet gloria
tua, in qua omnia bona sunt. Illi
satiantur porcina, secundum lxx.

And I shall be satisfied when thy glory shall


appear, that is, when I see you, I will be filled with
every good; Psalm 102: "Who satisfieth thy desire
with good things", namely your glory in which are
all good things. The others are filled with swine's
flesh according to the Septuagint.

Nostra littera dicit, in terra sanctorum


etc. Isa. 26: Tollatur impius ne videat
gloriam Dei. Ego autem satiabor: Hier.
3: Cum apparuerit, similes ei erimus.

Our version says In the land of the holy etc.; Isaiah


26: "Destroy the wicked man lest he see the glory
of God." And I shall be satisfied; Jeremiah 3:
"When he appears we will be like unto him."

Latin Text according to the Venice Edition of MDCCLXXV


The Aquinas Translation Project (http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)